Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

Factors Affecting Students' Absenteeism

A Qualitative Research Presented to the Senior High School Department of


Limasawa National HS in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Subject Practical Research I

Sindo, et al
March 2018
Acknowledgment

This research would not be possible without the help, advice and encouragement

throughout this difficult task of the following people:

First, we would like to express our gratitude to our adviser, Mr. Riel Silao for his

extraordinary support in this research process in formatting and guiding us. His guidance

taught us to be more patient and motivated in making the main purpose of the study.

Besides our adviser, we would like to thank our co-researchers for their wonderful

collaboration. Also to the respondents who gave us the opportunity to listen to their sides

and opinions related to our research.

Our sincere thanks also go to our parents who supported us financially throughout

the completion of our study.

For those who are involved in this study, it is always a pleasure to work everyday

with such lovely and engaging people.

Most importantly, to our heavenly Father who gave us the strength, knowledge and

opportunity to be successful. We praise you always and thank you for everything!
i

Table of Contents
Acknowledgment i

Table of Contents ii

Abstract iii

Introduction

Statement of the Problem 2

Scope and Delimitation 3

Significance of the Study 3

Review of Related Literature

Methodology

Research Design 6

Sampling 6

Data Gathering Procedure 6

Results/ Findings and Discussion

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusion 10

Recommendations 11

Appendices

Appendix A 15

Appendix B 17

Bibliography
ii

Abstract

The objective of this study is to determine the factors affecting the students'

absenteeism.

Particularly, it aimed to know the contributing factors that led the students to

practice absenteeism and to determine the relationship between absenteeism and the

academic performance of the students especially in Limasawa NHS.

The qualitative research method was applied in this study. The respondents of the

research were those students who practiced chronic absenteeism based from the advisers'

attendance record.

The research concluded that the common reasons behind the students absenteeism

in Limasawa NHS are their health, their interest in school and their financial status. The

respondents are found out to be more affected by their problems at home and are more

active in school if their peers would also participate in the school activities.

Through the respondents who live far from school, the researchers also discovered

that lack of transportation can also affect their attendance rate in school. Meanwhile, the

results found out that teacher factor is not one of the major causes of students' absenteeism

in Limasawa NHS.

The respondents likewise agreed that absenteeism can bring no good to their studies

and can affect their grades.


iii

With those results, it could be concluded that the students' health should be taken

care and parents should provide enough financial support to students to suppress

absenteeism.
iv
Chapter I

Introduction

Absenteeism is one of the culprit of lowering the scholastic performance of the

students in school. Merriam Webster defines absenteeism as the tendency to be away from

work or school without a good reason or the practice or habit of being absent from work or

school. Some students do not share the reasons as to why they choose not to go to school.

These reasons may include teacher factor, parent factor and peer factor. Teachers who seem

to be unapproachable, strict, or those who seem to be boring in terms of their lecturing style

could be the factor. Parents likewise, can also be a potential threat to the students' interest

of coming to school especially those who are not supportive as they need constant follow-

up. These assumptions mentioned are supported by the study of Bimler and Kirkland

(2001) as they indicate that there may be as many as 10 different “hotspots” broadly include

school conditions; home-based behavioral issues; peer issues; as well as lack of motivation

or interest in school. These issues align with more recent reviews of literature regarding

student absenteeism, truancy and avoidance behavior.

In addition, students may be affected by health issues resulting to absenteeism.

Health issues make it more difficult for the students to attend the school regularly. A study

of Kearney (2008) revealed that absenteeism can be linked to physical conditions,

psychiatric conditions, classification and proximal variables, contextual risk factors, as


well as cross cultural variables. The poor health condition of the student may invite bullies

to make fun of them. This would somehow discourage the affected student to attend school.

Absenteeism eventually results to poor performance of the students in the school.

Hence, teachers innovate procedures to help eliminate absenteeism of the students.

However, students who disregard and neglect the tasks given would lead them to becoming

a dropout as there would be no reason for the teachers to pass them.

The problem cited above have encouraged the researchers to figure out the reasons

of truancy among the students in Limasawa National High School in order to formulate

possible solutions for them to bring back their interest in attending classes.

Statement of the problem

This study aimed to pin-point the roots of the students truancy and find some

alternative aid for this problem. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following

questions:

1. What are the reasons that lead the students to practice absenteeism?

2. How can teachers encourage the students to attend classes?

3. What are the specific teaching strategies that can be used by the teachers for

their students to curb absenteeism?

4. How can students be encouraged going to school without the intervention of

their teachers?

5. What will be the parents and peers' role in averting the increasing rate of

absenteeism?
Scope and Delimitation

This study is about the Factors Affecting Students’ Absenteeism focusing only the

students of Limasawa National High School. This was explored through conducting an

interview with the selected students of Grades 8-12.

The site for the interview was held in Limasawa NHS campus within this school

year, 2017-2018.

The effects of absenteeism to students’ learning and school performances were

enumerated through the answers of the respondents.

Significance of the Study

The results of this study are of great benefit to the following:

The results will give the students some knowledge about absenteeism and how they

can avoid it. This will give the students some realization that frequent absences will not be

useful for them and to the people around them. At the end of this study, students will

finally learn those factors that affect their truancy and can be able to find some ways to

curb absenteeism.
The teachers will be able to identify the different reasons of students’ truancy.

Thereby, be able to choose appropriate measures in helping students stop absenteeism.

Moreover, parents will be able to select an appropriate approach in encouraging

their children to attend their classes.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the related literature and studies from other sources. Given

the importance of attendance, this study aims to delve deeper and find out the factors that

affect the students' absenteeism.

School absenteeism is an alarming problem for administrators, teachers, parents,

and the society, in general, as ell as for the students, and particular. It may indicate low

performance of teachers, students' dissatisfaction of the school’ services, or lack of or poor

academic and non-academic structures or policies that address the problem or factors

influencing or reinforcing this behavior (Clores, 2009).

Chronic absenteeism not only affects student achievement, it can affect a student’s

attitude and behavior at school. When a student has. Attendance issues, achievement issues

and behavior issues it increases their risk of dropping out of school (Carlson, n. d)

Absenteeism interrupts the learning process. The educational system is founded on the

assumptions that students will attend school (Balfanz and Byrnes, 2012).
Many factors can contribute to student absenteeism. Family help or financial

concerns, poor school climate, drug and alcohol use, transportation problems, and differing

community attitudes towards education are among the conditions that are often associated

with a child’s frequent absence from school (Bruner, C., Discher, A., & Chang, H., 2011).

Furthermore, a study by Keter (2013) asserts that absenteeism is causedį by many factors

such as: phobic adolescence; lack of interest; teacher approach; pamperness; private

couching; diseases; school infrastructural facilities; and entertainment.

Some absences are unavoidable, but you can reduce the unnecessary ones by

making school the place that best meets the students' needs (Strong, 2016). A study by

Indiana Department of Education said that truancy and legal intervention should be the last

step or effort to be made by the school or district to improve student attendance.

There isn’t a perfect remedy for chronic absenteeism, but partnerships can come

close. School, family, and community collaboration can bring about creative solutions

(Strong, 2016).

There could be helpful strategies to augment the attendance rate of the students.

Teachers should be more enthusiastic about teaching and be more passionate in guiding

their students— teaching them the value of education. Parents are also encouraged to give

constant follow-up to their children and not to pamper them for not attending their classes.

Students should also be encouraged to join extracurricular activities to be more engaged

with the school activities that can help them enjoy being in school (Dhakal 2016; Killian

2015).
A study of Reuters (2017) revealed that truancy among students can be a trendsetter

indicating that a student is more likely to practice other risky behavior. In addition, truancy

is also considered as a “gateway” behavior which can lead the students to try taking drugs,

alcohol, and other criminal acts, and can cause them to drop out from school.

Thus, low social and academic skills among students could be driven as the child

is absent from school. There will also be a greater risk of dropping out which could lead

them to engage in antisocial activities in the future (Bhatti, Khunger, & Sood, et al, n.d.).

Chapter III

Methodology

Research Design

This case study employed design which aims to describe and uncover the

experiences of a person— a student as to why they practice absenteeism. This study will

use their responses to obtain the result of this study.

Sampling

This study used judgmental sampling method because the respondents or the

students to be used as samples were already predetermined based on their advisers' records.

Those students who practiced chronic absenteeism were selected as samples.

Data Analysis Procedure


The researchers conducted an interview with the students in Limasawa NHS. The

principal sources of data collection came from their attendance registers, teachers and

classmates .The responses of the respondents were recorded through the use of interviews,

audio or video recordings, and observations. Interaction with the students was done with

semi-structured interviews that contained both open-ended and close-ended questions to

determine and come up with the exact conclusion for the study about the factors affecting

students' absenteeism as they were expected to share some of their personal accounts or

experiences.
Table 1. Findings on what students think about school.
Theme Frequency Percentage
A place to learn 11 73%
Help towards the future 2 13%
“Nothing” 1 6%
Amazing 1 6%
Majority of the students have a positive outlook about school. They believe that

school is a place to learn many stuffs about life, career and such.

Table 2. Factors affecting students' absenteeism.


Theme Frequency Percentage
Peer Factor 4 9%
Health Factor 15 33%
Monetary Factor 5 11%
Home Issues 5 11%
Student Interest 12 27%
Lack of Transportation 1 2%
Coming Late 2 4%
School Projects 1 2%
The major reason behind students' absenteeism is health issues. Students’ interest,

home-based issues, monetary problems and peer issues are also considered to be factors of

absenteeism that bring negative impact to their performance in school.

Table 3. Results on how students see their teachers in school.


Theme Frequency Percentage
A help in adding learnings 4 27%
Strict 1 7%
Good and Enthusiastic in 5 33%
teaching
Disciplines 2 13%
Serious and Funny 1 7%
“Beautiful” 1 7%
“Okay” 1 7%
The results of the interview shows that teachers have a positive impact to their

students especially in their teaching skills. The researchers then inferred that teacher factor

is not one of the strong factors that causes students' absenteeism.

Table 4. Findings for the parents' and peers' role in in averting the rising rate of

absenteeism.

Theme Frequency Percentage


Give motivation for good 2 13%
future
Use family status as 3 20%
motivation
Encourage their children to 4 27
attend their classes in order
to graduate
Give simple advice to 2 13%
study hard
Give ways to prevent 2 13%
absenteeism
Scold children for not 2 13%
going to school
Parents are found to be supportive and encouraging especially in terms of their

children’s studies.
Chapter IV

Results/Findings and Discussions

1. The result indicates that there are a number of reasons behind students' absenteeism

especially in Limasawa NHS i.e.:

a. Health factor which is considered to be the major factor for the students' absences,

for example having fever or flu. If their health is failing it would be impossible for

them to attend their classes.

“Ahh.. kanang..syempre kanang not feeling well ta.”.

Johnson (2016) who conducted similar research also found that students are much

chronically absent from school because of health issues.

b. Students' interest— of the factors which is hard to beat. Because if the students lack

interest in going to school it, would be hard for othe rpeople to convince him/her to

go to school. In fact, some of our respondents said that,

“kapoy”, “laay man maong mo absent ko”.

This shows that they don’t find school enjoyable enough that’s why they tend to go

home or choose to be at home instead. Keter (2013) revealed that students who lack
interest in school could possibly give them a difficulty in grasping the lessons.

Thus, it will push them away from school— pivoting them to absenteeism.

c. Monetary factor. Financial concerns among students is also another factor that

causes their absenteeism. One respondent said that he tends to be absent sometimes

because of financial problems— causing him to work for money.

“Usahay maka kuan ta (absent) …kanang ma busy ta sa atong trabaho

(labor)”, he said.

Poor financial status of families plays a crucial role in students' absenteeism and is

more likely to cause them to drop out from school (Fanggolo n.d.; Jacob, et al 2017;

Arseven, et al 2016).

d. Home-based issues. Students tend to be unable to get time for homeworks as they

are busy doing household work because their parents are busy earning money and

other problems at home which the respondents chose not to elaborate further have

been affecting them and turned them to practice absenteeism.

“Maka-absent usahay ug naay emergency sa bay.. usahay ug kanang naay

trabahuon.”

A recent study by Jacob, et al (2017) also discovered that home issues like unstable

housing, at-home responsibilities and stressful family events could also contribute

to students' absenteeism.
e. Peer factor is another factor responsible for students' absenteeism especially when

they are pressured to pin them in some peer activities like food trip instead of going

to school.

“Kanang usahay ug mo uban ko sa ahong mga barkada maka kuan

(absent)”,one of our respondent said.

A study of Hartnett, et al (2007) also added that teenagers who have been struggling

for daily acceptance from their peers could lead them to be absent in school.

f. Other factors which include lack of transportations also affect their attendance on

school. Students who already engage in vices tend to be absent during class hours

because they are busy with their bad vices while seeing the school as a boring

institution which offers no fun.

“Usa, ahong.. sa kanang bisyo.”, “Ug way sakjanan, di na laman (mo

eskwela).”

A study of Fanggolo (n. d.) coincides with our claim wherein transportation is

one of the factors of truancy.

Furthermore, the results revealed that teacher factor is relatively not

strong in causing the students in Limasawa NHS to practice absenteeism. The

study of Aroff, et al (2012) agreed that teacher factor is not a major factor of

students’ absenteeism.

2. Moreover, teachers who gives entertaining activities to the students are more likely

to have higher attendance rates in their classes as most of the students don’t like a

plain and very serious class discussions.


“Ganahan man ko usahay ug magklase labina ug magpaduwa sila

ma’am…ganahan ra ko mo tungha ug di kaajo sila serious.”

Killian (2015) revealed that teachers should show their students how passionate

they are in helping them to excel and use different strategies in teaching them.

3. Meanwhile, the findings of the study found that most parents are trying to motivate

them to go to school in order to encourage their children to go to school and work

on their future. While some are pampered even if they cut classes. Their parents are

busy with their work.

“Kanang mo ingon nga magtarong ug eskwela aron makatrabaho unja

di ma tambay”,”Ug mo uli ko? Wa raman..Daghan mang trabahuon maong di

na laman badlungon. Suguon ra.”

Keter (2013) also revealed in his study that students who were pampered by

their family are more likely to be absent in school.

4. Nevertheless, the respondents agreed that chronic absenteeism can give a negative

impact to their academic performance and ratings.

“Aww oh, naa. Kay kung sige ka’g absent, wa man kay points.”

A study related to this by Kelly (n. d.) found that being chronically absent affects

high school graduation rates and the chances for success in college. When the

students miss school more often, it can be difficult for them to catch-up with the

lessons. And when they are not in school, they will miss the chance to be looked

after and be given extra support and such.


Chapter V

Conclusions and Recommendations

The factors affecting students' absenteeism were being determined through the

application of qualitative research method. Interviews with both open-ended and close-

ended questions were employed in the conduct of the interview with the participants of the

study and allowed them to share some of their insights about how they see the school. The

students who were willing to participate in the interview had also shared their sentiments

and their problems regarding their absences.

Hence, the participants' responses to our questions had helped us to figure out the

factors affecting the students' absenteeism i. e. health factor, students' interest, monetary

factor, home-based issues, peer factor, and environmental factors including bad influences

causing them to have vices and the transportation.


In conclusion, the research findings revealed that the problem regarding to the

students' absenteeism were mostly caused by their own interest, their financial status and

environment as they considered these things as a barrier for their academic achievements.

Teacher factor is found out to be not one of the factors that causes absenteeism

among the students of Limasawa NHS as students see their teachers as a help in their

studies. And they

The results of this study may benefit other educational institution and local

government agencies to formulate programs and activities which can be fully implemented

in order to help parents provide adequate financial support to the students which may

possibly lead to curbing absenteeism.

Based from the conclusions above, the researchers came up with the following

recommendations:

1. The government together with the teaching staff and stakeholders should work

together to address the health issues of the students. Conducting a symposium that

will inform them well enough on how to take care of themselves following proper

hygiene and healthy lifestyle and to constantly clean the environment to prevent

diseases can help the students to curb absenteeism.

2. Students should be more encourage to participate in the school activities for them

to be interested and feel that school is not boring but a wonderful place to enjoy

and learn at the same time.


3. Teachers should be more hands on in checking the students' attendance and if

possible ,give recognitions or awards for those students who have complete

attendance rate every quarter. This is to encourage and motivate them to go to

school and attend their classes .

4. Teachers should be more sociable to students so they will be encouraged to attend

his/her classes.

5. Parents should not pamper their children or tolerate their truant behavior. They

should always remind them of the importance of going to school and education

itself and give their children a constant follow-up.

6. Parents should give their children the adequate financial support and moral support

especially in terms of their studies.

7. School guards, student council members, and other teaching staffs should be more

strict in guarding and guiding the students to curb their bad vices that they might

do in the campus.

8. Students should be taught of prioritizing education over leisure activities with their

peers.
Appendices

Appendix A

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region VIII
Division of Southern Leyte
Limasawa National High School
Cabulihan, Limasawa, Southern Leyte
January 25, 2018
Dear Respondent,

Please be informed that you were chosen to be the respondent of the study about

factors affecting students' absenteeism. You will be interviewed with the questions related
to the study. Your honest and polite answers will mean so much to this matter. Thank you

for your consideration.

Sincerely,

The Researchers

Direction: Kindly answer the questions honestly.

Research Questions:

1. What do you think about school?

2. How do you find your teacher in school?

3. What factors do you think are responsible for your attendance rate? Cite at least

three.

4. What do your parents and peers do to motivate you to go to school?

Appendix B

Answers for Question No. 1:


R1: Nothing
R2: A place to learn
R3: A place to learn
R4: Can add learnings
R5: Can help add learnings
R6: Can help add learnings
R7: Can add knowledge
R8: Can add knowledge
R9: Helpful
R10: Amazing
R11: First step to the bright future
R12: A place to learn
R13: A place to learn
R14: A place to learn
R15: A place to learn for the future

Codes:
•A place to learn
•Help towards the future
•Nothing
•Amazing

Answers for Question No. 2:


R1: As a second mother
R2: Beautiful
R3: Person who disciplines us
R4: Good teacher
R5: Enthusiastic in teaching
R6: Serious and funny
R7: Helpful
R8: Helpful
R9: A kind teacher
R10: A strict teacher
R11: A kind and lovable teacher
R12: He/she is okay
R13: Helps us to learn
R14: Helps us to learn
R15: Kind, patient and hardworking

Codes:
•A help in adding learnings
•Strict
•Good and enthusiastic in teaching
•Disciplines
•”Okay”
•”Beautiful”
•Serious and Funny

Answers for Question No. 3:


R1: Peers, ,when sick, Financial problem
R2: Health problem, vices influenced by peers, tiredness
R3: School projects, when sick, coming late
R4: Health problem, coming late, waking up late
R5: No money, ,When friends are absent, health problem
R6: Health problem, work (labor), tiredness
R7: Emergency at home, when tired, when sick
R8: Emergency at home, when sick, when tired
R9: Health problems, financial problems, tiredness
R10: When sick, no money, when tired
R11: Health problem, food trip with friends, helping at home
R12: bored, health issues, problems at home
R13: problems at home, health issues, bored
R14: self problem, no transportation, when sick
R15: when sick, self problem, bored

Codes:
•Peer factor
•Health Factor
•Monetary factor
•Home issues
•Student Interest
•Lack of Transportation
• School Projects

Answers for Question No. 4:


R1: They (parents) motivate me to study so that I won’t be like my father who is a
fisherman.
R2: They (parents) used to tell me to study hard to be successful in the future.
R3: They (parents) encourage me to go to school to learn and graduate.
R4: They (parents) push me and convince me to study so that I can graduate.
R5: My parents told me to not to cut classes with my friends.
R6: If my friends are absent, I don’t want to attend classes. And my parents will get mad
at me.
R7: My parents told me to study hard in order to graduate.
R8: It depends on my friends' trip. But my parents really want me to attend classes so they
scold me.
R9: My parents advice me to stop my bad vices and focus on my studies to be successful.
R10: Parents told me to study hard so that I could help our family in the future.
R11: They told me to study so that I could graduate.
R12: Be good in your studies because it’s not easy to send you to school.
R13: They adviced me to study hard.
R14: They encourage me to study hard for a brighter future.
R15: They told me to study hard.

Codes:
•Give motivation for good future
•Use family status as motivation
•Encourage their children to attend classes in order to graduate
•Give simple advice to study hard
•Give ways to prevent absenteeism
•Scold children for not going to school
Bibliography

Aroff, A., Kamal, N., & Suhid, A. (2012). Factors causing student absenteeism according
to peers. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, Vol. 1,No.4.Pdf. Retrieved
from
http://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar_url?url=http://ijac.org.uk/images/frontImage
s/gallery/Vol._1_No._4/32.pdf&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm3yWSSyiQBBfF
uVP68ZP593hN9qvQ&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwiX27Wb1dTZAhU
GTLwY-UCqQQgAMICSgAMAA

Arseven, Z., Kilic, A., & Sahin, S. (2016). Causes of student absenteeism and school
dropouts. International Journal of Instruction Vol. 9, No. 1. Pdf.
http://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar_url?url=https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1
086967.pdf&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm1dZ0-
IT_Ix046enqkRtth29iaOXw&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwjVpMas0dT
ZAhXFiLwKHcSvCKYQgAMICSgAMAA
Balfanz, R., & Byrnes, V. (2012). Chronic absenteeism: summarizing what we know from
nationally available data. Retrieved from http://new.every1graduate.org/wp-
content/uploads/2012/05/FINALChronicAbsenteeism_

Bhatti, S., Khunger, N., & Sood, M. (n. d.). A study of student absenteeism in primary
school in Delhi. Slideshare, 14-15. Retrieved from
https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/MedhaviSood1/absenteeism-in-govet-schools

Bimler, D., Kirkland, J. (2001). School truants and truancy motivation sorted out with
multidimensional scaling. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16-75-102. Retrieved
from
http://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar_url?url=https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1
086967.pdf&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm1dZ0-
IT_Ix046enqkRtth29iaOXw&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwjVpMas0dT
ZAhXFiLwKHcSvCKYQgAMICSgAMAA

Bruner, C., Discher, A., & Chang, H. (2001). Chronic elementary absenteeism. A problem
hidden in plain sight. A research brief from Attendance Works and Child and
Family Policy Center. Retrieved from
http://www.edweck.org/media/chronicabscence-chang.pdf

Carlson, B. (2014). The effects of chronic absenteeism. Retrieved from


http://www.isd423.org/chronic-absenteeism/

Clores, M. (2009). A qualitative research study on school absenteeism among college


students. Philippine E-Journals. Retrieved from
https://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=3928

Dhakal, B. (2016). Absenteeism in secondary level: reasons and remedies. Retrieved from
https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/basantarajdhakal.wordpress.com/2016/10/15/fi
rst-blog-post/amp/

Fanggolo, E. (n. d.). Causes and effects of absenteeism. Slideshare. Retrieved from
https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/erickfanggolo/causes-and-effects-of-
absenteeism
Hartnett, & Sharon (2007). Does peer group identity influence absenteeism in high school
students?. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-
173923029/does-peer-group-identity-influence-absenteeism-in

Jacob, B., & Lovett, K. (2017). Chronic absenteeism: An old problem in search of new
answers. Retrieved from
https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/www.brookings.edu/research/chronic-
absenteeism-an-old-problem-in-search-of-new-answers/amp/?espv=1

Johnson, R. (2016). The relationship between school attendance and health. Retrieved from
https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2016/09/the-relationship-between-
school-attendance-and-health.html

Kearney, C. (2008). School absenteeism and school refusal behavior in youth: a


contemporary review. Retrieved from https://www.research-
gate.net/publication/6120477_School_absenteeism_and_school_refusal_behavior
_in_youth_A_contemporary_review

Keter, T. (2013). Absenteeism in school. Eneza Education. Retrieved from


http://enezaeducation.com/absenteeism-in-school/

Killian, S. (2014). 10 proven ways to improve school attendance. Retrieved from


https://www.research-
gate.net/publication/6120477_School_absenteeism_and_school_refusal_behavior
_in_youth_A_contemporary_review

Reuters, H. (2017). Later high school start times linked to higher attendance, graduation
rates. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.-com/article/us-health-teens-education-
idUSKBN15P2F7

Strong, L. (2016). 3 ways to treat chronic absenteeism. Retrieved from


https://www.skyward.com/discover/blog/skyward-blogs/skyward-executive-
blog/april-2016/3-ways-to-treat-chronic-absenteeism