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Energy Efficient Analysis in WSN-An enhanced LFFCM clustering

Approach and ADOVGWO Routing Protocol

Anuja Angel. M and 2Dr.Z.Rani
Research scholar

Anna University, Chennai

Associate Professor, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

Anna University, Chennai

Abstract : In the paper, an enhanced Levy Flight based Fuzzy C- means (LF-FCM) algorithm

with AODVGWO (Ad hoc-On-demand Grey Wolf Optimization algorithm) protocol is proposed

to analyzing the characteristic of dynamic nodes in WSNs. Based on the topology of dynamic

network with the accurate and efficient designing with the transmission of data significant then

only the track of movement other nodes to find the destination node very fast. The dynamic

characteristics of network architecture and movement of node is varied WSN from ad-hoc

networks. Initially, the process of clustering is done by using LFFCM method and routing is

achieved by an AODVGWO protocol. Usually, protocol of AODV routing is the most

commonly used topology based protocol of routing for WSN. Based on the discovery route

procedure of AODV by the request route broadcasts message (RREQ) are received. This can be

utilized a node linking the source and destination, various unused routes are developed. Thus, the

AODV protocol is re-modified based on the uniqueness to provide optimal results. Based on the
proposed GWO algorithm can improve the AODV protocol performance and productivity. The

proposed framework allows communication effectiveness by generating the augmented number

of clusters due to which it is termed as intelligent algorithm. The proposed method is utilized for

the optimization and resolving the WSNs clustering problem, the proposed scheme with its initial

proposed method is to accomplish the life time of optimal solution and to improve the stability.

By the utilization of proposed method, the data delivery time, efficiency, Root Delay distribution

and stability is determined. Additionally, the parametric QoS is also analyzed like, delay,

network life time, routing overhead, PDR and throughput with the usage of proposed and

existing methods. Therefore, the transmission capacity of data is also improved with the help of

the proposed scheme. Hence, the proposed method is implemented in the platform of NS2 and

contrasted by the previous methods like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and other

routing protocols DSR and DSDV.

Keywords: Clustering, AODVGWO protocol, Node, PSO, data delivery time, delay, throughput,

over head, efficiency, DSDV and DSR


Fundamentally, Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) contains many more nodes sensor and it is

monitored the environment by cooperating and interacting with every supplementary. In this

networks contains the merits like reliability, flexibility and scalability as well as the cost is low

and simple placement contrasted with the networks of conventional. The specific merits are

guided to the enlarger using the sensor network of wireless with different kinds of applications

ranging from military and environmental watching to the application of health and commercial
[1-3]. Nevertheless, the fundamental constraint in energy of sensor wireless networks is the

energy budget limited to the embedded devices or sensor wireless nodes and it is composed

various techniques. Accordingly, the requirement of energy implementation and management

methods are in order to minimize the wireless communications minimization and system lifetime

prolong without jeopardizing the performance [4-7]. The network sensor is made up of various

nodes in distributed sensor and it required paradigm routing of ad-hoc. The relevance range of

networks sensor from important communal problem like the monitoring process of habitat and

environmental, emergency scenarios, health care and traffic control in economical problems

called by production organize and monitoring structure are specified [8-9].

The battery of sensor node is operated. However, more applications in sensor network

needed thousands of sensor nodes and it may deploy in the location of remote and its makes the

impractical battery replacement. Therefore, the procedure of conservation in energy is extremely

main on behalf of networks of sensor. Excluding main issues of sensor minimization of energy

node's expenditure never resolved completely. Each and every nodes sensor can transmit packets

in a straight line towards the station base and the utmost nodes as of the station head will die

premature [10]. Nevertheless, at the same time as packets transmission during manifold sensors,

hops are base station closer be inclined near expire premature. Departure of few system regions

totally causing with unmonitored the partition system is known as holes [11-12]. Thus the

lifetime minimization of WSNs and it is necessary to prolong in every personality node's sensor

lifetime with the minimization of energy transmission expenditure and packets sending via ways

that be able to avoid the nodes of sensor with low energy and there is a reduction in entire power

transmission. The process of overcoming the energy issues of constriction during WSNs, most of
the researchers are effective by various features like transmission power control, control method

and power-aware MAC protocol, [13].

The requirements of Quality of Service (QoS) in communications and energy limitation of

sensor battery-powered nodes are necessary for the energy-efficient communication and reliable

designing protocols for the networks of wireless sensor. Typically, the wireless sensor networks

model to its energy information of consumption is merely exchanged flanked by the node of

sensor. It is difficult to share the information of energy consumption linking the various layer of

protocol in single sensor still if it is more efficient and effective for energy economy that the

information is shared for each layer [14-16]. Hence, the approach of cross-layer has been

established to provide suitable outcomes of optimization than their layered counterparts. Indeed,

the cooperation layer in irritated layer based schemes is improved by the overall performance of

wireless sensor networks.

Furthermore, the packets of data transmission between the communication devices and it are

managed with the usage of normal method known as ad-hoc protocol steering with various

protocols routing are obtainable. The protocols are reactive, proactive and hybrids of practical

also protocols reactive routing is residential. Here, the protocols proactive routing such as Vector

Distance Sequence Destination (DSDV) and Protocol of Optimized Routing State Link (OLSR)

are second-hand in support of retaining ways and its objectives with the frequently distribution of

routing table in network information. Conversely, the protocols proactive routing with important

problems is due to the maintenance and restructuring difficulty outstanding toward malfunctions

[17-19]. Further, the procedure have been applied to various studies analyzed about data transfer

in WSNs, K-means algorithm, routing algorithm, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Intelligence

(AI) techniques and clustering algorithm [20]. In this paper, an improved routing and clustering
process are developed and estimated the effective network life time. The major involvement of

the paper is described as below.

1.1. Contribution and Organization of the research

The major involvement of the paper is to provide energy efficient and it improves the network

life time. For the achievement of above mentioned objective function, the end-end delay, link

quality, distance factors and residual energy are determined. For this evaluation, the process of

routing and clustering is much importance to maximize the network life time. Concerning to the

amalgamation concept is utilized for purposes of routing and clustering named as AODVGWO

and Fuzzy C means protocol. The proposed routing method performance and clustering protocol

are detected and contrasted with the existing method.

The outstanding sections of the paper are organized: the related works explanations are

discussed in Section 2. The Section 3, a short explanation of the proposed scheme representation

is accessible. The proposed clustering and routing protocol are explained in section 4. Section 5

the feature conversation on proposed protocol by the evaluation performance is shown in section

5. Ultimately, the proposed methodology is illustrated in section 6.


May more research were presented for the analysis of WSNs clustering and routing in according

to the parameters of QoS. Some of them are reviewed here,

Sivakumar Venu et al. [21] carried out a Flooding Restricted Predictive depends on the

protocol of Vector On-Demand Ad hoc (RPFAODV) for WSNs. More deliberate the RPFAODV

to the determination of forecast the way and destination node which is depends upon the level
energy at in every node, at the end node address from side to side route packet request and

packet messages route response. Thereafter, the route response packet received from a node at

end to a node of source, currently it initialize the cluster for data packet transmission towards a

purpose of destination. Their suggested protocol was limited unnecessary traversal node through

calculating the path from the network. This is transmitting the message otherwise data starting

purpose near cover nodes with the atmosphere of the area of network broadcast. Hence, it creates

the comparison of suitable to another current routing protocol.

Amol V. Dhumane et al. [22] debated the method of fractional Multi-objective

gravitational hunt method in support of IoT in routing of efficient energy. Multi objectives

function of incomplete gravitational search algorithm that was initialized for the detection head

of optimal cluster in support of routing protocol of energy efficient in network IoT. The life span

node extension with the Algorithm of Gravitational Fractional Search (FGSA) be planned to

discover elsewhere the suitable node of iteratively head cluster in the system representation of

IoT. The node head cluster was chosen in FGSA and it may be evaluated by the function of

fitness with the usage of numerous objectives such as distance, delay, lifetime link and energy.

Which are described by multi-objective of FGSA (MOFGSA). Thus, the outcome of

reproduction with its performance was analyzed using the accomplishment platform of


Jianping He et al. [23] accomplished an optimal drop box deployment algorithm (ODDA)

with the hypothetical framework for the accurate delay delivery estimation. The proposed

ODDA contains computational complexity in polynomial for a given m, the number of

deployment in drop boxes. The evaluation performance by simulation denotes the superior

performance of the proposed strategies and contrasted to the method of benchmark.

Rasmeet S.Bali et al. [24] advocated a clustering protected for well-organized

dissemination of data between various devices in environment of VCPS. A different metric trust

depends on communication characteristics variation of vehicles was distinct for computational

trust in the middle of the various devices which was appraised both at level of local and global.

The metric trust was worn to launch of the vehicles security level current. It is the parameter

solution for protected cluster creation. The clustering secure algorithm and the establishment of

trust are also designed based on their proposed scheme. Therefore, the proposed scheme

performance was assessed with different estimation metrics in a variety of network scenarios.

P. Tamil Selvi et al. [25] carried out the better method of improvement of Protocol

Routing Efficient Zone Energy Based for MANET. Thus, the efficient energy zone supported to

the protocol routing was urbanized to reduce the redundant broadcasting from parallel end to end

on-demand crash directed distribution. Yet, the storm transmit was happening because to

transmit the simultaneous collision with broadcasting it affects the consumption of larger power.

Hence, the paper concentrates with a method to raise the zone of efficient energy depends

routing protocols this manage the concept of network with lump estimation of node die out rate.

Furthermore, a hypothesis game move toward with zone efficient energy depends on the protocol

routing on the way to improvement of MANET in QoS routing. Lastly, the result experimental

demonstrated the efficient proposed method also it is compared with further routing algorithms.

3. System Model/Architecture

Basically, the algorithm of Fuzzy C means is utilized for the clustering in WSNs. Initially, the

process of clustering with the clusters is formed. Thereafter, the procedure of cluster heads (CHs)

is formed depending upon the energy. Then, the routing process is carried out by means of
AODVGWO protocol utilization. Concerning this proposed protocol with the consumption of

energy become stored and the minimization of link delay. Previous to the proposed concept

examination, the model system is discussed and illustrated in the figure 1.

Fig.1: Architecture of WSN

Hence, the reproduction of WSN can be considered as the path of circular consisting of

sink node and sensor node. The node of sensor nodes is organized in an interest of area

monitoring by 2D. Each nodes turn out to be a standardized in own-organizing and static. The

node of sink is a reserve device rich and contains power broadcast is longer that enables and that

propel to the sensor message nodes in the system. The sensor nodes assumption knows with it

coordinate location and its stable value is achieved. While the clustered depends on the method

of WSN is demonstrated. There is an assumption that both sensed data of CH collective

conventional on or after to its aggregated data and the bunch CMs to the node sink. Based on the

WSN, the model energy is evaluated and specified consumption energy and the detachment.

To energy consumption determination next to every node based on the data packet size and sent

from the source node to distance. In support of data packet with broadcast the K - bits as of a

node sensor toward its d distance distant gone to the node receiver, whole node sensor energy
consumption is designed through the next equation:

 K * E ele  K *  fs * d 2 if d  d0

ETx k, d    (1)
K * E ele  K *  mp * d 4 if d  d0

Nevertheless, for sensor node in receipt of the bit of K packet data with the inspired

energy through the nodes receiver is planned with subsequent equation:

ERx  K * Eele (2)

Where, dissolute energy for each bit value of the Eele during spreader execution or circuit

receiver. The coefficient amplification  fs and mp is the broadcast loudspeaker intended for

space free and model of multi-path correspondingly. The transmission threshold d 0 with its

coldness and values are usually created. In the structure of network with every sensor node

contains the maintenance using a table of routing with the distance of neighbor node, packet loss,

residual energy, and bandwidth to the nodes. There will be a initialization of other network

sensor node starts each sensor through routing table exchange. Thereafter the initialization with

every node creates the stage transmission. Earlier than the transmission this checks the

requirement of delay, packet loss, bandwidth and residual energy by the comparison to the

threshold value set. Thus, the routing path is a set of applicant nodes based on different

parametric QoS. Then the application of QoS node by the way be unsuccessful since it never

convene the requirements connected to packet loss, residual energy, bandwidth an exchange trail

is recognized.

The detail proposed algorithm chooses a CHs set beginning the nodes sensor deployed in

like the path that all CHs be supposed to consistently dispersed, energy rich node and there may

never left absent nodes in the system. The proposed algorithm with objective function considers
various parameters such as link quality, residual energy, and coverage ratio and distance end-end

delay. Additionally, an Improved AODVGWO protocol is suggested for the data packet routing

from sink of CH. The integrated proposed method intended for steering cluster-based problem is

mentioned as the following section.

3.1. Levy Flight based Fuzzy C means for Clustering process in WSN

Based on the proposed Levy Flight based Fuzzy C means (LF-FCM) algorithm can be mentioned

purpose of clustering. The detection of effective clustering with the clusters is CHs and formed

and selected based on the energy. Therefore, the method of Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO)

depends upon the protocol of AODV is specified for the purpose of routing to transport the

aggregate data from CHs tothe Sink node. The node of QoS based on different constraints is

based on the candidate nodes and are CH set are selected. The selection of nodes chosen based

on residual energy, bandwidth, packet loss and delay. The distance of the CH from the sink is

essential for energy efficiency and is crucial for balancing energy spending and network lifetime.

Hence, the clusters formation between the nodes formation is given precedence. The clustering

approach of fuzzy c-means is used in formation of cluster to the determination set of space d-

dimensional with the cluster in k. significantly, the process analysis of clustering, the multi-

objective function is definite.

The determination of cost function is the head cluster and the following

equation is utilized,
 i 
CHi  i * f *  * N(Ci ) (3
 i  i )
 S t 

3.2. Algorithmic steps for Levy Flight based Fuzzy c-means clustering
Basically, the method play and vital role to assigning membership with every data point

corresponding to every center of cluster and the distance based to the center cluster also the point

of data. Furthermore, the neighboring data to center cluster more is its association through the

specified center of cluster. Obviously, the association outline in every top is supposed in equal

toward single. Thereafter, all the association iteration with centers cluster is rationalized

according on the equations:



While, the number of data points are represented as ‘n’,'vj' stands for jth center bunch

'm' be index of fuzziness m € [1, ∞]. The center cluster number denoted as 'c'. Where, 'µij' is the

representation of the membership of ith information to jth middle cluster respectively. The

notable data of 'dij' is the distance of Euclidean involving ith data and jth center bunch.

The major objective function of reduction in algorithm of fuzzy c-means:


Therefore, the Euclidean detachment '||xi – vj||' involving ith data and jth in middle


Assume the group of information point X = {x1, x2, x3 ..., xn} and V = {v1, v2, v3 ..., vc} is

the center set.

1) The process to arbitrarily choose ‘c’ centers off cluster.

2) The procedure of estimation in fuzzy membership 'µij' using:

3) The process of fuzzy centers computation 'vj' using:


4) The procedure of updating the Fuzzy using Levy flight function

Especially, the Levy flight function makes available a chance walk with chance length step is

haggard as of a distribution of Levy,


Thus, the infinite means are obtained from the infinite variance. Here the steps are

essentially used for the formation of random walk development through a step-length distribution

of power law by means of a serious end. Few of the novel solutions are generated with Levy

walk around the best solution obtained so far. The local search process with the speed is

increased. Nonetheless, a significant part by novel solutions are created with outlying in

randomization field in addition to the position are distant sufficient as of the current finest

explanation; the procedure produce certain the classification and never attentive in a optimum


5) Duplicate walk 2) in addition to 3) minimum value till 'J' is attained otherwise ||U(k+1) - U(k)||

< β.


‘k’ is iteration stages.

‘β’ is the termination criterion linking [0, 1].

‘U = (µij)n*c’ is the matrix membership fuzzy.

‘J’ is the function objective.

The process of optimal cluster points clustering, the selection of cluster heads is much

special and the procedure of Levy flight algorithm is utilzied and choose the heads of cluster.

While the analysis steps of the propsoed LFFCM is utilzied and determined the cluster heads

and optimal cluster based on their energy level. Originally, the clustering are formed depending

upon the distance. Based on the distance with its centroid point is chosen. Subsequent to that the

cluster heads are selected optimally depending on the level of clusters energy. Therefore, the

cluster contains maximum energy so as to choose and cluster head (CHs) become formed. Then

the performance of routing is to analzye the remianing function of nodes objective. Regaring that

the utilization of protocol to analzye the consumption of energy level. Earlier, the protocols with

differents functions are utilzied but it provided not the suitable outcomes. In this paper, the

protocol of AODV is utilzied and to analzye the characteristics of dynamic WSN then it provides

the suitable outcomes. Other than, it contains no other gives the much more efficient to the node.

Concerning to solve this issues the algorithm of GWO algorithm is to improved and performd.

4. Routing Protocol in WSN

On-demand of AODV protocol and it is capable of providing the communications of broadcast,

multicast and unicast and aspects of Quality of Service (QoS). The combination of these methods

to maintain and discover the roads of DSR with the sequence number involvement otherwise for

the routing steadiness of data maintenance and the episodic informs of DSDV are established.
Hence, the procedure of route discovery with AODV is the maintenance in each and every

transportation data node on the steps of discovery route. Therefore, the tables AODV routing


- A address of intention

- The after that node

- The number of nodes distances to navigate

- The amount of sequence end

- The day of expiry on the table time ingress.

Hence, the discovery packet route (RREQ) node with comments in terms of table routing

data into the node of source as well as the node which exposed in the direction of the package. It

may applicable to retransmit the packet response (RREP). By income of the links are

symmetrically important and the number of series in destination sequence field to request

discovery route is null while basis does not connected near the end, otherwise it utilizes the final

familiar integer of sequence. This denotes the query its own sequence number. At what time a

function propels a route discovery with the source remains for an instant previous to put on air its

road query search (RREQ). Thereafter a numeral of examinations are defines an unreachable

foundation. The maintenance of roads is completed by sends occasionally petite memo request

known as "HELLO”, there are successive three messages is never habitual as of a fellow citizen

so the association in difficulty is deemed to contain unsuccessful. There is a linkage among two

nodes of a path routing becomes faulty and the broadcast packets nodes on the road to specify

that the link with no other long extended. So the resource is vetoed and that are the route

procedure breakthrough is restarted.

The table routing maintenance maintainers of AODV routing tables routing depending

upon their apply, while the active consideration of national is on the go as stretched as the

transports packets node for a destination is mentioned. Further than sure, there is never

transmission end time, the national is inactive careful. The permission entry of table routing is

active representation if at smallest amount one of the neighbor’s active using the path between

source and destination through active entries in routing table is called the path of active. While

the detection of a failure link with all entries of the participating tables routing in the lively trail

are unconcerned.

4.1. Proposed AODVGWO protocol for Routing in WSN

Recently, the algorithm of optimized meta-heuristic of Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) is an

enthused via grey wolves recommended by Mirjalili [26]. Therefore, the method of established

toward engineering problems crack non-convex optimization with achieved the outcome of

aggressive is compared to the existing methods such as GSA, EP, DE and PSO. Thus, the overall

search space of the GWO algorithms are directed with the help of three wolves such as alpha (α),

beta (β) and gamma (γ) respectively. Here, the leading wolves grey are surnamed as alpha.

Hence, the male or female are represented. While, the secondary leading wolves are beta and

ranking lowest location of wolves grey are represented as gamma. The exception of wolf that is

never including these groups is known as delta wolves. The locations of wolves’ delta are

updated based on the initial grey three wolves’ positions. The major phases of wolf grey chasing

are the prey pathway by the process of encircling and attacking.


Fig.2: Flowchart of (a) clustering process and (b) GWO algorithm

The GWO method of designing with the consideration of suitable value fitness as the

alpha (α) as well as a result secondary and tertiary suitable one is beta (β) and gamma (γ)

respectively. During the process of hunting, the overall three wolves are directed by using other

wolves. Thereafter, the determination of prey with the encircling of wolves grey as well as the

prey irritating awaiting it discontinues affecting. Significantly, the replica of mathematical

performance encircling of wolves grey is given in the following equation.


Hence, the current positions are denoted by t, is the prey of vector location, the

representation of grey wolf a position vector is denoted as , and are coefficient

vectors and calaculated as follows,



Here, the course of iterations is decreased from 2 to 0 over and the random values are

denoted as between the ranges 0 and 1. The optimization problems with real time position

of the value optimum (prey) are obtained. Mathematically, the reproduction behavior of hunting

in grey wolf has been stored primary best three fitness principles as alpha, beta and gamma

correspondingly. Hence, the knowledge prospective is concerning the prey optimal position.

Consequently, the positions of remaining space search are rationalized based on the location of

the position of suitable agent search. The position vectors by alpha, beta and gamma are

illustrated exactly as below. Hence, the basic process concerned in algorithm of GWO is exposed

in Fig.1




Where, are defined as ,




The most excellent location of grey wolf is intended captivating standard sum of

locations as given in (21)




Fig. 3: Illustration of (a) Network Connectivity and (b) Path Selection

From Figure 3, there are many intermediate nodes in a networks are available. Each node

that is inside the radical variety of the receiver node the message request route in the similar time

can be achieved. Initially, the broadcast of sink message attained the A, E and G nodes take

delivery of the communication. Let us consider the presented energy at G is superior to at A and

E moreover G is surrounded by the needed quality threshold link and the selected G node to

transmit the message route request to nodes nearer. There is a procedure to carry on and E node

for chosen following G node propels out the message route request it may nodes conventional

with B, F and H. By the node H on detecting the discards figure of series number to the packet

that are determined as that mutual F and B contains similar level energy and are inside the link

threshold quality requirement. Thus both B and F start a timer back-off and while the node of

back-off timer to F ends before B an implicit ACK is sent by node F which to node E.

significantly, the node E allows plain ACK to B node meant the suggestion of selection is

already made and so node B stops its timer back-off. The procedure is continues on also while

the message route request arrive at the source of target, the transmission source to the route

counter packet through the nodes which is traditional the message request route and Source-F-E-

G-Sink. Depending upon the above mentioned routing protocol with it is validated through the

following parameters namely, delay, bandwidth, delivery ratio and Packet. While intends node to

data transfer with it contains cognizant of the interference and the local bandwidth and range

transmission by neighboring nodes. Consequently, the node required the channel monitor and

bandwidth local calculation (LBW) is based the ratio of time idle-to-busy. Remaining energy is

calculated with over node to a known time period.

Thereafter, the evaluated PDR calculated as the percentage flanked by the amount of

packets data total amount of data packets sent and received. Finally, the delay is evaluated with
divergence time connecting the time and while the carton was sent as of source in addition to the

time when it arrives at the next node. Based on the above metrics, the performance of routing

and clustering performed to aware the energy efficient delay process in WSNs. The simulation

results are demonstrated in the following section 5.

5. Results and Discussions

In the section, the implementation of planned AODV-GWO method is to verify the minimize the

link delay ratio and network life time in WSN. The proposed algorithm is implemented on Linux

operating arrangement by RAM of8 GB as well as a processor Pentium(R) with CPU speed of

2.20GHz using platform of NS2 tools. Our suggested algorithm is compared with the

conventional technique named as PSO algorithm (without clustering) and other classical

protocols such as, DSR and DSDV protocols correspondingly. The proposed system

performance is measured with the multiple criteria such as, routing overhead, PDR and

throughput. The above mentioned parametric QoS are balanced with the proposed and existing

methods. Hence, the brief analysis of the proposed and obtainable methods is mentioned with the

following sub section.

5.1. Examination of Performance

In this sub part, the parametric implementation of planned technique is tabulated in table 1.

Table.1 shows the obtained values of VANETs with running the program. Previous to, the QoS

parameters are determined using the proposed and existing methods. Some of the parameters are

mentioned with the table 2 and it is compared with the existing method also. However, the

prediction reliability is calculated for 500 numbers of vehicles. The table shows the results
against number of component and the predicted reliability for proposed PSO, ACO and IFFWOA

techniques. On looking at the table, PSO algorithm has lower predictability rate and the proposed

method has highest predictability rate.

Table 1: implementation Parameters

S.No Parameters Values

1 Number of nodes 250

2 Radius 300 m

3 Sink location (0,0)

4 Data size 125 bytes

5 ACK size 25 bytes

6 Initial energy 1J

7 Iteration count 50


Fig. 4: Illustration of (a) Sensor Nodes Initialization (b) cluster head selection and (c)

Communication source to destination

From the above illustrations, the period of clustering with the initialization structure node is

defined. Thereafter, the head of cluster can be chosen depending upon their rich energy which is

illustrated in the Fig. 4(b). The levy flight utilization is based FCM algorithm; the

communication between sources to destination node structure is defined to analyze the energy

efficient in the network. Here, the analyzed node with the two different types of cases

(i) Variation in node

(ii) Variation in time

Based on the variation of node, the routing head, PDR and through put are determined with the

utilization of proposed and existing methods.

Analysis of Case 1

While the presence of any faults, the increasing numeral of nodes source are

automatically decreased the numeral of messages if any faults are occurred. It may cause as the

increasing number of source nodes and the accidents between dissimilar traffic get raised. There

is a possibility of any collision is occurred due to packets with enlarger amount, while the

utilization of the proposed method with reduction in packet loss. Even though few node relay be

unsuccessful to accept a packet, the packet is circulated with other nodes relay.




Fig. 5: Comparison Analysis of proposed method with PSO in (a)Throughput (b) Overhead (c)

delay and (d) Packet delivery ratio


Fig.6: Comparison Analysis of (a) energy consumption and (b) network life time with various

methods under node variation

Fig.5 and 6 illustrates that the comparison analysis of routing network lifetime, overhead,

delay, packet delivery ratio and throughput with various methods under node period of variation.

In Fig.5, the PDR of the optimized protocol of proposed is strong-minded by node variation

under various ranges of transmission. Fig.5d delivers PDR by the range of transmission such as

200, 250, 300 and 350 m correspondingly. Moreover, the enlarger range of values shows the

proposed method achieves highest PDR (nearer to 0.8) while compared with the existing method

PSO. Because of the connectivity of poor nodes with low PDR is obtained and the transmission

of messages is satisfied with the node with the utilization of other protocols and methods. There

is no other feasible to form a medium in communication from the node source in the direction of

a end node. Furthermore, the increased node density increases with PDR gradually drops, as

more numbers of node split bandwidth similar channel communication. Likewise, the raisin in

the vehicles speed, connection alteration stability additional frequently; this presentation

degrades of network speedily.

Analysis of Case 2

In this case, the time variation period with QoS parameters are analyzed. Significantly,

the utilized nodes with different time and evaluated the network life time ratio, routing overhead,

PDR, delay and throughput are achieved.




Fig. 7: Comparison Analysis of proposed method with PSO in (a)Throughput (b) Overhead (c)

delay and (d) Packet delivery ratio under time variation


Fig.8: Comparison Analysis of (a) energy consumption and (b) network life time with various

methods under time variation

The decreases PDR with range of transmission packets augments. This occurs since

previous to the packets nodes transfer must calculate lifetime link by more integer of national

node, also the loss packet possibility of would increase. The Fig. 7 shows the dissemination ratio

of packet for different figures of setting nodes. The performance metric is calculated as the

number of data messages received by network of every node alienated with number of data

multiplication messages created using nodes of source and the quantity of network nodes. The

enlarger number of nodes increases with its ratio dissemination of Flooding decreases. Due to the

high network density with various nodes attempt to broadcast similar time and collisions

introduces and a drop in reception ratio of packet. Though, since a broadcasts are created.

Furthermore, many packets are lost and many collisions occurred. Therefore, redundant

information can be professionally abridged. Fig.8 shows that the proposed method achieves the

less energy consumption and achieves the maximum life time compared with the existing

methods PSO.


Fig.9: Comparison Analysis of Various protocol (a) energy consumption and (b) network life

time under node variation




Fig. 10: Comparison Analysis of Various protocols in (a) Throughput (b) Overhead (c) delay and

(d) Packet delivery ratio under node variation

Normally, the node time is increased with corresponding routing overhead metrics also

increased. To analyze the routing overhead of the nodes, 250 nodes are used and tested the

network life time, PDR, routing overhead and delay also. Under the variation of the time of the

nodes, the corresponding Routing overhead, PDR and throughput is determined and illustrated in

the Fig.9 and 10 respectively. By the utilization of proposed protocol and existing protocol, the

corresponding metrics are determined and verified. While using the proposed method, the

reduction in packet loss with the overhead analysis can be occurred. With the analysis of

transferring messages, the overhead is determined then only, the loss of the packet is evaluated.

To routing the packets in to the node, the density of the nodes are increased and the speed is also

increased. Under the high density of nodes, the efficiency is also determined and to maintained

the stability. Similarly, the QoS parameters and the time variation period are analyzed and

maximize their network life time.

5. Conclusion

In this paper, the protocol algorithm of an LFFCM with AODV-GWO is proposed for analyzing

the WSNs with its dynamic characteristic. Therefore, the characteristics of dynamic x

architecture characteristics of and movement of node are altered by means of ad-hoc networks.

Initially, the performance of clustering with the help of levy flight based Fuzzy C means

algorithm. Depending upon the evaluated distance and it is formed as the centroid tip. After that,

the selected head from the cluster node based on the nodes with high energy. Hence, the routing

performance procedure is to analyze the characteristics of dynamic WSN and to minimize the

link delays. The routing AODV protocol is popular used topology based WSN in protocol

routing. Many more unused routes creation between a destination and source node is discussed.

The modified AODV protocol is according to their characteristics to provide optimal results. In

this work, considering the deficiency of AODV protocol is enhanced with the amalgamation of

Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithms. The framework of proposed concept permits

efficient communication with the creation of augmented number of clusters because it is termed

as intelligent method. With the utilization of proposed method with efficiency, stability, data

delivery time and the clustering process is determined. Additionally, the parametric QoS is also

analyzed like, routing overhead, PDR and throughput by using proposed and existing methods.

The capacity of data transmission is also improved with the help of the proposed scheme.

Ultimately, the proposed method is implemented in platform of NS2 and compared with the

existing methods such as, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and other existing

protocol like DSDV and DSR.

Exhibited research work centers around the plan of energy efficient algorithms for

conventional uses of WSN. Nonetheless, the advancement of more energy efficient algorithms

will result in expanded application regions of WSNs progressively. Notwithstanding the attention

on the decrease in high recurrence of re-clustering and circulation of cluster heads, the territories,

for example, finding the ideal course with high lingering vitality for between group multi-jump

correspondence, setting different base stations to lessen the heap on cluster heads near a solitary

base station might be considered to get further improvement vitality effectiveness and generally

speaking lifetime of the system in WSN.


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