Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 98

NATURE OF INQUIRY, INVESTIGATION AND IMMERSION USES OF RESEARCH

INQUIRY 1. It is usually done to develop and produce new knowledge about the
 It is defined as a systematic search for information, knowledge and truth social world.
about certain things and matters of public interest. 2. It is conducted to address a specific issue and concern and provide an
 It is the process of solving a problem through researching and probing. answer or solution to a problem affecting a person, group, community
It involves questioning and interrogation. and the society in general.
 It is aimed not only at searching for and acquiring knowledge and
information about something but it is also meant to settle any doubt that BASIC RESEARCH
individuals may have on the subject.  It focuses on the advancement and production of new knowledge.
 This form of research is used by academicians and scientists, the primary
INVESTIGATION consumers of such research
 It is defined as the process of inquiring into something thoroughly.
 It is the systematic examination and inspection of the factors that have APPLIED RESEARCH
affected the subject of the investigation in order to uncover facts  It focuses on addressing a specific concern or usually offers a solution to
regarding the matter. a social problem.
 This emphasizes the testing and development of theories to advance and
IMMERSION produce new knowledge.
 It refers to the deep-level personal involvement of the researcher with  This form of research is usually done by practitioners in the business
the object of the study. sector, government, health care sector, social service organizations,
 A process whereby researchers engage themselves in the data they’ve political organizations and educational institutions.
collected by reading or examining some portion of the data in detail.
EXAMPLES OF APPLIED RESEARCH
 EVALUATION RESEARCH STUDY
THE RESEARCH PROCESS o It is done to assess the effectiveness of a program, policy or
RESEARCH campaign. This type of applied research is commonly conducted
 It is to find answers to questions. by organizations such as businesses, schools, and government
 It is a systematic, objective and comprehensive investigation of certain and nongovernment organizations to analyze the effectiveness
phenomenon which involves accurate gathering and recording and of their programs.
critical analysis and interpretation of all facts about the phenomenon for o Decision makers and researchers define the scope and objective
theoretical and practical ends. of the study.
 ACTION RESEARCH STUDY
SOCIAL RESEARCH o It is a type of applied research that treats knowledge as a form
 It is a process in which a researcher combines a set of principles, of power and abolishes the division between creating
outlooks, and ideas with a collection of specific practices, techniques, knowledge and using knowledge to engage in political action.
and strategies to produce knowledge.  SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STUDY
 The researcher conducts a systematic study of theories and facts to o It gives the possible effects or outcomes of a planned
answer different questions about the social reality. intervention or probable changes that might happen in the
future.
o This can be an environmental assessment report or a program a. To test the predictions or principles of a theory.
or project. b. To elaborate and expand the explanation of a theory.
o The possible changes that a project or an intervention causes in c. To extend or develop a theory to new issues or topics.
the social environment are predicted. d. To support or contradict an explanation.
o It provides solutions as to how those changes that might affect e. To connect issues or topics with a general principle or theory.
people can be prevented. f. To determine which of the explanations is considered the best
 INVESTIGATORY PROJECT answer.
o An opportunity to apply scientific principles in solving real-world
problems or to look for answers to research questions. STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS
o It also enables you to think critically and identify problems 1. Selecting a topic.
arising from your own experiences and observations of 2. Identifying the research question.
everyday life. 3. Developing a research design.
4. Gathering of collecting data.
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH 5. Carrying out a data analysis
1. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH – a researcher looks into a new idea to 6. Interpreting data.
identify the specific question that can be addressed in future research. 7. Communicating research findings and results.
Researchers become familiarized with the facts, setting and concerns.
They create a general picture of the conditions. Also, they produce new
ideas and hypotheses. DEVELOPING A TOPIC FOR RESEARCH
a. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity and desire for better  Before conducting research, you should have a topic to pursue. A topic
understanding. is the subject or subject matter or a proposed research study. It is then
b. To examine the viability (practicability) of undertaking a more important to know the guidelines for choosing a research topic.
extensive study. o What topic/s for research interests me?
c. To develop the methods to be used in future studies. o What is it about the topic that I chose that is interesting to me?
o What do I know about the topic that interests me?
2. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH – they aim to describe situations and events.
They answer the questions WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, and HOW. The DELIMITING THE TOPIC
researcher observes and then provides a description of what he or she 1. PERSONS OR CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE TO BE STUDIED – As a researcher,
has observed. The function of such research is to present a social setting you must clearly answer the question, “Who are the persons that I want
or a picture of a specific situation. to study?” It is important to identify the subgroups or categories of
a. Provides a detailed and accurate picture of the situation. people to be studied.
b. Clarifies a sequence of steps or stages. 2. PLACE OF THE STUDY – a researcher must answer the question, “Where
c. Documents a causal process or mechanism. is the specific geographical location of study?” to limit the scope of the
d. Reports on the background or context of a situation. research. It is difficult to research on a topic that has a very broad
geographical scope because it would need more time, data and
3. EXPLANATORY RESEARCH – the researcher answers the question resources.
“WHY?” It identifies the sources of social behavior, beliefs, conditions
and events. It documents the causes, theories and reasons for the
existence of an event or situation.
3. TIME PERIOD OF THE RESEARCH – it has a specific period or time frame. 3. The title should identify the actual variables or theoretical issues being
One cannot study a particular topic in its entire historical period. It is studies in the research.
then important to answer the question, “How long will my study take?” 4. The title should be self-explanatory.
4. SPHERES OF HUMAN INTEREST – research topics revolve around a 5. A good research title must be clearly phrased. It must not be vague or
particular human interest. Researchers must then identify the specific wordy.
human activity or human interest that they want to look into. They 6. Avoid titles that do not provide any useful purpose.
answer the question, “What human activity or interest do I want to 7. Do not develop a very long title because it can mislead the readers.
study?” 8. Do not begin the title with the phrases like “A Study of” or “An
5. SOCIAL ARTIFACTS – These are any product of social beings or human Experimental Investigation of.”
social behavior as a topic for research. These can be concrete objects like 9. Do not use abbreviations in the title. Spell out the words and acronyms
books, poems, literary works, cars, buildings, structures, monuments or used.
news reports that can be analyzed by the researcher. Also, social 10. The recommended length of a research title is 10 to 12 words.
interactions are another form of social artifacts. They can be cultural
traditions, ceremonies or rituals; social problems like traffic, abortion EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
and divorce; or other issues and occurrences in a particular area like 1. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS – it is a quantitative research
demonstrations, rallies and kidnapping. To tackle a topic, a researcher design that bases its research method on a scientific activity called
must answer the question, “What particular social artifact or interaction experiment, in which a test or examination of a thing under a
will I focus on?” manipulated or controlled environment is done to determine the validity
or truthfulness of such thing.
SOME GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A RESEARCH TOPIC This design involves two groups of subjects: the EXPERIMENTAL
1. Check resources that are related to your topic in the library. GROUP on which the condition, treatment or intervention is applied and
the CONTROL GROUP that is not given any treatment or condition.
2. Sometimes, your topic can be so specific that it becomes difficult for you
Following this experimental design, you conduct two kinds of
to research it. You may want to expand the topic.
tests: PRE-TEST for both groups and POST-TEST for the experimental or
3. Avoid topics that you do not have any knowledge at all. treatment group to see the difference between them based on the
4. Researchers must consider the availability of sources. effects of the treatment or condition given to the experimental group.
5. Choose a topic that is not vague, intangible or debatable or is not easily
answerable. TWO TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
6. Choose a topic that is not yet overly written on by other researchers in A. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – what proves this as a true
a field. experimental design is its random selection of participants. It is
7. Ensure that you have the necessary funds or resources to collect data a bias-free selection that ensures objectivity of results. This
over a period of time. design is the best way to examine causal relationships.
8. Consider the resources or budget needed to analyze data or information B. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – the term QUASI means partly,
gathered. partially, pseudo or almost. The non-adherence of this research
design to random selection of participants is the reason it got
the name, quasi-experimental research, which means a
DEVELOPING A WORKING TITLE BASED ON A RESEARCH TOPIC
research with the capacity to yield findings that are seemingly
1. The title should encapsulate (summarize) the main idea of the research.
or more or less true.
2. The title should be in the form of a concise statement that explains the Prone to bias caused by your purposive, rather than
essence of the topic. random selection of participants, quasi-experimental design is
incapable of establishing cause-effect relationships. Trying to 3. Method of testing your hypotheses or of examining their
approximate or to be like the true experimental design, this validity like deciding whether you have to follow the
research design comes in different types such as the following: experimental design or the quasi-experimental design.
4. Choice of which instrument to use in collecting data; that is,
1) MATCHED-COMPARISON GROUP DESIGN – in a quasi- whether to use interview, observation or questionnaire.
experimental design, instead of selecting participants for 5. Process of selecting the subjects to compose the control
the control group, you get a set of participants that shows group and the experimental group.
close similarities with the experimental or treatment group 6. Performance of experimentation that allows control of the
based on one or more important variables. cropping up of extraneous variables and of the
2) TIME-SERIES QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – your act of experimenter’s bias.
controlling the variables in this case is through multiple 7. Collection and analysis of data.
observations of the subjects before and after the treatment
or condition applied to the experimental group. The STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH PROJECT
purpose of serial observations is to see the connection I. TITLE PAGE
between the pre-test and the post-test based on the taking II. APPROVAL SHEET
place of the treatment or condition. III. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
3) COUNTER-BALANCED QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – IV. ABSTRACT
here, control is applied to one group to examine the effects V. TABLE OF CONTENTS (including list of tables and list of figures)
of all treatment and conditions to control variables. For CHAPTER 1: The Problem and Its Background
instance, negative results coming from three-time o Introduction
o Conceptual Framework of the Study
observations are counterbalanced or given weight that is
o Theoretical Framework of the Study
equated with positive results from four-or-five-time
o Statement of the Problem
observations.
o Hypothesis
4) SINGLE-SUBJECT QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – this o Significance of the Study
design is used when the population is so large that you find o Scope and Delimitations of the Study
difficulty in choosing a group to study. So, you decide to o Definition of Terms
apply the condition or treatment to a single subject like a  CHAPTER 2: Review of Related Literature and Related Studies
class of learners then later find out the effects of the o Review of Related Literature
treatment on the entire class. o Review of Related Studies
o Synthesis of Related Literature and Related Studies
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS  CHAPTER 3: Research Design and Research Methodology
The true experimental and quasi-experimental design follows o Research Design
the same stages in research designing. Their difference lies only in the o Research Locale
participant-selection process, in that the first is randomized; the second, o Samples and Sampling Technique Used
purposive. o Instrumentation
1. Clear knowledge of the research objectives that enable you o Data Gathering Procedures
to decide not only on the kind of research you have to do, o Statistical Treatment of Data
but also on the manner you have to follow in conducting  CHAPTER 4: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
the research.  CHAPTER 5: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
2. Formulation of hypotheses to state your guesses of what BIBLIOGRAPHY
may not be true (null hypotheses) or may be true APPENDICES
(alternative hypotheses) about the results. CURRICULUM VITAE
GENERAL FORMAT GUIDELINES INDENTATION – paragraph indentation should be 5-7 spaces or the normal tab
Manuscript Construction default.
APPEARANCE – the manuscript must be prepared on a computer, neat in
appearance and without error. Strikeovers, handwritten corrections, or PAGINATION – all page numbers are placed at the upper right hand corner of
interlineations are not accepted. Printing of the thesis/ research paper should be each page. The first page of the new chapter is not numbered but is still counted.
letter/ laser quality with dark black characters that are consistently clear and Lower-case Roman numerals are used for the front material, but beginning only
dense. Dot matrix is unacceptable. The manuscript can be printed on the one side with the Acknowledgment (or page iv). The title and the approval sheet are
of each page received. Reproduced copies are acceptable only if high quality counted but not numbered.
photocopying is used.
HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS – chapter titles should be in bold-face, uppercase
PAPER – paper with the official OLLC logo must be used. and centered on top of the page. The heading ‘Chapter” should be centered and
written in uppercase and lowercase letters and the corresponding Roman
SPACING – double-space throughout the paper, including entries in the numeral.
Reference section. (NOTE: entries in tables may be single- or double-spaced;
consideration must be for the readability of the table)
Spacing between subsections or subheadings within a chapter should at HOW TO WRITE CHAPTER 1 (THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND)
least be double- spaced, but may be triple- or quadruple-spaced for added clarity. CHAPTER 1: The Problem and Its Background
o Introduction
FONT – Arial is the only acceptable font. The same type face must be used o Conceptual Framework of the Study
throughout the manuscript, including figures, tables, plate captions with the o Theoretical Framework of the Study
o Statement of the Problem
exception of certain tables, figures and appendix material, which may use a
o Hypothesis
different type. Italics should be used only to highlight specific words or phrases o Significance of the Study
in the text. The official font size is 12 point and must be used for all material in o Scope and Delimitations of the Study
the text. o Definition of Terms

MARGINS – it must be uniform on all pages. Margin requirements apply to all INTRODUCTION – this part should contain a discussion of any or all of the
materials included in the research paper/ thesis such as figures, tables, following:
photographs, etc., and all material in appendices. The margins of the research  Presentation of the Problem (macro-micro-mini level)
paper/ thesis page are:  The existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt need/ problem that
 TOP and BOTTOM = 1 inch requires a solution.
 LEFT = 1.5 inches  Rationale for conducting the study.
 RIGHT = 1 inch  Historical background of the problem
 HEADER = 1.5 inches SIMPLE PAST TENSE and PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (e.g., participants
 FOOTER = 1 inch have completed) are suggested for the introduction. Also PAST PERFECT TENSE
(had completed)
JUSTIFICATION – justify throughout the paper. Use SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE when stating the objectives of the study.
When you refer to material that has been published, use SIMPLE PAST
TENSE.
However, when you refer to a theory or an instrument, both are AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's
considered as ongoing and in current use; therefore use SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
Grade 7 Students (2018-2019) by
DEVELOPING A RESEARCH PROBLEM
 A research problem is the issue or problem that leads to the Hannah Grace S. Buer
need for a study. It is the central idea of the study. It serves as Micaella M. Abergas
the main reason why research is being undertaken. Vianca Joicelei J. Giger
 In developing a research problem, it is necessary to have Krystine Nichole S. Mater
enough background information and knowledge about the Roschelle Mae G. Delima
Genie Mae A. Alvarez
subject matter of the research. You can develop a research
John Alfred SM. Merin
problem about a particular topic that interests you by reading John Cristopher G. Mercado
relevant literature and related studies written about the subject
matter. STEM 12-1

WRITING THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM CHAPTER I


 To describe the background of the study, the researcher must THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
use data published in other works about the subject.
INTRODUCTION
 The background must clearly show that the issue or problem The Editors Handbook was created to present the history of teaching and
leads to the necessity of conducting a study about the topic. learning mathematics in an easy way. Students developed their prior knowledge
 GUIDE QUESTIONS THAT CAN HELP in mathematics and pursue the use of handbooks as a tool to help them expand
o Why is it necessary to conduct a study about the topic? their ideas in analyzing mathematical problems. The handbook provided
o What problem influences the need to conduct a study information that will contribute new knowledge for each students who will read
about the topic? it. It also let the students see their strengths and weaknesses in a certain topic
o What is the context or background of the topic? and know the capability of the students on the subject matter.
 TIPS IN PROVIDING THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The handbook was designed easily for gathering knowledge and quick
answering from the students. It was useful for students who prefer short and
o Develop an opening sentence that will attract the
summarized text from a long topic that can save plenty of time. The Handbook
reader’s interest and at the same time convey the issue
guided readers through the field's rich history. It also has an entertaining
or problem in such a way that the audience can relate.
appearance so that student will enjoy and appreciate reading it (Springer Science
o Refrain from using idiomatic expressions because they & Business Media, 2012). Therefore students motivated their selves and help
convey vague or unclear messages. them to achieve to be more innovative every time they use an Editors Handbook.
o Use statistical data or numerical figures because they The achievement of students has been a great concern to educators,
create a good impact. parents, and government. Academic performance concerned how the student
o Clearly identify the research problem or issue that leads accomplishing his or her studies, duties, and responsibilities in their school.
to the study. Students’ academic performance was the outcome of education. It was
o State the reasons why the research problem is measured by examinations or continuous assessment. It involved how the
important by providing a number of references to students deal with their studies and how they cope and achieve different tasks
justify the necessity of studying the problem. given by the educators. Students had the ability to study, remember facts, and
being able to communicate the students’ knowledge verbally or in writing. Each
learner had the privilege to apprehend the lessons in an efficient and effective CHAPTER I
way to excel in class and academic performance. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
The effectiveness of the Editor's handbook was very crucial in the
decision of implementing the handbook as a learner's material. Summing up all INTRODUCTION
the aspects of how the handbook could reach out to students and give them the The invention of the car truly changed modern-day society.
ability to improve their academic performance will be put on to the test. The With the advent of the new modern modes of transport starting in
effects of the Editor's Handbook and the students' academic performance are the nineteenth century when the Benz family successfully created
the two variables that are closely related to one another. In mathematical terms, the first true “automobile.” This further continued when Henry Ford
devised and perfected his method of production for his own cars, the
these two are directly proportional. When the handbook affected the students
first true mass-production line for automobiles, which sparked a
positively, there were higher chances that they can get good academic
frenzy of cheap and efficient automobiles. However, due to this,
performance. But when the handbook affected them negatively, the handbook
suddenly every family had a car of their own. Streets formerly filled
didn't help the students achieve the academic performance they were wishing with horse pulled wagons now had fuel driven vehicles.
for. In 1901, the state of New York in the United States signed
Within the help of the Editor’s handbook, it could help students to into law a bill requiring owners of motor vehicles to register the latter
maintain a good academic performance. In this study, the researchers would with the state. This was the early iteration of the license plates,
determine the effectivity of the handbook towards the work of students. which soon became the standard for every country in the world.
Therefore, the study pointed out the useful factors of the Editor’s handbook. It Today, license plates are used in all sorts of ways. From regulating
could be a help to teachers and administrators of schools to start practicing giving traffic through coding schemes and asserting ownership over a
handbook to students to enhance their performance and acquire a great vehicle. It was a necessity to get a license plate after purchasing a
achievement. Overall, Editor’s handbook focused on giving students a better vehicle from respective issuing agencies, and in our country, that is
performance. the Land Transportation Office.
However, the Metro Manila Development Authority also used
license numbers as a way to identify traffic violators, wherein they
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from, utilized a no apprehension policy, which basically means that they
Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal would use CCTV cameras to identify these perpetrators and charge
Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020 them when they renew their license. However, due to their size,
there has been difficulties in visually identifying the plates from a
by distance. This has led to the enactment of the Republic Act 11235,
which mandates for motorcycles to have larger license plates.
(Official Gazette, 2019).
Jeffrey L. Bonggon
However, this does not cover four wheeled vehicles.
Jerome Bryan G. Borinaga
Identifying criminals and violators has been of great concern to law
Janber Christian O. Calamba
enforcing agencies. It was the duty of the state to protect its citizens.
Sherrie Ann G. Mantalla
Criminal Identification was essential to maintaining order within its
Minalyn D. Millamina
boundaries. Maintaining order defined a state’s discipline. Criminals
John Carlo E. Otida
had the ability to destroy the peace and equilibrium of a community,
David Marcus C. Tolentino
and so explained the importance of criminal identification.
The effects of larger plate numbers was an important factor
STEM 12-1
in deciding whether the enlarging of plates was effective in criminal
identification. Since plate numbers were not only used in regulation
but also in identification through the Land Transportation Office, it
will be easier for law enforcing agencies to use plate numbers as a
medium to trace and track criminal offenders and finally end their
violations of the law. Making the plates larger would improve
visibility for officers to record them down and hand them over to the
authorities, even the common citizen could take a photograph from
his/her phone and do the same.

CONCEPTUAL/ THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK – presents the theoretical approach,


framework, or lens that is applied to address the research problem. In a
qualitative study, this generally involves a discussion of how variables and their
relationships are conceptualized (possibly accompanied by a visual diagram).
 Qualitative researches may want to elucidate the philosophical
foundations of their theoretical lens and show the relevance of this lens
to the research question at hand. The theoretical basis and justification
for the research is the focus of the argumentation in this section.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK – it uses concepts from theories. The


researcher finds a variable in the study that corresponds to the concept
as it was used in a theory from which it was taken.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK – it is the application of a theory or theories


in explaining the existence of a phenomenon and the interrelationship
of various factors which led to the existence of the phenomenon. Using
this, the researcher borrows the concepts, theories, and ideas proposed
by different social scientists, theorists and philosophers. AN EXAMPLE OF THE PARADIGM

AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's Handbook


and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of Grade 7 AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's
Students (2018-2019) Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

The Editor's Handbook will affect the students and their academic
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
performance positively and negatively. Whether good or bad, we need to
assess all the effects that comes with this handbook. As seen in the diagram, This research study is based on certain theories on how editor’s
the Editor's Handbook has positive and negative effects that will directly handbook affects the academic performance of Grade 7 students. These
affect the students first before their academic performance. Means that the theories may include any of the following: GOVERNANCE THEORY, ENTITY
attitude of the students will be a main factor on how the handbook will affect THEORY and IMPLICIT THEORY. Each theory has its proponents and may
them and their academic performance in the subject. support the entire research study itself.
Governance Theory AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from,
According to Trondal (2017), he said that the Handbook advances a Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal
deeper theoretical understanding of governance processes while illuminating Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020
the interdisciplinary foundations of the field. By reviewing key theoretical
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
concepts, the Handbook provides a basic conceptual toolkit for analyzing
contemporary governance and offers important insights into how
Having Larger Plate Numbers will affect how law
governance research contributes to social science theory development. By
enforcing agencies will identify criminals or suspected
canvassing the different forms of governance, the chapters also reveal the
criminals. As seen in the diagram, larger plate numbers has
diversity of contemporary governing practices. An epilogue identifies
its positive and negative effects that will directly affect law
common themes across the chapters and points to opportunities for future
enforcing agencies before affecting the criminal identification.
research.
Means that the respondents' opinions will be a main factor on
Entity Theory how larger plate numbers will affect the law enforcing agencies
and the criminal identification.
According to Dweck (1999), Individuals can typically perceive
intelligence as more of a fixed unchanging characteristic while others
consider it as something that is malleable and prone to development.
Individuals who hold entity or fixed theories of intelligence tend to believe
that skills and abilities are relatively stable and that their performance is a
consequence of that stability. Accordingly, they are likely to adopt
performance goals focused at demonstrating their abilities and achieve
positive evaluations from others. Individuals who hold an incremental or a
growth mindset believe that these characteristics can change with effort and
through time are more likely to adopt learning goals, choose challenging
tasks, and employ adaptive strategies to improve their abilities.
Implicit Theory
According to Ross (1989), he said that the schematic knowledge
structures that incorporate these beliefs function as “implicit theories” since
they are mostly unconscious to the individuals. In the academic context,
implicit theories about intelligence have been widely examined with respect
to the learning processes and outcome variables. Implicit theories can frame
a student's specific mindset, along a continuum from an entity to an
incremental belief, create distinct meaning systems that can trigger different
patterns of response to challenging situations and setbacks and ultimately
influencing students' learning processes and achievement outcomes.
Although implicit theories of intelligence tend to be uncorrelated with
general cognitive ability, the literature has explored the effects that entity or
incremental beliefs can have on students' academic outcome.
USING OF INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from,
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal
Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020
1. What is the - Giving of letter -The researchers
profile of the of approval to the THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
school principal. gathered data
respondents as to: This research study is based on certain theories on how larger
that were:
- Giving of plate numbers affects vehicles to the criminal identification of law
a. Age informed consent
a. Positive
enforcing agencies. These theories may include any of the following:
form to the
b. Gender VIEWPOINT DEPENDENT THEORY, VISUAL ATTENTION THEORY, and
respondents. Outcomes MECHANISMS OF VISUAL ATTENTION IN THE HUMAN CORTEX. The
c. Student’s Daily -The researchers b. Negative theory has its proponents and may support the entire research study
Allowance will collect data itself.
Outcomes
and information
2. What are the through the use of Viewpoint Dependent Theory
effects of food a survey -The researchers According to Tarr (1998), and cited again by Schendan
prices in the school questionnaire to suggested that (2019), The human visual system is faced with the computationally
the participants teachers should difficult problem of achieving object constancy: identifying three-
canteen in the
from Our Lady of help students dimensional (3D) objects via two-dimensional (2D) retinal images
daily allowance of Lourdes College. know the value of that may be altered when the same object is seen from different
Grade 11
-The respondents’ saving money. viewpoints. This theory connects to the study by relating to the
students? Also, students
total population is viewpoint of a law enforcement officer trying to look to a body of
120 and when must learn proper text, particularly a license plate and its numbers.
a. Positive
Slovin’s formula is budgeting that
b. Negative used, it becomes could help them Visual Attention Theory
92 samples. This to use their
3. Is there a number of sample money Proposed by Bundensen (1990), but cited again in the paper
is to be used in coordinately. The “Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention” by Desimone &
significant
our analysis since food prices in the Duncan (2015), this theory concerns itself with distractions in
difference between
we used simple school canteen filtering visual information. Their findings include positioning in
the food prices in random sampling.
affects the attention-dividing patterns, putting of distractions in material, and
the school canteen practicing of searching. This theory connects to the study by relating
-The researchers financial state of a
and student’s daily to distractions in certain license plates, such as conduction stickers.
will compute, student that is
allowance of Grade why learning to
analyze, interpret Mechanisms of Visual Attention in the Human Cortex
11 students? and will work on expense properly
the collected data is important. A typical scene contains many different objects that, because
thoroughly. of the limited processing capacity of the visual system, compete for
neural representation. The competition among multiple objects in
visual cortex can be biased by both bottom-up sensory-driven
mechanisms and top-down influences, such as selective attention.
This was published by Kastner and Ungerleider (2000), but cited
again by Borji and Itti (2012) in their research “State-of-the-art in
visual attention modeling.” This theory is similar to the second
Fig. 1.1: Paradigm of the Study
theory, but dwelves deeper into the topic.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM – the problem should be stated precisely, Inspect Simplify Survey
accurately and clearly. It is defined in terms of data that can be obtained. Distinguish Distinction
Synthesis To...
 The first paragraph includes a statement of the purpose of the study and Choose Combine Compile
expressed in a declarative sentence. Compose Develop Design
 The next paragraph contains the sub-problems expressed in Estimate Formulate Plan
interrogative sentences. Predict Propose Solve
 Simple Future Tense is used for proposals while the simple present tense Evaluation To…
is used in the final copy of the thesis or dissertation. Conclude Criticize Assess
Rate Judge Dispute
It is basically composed of the different questions that the entire Justify Recommend
study will answer. One of the two main parts of the statement is the Rate Determine
GENERAL or MAIN QUESTION of the study, which indicates the main Choose
problem of the study.
The other part is the SPECIFIC QUESTIONS, which are detailed
questions that the study will answer. AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's
Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
 It explains the reason behind the study and its specific goals and
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
aims.
 The purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to
LEVELS ACTION VERBS determine the capability of Grade 7 students in understanding
Knowledge To… and answering the Editor’s handbook from Our Lady of
Define Know List Relate Lourdes College to identify the effectiveness of it to their
Label Find Match Recall academic performance.
Select
Comprehension To… The said research study will seek to answer the following
research questions.
Explain Discuss Compare
1. What is the profile of the respondents as to:
Contrast Demonstrate Interpret
a. Age
Illustrate Infer Outline
b. Gender
Summarize Classify c. Grade in Mathematics (2nd Quarter)
Application To… 2. What are the effects of using Editor’s handbook to the
Use Apply Build academic performance of Grade 7 students?
Choose Interview Organize a. Positive
Plan Select Identify b. Negative
Solve Experiment with 3. Is there a significant difference between Editor’s
Analysis To… Handbook and the academic performance of Grade 7
Analyze Categorize Classify students?
Compare Contrast Discover
Dissect Divide Examine
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from, o It is logically connected to a research question and a theory.
Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal o It can be falsified that is it can be verified through the use of
Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020 empirical (observed) evidence.
NOTE: This is optional and depends on the nature of the research topic.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The purpose of this causal-comparative research is to AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's
explain the capability of Law Enforcing Agencies in understanding Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
the effects of Larger Plate Numbers to use it to the criminal Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
identification.
Hypothesis:
The said research study will seek to answer the following
research questions. 𝑯𝑶 : There is no significant difference between Editor’s
Handbook and the academic performance of Grade 7
1. What is the profile of the respondent as to: students.
a. Name 𝑯𝒂 : There is a significant difference between Editor’s
b. Age Handbook and the academic performance of Grade 7
c. Occupation students.
d. Agency involved
e. Vision aids
f. Vision impairment AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from,
2. What are the effects of larger plate numbers among Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal
vehicles to criminal identification? Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020
a. Positive
b. Negative HYPOTHESES
3. Why is there a need for criminal identification?
4. Is there a significant difference between the effects of 𝑯𝑶 : There is no significant difference between
larger plate numbers among vehicles and criminal larger plate numbers among vehicles and criminal
identification of law enforcing agencies? identification of law enforcing agencies.
𝑯𝒂 : There is a significant difference between
HYPOTHESIS – the theoretical implications of the study and how the research larger plate numbers among vehicles and criminal
design and the hypothesis relate to the problem should be stated. Theoretical identification of law enforcing agencies
propositions must be presented in the null form. The Alpha level of significance
to be used should be indicated.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY – what will the results of the study contribute to
 It is a verifiable proposition or a tentative statement that clearly explains
concerned individuals, administrators, agencies, service providers’ clients/
the relationship between the two variables about how social world
beneficiaries, general society, science, practice of profession, etc.
operates.
 It explains its relevance and contribution to the field.
 CHARACTERISTICS OF A HYPOTHESIS
 It must be explained as clearly as possible so that readers will understand
o It can be stated as a prediction or an expected outcome in the
the necessity to pursue the research.
future.
 It must explicitly state the contribution of the study to the body of SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
knowledge about the subject matter. This study talks about the advantages and
 It can help address or solve an existing social or political problem and disadvantages of larger plate numbers that can benefit the
that different sectors of the study that will benefit from the study. following people:
 You must then identify which sector will gain much from the study and For the Law Enforcement Agencies. They can know
explain what each sector will gain from the research. if larger plate numbers improve their duties by identifying
suspected criminals and fugitives
AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's
For the City Government of Valenzuela. They may
be able to effectively catch and identify their suspected
Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
criminals and fugitives through their Closed Circuit Television
Grade 7 Students (2018-2019) system by using larger plate numbers
For other City Governments. Since it is not only
Valenzuela that will benefit for this, they can also benefit from
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY the same factors as acted above for the City Government of
The study focusses on the effectiveness of using Editor's Valenzuela
handbook to the Academic performance of Grade 7 students in Our For the General Public. They can benefit from this in
Lady of Lourdes College would prove useful to the following:
a way due to lesser fugitives and suspected criminals around
First, the students. This study can be their source of
the metro if it works as planned and recommended.
material for researching the effect of using Editor’s handbook and
how it affect their academic performance. It would be essential to For Future Researchers. They may be able to base
other student in terms of knowing the easiest way to learn and their future studies on this paper, and help them to get insight
understand mathematics. into the topic that this thesis discusses.
Second, the teachers. This study will serve as their basis
on how to create effective handbook and other learning materials
that student will surely like. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY – the first paragraph contains the
Third, the school. This study will help the school to know scope which delineates how the study will be narrowed or the boundaries in
what they need to provide. The learnings of the students through terms of the people involved in the study, instrumentation, time, location or the
the use of this materials may greatly reflect the success of the school
“who”, “where”, “when”, and “how” of the study.
itself.
Fourth, the Department of Education. This study will The second paragraph identifies the limitation or potential weaknesses
serve as a basis to them, to add and develop learning strategies that in the design or constraints of the study.
can help student to learn in easiest way.  It defines the extent and focus of the research
And lastly, the Future Researchers. This study will SCOPE – it refers to the specific topics or coverage of the research. The
provide as background research and references to the future studies. researcher should clearly explain the geographic location of the study,
Since there are few studies related to this, it will help them to gain
the unit of analysis or the people/ population to be studies, the time
information and to provide new level of knowledge in this particular
period of the research, and the questions that will be answered by the
matter.
study.
DELIMITATION – defines the constraints (controls) and weaknesses
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from, which are not within the control of the researcher, therefore, they
Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal are not expected to be part of the study.
Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020
AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's DEFINITION OF TERMS – define only those terms that are basic to the research
Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of being conducted. Some of the terms to be defined may be common words but
Grade 7 Students (2018-2019) may have different meanings to different people. Hence, the words should be
defined operationally. However, there are words that may be defined
SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY conceptually. These words get their meaning from the dictionary or other
The study will focus on the effectiveness of using materials.
editor’s handbook to the academic performance of Grade 7  Without clear definitions, the readers may misunderstand or
students at Our Lady of Lourdes College, for the period misinterpret the terms.
covering from November 2018 to March 2019.  The researcher then gives operational definitions that are based on how
The study will investigate on the effects of using editor’s
the terms are used in the study.
handbook and how it will improve the academic performance
 A researcher can give a conceptual definition, the meaning given by a
of Grade 7 students.
thesaurus or a dictionary which is generally understood by people.
The study is limited to 35 students of Grade 7-
Benevolence. It uses purposive sampling. The method of the  He or she can give an operational definition which explains the term in a
data gathering that this study included is researcher made particular language rather than in abstract manner as it is used in the
questionnaire. research.

AN EXAMPLE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: (taken from, Editor's


AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken from,
Handbook and Its Effectiveness to the Academic Performance of
Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Criminal
Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019-2020 Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)

SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


DEFINITION OF TERMS
The study will focus on the effects of larger plate For the purpose of understanding the research
numbers among vehicles to the criminal identification of law study, the following terms are defined:
enforcing agencies at law enforcement inspection checkpoint
and/or law enforcement stations, for the period covering from Academic Performance. It generally refers to
June 2019 to October 2019. how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and
The study will investigate on the effects of larger plate studies. It is how a person does his or her work with
numbers among vehicles and how we identify the criminal efficiency, effectivity, and productivity.
identification. Editor’s Handbook. This book may be used for
The study is limited to 60 respondents from law self-instruction or as a textbook in copyediting classes
enforcement inspection checkpoints and/or law enforcement and the exercises are accompanied by answer keys and
stations. It uses purposive sampling. The method of the data detailed line-by-line explanations. It is a written
gathering that this study included is researcher made document that can be used as a manual or source of
questionnaire. information to perform something task to do.
(NOTE: As soon as possible, have 10 or more terms to
define and it should be alphabetically arranged)
imposition of penalties. A rule defining correct procedure
or behavior in a sport and action. Laws applied in this
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken
research may be defined as Republic Act 11235, “AN ACT
from, Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the
Criminal Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019- PREVENTING AND PENALIZING THE USE OF
2020 MOTORCYCLES IN THE COMMISSION OF CRIMES BY
REQUIRING BIGGER, READABLE AND COLOR-CODED
NUMBER PLATES AND IDENTIFICATION MARKS, AND
DEFINITION OF TERMS FOR OTHER PURPOSES,” and others.
For the purpose of understanding the research License Plate. It is a metal plate that contains the
study, the following terms are defined: serial number of a vehicle. A number that is the serial
City Government. This study was conducted in number of the plate from which a sheet of postage
the City of Valenzuela, Metro Manila. Any mention of the stamps is printed and that appears in the four margins of
word “city” will be directly related to the City Government the printed sheet, at least once on each pane and stamp
of Valenzuela and its vicinity, unless specified. or block of stamps with plate number attached.

Criminal Identification. These are activities that Plate Number. It is defined in this research as
are related to identifying criminals in vehicles through enlarging the plate’s number, not the entire plate itself.
visually looking at their respective plate numbers, The “plate number” being the actual numbers imprinted
whether through closed circuit television, inspection on the plate, unless said otherwise.
checkpoints, and others. Respondents. These respondents may include
Criminal/Fugitives. Those involved in the traffic enforcers, policemen on patrol and on duty on
breaking of laws and ordinances, whether it be traffic or major and minor roads, those monitoring closed circuit
non-traffic violations. Specifically, those using vehicles television sets, etc.
with valid license plates, but are not limited to; moving Vehicle. A machine, usually with wheels and an
into other areas to escape or to conduct crime, etc. engine used for transporting people or goods on land,
Law Enforcement Agencies. They are especially on roads. It may be two wheeled and above.
responsible for collection, preservation, and
documentation of all major crime scenes in Valenzuela
City. These may include, but are not limited to: The (NOTE: As soon as possible, have 10 or more terms to
Philippine National Police, the city’s traffic management define and it should be alphabetically arranged)
entities, among others.
Law. The system of rules which a particular
country or community recognizes as regulating the
actions of its members and which it may enforce by the
HOW TO WRITE CHAPTER 2 2. It can increase the reader’s confidence with regard to the
(REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES) competence, ability and academic preparation of the
CHAPTER 2: (Review of Related Literature and Related Studies) researcher.
o Review of Related Literature 3. It must be able to sketch the direction of the research.
o Review of Related Studies 4. It must be able to produce a good integration and synthesis of
o Synthesis of Related Literature and Related Studies the different research findings.
5. It identifies the unstudied areas and proposes hypotheses that
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE or LITERATURE REVIEW other researchers can study as well.
 It is a written summary of published research studies and relevant works
about a particular subject matter that is related to the researcher’s main FINDING SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR LITERATURE REVIEW
topic. SOURCES EXAMPLES
 To produce the review, the researcher examines the central issues and Periodicals Newspapers, popular social science magazines,
professional publications (e.g., NATIONAL
problems discussed in previous studies as well as the findings and the
GEOGRAPHIC and PSYCHOLOGY TODAY), Internet
quantitative or qualitative methods used.
news summaries, opinion magazines, editorials,
and mass market publications (e.g., TIMES,
REASONS ABOUT THE RELEVANCE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW NEWSWEEK, THE ECONOMIST)
1. It helps the researcher to understand the different studies done Scholarly  Peer-reviewed or abstracted refereed
on his or her chosen topic. Journals journals containing research results or
The researcher learns: social scientists and other researchers
a. what other researchers have already studied about (e.g., MALAY, ASIAN STUDIES, PHILIPPINE
the topic. STUDIES, AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL
b. the research methodology and theory used in REVIEW, PHILIPPINE SOCIAL SCIENCE
previous studies. REVIEW)
c. the gaps in the existing studies about the topic.  Article or book reviews that contain
2. It delimits the researcher about his or her topic because it can literature review essays that provide
provide him or her with additional information as to how he or journal article or book commentary and
evaluations
she will discuss the topic.
 Scholarly journals that can be accessed
3. It provides the researcher with sources of information that he
online (e.g., JSTOR and EBSCO HOST)
or she can use to learn more about his or her chosen topic.  E-journals or Internet only scholarly
4. It can stimulate the creativity and curiosity of the researcher journals that publishes online peer-
because it can provide new insights and ideas about his or her reviewed researches (e.g., Philippine e-
chosen topic. journals)
5. It can learn about the writing skills of other researchers through Books Books that contain original research results or a
a literature review. compilation of research articles (These books are
published by university presses such as the
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LITERATURE REVIEW University of the Philippines Press, Ateneo de
1. It must explain the body of knowledge in area including the Manila University Press, De La Salle University
major issues about the topic. Publishing House and University of Santo Tomas
Publishing House.)
Dissertation These are written by graduate students. Some are  Does the review sketch the direction of the
and thesis published into books but some are unpublished research and identify unstudied areas and
and can be accessed in the university libraries. hypotheses?
Government Documents published by the national Time to be  How much time is allotted for literature search?
Documents government, local government units, government devoted for the  How much time is given for library research, data
agencies and international agencies. review gathering, note taking and the writing of the
Policy reports These are published by government and private review?
and research institutes and policy centers.  Do you have a time line or a research schedule
conference for this step?
papers Professional organization hold annual conferences Number of works  How many books are needed for the review?
and scholarly papers are presented in them. to be reviewed  How many journal articles are needed for the
review?
STEPS IN CONDUCTING A LITERATURE REVIEW  How many periodicals are needed for the
STEP 1: Define and delimit the topic review?
 It should be related to your research topic and problem.  How many theses and dissertations are needed
 You should have a clear and well-defined topic and problem before for the review?
starting the review.  How many government documents, policy
 The topic must not be too specific or too broad and the question should reports, online articles and conference papers or
be researchable so that it will not be difficult for you to find relevant proceedings are needed for the review?
literature.  Is there a minimum number of works to be
reviewed? (Usually, a review of 10 works is
STEP 2: Design your literature search enough for a beginner’s review of related
 You have to consider the type of resources that you will be reviewing, literature and 20 or more works for those who
the extent of the review, the time to be devoted to the review, the have experienced)
number of works to be reviewed, and the libraries where to find those Availability of  Are all the works related to your topic accessible
works. time to visit the for available in the school library?
 The researcher must also decide on the way how he or she will record different libraries  If there are works not available in the school
the relevant information from different sources. where the works library, where you can find them? Are they
to be reviewed accessible?
CONSIDERATIONS RELEVANT QUESTIONS THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED BY are available  Do you have access to other libraries?
THE TEACHER AND/OR STUDENT  Do you have enough time to visit the other
Types of Sources  What sources related to your topic are available libraries?
to be reviewed in the school library?  Do you have a schedule for visiting another
 Will the teacher allow you to find other sources libraries?
in other libraries? Format of  How will you record the relevant information
 Are the sources limited to a particular type? recording relevant from the sources that you will include in your
Extent of the  How extensive is the review? information from review?
Review  Does the review contain the major issues about different sources  Can you print, photocopy or scan the sources?
the topic? Are you allowed to do so?
 Does the review integrate and synthesize  How will you document the sources?
different research findings? STEP 3: Locate research reports
STEP 4: Take down notes 2. FALSIFICATION – manipulating by changing, omitting or adding data.
You must record the following: 3. PLAGIARISM – owning someone else’s work without giving appropriate
1. Complete details about the work credit.
2. Abstract of the study (for journal articles) a. CITATION PLAGIARISM – failure to cite the work of previous
3. Hypothesis of the study researchers who had published the same results, giving the
4. Methodology used in the study impression that the work is original.
5. Major findings, results and conclusion b. PLAGIARISM-FABRICATION – copying an unrelated figure from
6. Research design of the study an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new
7. Recommendations given by the author of the study publication.
8. Errors observed in the study c. SELF-PLAGIARISM – publishing the same results using different
9. Strengths and weaknesses of the literature in relation to your research titles in different journals; also occurs when one fails to cite
topic. one’s own work that is already published.
4. PHOTO MANIPULATION – image fraud by publishing photoshopped
STEP 5: Organize your notes images.
 After gathering all the sources needed for the literature review, you have 5. GHOSTWRITING – employment of ghostwriters to write publications.
to organize your note cards and develop a mental map on how you will 6. AUTHORSHIP MISCONDUCT – authors without substantial contributions
put together the information you have gathered. in the development of research studies and publications.
 One way is to group together sources that are related to a particular 7. BARE ASSERTION – making an unsubstantiated (unsupported) claim.
topic or theme.
 Also, you can make a literature map that will group together all works IMPORTANT POINTS
about a particular topic. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
 This section aims to present what has or has not been done on the
STEP 6: Write the Literature Review problem being investigated.
 Once you have organized your notes, it is now time to start writing the  It establishes the baseline data about the problem and provides a
literature review. general picture of the research topic.
 Writing the review needs organizing and good writing skills.  Literature and related studies should be presented in topical form
 Like an essay, it has three vital parts, namely THE INTRODUCTION, THE (topic) and not necessarily in chronological order.
BODY and THE CONCLUSION.  The following should be presented:
 When you write, always consider the purpose of the review. o Only research findings and statements which are related in
 The review is not simply a list of research reports with a summary of purpose, methods or findings to the present study should be
major findings. included in the review.
 A good review must be able to organize common research results o Clarify the interrelationships of the literature and studies
logically. reviewed and the present study
 It should discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the literature o Conflicting views of different authors and researchers should
reviewed in relation to the research. be linked together.
 The review must cite all the sources of information use. o The researcher should put together findings that are the same
 Use the appropriate citation format that you will use for your research to avoid duplication.
paper. o Link the review of related literature and related studies to the
theoretical/conceptual framework and hypothesis.
RESEARCH MISCONDUCTS o Acknowledge the source of the reviewed related literature and
1. FABRICATION – making up results and reporting them as one’s own studies using the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th
data. edition citation format.
o Reviewed related literature and studies should be used to
strengthen findings or interpretations in CHAPTER IV

SYNTHESIS OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES


 An explanation of how the reviewed related literature and studies
relate to the present study should be presented.
 It should mention the similarities and differences which were cited to
the present investigation.
CITATIONS (APA Style) E. Olidan (2016) maintains that…
1. GROUPS (readily identified through abbreviations) as authors. F. (Abunda, 2016, p.78)
EXAMPLE: National Institute of Mental Health G. One study by Manalo (2015) reveals…
(NIMH, 2003) H. The latest work by (Lee, 2015) asserts…
NIMH (2003) I. According to Abad et.al (2015), the context is…
2. GROUPS (no abbreviations) as authors J. One early work by (Castro, 2017) proves that…
EXAMPLE: University of Philippines (2005) K. Another study on the topic by (Torres, 2017) maintains that…
(University of Philippines, 2005) L. The latest study by (Gomez, 2018) reveals that…
3. UNKNOWN AUTHORS: cite by title M. A research study by (Rivera, 2017) explains that…..
TITLE OF BOOKS AND REPORTS ARE ITALICIZED AND UNDERLINED
EXAMPLE: (Practical Research 2, 2018) or USEFUL WEBSITES
(Practical Research 2, 2018) A. Google Scholar
B. Google Books
(Financial Literacy Manual, 2016) or C. Microsoft Academic
(Financial Literacy Manual, 2016) D. Worldwide Science
E. Science.gov
TITLES OF ARTICLES, CHAPTERS and WEB PAGES are in QUOTATION F. Wolfram Alpha
MARKS G. Refreek
EXAMPLE: (“www.googlescholar.com,” 2017) H. Educational Resources Information Center
(“Behavior Management,” 2010) I. iSeek
(“Facebook as a source of danger,” 2016) J. Virtual Learning Resource Center
(“Social Skills and Self-Efficacy for Exceptional Children,” 2014) K. Research Gate
4. ORGANIZATION AS AUTHOR L. BASE
 Write out the organization’s full name, the first time with any M. Infotopia
abbreviation in brackets. N. PubMed Central
O. Lewis Web
EXAMPLE: P. Findarticles.com
(Philippine Drug Enforcement Authority [PDEA], 2017) Q. INFOMINE
(Department of Education [DepEd], 2016) R. Internet History Sourcebooks
S. Internet Public Library
 Subsequent citations: Use Acronym T. Intuit
EXAMPLE: (PDEA, 2017) U. Librarians Internet Index
(DepEd, 2016) V. Project Gutenberg
5. If that a journal, capitalize all major words in journal titles W. Research Guide for Students
EXAMPLES: (Journal on Learning Disabilities, 2018) X. Academia.edu
(Reader’s Digest, 2017) Y. Project Championz
6. Authors (Citation or In-Text Citation) Z. Gen.Lib.Rus.ec
EXAMPLES: AA. Researchromatic
A. (Lopena, 2016) (Olivarez, 2017) BB. saber.worldbank.org
B. (Cortez, Mabeza, Brado, 2016, pp. 120-130) CC. Openknowledge.worldbank.org
C. (Ligos et.al., 2016) DD. eric.ed.gov
D. According to Flores (2017), he stated…… EE. ideas.repec.org
FF. apa.org/psyarticles involvement in their academic activities to attain the higher level of
GG. data.gov.ph academic success (Barnard, 2004). According to Krashen (2005),
HH. Philippine elib students whose parents are educated score higher on standardized tests
II. Tech 100 than those whose parents were not educated. Educated parents can
better communicate with their children regarding the school work,
JJ. Citation Machine
activities and the information being taught at school (Cruz, 2015).

EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the Teachers’ teaching experience also contributes to pupils’
performance. It is also a fact that older teachers are said to be more
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019) dedicated and devoted to the service. By virtue of their length of time
CHAPTER II and stay in the teaching service, they acquire more experiences.
Another contributor variable is the school related factors that could give
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES great influence in the academic performance of pupils like the books and
school’s facilities. Public schools often experience lack of books,
In this chapter, researchers will introduce the collected classrooms, and chairs which is one of the reasons, it is difficult to
information about the effects of the editor's handbook to the academic promote more learning. The national allocation given to education yearly
performance of students. This literature analysis includes articles, is increasing; however, it appears insufficient or perhaps just
journals and thesis that explain how the editor's handbook will affect mismanaged.
the student's academic performance. It also gives the relation of other
printed text learning materials to the academic performance of students. According to Acosta (2002), she attempted to discover the
teachers profile, competencies and students’ academic achievement in
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE selected public schools in Bulacan. Based on her findings, she concluded
that the low academic achievement of students despite the perceived
The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority for
high level of competency of their teachers implies that the latter have
educator, trainers, and researchers who have long been interested in
not been effective in attaining their objectives. Bernardo’s paper (2000),
exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of
about the problem of learning, linked the problems of student’s
learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect
achievement, of teaching and poor teaching practices. He believes that
students’ quality of academic achievement. These factors may be
education in the Philippines is not designed in ways that are suited to
termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and teacher
how students and teachers can best develop their skills. He also
factors (Crosnoe et. al, 2004).
presumed that poor quality of inputs to the learning process yield poor
Unfortunately, defining and measuring the quality of education quality outputs, which explains the poor achievement.
is not a simple issue and the complexity of this process increases due to
Additionally to Alexander and Singer (2017) from their review of
the changing values of quality attributes associated with the different
research done since 1992, they found that students were able to better
stakeholders’ view point (Blevins, 2009; Parri, 2006). The Department
comprehend information in print for texts that were more than a page
of Education (2002), is taking into consideration the basic concepts and
in length. This appears to be related to the disruptive effect that
philosophies of learning vis-à-vis the need for the truly preparing its
scrolling has on comprehension. They were also surprised to learn that
students for the complex and global world of work. About the factors
few researchers tested different levels of comprehension or documented
that affect the learning and the performance. These factors may be
reading time in their studies of printed and digital texts. To explore these
termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and teacher
patterns further, they conducted three studies that explored college
factors (Crosnoe et. al, 2004).
students' ability to comprehend information on paper and from screens.
Parental education and family socioeconomic status level have Students first rated their medium preferences. After reading two
positive correlations with the student’s quality of achievement (Jeynes, passages, one online and one in print, these students then completed
2002). Home environment which affects the academic performance of three tasks: Describe the main idea of the texts, list key points covered
students is another factor. Educated parents can provide such an in the readings and provide any other relevant content they could recall.
environment that suits best for academic success of their children. The When they were done, we asked them to judge their comprehension
academic performance of students greatly depends upon the parental performance.
A study conducted by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & reference to comparison with others rather than in relation to personal
American Life Library Services (2012), a survey of 2,252 people age 16 improvement (Marsh & Craven, 2002).
and older found that 81 percent of parents believe it is “very important”
that their child read print books, citing the importance of print’s unique Likewise, Christenson et. al., (2012) stated that for more than
sensory and tactile experience.”. The tangibility of traditional print also two decades, the concept of student engagement has grown from simple
provides a stronger emotional impact, allowing readers to interpret and attention in class to a construct comprised of cognitive, emotional, and
internalize text through their own experiences and beliefs. Jabr F. behavioral components that embody and further develop motivation for
(2015) said that print text allows readers to mentally map information learning. Similarly, the goals of student engagement have evolved from
they read in relation to other information or ‘landmarks’ (e.g., a chapter, dropout prevention to improved outcomes for lifelong learning. This
the left or right page, near the top or bottom of the page). Spatial maps robust expansion has led to numerous lines of research across
have been shown to improve learning, retention and comprehension disciplines and are brought together clearly and comprehensively in the
overall. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. The Handbook guides
readers through the field’s rich history, sorts out its component
A New Norwegian study of 10th graders (n.d), confirms that constructs, and identifies knowledge gaps to be filled by future research.
reading texts in print versus on a computer screen is better for some Grounding data in real-world learning situations, contributors analyze
aspects of comprehension. They randomly divided 72 of their 10th grade indicators and facilitators of student engagement, link engagement to
teens into two groups. Both were given two texts, a fiction piece and a motivation, and gauge the impact of family, peers, and teachers on
factual piece. One group was asked to read the two texts as PDF files engagement in elementary and secondary grades. Findings on the
on standard computer screens, the other read the texts on paper. The effectiveness of classroom interventions are discussed in detail. And
pupils’ individual reading skills and vocabularies had been charted because assessing engagement is still a relatively new endeavor,
beforehand, to make allowances for these variations. The results clearly chapters on measurement methods and issues round out
demonstrated that those who had read on computer screens had
understood less than those who read on paper. Perhaps surprisingly, REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
this disparity was encountered with both the fiction and the factual Seemingly in spite of the assertions of Wandersee (1988) that
prose. (Christensen, 2013) reading text materials leads to better grades, it has been shown that
To Hilton and Laman (2012), they compared the performance of there has been a decline in the rate of reading of texts by students
690 students using an open textbook in an introductory psychology class (Burchfield & Sappington, 2000). Active reading strategies help students
to the performance of 370 students who used a traditional textbook in identify what information is important, think about and assimilate
a previous semester. They concluded that students who used the open information, and facilitates review of materials during activities like
textbook achieved better grades in the course, had a lower withdrawal studying, organizing a term paper, discussing readings in class, and
rate, and scored better on the final examination. reviewing for exams. Print-based texts are “well suited to student
needs” because highlighting and annotating can be performed right on
Moreover, Feldstein et al. (2012) found that students in courses the paper. (Demski, 2010, p. 3; Fisher and Harris, 1973; Wesley, 2012)
using open textbooks typically had higher grades and lower failure and
withdrawal rates than those in courses with traditional textbooks. A researcher at the University of Washington has shown that
However, they did note significant limitations to their study suggesting writing by hand, as in note-taking, activates a much larger area of the
that they provided only interesting data to be more rigorously pursued brain than keyboarding --including regions used for thinking, language,
in the future. and working memory. (Bounds, 2010). A creative and pragmatic
education involves the habit of personal investigation. The act of
These practices, collectively referred to in the teacher personal investigation requires self-study to be followed by self-thinking
expectancy literature as high-differentiating practices, include providing and analysis. Self-study, otherwise referred to as reading at one’s own
more emotional support, choice, praise, response opportunities, and accord, requires a habit, which is known as reading habit. Reading
special privileges to high achievers and more criticism and direction to makes way for a better understanding of one’s own experiences and it
low achievers; frequent classroom reminders of the importance of not can be an exciting voyage to self-discovery. “Reading habit is best
making mistakes and of earning good grades; more frequent and more formed at a young impressionable age in school, but once formed it can
public performance feedback (Brophy et. al., 1987), and grading in last one’s life time (Green, 2001).
According to Palani (2012), it is of the opinion that, effective setting. The utility of these studies lies in the need to undertake
reading is important avenue of effective learning and reading is corrective measures that improve the academic performance of
interrelated with the total educational process and hence, educational graduate students.
success requires successful reading habit. He believes reading is the
identification of the symbols and the association of appropriate meaning As cited by Hamid (2013), it is generally assumed that the
with them. It requires identification and comprehension. Many studies students who showed better or higher performance in the starting
such as Mangen, Walgermo and Brønnick (2013) suggest that the ability classes of their studies also performed better in future academic years
to identify your passage through a text in a tactile way is important to at degree level. Everyone can be surprised with this assumption if it
the learning. So too, is the ability to easily navigate through the text in could be proved scientifically. From the last two decades it has been
a non-linear fashion. The opportunity to quickly move back and forward noticed significantly that there is great addition in research literature
whole pages and chapters at a time is considered by many as invaluable and review material relating to indicators of academic achievement with
in placing the learnings of any particular passage within the context of much emphasis on this dialogue, whether traditional achievement
the overall text. measures of academic performance are best determinants of future
academic gain at university or higher level or innovative measures.
Similarly, Lewis and Hareland (2015) defines that the need for However, it is also observed that many of the researchers are not agree
instructional materials came with extensive development since 1990. with this view point or statement. Reddy and Talcott (2006) looks
This is due to the social and economic change which made new demands disagree with these assumptions that future academic gains are resolute
on educational thinking and population shortage and need for greater by preceding performance. In their research on the relationship between
efficiency. In social studies which involve the creation of social previous academic performance and subsequent achievement at
awareness just like in other areas of instructions, instructional materials university level, they found that students learning or studying at
are needed due to the situation. It is prominent to note that, graduate level and the score secured did not predict any academic
instructional materials are not teacher’s aids but learners. This is achievement at university level.
because they aid in the area of learning than teaching. However, the
important fact to note is that, these materials do not or cannot in SYNTHESIS OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES
themselves achieve the desired or attributed values. Rather, it depends The quality of students’ learning should be the priority of the
on what the teacher makes out of them through their intelligent handling teachers. To do this, students and teachers should interact. Students should
of the necessary materials in the domain of teaching and learning of
do his task on learning and studying the subject and teachers should teach
social studies. Edger (2015), opined that instructional materials such as
their topics well to improve the academic performance of his or her students.
films, pictures, maps, charts and pictorials make learning and
Using editor’s handbook may greatly affect the student’s academic
understanding more effective, saves time, and powers communication.
performance. They may engage in learning and they will be motivated well.
Many recent studies were carried out to explore factors that It may guide the student’s to learn on his subjects. This handbook may help
affecting university student’s academic performance. According to the teachers on what activities to be implemented and done by his or her
Hanson (2000), he reported that student performance is affected students.
by different factors such as learning abilities, gender and race.
(NOTE THAT YOUR SYNTHESIS SHOULD BE THE SUMMARY OF WHAT HAVE
Similarly, Simmons, et al. (2005) concluded that family income
YOU LEARNED WHEN YOU SEARCHED FOR THE RRL AND RRS)
level, attending full time, receiving grant aid and completing advanced
level classes in high school having statistically significant effects on (YOU DON’T NEED TO COPY THE PARAGRAPH HERE. AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,
college persistence among first generation college students. IT SHOULD HIGHLIGHT THE MOST IMPORTANT MAIN IDEA THAT YOU HAVE
According to Zubai (2013) lot of studies have been conducted in LEARNED ON YOUR RRL AND RRS WHILE YOU SEARCH INFORMATIONS
the area of students achievement and these studies identify and analyze RELATED TO YOUR STUDY)
the number of factors that affect the academic performance of the
student at school, college and even at university level. Their finding (THE SUMMARY SHOULD BE COMPLETE, INFORMATIVE, CONCISE AND IT
identify students’ effort, previous schooling, parent’s educational SHOULD EXPLAIN THE ENTIRE RRL AND RRS)
background, family income, self-motivation of students, age of student,
learning preferences and entry qualification of students as important
factors that have effect on student’s academic performance in different
TRANSITIONAL DEVICES – also, additionally, again, similarly, a similar motorcycles. The new law is aptly called "double-plate" by
opinion, however, conversely, on the other hand, nevertheless, a motorcycle riders because it requires installing license plates in
contrasting opinion, a different approach, etc. front and at the back of the bikes. Duterte said he would convince
the LTO to instead scrap requiring the plates in front, but instead
ACTIVE VERBS – analyze, argues, assess, assert, assume, claim, increase the size of the rear license plates. Increase the size of
compare, contrast, conclude, criticize, debate, defend, define, the plate number by one-fourth. In a speech before the National
demonstrate, discuss, distinguish, differentiate, evaluate, examine, Federation of the Motorcycle Clubs of the Philippines (NFMCP) in
emphasize, expand, explain, exhibit, identify, illustrate, imply, Iloilo City, the President also said he would negotiate for lower
indicate, judge, justify, narrate, outline, persuade, propose, question, fines for violations by motorcycle riders. He added that he would
also talk to Senator Richard Gordon, author of Republic Act No.
relate to, report, review, suggest, summarize.
11235 or the Motorcycle Crime Prevention Act, about his
suggestions. He also mentioned that in other countries,There are
no plate numbers in front, only at the back. Duterte signed RA
11235 on March 8. (Rappler, 2018)
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken In a report written by GMA News (2019), President
from, Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the Rodrigo Duterte has signed a law seeking to prevent the use of
Criminal Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies) 2019- motorcycles in crimes by mandating bigger plates and other
2020 identification marks. Duterte signed Republic Act 11235 a copy
of which was released by Malacañang to the media. The plate
CHAPTER II numbers should be big enough to be readable from a distance of
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES at least 15 meters from the motorcycle. The readable number
plates must be displayed in both the front and back sides of the
In this chapter, researchers will introduce the collected motorcycle and should be made of suitable and durable material
information about the effects having larger plate numbers to the as determined by the LTO. Motorcycle owners with number of
criminal identification of law enforcing agencies. This literature plates not in conformity with the provisions of the law must renew
analysis includes articles, journals and thesis that explain how their registration and apply for the required readable number
larger plate numbers will affect criminal identification. Transport groups and had opposed the use of bigger license
plates for motorcycles, arguing it may endanger the rider and the
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE pedestrians.
The House approved the unnumbered substitute bill, The House gave preliminary approval to a bill that sets up
which seeks to curb crimes committed on motorcycles by Texas to be the latest state to allow digital car license plates.
requiring them to have larger license plates. The unnumbered bill House Bill 1711, filed by Rep. Chris Paddie, R-Marshall, would let
will grant the Land Transportation Office (LTO) the power to people have the option for a digital plate on the rear of cars. This
decide the size of the plates, but the minimum requirement for it is about giving consumers more opportunity and flexibility so it
to be "readable" is that the font size should be read from at least adds some features that I think will not only be beneficial to
12 meters away. The bill also introduced a provision that will consumers but would be beneficial to law enforcement as well,
review and adjust penalty fees every 5 years. A motorcycle rider Paddie said. Digital license plates, currently produced only by the
group earlier voiced out their concern over bigger license plates, San Francisco Bay Area-based startup Reviver, are customizable
saying that it may compromise pedestrian safety (Rappler, 2018) plates that include features for parking permits, toll collection and
President Rodrigo Duterte said on April 6, that he would GPS tracking. He added that the Sheriffs' Association of Texas is
ask the Land Transportation Office (LTO) to suspend the also neutral on the bill, but Collin County Sheriff Jim Skinner, who
implementation of the law imposing two bigger license plates for leads the association's legislative committee, said the group
opposes it on the basis that license plate readers cannot read submits over-speeding may fluctuate when a vehicle goes from
digital license plates, according to his spokesman. (Statesman, the primary camera and will be applied Sobel Edge Identification
2019) Strategy to recognize the vehicle and a Binarization calculation
In an article by Top Gear Philippines (2019), President to remove its tag; and will be put away to the brief memory.
Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11235, otherwise known Another extraction of plate number of a vehicle will occur in the
as the Motorcycle Crime Prevention Act, into law. Under this law, wake of passing the subsequent camera. This time, the extricated
the Philippine Land Transportation Office (LTO) will require tag from the subsequent camera will search for a match to the
motorbikes to come equipped with larger license plates on both put away information from the transitory memory. On the off
the front and the rear of the vehicle, visible from at least 15 chance that match is discovered, at that point the speed of a
meters away. Motorcycle license plates will also be color-coded vehicle will be resolved through processing the separation
according to region. Riding without a license plate or a plate that between two cameras and the time that vehicle takes to pass the
conforms to the law’s regulations will result in a fine of no less camera. What's more, the framework model will require an
than P50,000 and no more than P100,000. On top of that, the advanced camera with a casing pace of 30 edges for every
motorcycle will be seized by the apprehending authorities and subsequent which will be utilized in chronicle the recreation of
surrendered to the Philippine National Police. running vehicles and the advocates will utilize Visual C++ and
In another article written by Top Gear Philippines (2018), OpenCV applications in building up the framework. (Senoy and
According to (Top gear, 2018) the Land Transportation Office Subrader, 2013)
(LTO) inaugurated its very own plate-making plant at its Sunstar (2019) on the other hand wrote that President
headquarters in Quezon City. The ceremony saw the inauguration Duterte has signed into a law measure requiring bigger, readable,
of seven manual embossing machines, which at full force can and color-coded number plates specifically for motorcycles, to
produce up to 22,000 plates per day. The machines are part of prevent the commission of using motorcycles. Duterte signed
the contract of Trojan Computer Forms Manufacturing Republic Act (RA) 11235, mandating the Land Transportation
Corporation and J.H. Tonnjes E.A.S.T. GmbH & Co KG Joint Office to determine the font style and size of bigger, readable and
Venture, who won the contract to produce our country's license color-coded number plates for motorcycles. Also the owner who
plates and to address the existing backlog. participated in the commission of a crime using motorcycle
The Supreme Court has declared the "use of constituting a grave felony under the Revised Penal Code will be
appropriation" in the 2014 national budget for the Motor Vehicle punished by reclusion temporal to reclusion perpetua. And If the
License Plate Standardization Program as constitutional, lifting number plate is lost, damaged, or stolen, the motorcycle owner
the TRO which has been in effect since June 14, 2016. The TRO should immediately report to the LTO and the PNP and request a
covered 300,000 license plates for cars and 400,000 for replacement. Failure to report will subject the owner to a fine of
motorcycles, the report says. And the Motor Vehicle License Plate up to P50,000. And the person guilty of erasing, tampering,
Standardization Program began in July 2013 and will run until altering, forging, imitating, covering, or concealing a number
June of this year. A budget of P3.8 billion was allocated to it for plate will have to pay a fine of up to P100,000. The law also
the "procurement of license plates for 5,236,439 motor vehicles creates a congressional oversight committee that will review and
and 9,968,017 for motorcycles nationwide," the report continues. assess the implementation of Motorcycle Crime Prevention Act.
In this investigation the defenders introduced the The oversight panel will be composed of five members each from
execution of Tag Extraction Application for identifying Over- the Senate and the House of Representatives. It will be co-
Speeding Vehicles with the joined utilization of Sobel Edge chaired by chairpersons of Senate justice committee and House
Discovery Strategy and Binarization Calculation. The reason for transportation committee. An initial funding of P150 million for
this examination was to distinguish effectively the speed violators the implementation of RA 11235 will be sourced from the General
by removing the vehicle's tag. The procedure on how the Appropriations Act.
framework will secure the tag of a vehicle and decides whether it
In Latin America have implemented policies to restrict the The treatment involved targeted police patrols using a "sweep
use of private cars by prohibiting those with a license plate and sit" approach with license plate readers in these hot spots,
number ending on some digit, which vary each day, from also applying the Koper Curve timing principle the results Our
circulating on that weekday. These policies have been formulated findings indicate that, when small numbers of LPR patrols are
as a “second best” option to congestion charging as the latter used in crime hot spots in the way we have tested them here,
policy has been deemed politically unfeasible so far. The idea they do not seem to generate either a general or offense-specific
underlying license plate restrictions is very simple: by not deterrent effect. While we did not find significant findings of this
allowing a proportion of the total number of vehicles to circulate intervention, a number of limitations and caveats to this study
on a given day, congestion levels and other externalities are must be considered in conjunction with these findings. The
expected to decrease, improving the quality of life for people. authors suggest how already acquired LPRs might be used in
Based on a simple microeconomic analysis, supported by a ways that might increase their effectiveness in crime hot spots.
review of the literature and by evidence collected in several cities (Lum, Hibdon, Cave, et al, 2011)
where these restrictions have been implemented, it is concluded The records in the database of PsychINFO (2016) shows
that the policy is apparently effective only in the very short-term, that there are 3 major areas of visual perception which are
but ultimately it fails to achieve its objectives and usually leads sensory organization, information processing, and spatial
to a worse outcome. (Dyna, 2014) organization.
On the other hand, Di Buerto (2017) states that textural
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES features that corresponds to human visual perception are very
In a paper published by Nobles (2010), the Plate Number useful for optimum feature selection and texture analyzer design.
Recognition System is a stand-alone system that is beneficial in They approximate six basic textural features in computational
traffic law and policy enforcement. Through this, ‘beating the red form which are coarseness, contract, directionality, line-likeness,
light’ violators are identified electronically. This ensures minimal, regularity, and roughness.
if not zero, contact between enforcers and erring motorists. Its This is an endeavor to apply the ideas and methods of data
implication is it lessens the chance for corruption to occur. Given hypothesis to the issues of visual observation. The enlightening
that the input image is a large-scaled one, it is but inevitable that idea of excess comes in for a decent arrangement of
there will be instances when locating the correct plate number consideration with respect to the comprehension of wonders of
would need more than two, maybe three guesses. And that’s visual observation, and an exhibition of its temperament around
where the use of 10 plate number candidates comes in handy. there is displayed. The investigation utilized by the creator
The wide set of training patterns for both the letters and digits is likewise allows him to display instructive and measurable
also a factor as to how the Plate Number Recognition System portrayals of a decent numerous old style ideas from the zone of
fared. Although the system has proven to recognize plate vision, including the truly most significant Gestalt perceptual
numbers, it still has its limitations in that the performance of the principles. (PsycINFO Database Record, 2016)
system is largely dependent on the quality of the image captured Based on Huang, Chen and Chang (2009), license plate
by the camera. If the picture has poor lighting or greatly blurred, recognition techniques have been successfully applied to the
expect the system to fare low on the accuracy. management of stolen cars, management of parking lots and
This randomized controlled experiment tests whether traffic flow control. Their study proposes a license plate-based
license plate readers (LPR) deter crime generally, and automobile strategy for checking the annual inspection status of motorcycles
crime more specifically in crime hot spots. The limited from images taken along the roadside and at designated
intervention tested here reflects one current likely use of LPR at inspection stations.
the time of this publication. We use a place-based block Then, Kozitsky, Shreve, and Bulan (2018) tells us that
randomized experiment. Our subjects were 30 hot spots in two there are Methods, systems, and processor-readable media for
jurisdictions 15 which were assigned to experimental conditions. the detection and classification of license plates. A license plate
region can then be located in the captured image of the vehicle This paper exhibits a morphology-based strategy for
by extracting a set of candidate regions from the image utilizing identifying tags from jumbled pictures. The proposed framework
a weak classifier. comprises of three noteworthy parts. At the initial, a morphology-
Alves (2016) conducted a study that concludes that license based technique is proposed to separate significant
plate recognition and image review system and processes are differentiation includes as advisers for pursuit the ideal tags. The
described. The system includes grouping of images that are difference highlight is strong to lighting changes and invariant to
determined to be of the same vehicle, using an image encoded a few changes like scaling, interpretation, and slanting. At that
database such that verification of a license plate read is done point, a recuperation calculation is connected for reproducing a
through comparison of images of the actual vehicle to images tag if the plate is divided into a few sections. The last advance is
from the encoded database and testing of the accuracy of a to do tag confirmation. The morphology based strategy can
manual review process by interspersing previously identified altogether decrease the quantity of competitors extricated from
images with real images being reviewed in a batch process. the jumbled pictures and accordingly accelerates the consequent
Meanwhile, Tian (2013) states that as a part of character plate acknowledgment. Under the trial database, 128 models got
recognition, character segmentation (CS) plays an important role from 130 pictures were effectively distinguished. The normal
in automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system. In recent precision of tag location is 98%. Trial results demonstrate that
years, lots of methods on CS have been proposed and they work the proposed technique improves the cutting edge work as far as
well on their own datasets. However, it is still challenging to viability and heartiness of tag location. (Liu and Luo, 2010)
segment characters from images with frame, declination and In this paper of Yao and Dani (2017), a hypothesis of two-
quality degradation because of noises and overlapped, connected dimensional minute invariants for planar geometric figures is
or fragmented characters. In this paper, we propose a two-stage introduced. A basic hypothesis is set up to relate such minute
segmentation method for Chinese license plate. At the first stage, invariants to the outstanding arithmetical invariants. Complete
a novel template matching method is presented using a harrow- frameworks of minute invariants under interpretation, likeness
shaped filter (HSF) bank and minimum response. It finds the and symmetrical changes are inferred. Some minute invariants
locations of the segmenting points between characters roughly. under general two-dimensional straight changes are additionally
Then, the accurate segmentations between connected or included. Both hypothetical definition and pragmatic models of
overlapped characters are adjusted by a variant of A∗ path- visual example acknowledgment dependent on these minute
finding algorithm at the second stage. Experiments on a invariants are talked about. A straightforward reproduction
challenging dataset including 2334 images demonstrate the program together with its presentation are likewise displayed. It
effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. is demonstrated that acknowledgment of geometrical examples
According to Carrera (2009), this work presents a new and in sequential order characters freely of position, size and
method for license plate detection using neural networks in gray direction can be cultivated. It is likewise demonstrated that
scale images. The method proposes a multiple classification speculation is conceivable to incorporate invariance with parallel
strategy based on a Multilayer Perceptron. It consists of many projection.
classifications of one image using several shifted window grids. If The detection and recognition of a vehicle License Plate
a pixel belongs or not to the license plate is determined by the (LP) is a key technique in most of the applications related to
most frequent answer given by the different classifications. The vehicle movement. Moreover, it is a quite popular and active
result becomes more precise by means of morphological research topic in the field of image processing. Different
operations and heuristic rules related to shape and size of the methods, techniques and algorithms have been developed to
license plate zone. The whole method detects the license plates detect and recognize LPs. Nevertheless, due to the LP
precisely with a low error rate under non-controlled characteristics that vary from one country to another in terms of
environments. numbering system, colors, language of characters, fonts and
size. Further investigations are still needed in this field in order
to make the detection and recognition process very efficient. License plate (LP) detection and recognition approaches
Although this domain has been covered by a lot of researchers, are evaluated on a small and usually unrepresentative dataset
various existing systems operate under well-defined and since there are no publicly available large diverse datasets. They
controlled conditions. For example, some frameworks require said that they introduce CCPD, a large and comprehensive LP
complicated hardware to make good quality images or capture dataset. All images are taken manually by workers of a roadside
images from vehicles with very slow speed. For this reason the parking management company and are annotated carefully. To
detection and recognition of LPs in different conditions and under their best knowledge, CCPD is the largest publicly available LP
several climatic variations remains always difficult to realize with dataset to date with over 250k unique car images, and the only
good results. For that, we present in this paper an automatic one provides vertices location annotations. With CCPD, we
system for LP detection and recognition based on deep learning present a novel network model which can predict the bounding
approach, which is divided into three parts: detection, box and recognize the corresponding LP number simultaneously
segmentation, and character recognition. To detect an LP, many with high speed and accuracy. European Conference on
pretreatment steps should be made before applying the first Computer Vision (ECCV, 2018)
Convolution Neural Network (CNN) model for the classification of Based on Yang, Li, and Duan (2018), Automatic license
plates/non-plates. The performance of the suggested system is plate recognition or ALPR is the extraction of vehicle license plate
tested on two datasets which contain images under various information from an image or a sequence of images. The
conditions, such as poor picture quality, image perspective extracted information can be used with or without a database in
distortion, bright day, night and complex environment. A great many applications, such as electronic payment systems, and
percentage of the results show the accuracy of the suggested freeway and arterial monitoring systems for traffic surveillance.
system (Selmi, Halima, and Alimi, 2017). The quality of the acquired images is a major factor in the success
According to European Conference on Computer Vision of the ALPR. ALPR as a real-life application has to quickly and
(2018), the large number of both commercial and academic successfully process license plates under different environmental
methods for Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR), most conditions, such as indoors, outdoors, day or night time. It should
existing approaches are focused on a specific license plate (LP) also be generalized to process license plates from different
region (e.g. European, US, Brazilian, Taiwanese, etc.), and nations, provinces, or states. These plates usually contain
frequently explore datasets containing approximately frontal different colors, are written in different languages, and use
images. This work proposes a complete ALPR system focusing on different fonts; some plates may have a single color background
unconstrained capture scenarios, where the LP might be and others have background images. The license plates can be
considerably distorted due to oblique views. Their main partially occluded by dirt, lighting, and towing accessories on the
contribution is the introduction of a novel Convolutional Neural car.
Network (CNN) capable of detecting and rectifying multiple A license plate recognition system is an automatic system
distorted license plates in a single image, which are fed to an that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) method to obtain the final an image device. Such system is useful in many fields and places:
result. As an additional contribution, we also present manual parking lots, private and public entrances, border control, theft
annotations for a challenging set of LP images from different and vandalism control. In our paper we designed such a system.
regions and acquisition conditions. Our experimental results First we separated each digit from the license plate using image
indicate that the proposed method, without any parameter processing tools. Then we built a classifier, using a training set
adaptation or fine tuning for a specific scenario, performs based on digits extracted from approximately 350 license plates.
similarly to state-of-the-art commercial systems in traditional Once a license plate is detected, its digits are recognized,
scenarios, and outperforms both academic and commercial displayed on the User Interface or checked against a database.
approaches in challenging ones. The focus is on the design of algorithms used for extracting the
license plate from an image of the vehicle, isolating the
characters of the plate and identifying characters. Our approach network of winnows classifier and then filters them using a strong
is considered to identify vehicle through recognizing of its license convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier in the second
plate using two different types of neural networks: Hopfield and stage. Images that fail a primary confidence test for plate
the multi-layer perceptron "MLP". A comparative result has localization are further classified to identify localization failures,
shown the ability to recognize the license plate successfully. The such as LP not present, LP too bright, LP too dark, or no vehicle
experimental results have shown the ability of Hopfield Network found. In the localized plate region, we perform segmentation
to recognize correctly characters on license plate more than MLP and optical character recognition (OCR) jointly by using a
architecture which has a weaker performance. A negative point probabilistic inference method based on hidden Markov models
in the case of Hopfield is the processing time. (Akoum et.al., (HMMs) where the most likely code sequence is determined by
2010). applying the Viterbi algorithm. In order to reduce manual
Meanwhile, on the study of Liu, Zhou, and He (2016), a annotation required for training classifiers for OCR, we propose
new algorithm for vehicle license plate identification is proposed, the use of either artificially generated synthetic LP images or
on the basis of a novel adaptive image segmentation technique character samples acquired by trained ALPR systems already
and connected component analysis in conjunction with a operating in other sites. The performance gap due to differences
character recognition neural network. The algorithm was tested between training and target domain distributions is minimized
with 1334 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different using an unsupervised domain adaptation. We evaluated the
backgrounds and ambient illumination. The camera focused in performance of our proposed methods on LP images captured in
the plate, while the angle of view and the distance from the several US jurisdictions under realistic conditions.
vehicle varied according to the experimental setup. The license
plates properly segmented were 1287 over 1334 input images SYNTHESIS OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED
(96.5%). The PNN is trained to identify alphanumeric characters STUDIES
from car license plates based on data obtained from algorithmic
image processing. The Review of Related Literature of this research
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems encompasses various topics related to license plates and its visual
(2017) states that automated license plate recognition (ALPR) is detection, whether it may be in foreign lands or in our own nation.
essential in several roadway imaging applications. For ALPR The first part of this chapter are those of related journals,
systems deployed in the United States, variation between articles, and books, aptly called the Review of Related Literature.
jurisdictions on character width, spacing, and the existence of For foreign ones, they are mostly concerned with using Closed-
noise sources (e.g., heavy shadows, non-uniform illumination, Circuit Television to monitor and identify license plates. Those
various optical geometries, poor contrast, and so on) present in being proposals for their nations. On the other hand, the local
LP images makes it challenging for the recognition accuracy and ones are primarily focused on the recently ratified Republic Act
scalability of ALPR systems. Font and plate-layout variation 11235, “AN ACT PREVENTING AND PENALIZING THE USE OF
across jurisdictions further adds to the difficulty of proper MOTORCYCLES IN THE COMMISSION OF CRIMES BY REQUIRING
character segmentation and increases the level of manual BIGGER, READABLE AND COLOR-CODED NUMBER PLATES AND
annotation required for training classifiers for each state, which IDENTIFICATION MARKS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.”
can result in excessive operational overhead and cost. In this The second part of this chapter, and the last, is the Review
paper, they propose of a new ALPR workflow that includes novel of Related Studies, which is consisted of theses and papers
methods for segmentation- and annotation-free ALPR, as well as related to the research title. These include license plate
improved plate localization and automation for failure identification through CCTV and direct visual contact, geometry
identification. They proposed of workflow begins with localizing and angular contacts of the eye to certain objects, and others.
the LP region in the captured image using a two-stage approach
that first extracts a set of candidate regions using a weak sparse
RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY B. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
RESEARCH DESIGN Objective theories as well as hypotheses are tested through the
 It refers to the action plan and research procedures developed by the examination of the relationship among concepts or variables,
researcher in order to successfully answer the research problem. which can be measured through the use of research
 In developing the research design, the researcher must consider the instruments like STATISTICAL PROCEDURES.
research questions and objectives, the readers, the geographical The measures are standardized and systematically created
location and distribution of the population under study, and other before the collection of data.
factors like his or her personal experiences, time and financial resources. The data are in the numerical form and based on the precise
 One important part of the research design is the methodology that the measurement.
researcher will use for data collection and analysis. The design also The theories are usually causal; the researcher follows the
includes the choice of the research strategy or inquiry to be used in the deductive approach for testing in which inquiry starts from
research. abstract ideas and general principles toward more concrete,
 It explores and understands a topic or problem through a process that empirical and verifiable evidence.
involves questions and procedures, data collection, data analysis and To analyze data, one uses statistics, tables and charts. The
data interpretation. statistics are used to prove or disprove the research hypothesis.
 In choosing an appropriate research design, researcher needs to decide FACTORS QUESTIONS
on the methodology or what the strategies of inquiry are. He or she Research questions and objectives -What is the research problem?
should determine the type of methods (qualitative, quantitative or -What is the purpose of the study?
mixed) which will provide direction and procedures to the study. -What are the objectives of the
research?
TWO MAJOR TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN Readers -Who are the intended readers of the
study?
A. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
-Who are the beneficiaries of the
The researcher is immersed in the data collected.
study?
The concepts are in the form of THEMES, IDEAS, CONCLUSIONS Geographical location and -Where is the geographical focus of
and CLASSIFICATIONS. distribution of the population under the study?
The measures are specific to a particular setting or to the study -Where is the study to be
researcher. undertaken?
The data gathered from primary sources like PERSONAL -Who are the people or groups of
OBSERVATIONS and INTERVIEWS are in the form of words and people under study?
images. Personal experiences, time and -How do factors like personal
The theories can be causal or noncausal; a researcher follows financial resources experiences, time and financial
the inductive approach in which inquiry starts with concrete and resources affect the research process
empirical data and then moves toward the abstract or general and outcome?
ideas or principles. The methodology (qualitative, -Is the research qualitative or
The research procedures are very specific, and their replication quantitative or mixed methods) quantitative?
-What is the most appropriate
is RARE.
qualitative or quantitative research
To analyze data, the researcher extracts themes or conclusions
method that will be used in the
from evidence; he or she then organizes the data to produce a research? Why do you think so?
coherent and consistent research output.
PARTS OF A RESEARCH DESIGN 6. The research design must specify the time dimension of the study.
1. The researcher must clearly identify and state the purpose or objective 7. The research design must clearly discuss the data collection method or
of the research. research methodology to be used in the study.
a. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH – the goal of the researcher is to 8. The research design must explain the sampling method to be used in the
explore a new topic or problem because no one has researched research.
or written something about it. This research is conducted to
know more about the problem or issue and to provide solution. THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
b. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH – the goal of the researcher is to QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
provide a picture of the concepts or ideas about a topic or 1. SURVEY RESEARCH
problem. He or she describes the nature of variables used in the a. It provides a numerical description of trends, attitudes or
study. opinions of a population by studying a sample population.
c. EXPLANATORY RESEARCH – this research aims to explain the b. This strategy requires the use of questionnaires or structured
reasons and causes of a problem or issue. It explains the causes, interviews for collecting of data.
reasons, and sources of different social behavior, beliefs, c. A number of people or respondents are usually asked about
situations and events. their behavior, attitudes, beliefs and opinions on a particular
2. The researcher must identify the NATURE OF THE STUDY, which can be issue or problem, characteristics, expectations, self-
CAUSAL (aims to understand the cause of one or more problems) or classification and knowledge. They are asked with the same set
CORRELATIONAL (examines important variables related to the of questions.
problem. d. Survey researchers measure different variables and multiple
hypotheses. They adopt the deductive approach; they start with
CAUSAL STUDY a theoretical or an applied research question and ends with the
Does drinking soda cause diabetes? use of empirical (observed) data for analysis and interpretation.
Does population growth cause an increase in poverty rate e. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF A
among developing countries? SURVEY RESEARCH
i. What is the purpose or goal of the survey?
CORRELATIONAL STUDY ii. Why do you consider survey as the most appropriate
Are alcoholism and cancer related? data collection method for the study?
Do drug addiction, alcoholism and cigarette addiction cause iii. Will you conduct a cross-sectional survey with the data
cancer? If so, which of these contributes most to the variance in to be collected in a single point in time or a longitudinal
the dependent variable? survey with the data to be collected over time?
3. The researcher must discuss the extent of his or her interference iv. How will you collect the data? Is it by using self-
(intervention) or involvement in the study. administered questionnaires, by interviews, by
a. Did the researcher interfere with the variables in the study? structured record interviews or by structured
b. Did he or she adjust the variables to study the outcome or observation? Will it be web-based or an internet survey
impact of the intervention on the dependent variable? to be answered by respondents online?
c. Did he or she change any variable? v. What is the characteristic of the population or the
4. The researcher must explain the setting of the research. respondents of the survey?
5. The research design must explain the unit of analysis or the population
to be observed, measured, studied and analyzed.
Here are the steps that you can follow when conducting a TIPS IN CONSTRUCTING SURVEY QUESTIONS
survey research: TIPS EXAMPLE
STEP 1: Identify the hypothesis and survey format 1. Do not use jargon, very -Do you have a syota?
a. Propose a hypothesis. technical terms, slang and -Do you agree with the statement of
b. Decide on the form of survey. You can conduct it by mail, e- abbreviations in the MMDA?
mail, interview or telephone. questionnaires.
c. Draft the survey questionnaire. 2. Do not construct -Do you ALWAYS go to the gym?
d. Decide on the response categories. ambiguous, confusing and (This is ambiguous because ALWAYS
vague questions. can mean EVERYDAY, ONCE A WEEK
e. Lay out the survey questionnaire.
or EVERY OTHER DAY)
3. Do not use an emotional -Do you believe that the government
STEP 2: Plan and test the survey instrument
language. should impose a heavy punishment
a. Choose a method of recording your data. on cold-hearted and evil drug addicts
b. Do a pilot test of your survey instrument. and rapists who kill innocent and
poor young children?
STEP 3: Identify the target population and sample size 4. Do not construct two or -Does your company provide health
a. Decide who will be your target population. more questions that are benefits and 14th month pay?
b. Get a sampling frame (list of members of the population). joined together.
c. Decide on the sample size of the respondents. 5. Do not ask leading questions -Did you perform a nationalistic duty
d. Select the sample population. that make respondents for your country when you voted for
choose a particular response the administration party’s
STEP 4: Conduct the survey over another because of the presidential candidate?
a. Identify the respondents. way the questions are
constructed.
b. Conduct the survey or interview.
6. Do not ask questions that -Ten years ago, did your brother or
c. Carefully record the results.
are beyond the knowledge sister use Nokia cellphones?
and capability of the
STEP 5: Record the data respondents.
a. Encode the data on the computer. 7. Do not ask questions about -After marrying and eventually
b. Conduct a statistical analysis of the data. the respondent’s intention having children, will you send your
in the future. sons and/or daughter to public
STEP 6: Analyze the data results schools?
a. Discuss the research methods and findings in a research 8. Avoid asking double -Do you disagree with those who do
report. negative questions. not want to vote for the incumbent
b. Present the findings. mayor?
9. Avoid unbalanced response -Did you find the services offered by
answers to questionnaires. the government to be outstanding,
excellent, superior or good?
TYPES OF SURVEY QUESTIONS prejudicial or biased because the probability of case selection is
1. CLOSE-ENDED QUESTIONS (structured) – respondents answer this by mathematically determined. The researcher’s desire to prove a
choosing from a set of answers identified by the survey researcher. hypothesis as well as his or her interests has no effect on the
EXAMPLE: selection process.
a. Is the president of the Philippines doing an excellent, very good, d. Sampling and random assignment are part of the processes
good or poor job in your opinion? done in order to select cases that will be included in an
2. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS (unstructured) – they have the freedom to experimental study. The researcher must divide a group of cases
give any answer because there are no choices given. into two or more groups through random assignment. Then in
EXAMPLE: random sampling, the researcher selects a smaller subset from
a. What is your favorite primetime newscast program? a larger group of cases. Ideally, he or she does both the random
b. Who is your favorite presidential candidate? sampling and random assignment.
e. Random assignment is easy to do. The researcher starts by
SEVERAL QUESTIONS THAT A RESEARCHER MUST ADDRESS WHEN collecting cases or subjects – people who participate in the
EXPLAINING THE SURVEY RESEARCH AS A METHODOLOGY IN A study and upon whom the variables are measured and tested.
RESEARCH DESIGN They could be individual units or groups or organizations
a. Is the goal or objective of the survey clearly stated? depending on the research topic and problem. Then, the
b. Did you mention the reasons for choosing the method? researcher divides the cases into two or more groups through
c. Did you mention the nature of the survey? random assignment.
d. Did you mention the population and size of the survey
respondents? STEPS TO FOLLOW WHEN CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
e. How many people or respondents are part of the study? 1) Develop a hypothesis appropriate to the experimental research.
f. How were the respondents chosen? 2) Develop an experimental design that will test the hypothesis
g. What instruments will be used in the survey? that you propose.
h. What are the content areas discussed in the survey? 3) Decide how to introduce the treatment or create a situation
i. What is the time frame of the survey? that prompts the independent variable.
j. What are the variables of the study? 4) Develop a valid and reliable measure of the dependent variable.
k. How are the variables related to the research questions and to 5) Make an experimental setting and conduct a pilot test of the
the survey items? treatment and dependent variable.
6) Locate appropriate subjects.
2. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 7) Randomly assign subjects to groups.
a. One can determine if a particular form of intervention can 8) Gather data for the pretest measure of the dependent variable
influence a particular outcome. for all groups.
b. The researcher does something to one group and none to 9) Introduce the treatment to the experimental group only and
another group and then examines the differences between the monitor all groups.
outcomes. 10) Gather data for posttest measure of the dependent variable.
c. Random assignment is important in experimental research. It is 11) Debrief subjects by informing them of the true goal and
the method of assigning cases to groups for the purpose of objective of the experiment.
making comparisons. It aims to divide or segregate a collection 12) Examine data gathered and conduct comparisons between
of cases into two or more groups. The method is considered not different groups
PARTS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
Seven Important Parts
1) The treatment or the independent variable
2) The dependent variable
3) The pretest
4) The posttest
5) The experimental group
6) The control group
7) Random assignment.

The researcher creates a situation or introduces himself or herself into an


ongoing situation and makes modifications to the situation. Then, he or she
takes the following steps:
1) Identify the treatment or the stimulus that is the independent
variable or a combination of independent variables in the
experiment. Independent variables are measured by manipulating
the conditions or situation. The treatment or independent variable
should have an impact or create a specific reaction, feeling or
behavior.
2) Identify the dependent variables. These are end-results in
experimental research - the subject’s physical condition, social
behavior, attitude, feelings and beliefs that are altered as reaction
to the treatment. These can be measured through observation,
interviews or physiological responses.
3) Conduct a pretest and a posttest. The pretest is the measure of the
dependent variable before the use of the treatment. The posttest,
on the other hand, measures the dependent variable after the
introduction of the treatment in the experiment situation.
4) Develop two or more experimental groups so that you can
compare the results of the treatment to the subjects. An
experimental group receives the treatment or it is where the
treatment is made available. The control group refers to the group
who will not receive the treatment.
5) Conduct random assignment on the subject.
CHAPTER 3: (Research Design and Research Methodology) The preschool initially known as Cherub Learning Center
o Research Design was officially opened in 1986 with a modest enrollment of 17
o Research Locale kindergarten pupils. The Elementary School department was set-
o Samples and Sampling Technique Used up a year later with an unexpected enrolment of 222 students.
o Instrumentation Four years later, in 1989 twenty pupils received their diplomas
o Data Gathering Procedure as the first batch of the graduates. In 1993, eighty-eight (88)
o Statistical Treatment of Data students climbed a make-shift stage and became the first batch
of the High School Department. In just a few years, the
EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the enrolment more than doubled.
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
Encouraged by the successful development, the College
CHAPTER III Department was officially opened in 1994. Four CHED approved
courses offered were, Bachelor of Secondary Education, Bachelor
RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY of Elementary Education, Bachelor of Business administration
Gathering data is essential in a research study. The and Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. The changing societal
researchers gather the data with full potential that shows genuine demand saw the clamor for the introduction of the College of
results. Following the procedure of research design and Criminology. It has notably increased the enrolment of the
methodology will result to an orderly research study. In this college. (Our Lady of Lourdes College, 2017)
chapter, it shows the process of collecting data, instruments, the
sampling techniques, the place of the study and the research
design. SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED

RESEARCH DESIGN The study used purposive sampling which refers to a non-
probability sampling in which decisions concerning the individuals
This research uses survey method to interpret data. It is to be included in the sample are taken by the researcher, based
used to describe the data and characteristics of the population upon a variety of criteria which may include specialist knowledge
that is being studied. Also, it is used to gather information from of the research issue (Oliver, 2006). The researchers choose 35
groups of people by selecting and studying samples chosen from students from Grade 7-Benevolence as a respondents in this
a population. The main purpose of this is to confirm the positive students because the researchers presume that they can answer
and negative effects of using editor’s handbook to academic the questionnaire that are given to them.
performance of Grade 7 students from Our Lady of Lourdes
College. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The purpose of this survey research is to determine


RESEARCH LOCALE the capability of Grade 7 students in understanding and
answering the Editor’s handbook from Our Lady of
The location of this study would be conduct in Our Lady of Lourdes College to identify the effects of it to their
Lourdes College. Our Lady of Lourdes College was originally academic performance.
conceived by its Founder (Mr. and Dr. Alfredo Demetillo) on
limited scale. The sincere concern to help the youth inevitably The said research study will seek to answer the
evolved into a mission. And under this social backdrop this following research questions.
learning institution came to be to serve the educational needs of
1. What is the profile of the respondents as to:
the growing population.
1.1 Age
1.2 Gender Strongly Agree – You surely agree with the statements.
1.3 Grade in Mathematics (2nd Quarter) Agree – You partly agree with the statements.
2. What are the effects of using Editor’s handbook to Disagree – You do not agree with the statements.
the academic performance of Grade 7 students? Strongly Disagree – You surely do not agree with the
2.1 Positive statements.
2.2 Negative
3. Is there a significant difference between Editor’s POSITIVE
Handbook and the academic performance of Grade
SA A D SD
7 students?
1. Editor’s handbook is an
effective way in learning new
INSTRUMENTATION lessons.
The researchers will use a survey questionnaire to gather 2. The editor’s handbook
information from Grade 7 students. improves critical thinking.
To collect information, they are going to answer first the 3. Editor’s handbook promotes
Editor’s Handbook and after a few days, they are going to answer self-study.
the survey questionnaire. 4. Answering the editor’s
Moreover, this instrument is helpful to determine if Editor’s handbook is a fun activity.
Handbook is effective to use by the students to learn and how it 5. The editor’s handbook can be
will affect them if they use Editor’s Handbook to their academic a valid source of knowledge
performance. and information.
6. The editor’s handbook takes
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE less time to answer.
7. The editor’s handbook have a
RESEARCH TITLE: Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the concise and detailed teaching
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students procedure.
8. It makes the students
enhances their observation
Name: ____________________ Date:
skills.
_________________
Grade & Section: ____________ 9. The editor’s handbook is less
intimidating to answer than
PART I: PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS other handbooks or learner's
 Age: ______ material.
 Gender: _____ 10. Editor’s handbook improves
 Grade in Math (2nd Quarter): _____ students’ academic
performance.
PART II: POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF EDITOR’S
HANDBOOK TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Direction: Answer the following statements and put a check on
the appropriate boxes.
NEGATIVE procedures that they will do. Assurance that all the
SA A D SD information gathered will be kept with strict confidentiality.
1. The editor’s handbook is ineffective
On the first day, the researchers will distribute the
material for slow learner students.
handbooks to Grade 7-Benevolence. The handbooks will be
2. The editor’s handbook is a boring
given to 39 students that they will study and answer the
activity.
questions inside. After a few days, the questionnaires will be
3. Reading important concepts in the given individually to them. Then after answering our
editor’s handbook is too difficult.
questionnaires, retrieval process follows.
4. The editor’s handbook has all the answer
to all the questions. When the survey questionnaires are retrieved, it will be
5. The editor's handbook is not good for analyzed using the different statistical tools so that the specific
answering unfamiliar topic. questions on the Statement of the Problem will be answered.
6. The editor's handbook gives me a hard
time in understanding the lesson.
7. The editor’s handbook lacks information STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA
and knowledge about the topic.
The researchers will use different statistical tools to
8. The editor’s handbook requires too much
interpret and present the data gathered from the respondents.
time and effort to understand.
9. The editor’s handbook slows down the The use of percentage frequency distribution,
process of learning. which is an organized tabulation/graphical representation of
10. The editor’s handbook is just a the number of individuals in each category on the scale of
distraction for the students to focus on measurement. It allows the researcher to have a glance at the
their actual lessons. entire data conveniently (Manikandan, 2011). The percentage
frequency of distribution will evaluate the profile of the
students.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
𝑓
The purpose of this research study is to know the
positive and negative effects of Editor’s Handbook to the
% = 𝑠 x 100
academic performance of Grade 7 students.
Where: % = Percentage
To make this study possible, the researchers made the
said editor’s handbook full of information about the types of f = frequency of number of observation
angles that simple to understand and quick to memorize. On s = number of samples
the back of it, there are questions regarding about the topic
that the students will answer for about 45 minutes. Another statistical tool, the weighted mean it is a type
of mean that is calculated by multiplying the weight (or
To make the survey possible, the researchers wrote a probability) associated with a particular event or outcome with
letter of the approval to the school principal. Grade 7 students its associated quantitative outcome and then summing all the
will be given informed consent form to be informed of the products together (CFI Education, 2015). The observation in
the data set is
n = number of panelists
WM= ∑𝑓𝑥
𝑁
Σx = summation of x
CF = correction factor
Where: ∑fx=Summation of the product of frequency
The formula for calculating SS Error value is
N=Total number of respondents
SS Error = SS Total – SS Group

Where: SS Error = sum of squares error value


Lastly, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a collection SS Total = sum of squares total value
of methods for comparing multiple means across different SS Group = sum of squares group value
groups (Khan Academy, 2019).
Total df= N-1 The value of MS Group is calculated as follows
𝑆𝑆 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
Group df= k-1 MS Error = 𝑑𝑓 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
Error df= N-k
Where: MS = mean square of error
Where: Df= Degrees of freedom SS Error = sum of square error value
N= Total number of population df error = number of factors error
K= Total number of Groups
The formula for V.R. is
𝑀𝑆 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑝
V.R = 𝑀𝑆 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
To calculate the correction factor, the formula is
(Σx)2
CF = Where: V.R. = variance ratio
𝑁
Where: CF = correction factor MS Group = mean square of group
Σx = summation of X MS Error = mean square of error
N = total population
Every statistical tools will help the researcher to
To calculate Sum of Squares Total Value (SS total), evaluate the data gathered and will provide table to interpret
the formula is the data.
SS Total = Σx2 – CF

Where: Σx2 = summation of x2


CF = correction factor SAMPLE INFORMED CONSENT FORM

INFORMED CONSENT FORM


To calculate SS Group Value, the formula is: DATE: _______________________________________
(Σx)2 Dear ________________________________________
SS Group = Σ 𝑛
– CF
We are a group of students of __________________________________
Where: SS Group = sum of squares group value and we are study on the topic about
_______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________ SAMPLE WRITTEN CONSENT FORM
________________________________________________ with the purpose of
_________________________________________________________________ WRITTEN CONSENT FROM THE RESPONDENTS
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________ I _____________________________, consent to participate in
_________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ conducted by
_________________________. _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
May we request you for about ____________ minutes of your time for ________________________________________________________.
a survey about the above topic. I have understood the nature of this project and wish to participate. I am
not waiving any of my legal rights by signing this form. My signature below
We do not foresee any risks or discomfort from your participation in the indicates my consent.
research. You have the right not to answer any questions if you think that there
will be possibility of harm.
SIGNATURE_______________________ DATE ___________________
We will be glad if you will participate in our quantitative research study (signature above printed name)
because we will be able to discover new things and we will be able to comply
with our requirement.

Your participation in the study is completely voluntary and you may I ____________________________________, agree to allow video
choose to stop participating at any time. Your decision not to volunteer will not and/or taking digital images or photographs in which I appear to be used in
influence the nature of your relationship with our school or to refuse to answer teaching, scientific presentations and/or publications with the understanding
particular questions, will not affect your relationship with the researchers, or any that I will not be identified by name. I am aware that I may withdraw this consent
other group associated with this project either now, or in the future. In the event at anytime without penalty.
you withdraw from the study, all associated data collected will be immediately
destroyed wherever possible.

Thank you so much.


AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken
from, Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the
SIGNED: Criminal Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies)
2019-2020

CHAPTER III
(Signature above printed name) RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Researchers/s
Gathering data is essential in a research study. The
researchers gather the data with full potential that shows
genuine results. Following the procedure of research design
and methodology will result to an orderly research study.
In this chapter, it shows the process of collecting data, And is also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective
instruments, the sampling techniques, the place of the study sampling (Crossman, 2019). The researchers choose 60
and the research design. individuals who are in the field of law enforcements as
respondents because the researchers presume that they can
answer the questionnaire that are given to them.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The researchers will use a non-experimental research INSTRUMENTATION
design, particularly causal-comparative research design This study utilized purposive sampling which is a non-
(Salkind, 2010), because the research aims to know what are probability method of sampling. The researchers of this study
the positive and negative effects of bigger plate numbers to chose 60 (sixty) individuals who are in the field of law
the criminal identification of law enforcement agencies. The enforcement as described in the definition of terms as
research will also utilize gathering data through surveying respondents to this research, this is due to the nature of the
methods. research which is criminal identification.

Other factors to note are previous events that may be


of help to the research, such as previous attempts in other SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
nations to adapt such policies, which makes this design fit for
the research. RESEARCH TITLE: Effects of Larger Plate Numbers
among Vehicles to the Criminal Identification of Law
Enforcing Agencies
RESEARCH LOCALE Name: __________________
Date:________________
This study would be conducted in police stations and
checkpoints around the City of Valenzuela. We chose this as PART I: PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENT
our research locale because we would like to know the
opinions or thoughts of the law enforcers about having a larger Directions for this part: Write the data requested.
plate numbers on vehicles if it helps the community or not. AGE OCCUPATION AGENCY INVOLVED
The possible area of investigation are law enforcement
inspection checkpoints and/or law enforcement stations,
particularly the PNP (Philippine National Police) Valenzuela
headquarters near the City Hall of Valenzuela and its
surrounding areas. Directions for this part: Check the condition that fits your
situation.

EYEGLASSES I CAN SEE CLEARLY


SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED
The study used purposive sampling which refers to a Y N NEAR FAR
non-probability sample that is selected based on
characteristics of a population and the objective of the study.
PART II: EFFECTS OF LARGER PLATE NUMBERS AMONG 6. Other elements (like
VEHICLES TO CRIMINAL IDENTIFICATION stickers) sometimes
distract me from reading
Direction: Answer the following statements and put a
the numbers.
check on the appropriate boxes.
7. Larger plate numbers
Strongly You surely agree with the
would make me identify
Agree statements.
more violators.
Agree You partly agree with the
8. Larger plate numbers
statements.
will take less time to
Disagree You do not agree with the read.
statements.
9. Larger plate numbers
Strongly You surely do not agree with the will not only help in
Disagree statements traffic violators, but
those criminals also
using vehicles to flee
and/or escape.
Positive
10. Larger plate
SA A D SD
numbers will lead to a
1. Plate numbers are decrease in crime rate.
important in my job.

2. Plate numbers help me Negative


in tracking criminals and
violators of the law. SA A D SD

3. Plate numbers are part 1. Plate numbers are not


of criminal reports. important in my job, I
can use other data.
4. Reading plate numbers
is doable even if the 2. Plate numbers will not
vehicle is moving. help me in tracking
criminals and violators
5. Reading plate numbers of the law.
could be better if it was
larger.
3. Plate numbers are not LEGEND FOR LIKERT SCALE
needed in criminal
databases. Rate Interpretation Symbols

4. The size of plate 3.26-4.00 Strongly Agree SA


numbers right now is 2.51-3.25 Agree A
acceptable.
1.76-2.50 Disagree D
5. Making plate numbers
bigger will not improve 1.00-1.75 Strongly Disagree SD
my capability of reading
them.

6. Reading numbers from PART III: NEED FOR CRIMINAL IDENTIFICATION


afar with the presence of Direction: Answer the following statements and put a check
highly-reflective stickers on the appropriate boxes.
does not distract me. Strongly You surely agree with the statements.
Agree
7. Plate numbers currently Agree You partly agree with the statements.
takes too much time to
Disagree You do not agree with the statements.
read, so making them
bigger will not help. Strongly You surely do not agree with the
Disagree statements
8. Reading plate numbers
in their current size is SA A D SD
easy. 1. Identifying criminals is a
9. Larger plate numbers crucial part of law
will not help in tracking enforcement.
criminals. 2. Without criminal
identification, crime
10. Plate numbers are rates would be higher.
merely an accessory in a 3. Checkpoints, CCTV
vehicle, it is not needed systems, and others,
to identify violators, so help in criminal
there is no need to make identification.
them bigger. 4. Criminal identification
makes our cities and
streets safer.
5. Criminal identification
includes plate numbers.
LEGEND FOR LIKERT SCALE It is a particularly useful method of expressing the
relative frequency of survey responses and other data. Many
Rate Interpretation Symbols times, percentage frequency distributions are displayed as
3.26-4.00 Strongly Agree SA tables or as bar graphs or pie charts. (SAGE Research
Methods, 2008)
2.51-3.25 Agree A
1.76-2.50 Disagree D The usage of this formula will be mostly for the profiles
1.00-1.75 Strongly Disagree SD of the law enforcement personnel, given by the formula:

%= x 100
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
Where: % = Percentage
The researchers will be sending a letter to the Philippine
National Police (Valenzuela), the Valenzuela Traffic f = frequency of number of observation
Management Division, and other law enforcement agencies
s = number of samples
not listed above but can be classified as such, to be able to
conduct this survey. If approved, the study would then be
conducted among 60 (sixty) law enforcing officers as defined
for their opinions in regard to larger plate numbers. Each The second tool that will be used, the weighted mean,
personnel will be given a survey form to assess their thoughts is simply the average of the data. It is calculated by dividing
to the matter. the sum of indvidual data by the total number.

After collecting all of the data needed, with the help of Doing a simple mean or average will give equal weight
the statistics tabulated and the tallying of the survey, the to each number. (“Mathisfun.com,” 2017). It is given by the
result would hopefully be the basis for larger plate numbers. formula:

WM
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA Where: ∑fx=Summation of the product of frequency
The researchers will use the statistical tools: Percentage N=Total number of respondents
Frequency Distribution, Weighted Mean, and the Analysis of
Variance, also known as ANOVA, to interpret and present the
data gathered from the respondents. We used this statistical
Lastly, The statistical tool called Analysis of Variance
tool because the research design that we have used is Causal-
(ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their
Comparative. Listed below are those tools involved in this
associated estimation procedures used to analyze the
research.
differences among group means in a sample.
First, the percentage frequency distribution, which
Total df= N-1
is a part expressed in a fraction for a category among all of
the respondents. It is organized and graphical. Group df= k-1
Error df= N-k
Where: Df= Degrees of freedom Where: SS Error = sum of squares error value
N= Total number of population SS Total = sum of squares total value
K= Total number of Groups SS Group = sum of squares group value

To calculate the correction factor, the formula is The value of MS Group is calculated as follows
(Σx)2 𝑆𝑆 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
CF = MS Error = 𝑑𝑓 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
𝑁

Where: CF = correction factor Where: MS = mean square of error


Σx = summation of X SS Error = sum of square error value
N = total population df error = number of factors error

To calculate Sum of Squares Total Value (SS total), the


formula is
The formula for V.R. is
SS Total = Σx2 – CF 𝑀𝑆 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑝
V.R = 𝑀𝑆 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟
Where: Σx = summation of x
2 2

Where: V.R. = variance ratio


CF = correction factor
MS Group = mean square of group
MS Error = mean square of error
To calculate SS Group Value, the formula is:
(Σx)2
SS Group = Σ – CF
𝑛 These statistical tools will help the researchers to
Where: SS Group = sum of squares group value evaluate the data that have gathered and will provide a table
to interpret the data.
n = number of panelists
Σx = summation of x
CF = correction factor

The formula for calculating SS Error value is


SS Error = SS Total – SS Group
1. Profile of the Respondents
Table 1
Gender Distribution of the Respondents

Gender Frequency Percentage


Male 13 37.14%

Female 22 62.86%

TOTAL 35 100%

EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the Table 1 shows the percentage of male which is 37
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019) percent or 13 in number while the female percentage is
63 percent or 22 which is a total of 35 respondent. The
CHAPTER IV
table shows that the number of female is greater than
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND male who answered the researcher’s questionnaires.
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Table 2
This chapter represents the summary of the data
Age Distribution of the Respondents
that researchers got from the respondents. This study
aims to determine the effect of using editor’s handbook
to the academic performance of Grade 7 students. It Age Frequency Percentage
contains the presentation and analysis of data. The data
12 6 17.14%
gain from the questionnaire will having three parts.
The first part is the profile of the respondents that 13 26 74.29%
includes gender, age and second quarter grade in
mathematics. The second part shows the positive and 14 3 8.57%
negative effect. And lastly, the third part shows the
significant difference between the effects of using editor’s Total 35 100%
handbook to the academic performance of Grade 7
students, the respondents. The researchers select ages ranging from 12-14
years old. Respondents who is 13 years of age is the one
who accumulated the whole population which is 74
percent, while the least number of respondents who are
age 14 years old with 9 percent and the rest are 12 years Respondents who has 92 grade in mathematics is 1 or
old with 17 percentage. 2.86 percent. Respondents who has 93 grade in
mathematics is 4 or 11.43 percent. Respondents who has
Table 3
94 grade in mathematics is 4 or 11.43 percent.
Grade in Mathematics of the Respondents Respondents who has 94 grade in mathematics is 4 or
11.43 percent. Respondents who has 96 grade in
Grade in Mathematics Frequency Percentage mathematics is 1 or 2.86 percent. And respondents who
85 3 8.57% has 97 grade in mathematics is 1 or 2.86 percent. Table
shows that 90 and 91 grade in mathematics has a
87 1 2.86% greatest number of respondents.
88 1 2.86%
89 3 8.57%
2. The Positive and Negative Effects
90 6 17.14%
Table 4
91 6 17.14%
Statements on Positive effects of the Editor’s
92 1 2.86%
Handbook to Academic Performance of Grade 7
93 4 11.43% students
94 4 11.43% Weighted Verbal
Variables
95 4 11.43% Mean Interpretation
Editor’s handbook is an
96 1 2.86% Strongly
effective way in 1.75
Disagree
97 1 2.86% learning new lessons.
Total 35 100% The editor’s handbook
improves critical 3.38 Strongly Agree
thinking.
The range of the respondents' grade in
Editor’s handbook
mathematics is 85-97. From 35 respondents, 3.32 Strongly Agree
promotes self-study.
respondents who has 85 grade in mathematics is 3 or
8.57 percent. Respondents who has 87 grade in Answering the editor’s
mathematics is 1 or 2.86 percent. Respondents who has handbook is a fun 2.96 Agree
88 grade in mathematics is 1 or 2.86 percent. activity.
Respondents who has 89 grade in mathematics is 3 or The editor’s handbook
8.57 percent. Respondents who has 90 grade in can be a valid source
3.45 Strongly Agree
mathematics is 6 or 17.14 percent. Respondents who has of knowledge and
91 grade in mathematics is 6 or 17.14 percent. information.
The editor’s handbook positive effects of the editor’s handbook to their
takes less time to 2.71 Agree academic performance.
answer.
Table 5
The editor’s handbook
have a concise and Statements on Negative effects of the Editor’s
3.2 Agree
detailed teaching Handbook to the Academic Performance of Grade
procedure. 10 students
It makes the students
Verbal
enhances their 3.4 Strongly Agree Weighte
Variables Interpretati
observation skills. d Mean
on
The editor’s handbook
The editor’s handbook is
is less intimidating to
ineffective material for slow 1.92 Disagree
answer than other 3.09 Agree
learner students.
handbooks or learner's
material. The editor’s handbook is a
1.89 Disagree
boring activity.
Editor’s handbook
improves students’ 2.94 Agree Reading important
Strongly
academic performance. concepts in the editor’s 1.69
Disagree
handbook is too difficult.
The editor’s handbook has
The table 5 shows about the insights of Grade 7 all the answer to all the 1.91 Disagree
respondents about the positive effects of the editor’s questions.
handbook to their academic performance. The following The editor's handbook is
positive variables with their weighted mean 3.38, 3.32, not good for answering 2.22 Disagree
3.45, and 3.4 respectively with verbal interpretation of unfamiliar topic.
strongly agree. The following negative variables with The editor's handbook
their weighted mean 2.96, 2.71, 3.2, 3.09 and 2.94 gives me a hard time in 1.77 Disagree
respectively with verbal interpretation of agree. And the understanding the lesson.
following negative variables with the weighted mean 1.75 The editor’s handbook lacks
respectively with verbal interpretation of strongly information and knowledge 2.14 Disagree
disagree. It shows that most of the respondents about the topic.
answered agree on the positive effects of the editor’s The editor’s handbook
handbook to their academic performance. requires too much time and 2.06 Disagree
The grand weighted mean of the positive effect is effort to understand.
3.02 with the verbal interpretation of agree. This The editor’s handbook
Strongly
indicates that all of the respondents are agree on the slows down the process of 1.63
Disagree
learning.
The editor’s handbook is 3. Significant Difference
just a distraction for the Strongly Table 6
1.68
students to focus on their Disagree
actual lessons. Significant Difference between the Effects of the
Editor’s Handbook to the Academic Performance of
Grade 10 students
The table 6 shows about the insights of Grade 7
Attitud Sourc Decisi Rema
respondents about the negative effects of the editor’s
es e of on rks
handbook to their academic performance. The following SS df MS F F crit
Toward Variati
negative variables with their weighted mean 1.69, 1.63, Change on
and 1.68 respectively with verbal interpretation of Betwe
623 647
strongly disagree. The following negative variables with Positive en 6234 3.981
1 41.7 3.5
Effects Group 1.73 896
their weighted mean 1.92, 1.89, 1.91, 2.22, 1.77, 2.14 3 3
s
and 2.06 respectively with verbal interpretation of Within 9.63 Rejec Signif
disagree. It shows that most of the respondents 654.8
Group 68 025 ted icant
571
answered disagree on the negative effects of the editor’s s 2
handbook to their academic performance.
6299
The grand weighted mean of the negative effect is Total 69
6.59
1.89 with the verbal interpretation of disagree. This
indicates that all of the respondents are disagree on the Source
Negati
negative effects of the editor’s handbook to their ve
of
SS df MS F F crit
academic performance. Variatio
Effects
n
940 710 Signi
Between 9406 3.98 Reje
62.2 1 8.7 fican
Legend for Likert Scale Groups 2.23 1896 cted
3 29 t
899.
Rate Interpretation Symbols Within 6 13.2
771
3.26-4.00 Strongly Agree SA Groups 8 3193
4
2.51-3.25 Agree A
1.76-2.50 Disagree D 949 6
Total
1.00-1.75 Strongly Disagree SD 62 9

The following data indicates the results of computing the


positive and negative effects of Editor’s handbook to the academic
performance of Grade 7 students.
In the table shows in the positive effect, F value is 6473.53 1. PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
and the critical value is 3.98, making that the F value is greater than
the F crit. As well as the negative effect shows that the F value TABLE 1
7108.73 is greater than the F crit 3.98.
Age Distribution of the Respondents
Overall, the null hypothesis is rejected making the study
significant. The results shows that the Editor’s handbook is effective
to the academic performance of Grade 7 students. Age Frequency Percentage

20-30 22 37%
AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken
from, Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the 31-40 29 48%
Criminal Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies)
2019-2020 41-50 9 15%

Total 60 100%
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND The researchers select ages ranging from 20-50 years
INTERPRETATION OF DATA old. Respondents who is 31-40 years of age is the one who
accumulated the whole population which is 48 percent, while
This chapter consists of the summary of the data that the least number of respondents who are age 41-50 with 15
the researchers gathered from the respondents. As stated in percent and the rest are 20-30 with 37 percentage.
the previous chapters, this study aims to determine the effects
of larger plate numbers among vehicles to the criminal
identification of law enforcing agencies. This part contains the TABLE 2
presentation and analysis of data. The data were gained from
Occupation and Agencies of the Respondents
the questionnaire having three parts, which are the following:
The first part is the profile of the respondents, which Agency
includes; age, occupation, the agency involved in their work, Job (Occ) Frequency Percentage
if they are wearing eyeglasses, and their capability to see. The
second part shows the positive and negative effects of larger CADET 6 0
plate numbers. And lastly, the third part shows if criminal
identification is important. PNP OFFICER 17 28%

SUBTOTAL 23 28%

PED ENF 11 18%


TMD
TRA ENF 8 13%
Table 3 shows the frequency and the percentage of
SUBTOTAL 17 31%
having Vision Aids (Eyeglasses) as we see in the table the
frequency and the percentage of the respondents who don’t
PNP 17 28% wear eyeglasses is higher than the respondents who wears
UNSPECIFIED eyeglasses. This concludes that most of the respondents don’t
TMD 7 12% wear eyeglasses. And the data makes a total frequency of 60
respondents and a total percentage of 100.
TOTAL 60 100%
TABLE 4
Vision Impairment Distribution of the Respondents
The second table covers the Occupation and Agencies
of the Respondents, Here we include which Agency they are in Vision Impairment Frequency Percentage
PNP or TMD. And their Job or Occupation which we identify if
the respondent is a Cadet who got a frequency of 6 and a NEARSIGHTED 11 18%
percentage of 0 and Officer which got a frequency of 17 and a
percentage of 28, this makes a subtotal of a frequency of 23
FARSIGHTED 19 32%
and a percentage of 28 percent. And also there are Pedestrian
Enforcers who got a frequency of 11 and a percentage of 18
and Traffic enforcers that has a frequency of 8 and a CLEAR 30 50%
percentage of 13 which makes a subtotal of a frequency of 17
and a percentage of 31. We also got unspecified occupations Total 60 100%
from PNP who got a frequency of 17 and a percentage of 28.
And unspecified occupations from TMD who got a frequency of
7 and a percentage of 12. Combining all these data we got a Table 4 has three Vision Impairment conditions includes
total frequency of 60 respondents and a total percentage of being Nearsighted or Farsighted of the respondents, there are
100. also a condition of the respondents that can see both near and
far sight. In the condition of being nearsighted has a frequency
TABLE 3 of 19 and a percentage of 32, the condition of being farsighted
Vision Aids Distribution of the Respondents has a frequency of 19 and a percentage of 32, and the
condition of having a clear vision has a frequency of 30 and a
percentage of 50. This concludes that most of the respondents
Vision Aids (Eyeglasses) Frequency Percentage
can see both near sight or far sight. The data has a total
frequency of 60 respondents and a total percentage of 100.
YES 8 13%

NO 52 87%

Total 60 100%
2. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF LARGER using vehicles to flee
PLATE NUMBERS and/or escape.
Larger plate numbers
TABLE 5 will lead to a decrease in Agree
crime rate. 3.17
POSITIVE
Weighted Verbal
Variables This table shows about the Respondent's insights about
Mean Interpretation
positive effects of larger plate numbers to the criminal
Plate numbers are 3.57 Strongly Agree identification. The following negative variables with their
important in my job. weighted mean 3.08, 3.17, 3.18, 3.20 and 3.23 respectively
Using of larger plate with verbal interpretation of agree. The following positive
numbers help me in Agree variables with their weighted mean 3.30, 3.32, 3.33, 3.42 and
tracking criminals and 3.20 3.57 respectively with verbal interpretation of strongly agree.
violators of the law. It shows that most of the respondents answered both Strongly
Plate numbers are part 3.42 Strongly Agree Agree and Agree on the positive effects of larger plate
of criminal reports. numbers to criminal identification.
Reading larger plate
The grand weighted mean of the positive effect is 3.28
numbers is attainable Strongly Agree
3.33 with the verbal interpretation of strongly agree. This indicates
even if the vehicle is
that all of the respondents mostly agree on the positive effects
moving.
of larger plate numbers to criminal identification.
Reading plate numbers 3.30
could be better if it was Strongly Agree
larger.
Other elements (like TABLE 6
stickers) sometimes NEGATIVE
distract me from 3.08 Agree
reading the numbers Weighted Verbal
Variables
from plate numbers Mean Interpretation
Larger plate numbers 3.18
Agree Larger plate numbers
would make me identify
are not important in my Disagree
more violators. 2.13
job. I can use other
Larger plate numbers 3.23
Agree data.
will take less time to
Plate numbers will not
read.
help me in tracking 2.15 Disagree
Larger plate numbers
criminals and violators
will not only help in Strongly Agree
3.32 of the law.
traffic violators, but
those criminals also
Plate numbers are not 2.45 with the verbal interpretation of Disagree. This means
needed in criminal 2.07 Disagree that most of the respondents answered Disagree on the
databases. negative effects of larger plate numbers to the criminal
The size of plate identification.
numbers right now is 2.57 Agree
The grand weighted mean of the negative effect is 2.33
acceptable.
with the verbal interpretation of disagree. This indicates that
Making plate numbers
all of the respondents disagree on the negative effects of
bigger will not improve 2.22 Disagree larger plate numbers to criminal identification.
my capability of reading
them.
Reading numbers from
afar with the presence TABLE 7
of highly-reflective 2.47 Disagree
THE NEED FOR CRIMINAL IDENTIFICATION
stickers does not
distract me. Weighted Verbal
Variables
Plate numbers currently Mean Interpretation
takes too much time to 2.35 Disagree Identifying criminals is a 3.48
read, so making them Strongly Agree
crucial part of law
bigger will not help.
enforcement.
Reading plate numbers
2.58 Agree Without criminal 3.37
in their current size is Strongly Agree
identification, crime
easy.
rates would be higher.
Larger plate numbers
2.45 Disagree Checkpoints, CCTV 3.53
will not help in tracking Strongly Agree
systems and others help
criminals.
in criminal identification.
Plate numbers are
Criminal identification 3.53
merely an accessory in Strongly Agree
makes our cities and
a vehicle, it is not
2.35 Disagree streets safer.
needed to identify
Criminal identification 3.47 Strongly Agree
violators, so there is no
includes plate numbers.
need to make them
Criminal identification is 3.42
bigger.
a task that most law Strongly Agree
enforcement agencies
This table shows about the Respondent's insights about can do.
the negative effects of larger plate numbers to the criminal It is the priority of law 3.55
identification. The following positive variables with their enforcing agencies to Strongly Agree
weighted mean 2.57 and 2.58 respectively with verbal identify criminals.
interpretation of Agree. The following negative variables with
their weighted mean 2.13, 2.15, 2.07, 2.22, 2.47, 2.35 and
Criminal identification is 3.43
required for economic Strongly Agree
growth.
Law enforcement is 3.32 ANOVA
nothing without criminal Strongly Agree
Source SS df MS F P-value F crit
investigation. of
Criminal investigation 3.42 Variati
allows for the convicted Strongly Agree on
to have a new chance in Betwe 1.0640 1 1.0640 4.403 0.0379 3.9214
life. en 83 83 85 91 78
Groups
This table shows about the Respondent's insights about Within 28.511 11 0.2416
the criminal identification. The following positive variables with Groups 83 8 26
their weighted mean 3.48, 3.37, 3.53, 3.47, 3.42, 3.55, 3.43,
Total 29.575 11
3.32 and 3.42 with the verbal interpretation of Strongly Agree.
92 9
This means that all respondents answered Strongly Agree on
the criminal identification.
The grand weighted mean of the third part is 3.45 with The following data indicates the results of computing
the verbal interpretation of strongly agree. This indicates that the positive and negative effects of larger plate numbers to
all of the respondents strongly agree on the need for criminal criminal identification.
identification.
In the table, it shows the positive effect. F value is 4.40
and the critical value is 3.92, making that the F value is
greater than the F crit.
3. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE Using the P-value and alpha, the P-value is 0.037991
and the alpha is 0.05, making the P-value less than the alpha.
TABLE 8
Overall, the null hypothesis is rejected, making this
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE study significant. The results show that larger plate numbers
EFFECTS OF THE LARGER LICENSE PLATES is effective to criminal identification.
AMONG VEHICLES TO CRIMINAL
IDENTIFICATION

SUMMARY
Groups Count Sum Average Variance
License 60 196.5 3.275 0.256144
Plates
Criminal 60 207.8 3.46333 0.227107
3
EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
In this chapter, the researchers presents their insights
and interpretation based on the outcome produced. The
following discusses the major findings, the conclusions drawn
and recommendations made to include in our study.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The following are the important findings to the study:
1. The Profile of the Respondents
Students who answer the questionnaire is
mostly female which is 38 or 63 percent while the
male percentage is 22 or 37 percent in population
and their age is ranging to 12-14 years old.
The average Math grade of each students
vary from 85-97 and 90 and 91 as the most
number of respondent.

2. The respondent’s insights about the effect of


using editor’s handbook to their academic
performance.
Positive. The Grade 7 respondents on the
positive effect of using editors handbook to their
academic performance shows that all of respondent’s
verbal interpretation is strongly agree. The grand
weighted mean of the positive effect is 3.02 with the
verbal interpretation of agree. It shows that most of the
respondents answered agree on the positive effects of
using editor’s handbook to their academic performance.
Negative. The Grade 7 respondents on the
negative effects of using editors handbook to their
academic performance shows that some of the
respondent’s verbal interpretation is strongly disagree.
The grand weighted mean of the negative effect is 1.89
with the verbal interpretation of disagree. This indicates AN EXAMPLE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH: (taken
that most of the respondents are disagree on the from, Effects of Larger Plate Numbers among Vehicle to the
negative effects of using editor’s handbook to their Criminal Identification of Law Enforcing Agencies)
academic performance. 2019-2020
3. The Significant difference between the Editor’s
handbook and its Effects to the Academic CHAPTER V
Performance of Grade 7 students. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
The table shows that the F value 6473.53 of RECOMMENDATIONS
positive effects and the F value 7108. 73 of negative
effects are greater than the F crit 3.98. The null In this chapter, the researchers present their insights
hypothesis is rejected making the research study and interpretation based on the outcome produced by the
significant. survey questionnaires.
The following discusses the major findings, conclusions
drawn, and recommendations made.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the findings, conclusions are drawn: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The following are the important findings to the study:
1. The Editor’s handbook helps and teaches students to
understand more of the concepts and objectives well. 1. Profile of the Respondents
2. It is more useful and easily accessible to provide There are sixty (60) respondents of this
students Editor’s handbook to enhance their thinking research, with which fifty-seven percent (57%)
abilities. being part of the Philippine National Police and
3. Editor’s Handbook is effective to the Academic forty-three percent (43%) belonging to the
Performance of Grade 7 students. Traffic Management Division – CESO (Valenzuela
City).
RECOMMENDATIONS As a whole, their age ranges from twenty
The following are the recommendations of the study: to fifty-five (20-55) years old.
Most of the respondents do not use
1. The researchers recommend that students must use eyeglasses but their capability of seeing varies;
editor's handbook to improve their academic eighteen percent (18%) answered they can only
performance. see objects near to them, (nearsightedness),
2. Teachers can use editor’s handbook as a teaching thirty-two percent (32%) with farsightedness,
material for a better way of learning of the students. and those having normal vision being the largest
3. For the future researchers, make a different topic for at fifty-one (51%).
the students to expand their intelligence.
2. The respondent’s insights about the effect CONCLUSIONS
of larger plate numbers to criminal Based on the findings, the conclusions are drawn:
identification. 1. Law enforcement officers agree to enlarge plate
Positive. The respondents on the positive numbers.
effect of larger plate numbers shows that 2. Criminal identification is needed to law
most of the respondents’ verbal enforcement.
interpretation are ‘strongly agree’ and 3. Larger plate numbers is effective to criminal
‘agree’. identification.
The grand weighted mean of the
positive effect is 3.28 with the verbal RECOMMENDATIONS
interpretation of strongly agree. The following are the recommendations of the study:
1. That plate numbers may be enlarged to improve
Negative. The respondents on the criminal identification among vehicles.
negative effect of larger plate numbers 2. That city government’s mandate of making the
shows that most of the respondents’ plate numbers large for better visibility.
verbal interpretation are ‘disagree’. 3. For future researchers, improve on what has
The grand weighted mean of the been done so far.
negative effect is 2.33 with the verbal
interpretation of disagree.  The recommendation part should discuss your
suggestions on what have you written in SIGNIFICANCE
3. The respondent’s insights to the need for OF THE STUDY IN CHAPTER 1.
criminal identification.
The respondents on the need for criminal
identification shows that all of the respondents’
verbal interpretation are ‘strongly agree’.
The grand weighted mean of this part is
3.45 with the interpretation of strongly agree.

4. The significant difference between larger


plate numbers among vehicles to criminal
identification.
The table shows that the F value 4.40 of
positive effects are greater than the F crit which
is 3.92. The null hypothesis is rejected making
the research study significant.
Using the P-value and alpha, the P-value
is 0.037991 and the alpha is 0.05, making the P-
value less than the alpha. The null hypothesis is
also rejected making the research study
significant.
SAMPLE TITLE PAGE AND COVER PAGE LAYOUT

OUR LADY OF LOURDES COLLEGE


5031 GEN. T DE LEON, VALENZUELA CITY

EDITOR’S HANDBOOK AND ITS EFFECTS


TO THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
OF GRADE 7 STUDENTS

A Quantitative Research Paper


Presented to the Senior High School Department
Our Lady of Lourdes College

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Subject
Inquiries, Investigations and Immersion

by:

Micaella M. Abergas
Genie Mae A. Alvarez
Hannah Grace S. Buer
Roschelle Mae G. Delima
Vianca Joicelei J. Giger
Krystine Nichole S. Mater
John Cristopher G. Mercado
John Alfred SM. Merin

STEM 12-1

October 2018
EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to acknowledge and thank the
following important people who have supported us
throughout this journey.
Firstly, to our principal Dr. Michael Figueroa for
letting his students to go to school as early as 10:00 am
in the morning. Without him, the guards won't allow us
to enter the school for our research project.
To our Practical Research teacher, Mr. Michael S.
Frondozo who guided us to make this research study
possible and for giving us free time to make this research
best as possible.
To our classmates, who helped us and shared
hardships throughout this journey. Thank you for making
us motivated while doing it and made it until the last. EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the

To our beloved parents and siblings for moral and Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
financial support for this research project.
Lastly to God who guided us through up's and TABLE OF CONTENTS
down's and helping us to solve an unexpected problems.
Page

HGB CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND…….…1


MMA Introduction..................................................... 1
KNM Conceptual Framework of the Study……………………… 3
VJG Theoretical Framework of the Study………………....... 5
GMA Statement of the Problem……………………….………….…. 6
Significance of the Study ………………………….…………… 7
RMD
Scope and Delimitations of the Study……………….….. 8
JAM Definition of Terms…………………………………………..……. 9
JCM
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND
RELATED STUDIES………………………………………………….10
Related Literature…………………………………………………. 10
Related Studies……………………………………………………… 16
Synthesis of Related Literature and Related Studies……..17

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH


METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………….21

Research Design……………………………………………………. 21
Research Locale…………………………………………………..… 21
Samples and Sampling Technique………………………… 23
Instrumentation……………………………………………………. 23
Data Gathering Procedure …………………………………… 23
Statistical Treatment of Data …………………………..…. 24

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF


DATA………………………………………………………………………………….………… 27

CHAPTER 5: FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND


RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………….36

Summary of Findings……………………………………...... 36
Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 38
Recommendation………….………………………………………38

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES……………..…………..……………………….. 39
APPENDICES
A. Letter from the Authority
B. The Survey Questionnaire
C. Informed Consent Form
D. Written Consent Form
E. Curriculum Vitae
EXAMPLE: (taken from, Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students (2018-2019)
ABSTRACT
Below is an abstract of the study conducted by Buer
et.al entitled “Editor's Handbook and Its Effects to the
Academic Performance of Grade 7 Students”, 2019.
Objectives. The researchers’ primary objective is to
know the effect that comes with the Editor's Handbook to
enhance its overall purpose to the students. Thus, this
explores the positive and negative effects of the handbook, if
the handbook will benefit the students or not. It also provides
a guide for the other schools and DepEd to follow this kind of
method in teaching students.
Methods. The study collected data through the use of
structured form of questionnaire from the selected Grade 7
students of Our Lady of Lourdes College using questionnaires.
There are (35) respondents for this study.
Results. Most of the students that had used the
handbook realized that is easier for them to learned
independently anytime with the help of the handbook. Having
knowledge and encounter with the handbook will make them
think of what are the benefits for them if the handbook was
used in every subject. They are timely updated on what they
must study because they are being caught up by so many
lessons. This Editor's Handbook is identified as an advantage
for there will be handy and less hassle for studying. However
this positive views is limited, because few respondents can’t
see the good effects of the editor's handbook.
Conclusion. The researchers therefore conclude that
the Editor's handbook can aid and guide the students in
achieving their academic goals. Also regularly reading the
handbook will help them attain all the important points of the
lessons. Active participation, high grades and eagerness in
learning will happen if the handbook is given to the students.
FORMAT
 MARGINS: 1.5” left, 1.0” right, top, bottom
 SPACING: 2.0 (double spacing)
 FONT STYLE AND SIZE: Arial, 12
 HEADINGS (CHAPTER I to V): center, bold (size 12)
 SUBHEADINGS (e.g. RELATED STUDIES): left, bold
(size 12)
 CONTENT: Justified, first line indented per paragraph
 PARAGRAPH BREAK (after one paragraph to other):
Press Enter (once)
 PAPER SIZE: Letter (8.5 x 11)
 please provide page numbers per page for table of
contents
 if the given page is a CHAPTER, for example
CHAPTER I… the page number is not visible but still
the succeeding pages after the CHAPTER should be
visible and the page numbers should be arranged
and numbered properly.

HARDBOUND BOOK BIND – color MAROON……

kindly attach a title page and the cover page…. you may
have also your copy by providing a soft bound or hard
bound