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Chapter 6
1 6 energy supplied = 100 J 
energy released = 93 + 7 = 100 J 
Name Description Energy before is equal to energy after,
kinetic energy energy of a moving object so energy is conserved. 
internal energy energy stored in a hot object 7 a gravitational potential energy
chemical energy energy stored in a fuel → kinetic energy 
light energy energy that we can see b kinetic energy
sound energy energy that we can hear → gravitational potential energy 

strain (elastic) energy stored in a squashed c Some energy is lost as heat due
energy spring to friction and/or air resistance, 
electrical energy energy carried by an electric so the final g.p.e. cannot equal
current the original g.p.e. 

nuclear energy energy stored in the nucleus of d She needs to supply energy, 
an atom by jumping up as she starts off. 
heat thermal energy escaping from a hot 8 a, b
energy object
Low-energy Filament
bulb bulbs

## b efficiency number of bulbs 1 10

required for 10 000
c conservation hours

## 3 a k.e. = 1 mv 2 (m = mass, v = speed) cost of electricity for 0.2 p 1.0 p

2 1 hour
b g.p.e. = mgh (m = mass, g = acceleration due to total cost of electricity 2 000 p  10 000 p 
gravity, h = height) for 10 000 hours
4 a waste energy = energy input − useful energy total cost of bulbs and 2 400 p  10 500 p 
output electricity
useful energy
gy output
p
b efficiency = × 100%
energy input
5 a chemical energy → light + heat  c money saved = 10 500 – 2400 
b electrical energy → kinetic energy  = 8100 p 

## c kinetic energy → electrical energy  d initial cost is high 

difficult to dispose of 
d kinetic energy → thermal (heat) energy 

© Cambridge University Press 2014 IGCSE Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6 1
9 a thermal (heat) energy, electrical energy  12 work 
b thermal (heat) energy  potential / gravitational / p.e. / g.p.e. / position 
kinetic / k.e. / movement 
c Yes, because 90% of the energy is used, 
constant / the same / uniform 
and only 10% is wasted. 
joule(s) or J 
10 a k.e. of moving air → electrical energy 
13 a mgh = 0.5 × 10 × 1.1 
electrical energy → k.e. of car 
= 5.5 J 
b Process is less than 100% efficient, 
so car will not gain speed.  b i 1.5 (J) 

## 11 a weight = mass × g  ii energy used to deform ball/ground

= 180 × 1.6  or strain energy stored in (deformed)
= 288 N  ball/ground or
heat generated in deformed ball/ground 
b change in g.p.e. = weight × change
in height  c 9 + 5.5 = 14.5 J 
= 288 × 100 
k.e. = 1 mv 2 
= 28 800 J  2
c g.p.e. increases  v = 7.6 m/s 

© Cambridge University Press 2014 IGCSE Physics Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6 2