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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 6
1 6 energy supplied = 100 J [1]
energy released = 93 + 7 = 100 J [1]
Name Description Energy before is equal to energy after,
kinetic energy energy of a moving object so energy is conserved. [1]
internal energy energy stored in a hot object 7 a gravitational potential energy
chemical energy energy stored in a fuel → kinetic energy [2]
light energy energy that we can see b kinetic energy
sound energy energy that we can hear → gravitational potential energy [2]

strain (elastic) energy stored in a squashed c Some energy is lost as heat due
energy spring to friction and/or air resistance, [1]
electrical energy energy carried by an electric so the final g.p.e. cannot equal
current the original g.p.e. [1]

nuclear energy energy stored in the nucleus of d She needs to supply energy, [1]
an atom by jumping up as she starts off. [1]
heat thermal energy escaping from a hot 8 a, b
energy object
Low-energy Filament
bulb bulbs

2 a heat energy cost of one bulb 400 p 50 p

b efficiency number of bulbs 1 10


required for 10 000
c conservation hours

3 a k.e. = 1 mv 2 (m = mass, v = speed) cost of electricity for 0.2 p 1.0 p


2 1 hour
b g.p.e. = mgh (m = mass, g = acceleration due to total cost of electricity 2 000 p [1] 10 000 p [1]
gravity, h = height) for 10 000 hours
4 a waste energy = energy input − useful energy total cost of bulbs and 2 400 p [1] 10 500 p [1]
output electricity
useful energy
gy output
p
b efficiency = × 100%
energy input
5 a chemical energy → light + heat [2] c money saved = 10 500 – 2400 [1]
b electrical energy → kinetic energy [2] = 8100 p [1]

c kinetic energy → electrical energy [2] d initial cost is high [1]


difficult to dispose of [1]
d kinetic energy → thermal (heat) energy [2]

© Cambridge University Press 2014 IGCSE Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6 1
9 a thermal (heat) energy, electrical energy [2] 12 work [1]
b thermal (heat) energy [1] potential / gravitational / p.e. / g.p.e. / position [1]
kinetic / k.e. / movement [1]
c Yes, because 90% of the energy is used, [1]
constant / the same / uniform [1]
and only 10% is wasted. [1]
joule(s) or J [1]
10 a k.e. of moving air → electrical energy [1]
13 a mgh = 0.5 × 10 × 1.1 [1]
electrical energy → k.e. of car [1]
= 5.5 J [1]
b Process is less than 100% efficient, [1]
so car will not gain speed. [1] b i 1.5 (J) [1]

11 a weight = mass × g [1] ii energy used to deform ball/ground


= 180 × 1.6 [1] or strain energy stored in (deformed)
= 288 N [1] ball/ground or
heat generated in deformed ball/ground [1]
b change in g.p.e. = weight × change
in height [1] c 9 + 5.5 = 14.5 J [1]
= 288 × 100 [1]
k.e. = 1 mv 2 [1]
= 28 800 J [1] 2
c g.p.e. increases [1] v = 7.6 m/s [1]

© Cambridge University Press 2014 IGCSE Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6 2