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biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
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biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world

biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world

biology the living world

biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world

biology the living world

biology the living world


biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology the living world
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
biology biological classification
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biology viruses
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biology plantae
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biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
biology morphology of flowering p
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biology morphology of flowering p
ouestion
an irreversible quantitative increase in the mass of an individual is called
the non living substance formed by the cells are called
biological death occurs when
which of the following is most appropriate to explain a living organism
maximum lifespan of 507 years is found in ocean quahog. Maximum lifespan of 1-2 weeks is found in
the term texonomy was cioned by
texonomy is the study of
which among the following requires a theoretical approach
CNB stands for
the idea of binomial nomenclature was proposed for the first time by
select the statement which is incorrect about tautonyms
a division is placed between
largest herbaria of world is at
in india, the largest number of specimens are found in
an institution or a place, where preserved plant and animal specimens are stored
national museum of national history is situated in
a botanical garden has
who publised the international directory of botanical gardens
keys are based on
in general terminology flora refers to the
a texonomic aid that gives comprehensive information of single toxon in biological texonomic studies is
species plantarum was written by
book written by aristotle is
the energy yielding process that also requires input of energy is
all cells respire aerobically except
homeostasis is
texonomy is the study of
which one of the following represents a tautonym
corvus splendens splendens is the scientific name of indian crow it represents
type specimen described along with holotype is
in a texonomic hierarchy species is a rank which is smaller than the
hierarchy of categories was introdued by
the term taxon was given by
genus is a group of similar and related
actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area is provided by
repeated reproduction of animals at regular intervals in the life cycle is known as
taxonomy is connected with
taxonomy based on number of shared charecteristics of varius organism is called
taxon includes
manual contain information for

neosystematics aims at
in a plant herbarium mostly to arrange plants we make use of
the two basis functions of life are
living beings are different from non living is possessing
which of the following promotes similarity among living things
in general growth involves
nothing lives forever yet life continues what does it mean
what represents the steady state
which one of the following does not form basis of modern taxonomic studies
the herbarium specimen based on which a new specis is described for the first time is called
species is
the members of which one of the following groups have many charecteristics in common
the national herbarium is that which contains plants of
an institution or a place, where artistic and educational materials are exhibited to the public is called
reproduction cannot be an all inclusive defining charecteristic of living organism because
homeostasis is represented by
reason of diversity in living beings is
most important criteria presently used for classification of living organisms is
taxonomy is important in agriculture because it helps in
type specimen used by the author in the original publication is known as
find out the incorrect statement from the following
which of the following taxonomial aid serve as a quick referrel system in taxonomic studies
by which chemical specimens for herbaria are treated to prevent any fungal attack

which of the following is incorrect about keys


select the incorrect statement
which of the following is not correct
choose the wrong statement regarding universal rules of nomenclature
if a botanist has to nomenclate a similar species he will use
in the classification of organism which of the following is the correct hierarchy of taxonomic groups

the chart shows the classification of two species of crocodile . Animalia chordata reptilia loricata
crocodylidae crocodylus crocodylus niloticus crocodylus porosus. To which order do these crocodiles belong
select the odd wrt botanical gardens
two morphologically similar populations are intersterile. They belong to
amongst all the kingdoms the only taxon that exists in nature as a biologically cohesive unit is the
scientific name of tobacco mosaic virus is standardised through rules given is
solanum+nigrum -- 1 poaceae + solanaceae
a taxonomist found a new plant . He used lectotype for the identification of the new plant. Why did he used l

go through the satements given below and choose the option with all incorrect statement.1. common names
can be misleading. 2. vernacular names are easier to pronounce. 3. common name touch - me- not is given
to two species i.e nigella and mimosa. 4. vernacular names often have no significance

read the following statements and choose the option having all true statements. 1. the idea of binomial
nomenclature was first introduced by gaspard bauhin.2. in the name mangefera indica L. here L is the symbol
representing the first published. 3. in polynomial system of nomenclature descriptive names are used for
organisms. 4. binomial system was proposed by carolus linnaeus

consider the following statement regarding scientific names. 1. in the book pinax, binomial system
of nomenclature was proposed for the first time.2. scientific names are always in greek. 3. the first
word in a specific name is generic name. 4. generic and specific epithets start with small letter.
segregate the above statement as true or false by selecting the correct option
find the correct sequence of various step of herbarium technique 1. drying. 2. poisoning. 3. collection. 4.
labelling. 5. mounting 6. deposition. 7. stiching

match:a. linnaeus 1. living species of today.b. john ray 2. father of taxonomy. C. sychronic species. 3, coined
the term spesies. D. neontological species -4. species belonging to same time period
match: a. genus - 1. eichler. B. division - 2. cuvier. C. phylum - 3. linnaeus. D. class - 4. tournefort

match: a. ex situ conservation - 1. central national herbarium. B. quick referral system - 2. museum. C.
preserved plants - 3. flora. D. actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area - 4. royal
botanical garden, kew
assertion: scientific names are printed in italics. Reason: the name of author is writtern in abbriviated form
after the specific epithet and is printed in roman
nomenclature is governed by certain universal rules. Which one of the following is contrary to the rules of
nomenclature
the system of giving one name to the individua; is termed as
arrange the following in ascending order of linnaean hierarchy
the word species was coined by
which one of the following shows the hierarchial arrangement of taxonomic categories of plants in
descending order
taxonomic categories showing correct hierarchial arrangement in ascending order is
taxonomic group of any rank is
which of the following is correctly sequenced
family is placed between

which one of the following is not a correct statement


ICBN stands for

read the statements given below and identify the incorrect statement

linnaeus system of plant classification is based on


chemotaxonomy is connected with the
the largest herbarium in india is located in
basic unit of classification is
binomial nomenclature was introduced by
artificial system of classification is based on
a natural system of classification is
the five kingdom classification was proposed by
two kingdom and three kingdom classification system was given by ----- respectively
in his four kingdom classification copeland divided organisms into
true nucleate, unicellular organisms were classified under four kingdom classification under
bacteria are grouped in which one of the following kingdom
which of the following have cellulosic cell wall
the kingdom having holozoic type of nutrition in organisms is
animals of which of the following kingdoms do not possess cell wall
all eukaryotic unicellular organisms belong to
naked cytoplasm multinucleated and saprophytic are the charecteristic of
the organism which show the charecteristics of both plants and animals are
which of the following was given the status of kingdom in the classification system given by copeland
the members of kingdom protista differ from members of kingdom monera mainly due to
out of the four very important classification system one is less phylogenetic and more natural, that is of
given below are certain charecteristic features of members of kingdom protista. Pick out the one which is not
the kingdom having both chlamydomonas and amoeba is
the newly framed kingdom - archaebacteria consists of
how many kingdom in whittaker's classification system strictly involves organisms of linnaeus's system should
the unicellular eukaryotic wall less organism of linnaeus's system should be placed in --------
which of the following scientist proposed it's classification system based on recent nucleic acid hybridisatio
a student viewed a drop of marine water under microscope and observed a unicellular organism with a distinct
what is true about classification. 1. it is the arrangement of living organisms in groups. 2. aristotle was the firs
natural system of classification is 1. based on 1 or few charecters which are not related to phylogenetic signifi
match: a. artificial system - 1. a w eichler. B. phylogenetic system - 2. peter sneath c. phenetic system - 3. c li
match: a. animalia - 1. unicellular prokaryotes. B. monera - 2. multicellular and photosynthetic. C. protista - 3.
assertion: engler and prantl proposed a natural system of classification. Reason: engler and prantl system was
green phytoplanktons are kept in which kingdom of five kingdom classification system
in five kingdom classification single celled eukaryotes are included in
in vedic times living organisms were classified in the following number of classes
five kingdom system of classification suggested by rh whittaker is not based on
as per whittaker classification an organism possesing eukaryotic cell structure multicellular organisation wi
which is called sexual system of classification
which of the following organism completely lack cell wall they are the smallest living cells known and can sur
consider the following statement with respect to charecteristic features of the kingdom 1. in animalia the mode
phenetic classification is based on
match: a. plantae-1. archaebacteria b. fungi - 2. euglenoids c. protista - 3. phycomycetes d. monera - 4. algae
the phylogenetic systemof classification was put forth by
who proposed a five kingdom system of classification and named kingdom as monera, proyista, fungi, plantae
phylogenetic system of classification is based on
engler and prantl published a phylogenetic system in the monograph
flagella of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in
the term viron for a complete infective form of a virus outside the host cell was introduced by
which among the following is not a charecteristic feature of viruses
choose the charecteristic features of a virus
enveloped virus containing glycoproteins are helpful in
average size range of virus is
cauliflower mosaic virus has
who among the following demonstrated that RNA is the genetic material in tabacco mosaic virus
the reservoir for rabies virus include
the SARS is a member of the group of
the most mutable virus is
the glycoproteins present in HIV are numbered as
which were the first viruses shown to cause cancer
the first oncovirus from a human sarcoma was isolated by
algal viruses are called
a bacteriophage is a
viruses are
Capsid is
latest discovered disease SARS is caused by
prion is made up of
interferons were discovered by
contagium vivum fluidum was proposed by
who demonstrated that the RNA is a genetic material of tobacco mosaic virus using two strains
a naked RNA particle causing the symptoms like that of a virus disease is knowm as
scrapie disese of cattle is caused by
infective protein of a virus is nucleic acid. It was discovered by
research has revealed a variety of viral genome types which of the following is not one of them
the parasite that is non living outside a living host cell is
what do host cells provide for viruses
which one of the following statements about viruses is correct
one of the interesting features of viruses is that they
match: a. double standard DNA virus - 1, reovirus of humans b. single standard DNA virus - 2.TMV c. double sta
match: a. plant virus - 1. potato spindle tuber disease b. animal virus - 2. kuru disease c. viroid - 3. tobacco nec
select wrong statement
which of the following statement is correct for transduction
match: a. HIV - 1. host b. pilus - 2. prophage c. virus penetration - 3. retroviridae d. lysogeny-4. donor 5.polyhe
bacterial viruses usually have
viruses have
identify the correct pair of combination : 1.viroid bovine spongiform encephalitis 2.prion - creutzfeldt - jakob
which of the following statement is false
cell theory is not applicable to
LPP-1 is a
infectious proteins are present in
a virus differs from a bacteria as contains
double stranded RNA is found in
WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING does not follow the central dogma of molecular biology
who discovered an infections agent that was to be a free RNA of low molecular weight it also lacked protein c
virion is a
genetic material found in human immunodeficiency virus is
protein coat of a virus enclosing nucleic acid is
in which of the following patterns of viral replication viruses enter a cell replicate and then cause the cell to b
severe acute respiratory syndrome
small proteins produced by vertebrate cells naturally in response to viral infections and which inhibit multiplic
PRION consists mainly of
provirus is
bacteriophage release lysozyme during
viruses which infect bacteria multiply and cause their lysis are
which one of the following is not classified as true bacteria
staphylococcus bacterium is a
which of the following is not correct
what is the general shape of the bacilli bacteria
bacterial cells but not eukaryotic cells posses
prokaryotic flagellum consists of
bacteria bearing only one flagellum at the body is called
the microtubler organisation in cilia or flagella of moneran is
bacterial whose cells have only a single curve are known as
bacterial cells are usually enclosed by a
the flagella of bacteria are
bacteria without flagella are known as
bacteria having a tuft or group of flagella at two poles are called
the stain used to distinguish gram positive bacteria from gram negative ones is
bacteria are regarded as primitive organisms because they
bacteria that use light for their energy source and CO2 for their carbon source are called
in gram positive bacteria the peptidoglycan layer constitutes
S - type bacteria are
binding of magnesium ions by teichoic acids in bacterial cell wall protects bacteria from
gram staining is a
consider the following given bacteria and classify them as gram +ve and gram ve bacteria. Choose the correct
the process by which a bacterium aquires new genes by taking up parts of a naked DNA molecule from its
the water of river ganga is purified by the
bacterial nucleiod consists of
the germ theory of disease was putforth by
mycoplasma are sensitive to
what is the role of heterocysts in a cyanobacterial filament
the similarity between bacterium and cyanobacterium is in the
pigment phycocyanin and phycoerythrin are found in
which of the following shows the absence of chlorophyll-b
in which of the following there is no sexual reproduction
sexual reproduction is absent in
prokaryotes are charecterised by
which of the following important features are found in blue green algae
cynobacteria are
the chemosynthetic bacteria are 1. nitrosomonas 2. nitrobacter 3. rhodospirillum 4. chlorobium
select the correct pair 1.methanogens- methanogenium, methanothirix 2. halophiles - halococcus, haloarchae
select the incorrect pair 1.endoscpore-actinomycetes 2. cyst formation - azotobacter 3. conidia - clostridium t
consider the following statement. 1. staphylococcus occurs in cluster like a bunch of grapes.2. some species of
match: a.archaebacteria - 1. do not possess photosynthetic pigments b. mesosomes 2. atrichous c. pili 3. more p
match: a. coccus - 1. they are non flagellated b. bacillus - 2. they are spherical in shape c. spirillum 3. they ar
assertion: gram negative bacteria do not retain the stain when washed with alcohol. Reason: the outer surfac
the primitive prokaryotes responsible for the production of biogas from the dung of ruminant animals, include
which one of the following statements is incorrect
the organisms which completely lack a cell wall and can live without oxygen are
true nucleus is absent in
which one of the following cocci appears like grapes under microscope
which one of the following is a causative agent of plague
the cell wall material present only in bacteria and blue green algae is
which is not properly matched
archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in
the motile bacteria are able to move by
anoxygenic photosynthesis is charecteristic of
match: syphilis - 1. acetobacter. B. pathogen of cattle 2. agrobacterium c. crown gall of apple 3. corynebact
bacteria differ from plants in that they do not have
pigment containing membranous extensions in some cyanobacteria are
which of the following are likely to be present in deep sea water
spirochaetes is
which of the following is a gram negative bacterium
cynobacteria is also referred to as
the main difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria is in these
mycoplasma are sensitive to
the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis is widely used in contemporary biology as a
bacterium which is concerned with pertussis is
transduction in bacteria was discovered by
which one is true about domain archaea
on the basis of rRNA genes bacteria are divisible into
in bacteria cell division is
amphitrichous flagellation has
assertion: true nucleus is absent in e . Coli and other prokaryotes reason: an undifferentiated unorganised fibr
in spirogyra
the plant body of ulothrix remain attached to substratum through
macrozoospores of ulothrix are not
the body of brown algae is differentiated into
an alga used as food by astronauts is
chlorellin is obtained from
the body of bryophytes remain fixed to the substratum by means of
bryophytes are also called ----- of plant kingdom
largest bryophyte is
the members of class anthoceratopsida are popularly known as
the rhizoids of moss are
in moss sporophyte, which of the following is present
protonema is
which one of the following is an exclusive aquatic species of riccia
when a plant produces two kind of spores the condition is known as
which of the following is not a heterosporous genera of filicophyta
vegetative reproduction in selaginella occur by
the pteridophyte used as a biofertiliser is
phanerogamae are
the smallest gymnosperm is
xylem gymnosperms is devoid of
the phloem in gymnosperms lack
gymnosperms lack
which of the following is not a charecteristic of coralloid roots
wood of cycus is polyxylic and it consists of --------------- xylem cylinder
the roots of angiosperms develop from
the xylem of angiosperms consists of
the ovules of angiosperms are enclosed inside the
endosperm of flowering plants is
a feature peculiar to angiosperms only is
bentham and hooker's system of classification is published in book
dicots usually have ----- vascular bundles
monocots have been grouped in
which character is common between the angiosperms and gymnosperms
gymnosperms and angiosperms show resemblances in many charecteristics except
the members of class - phaeophyceae are
porphyra is a member of class
in algae aplanospores are produced during
spirogyra and ulothrix are found in
redness of red sea is due to
one of the algae can be used as food in the space flight. It is
the bryophyte of considerable economic importance is
cycas revoluta is popularly known as
the plant which has seeds but not fruits is
the first cell of sporophytic generation in bryophyta is
in bryophyta simplest sporophyte occur in
in mosses haploid ----- directly produces buds that grow into gametophores
spores of funaria represent
strobilus is equivalent to
sexual reproduction does require water in
a fern character shown by cycas leaves
haploid endosperm is present in
the wood in cycas consists of
the ring of hygroscopic teeth around the mouth of dehiscent capsule in mosses is called
protonema is
moss protonema resembles an algal filament but can be distinguished from the later in having
sphagnum is used as a packing material for transporting living plants because of its
evolution of seed habit started from
chief merit of bentham and hooker's classification is that
a plant shows thallus level of organisation. It shows rhizoids and is haploid. It needs water to complete its lif
a feature of angiosperms shared with gymnosperms and lacking in other groups, i.e algae, bryophytes and pte
in which of the following group would you place a plant which produces spores and embryos, but lack seed an
how are gametes produced in bryophytes
in bryophytes gametophyte is formed by
bryophytes are not tall plants due to
an archegonium of riccia has
the product of conjugation in spirogyra or fertilisation of chlamydomonas is
sex organs in pteridophytes are formed on the
prothallus of fern has
a prothallus is
which of the following is correct
algae are charecterised by the 1. lack of vascular tissues. 2. lack of seeds 3. lack of embryo 4. lack of differen
gymnosperms are charecterised by 1. presence of naked seeds. 2. haloid endosperm. 3. herbs and annual life cy
cycas shows 1. sunken stomato 2. presence of companion cells. 3. collateral and open vascularbundles 4. xyle
which of the following are correct about pteridophytes 1. the sporophyte bear sporangia formed on sporophylls.
followiong statement represent comparitive account of pinus and cycas 1. the whole plant body of both the plant
which of the following is correct for gymnosperms 1.they are heterosporous. 2. they are the first vascular plants
match: a. protonema - 1. numerous neck canal cells in the capsule b. columella - 2. bryophyte of economic impor
match:a.anthoceros - 1. alga b. adiantum 2. hornwort c. sargassum - 3. gametophyte d. prothallus - 4. inferae e
match: a. largest ovules - 1. cannabis sativa b. cuscuta - 2. papaver sominiferum c.drosera - 3.cycas d. morphine
assertion: bryophytes are the amphibians of plant kingdom. Reason: they are found in swamps and the areas
assertion:mosses have evolved from algae. Reason: protonema of mosses is similar to some green algae
assertion: the seeds of gymnosperms are naked. Reason: seed consists of three generations one within the ot
which of the following statements is wrong
which of the following is responsible for peat formation
male gemotophyte with least number of cells is present in
mosses and liverworts are members of
marchantia is considered a heterothallic plant because it is
the life cycle of algae such as spirogyra is
match:a. green alga - 1. dictyota b. brown alga - 2. porphyra c. red alga - 3. spirogyra
the presnce of pyrenoid is charecteristic feature of class
an alga which can be employed as food for human being is
food is stored in the form of mannitol in the class of algae
which one of the following is an example of chlorophyllous thallophyte
alginic acid is found in the cell wall of
megasporangium is equivalent to
the dominant generation in pteridophytes is
in bryophytes the sporophytic phase is represented by
which of the following is not a feature of gymnosperms
which of the following is true about bryophytes
gametophytic and sporophytic phases are independent in
which of the following is grouped under phanerogams
which of the following group of plants are generally called amphibians of plant kingdom
dispersal of spores in ferns takes place through
botanical name of peat moss is
spore of funaria on germination gives rise to
the plants having vascular tissue but lacking seeds are placed under
the type of pollution in cycas is
both heterospory and circinate ptyxis do not occur in
vegetative reproduction in funaria takes place by
seed habit is linked to
iodine is found in algae
fern gametophyte shows ----------- nature
which of the following statements is wrong
spirogyral lateral conjugation takes place in
in cycas pollination occurs at -------- celled stage
consider the following statements regarding gymnosperm and choose the correct option 1. in gymnosperms t
in funaria the stomata are found in
the smallest angiospermic flower is
a fern differs from a moss in having
which of the following is an algal parasite
agar-agar is obtained from
club moss belongs to
coralloid root is the feature of
female reproductive part of bryophyte is
moss protonema can be differenciated from the filamentous alga in
spore dissemination in sum liverworts is aided by
in the prothallous of vascular cryptogams the antherozoids and eggs mature at different times . As a result
in gymnosperms the pollen chamber represents
bryophytes are called amphibians of plant kingdom because
the classes of sub kingdom phanerogamae are
very small non motile algal spores are
holdfast stipe and frond constitutes the plant body in case of
which is the predominant phase in the life cycle of the bryophyte
which of the body plan is found in nematodes
during which stage in embryonic development primary germ layers appear for the first time
coelom is a space between
the coelom not lined by mesoderm and directly connected to the archenteron is found in
the evolution of an internal body cavity was an important improvement in animal body design in which area
body cavity is the cavity present between body wall and gut wall. In some animals the body cavity is not line
development of mesoderm in the form of muscles in body wall, leaving alimentary canal non - muscular is the
in some animal groups the body is found diveded into compartments with at least some organs. This charecteris
temperature changes in the environment affect most of the animals which are
modern representatives of ancient link between the echinoderms and the chordates are represented
animals which have well marked digestive cavity are put under
who described the animal nature of porifera
sponges form a sideline of evolution hence called
sponges are porifers because their bodies have
canal system in sponges helps in
the sponge body is supported by a skeleton made up of
in sponges first food is ingested by the choanocytes and digestion is completed in
which of the following animals can successfully reproduce without utilising the process of mitosis
during unfavourable conditions the sponges form
which is not known to occur in leucosolenia
the digested food in leucosolenia is stored in
the animal in which sexes can be differentiated from external morphology is
eggs of ascaris that pass out of host body are
glass sponges belong to the class
the sponge showing commensalism with shrimps is
a sponge harmful to oyster industry is
platyhelminthes include organisms that are
1. in porifera excretion mainly occurs by diffusion 2. sponges are ammonnotelic animals 3. sponges are filter
from the given set of statements identify the statements as true or false 1. opening of osculum is regulated pa
which of the following phyla possess multicellular organ grade level of organisation 1. platyhelminthes 2.pori
scypha belongs to a group of animals which are best described as 1. multicellular without any tissue organisati
animals developing from three cellular layers are called as triploblastic animals. Identify the animal. 1. annelid
largest class of sponge. Identify the correct option 1. spongia 2. euspongia 3. cliona 4. euplectella
which one of the following is not a difference between a sponge and metazoa 1. division of labour 2. cell divis
the radial symmetry is observed in 1. platyhelminthes 2. coelenterates 3. aschelminthes 4. echinoderms
study the following statements about adamsia 1. it is parasite 2. it is an example of commensalism 3. it is calle
which of the following animals have constant body temperature independent of their external environment 1. ra
given below are the pair of phyla with their body cavities 1.platyhelminthes-pseudocoel 2. annelida-schizocoe
choose the correct statement related to schistosoma 1. male is longer than female 2. male has gynaecophoric
choose the correct statement regarding taenia sodium 1. scolex is present at the posteriormost end of the body 2
phylum-platyhelminthes 1. the presence of ectodermal endodermal and mesodermal layer2. the presence of hy
choose the correct option about ascaris 1. it spreads through contaminated food and water 2. its symptoms incl
match: a. porifera - 1. cell tissue b. protozoa - 2. protoplasma c. cnidaria - 3. organ system d. chordata - 4. cellu
match: a. archaeocytes-1. storage cells b. chromocytes - 2. amoebocytes with branched pseudopodia c. thesoc
match: a. venus flower basket - 1. spongilla b. glass rope sponge 2. euspongia c. freshwater sponge - 3. cliona
match:A.CALCAREA--1.six rayed siliceous spicules b. demospongiae - 2. spongin fibres aragonite and siliceous spic
match: a. 10 hooked larva--1.tdenia,b.acetabulum--2.cycliophora ,c.bladderworm--3.sucker in cestodia d.hyda
match: a. flame cells - 1. sponges b. collar cells - 2. hydra c. stinging cells - 3. planaria 4. ascaris
match: a. fasciola hepatica - 1. sheep liver fluke b. fasciola gigantica - 2. cattle liver fluke c. fasciolopsis buski
match: a. epitheliomuscular cells - 1. totipotent b. glandular cells - 2. unique cells of phylum coelenterata c. inte
match: a. eyeworms - 1. trichuris b. whipworm - 2. dracunculus medinensis c. guineaworm - 3. enterobius d. s
which one of the following group of animals is homeothermic
which one of the following statements is incorrect
which one is also called hookworm
the cercarial stage of liver fluke is produced by
which one of the following exhibits mismatch pair
select the taxon mentioned that represents both marine and freshwater species
cellular organisation of body is present in
choanocytes form the lining of paragastral cavity in
in the cycle of ascaris lumbricoides rhabditiform larva undergoes 2 nd and 3rd moultings in
infection of ascaris usually occurs by
choanocytes are present in
match: a. organ level - 1. pheretima b. cellular aggregate level - 2. fasciola c. tissue level - 3. spongilla d. organ
pentaradial symmetry is found in
which one of the following statements about certain given animals is correct
sycon belongs to a group of animals which are best described as
which of the following cells are useful for feeding in sponges
the animals that rely on the heat from environment then metabolism to raise their body temperature are in str
which one of the following exhibits concentric tube within tube plan
which of the following has biradial symmetry
the anterior v-spot in microfilaria of wuchereria represents
the pseudocoelomate among these is
a bilaterally symmetrical deuterostome is classified in the phylum
body cavity of adult ascaris is
the causative agent of filaria is
turbellarians are free living
filariasis is caused due to
after drying a bath sponge contains
bioluminescence is well marked in
which of the following exhibits metagenesis
the coxal glands in arachnids serve as
trilobites evolved during
in limulus the respiratory organs are
peripatus has
respiratory organs of crustaceans are
which one of the following is known as waterflea
scolopendra is a
the animal having head with one pair of antennae and no eyes is
in insects excretory product is
pheretima is
excretory organs of an earthworm are
haemocoelomic system is the circulatory system of
the largest phylum of animalia that includes insects is
appendages in the members of phylum - arthropoda are
body cavity of mosquito is
respiratory organs in arthropods include
which of the following is a living fossil
which one of the following is not an arachnida
the water vascular system in echinoderms is composed of a porous called
which one of the following features is not present in phylum-arthropoda
match: a. family - 1. diptera b. order - 2. arthropoda c. class - 3. muscidae d. phylum - 4. insecta
choose the correct set of disease transmitting arthropods
the chitinous exoskeleton of arthropods is formed by the polymerisation of
the first body segment of earthworm is
match: a. arenicoloa - 1. terrestrial leech b. hirudinaria - 2. marine leech c. pontobdella - 3. lungworm d. hae
which one belongs to class - polyplacophora
read the statement regarding echinoderms and choose the correct option 1. all are marine with organ system leve
which one is an example of living fossil
juvenile hormone in insect is released from
pentaradial symmetry is found in
in polychaeta the setae are
radula is found in
veliger larva occurs in phylum
assertion: open circulatory system is found in most arthropods reason: arthropods contain haemolymph which d
one of the representative of phylum arthropoda is
which group of animals belongs to the same phylum
what is the similarity between housefly, mosquito and cockroach
which is not charecteristic feature of arthropods
which one of the following exhibits concentric tube within tube plan
pheretima and its close relatives derive nourishment from
the members of which of the following phyla are exclusively marine
which of the following is a crustacean
open circulatory system occurs in
which of the following have the highest number of species in nature
which one of the following does not have an excretory system
water vascular system is found in
which of the following are examples of arthropods
which of the following is not a true fish
taxonomically which of the following sets is matched correctly
in ophiuroidea branched arms are seen in
ink glands are found in
in the life cycle of mosquito comma shaped stage is
in mollusca, eye is present over a stalk called
caterpillar and maggots are
it can regenerate entire alimentary canal
three segmented club shaped maxillary palp is
mosquito receives air through
in housefly pseudotracheae is found in
which of the following charecters are present in class-crustacea
connecting link between annelida and mollusca
exoskeleton of which of the following consists of a chitinous cuticle
the arthropods exoskeleton is composed of
the animal causing holes in boats and ship thus referred as threat to ship industry is
cyclostoms are marine but migrate to freshwater
which one of the following pairs comprises jawless fishes
gnathostomata are charecterised by the presence of
gnathostomata differ from agnatha in having
the body of members of class chondrichthyes is
the spiracles in torpedo are situated
the glands present in the skin of frog are
in amphibians respiration occurs through
which of the following subclass of amphibians are extinct
in amphibia dermal scales are present in
in the amphibian order - urodela
salamandra is
hemichordata was earlier considered as a subphylum under phylum- chordata. But now it is placed as a sepa
scales and paired fins are absent in
the marine animals with streamlined body having cartilaginous endoskeleton are placed in class
in class chondrichthyes the mouth is located ventrally and the teeth are modified placoid scales which are
as compared to cartilaginous fishes bony fishes have dorsal fin
class osteichthyes includes both marine and fresh water fishes with
which of the following is not an oviparous fish
the fish famous for parental care is
lung fishes are
latimeria
gambusia
which one of the following is oviparous
birds mammals share one of following charecteristic as a common feature
blindworms belong to the order
in amphibia scales are present in the skin of
only one order of amphibians have exoskeleton
which of the following is not a reptile
study of reptiles is called
dry skin with scales or scutes without gland is a charecteristic of
urinary bladder is absent in
foramen of panizzae is found in the heart of
which of the following groups shows close affinity with the dinosaurs
the largest sized lizard is
study of snakes is called
permanently open eyes are found in
a house lizard can climb a smooth wall due to the presence of
the hindlimbs of birds generally have scales and are variously modified for
the character of birds without exception is
which of the following is not found in birds
which one of the following traits is not charecteristic of birds
air sacs of birds
bird vertebrate are
birds differ from bats in the absence of
stomach is four chambered in
the most intelligent ape is
a mammal which never drinks water
in adult vertebrates the notochord is
in higher chordates pharyngeal gill slits are
any one of the following set of charecters is definitely found at some stage in the life cycle of a chordate
choose the incorrect pair from the following
which of the following feature is unique to mammals
the sweat glands in mammals are primarily concerned with
choose the correct statement
which one of the following charecteristics is not shared by birds and mammals
which is the national aquatic animal of india
assertion: fishes belonging to chondrichthyes have heterocercal caudal fin reason: these fishes have an air bla
identify the pair having amphicoelous vertebrae
study the following statements about chordata 1. columella auris present in the middle ear of amphibians is mod
this class of animals are all ectoparasites on some
which one is flying fish
a jawless fish which lays eggs in freshwater and whose ammocoete larvae after metamorphosis return
the character not related to chondrichthyes is
match: a. ostracodermi - 1. lobe finned fishes b. coelacanth - 2. exocoetus c. cyclostomes - 3. extinct jawless fi
assertion: marine lampreys migrate to rivers for spawning. Reason: marine lampreys return to sea water after
common character of all vertebrates without exception is
which of the following categories of animals is correctly described without any exception
connecting link between fish and amphibia is
anapsid skull is found in
the number of digits in the limb used for walking in reptiles is
nasikabatrachus isa ----------- discovered from------------
the red jungle fowl is
pick the odd one out
the snow leopard is
which of the following represents the correct combination without any exception
which of the following animals is not viviparous
which of the following is not a charecteristic feature of mammals
antelope cervicapra is
proteus anguinus is an example for
identify and select the correct match in the column 1,2 and 3
oviparous mammal is
which of the following animal has enucleated erythrocytes
intra-abdominal tests are found in
retrogressive metamorphosis occurs in
the chordate features shared by the non chordates are
assertion: the earliest fossils of amphibia are from devonian and called labyrinthodontia reason: dentine of ea
the charecteristics of class reptilia are
choose the pair of stayements true for gymnophiona 1. skin contains minute dermal scales 2. teeth are absent
the fangs of viper when pulled out can
four chambered heart is charecteristic of which
mammals have originated from which of the following
jaws of shark contain
which of the following belongs to hemichordata
which sound producing organ is found in bird
among the following which one lay eggs and does not produce young ones directly
all mammals without any exception are charecterised by
animals of class mammalia have
mammal's heart is
a group of animals having marsupium is
which one of the following is not a mammalian character
the sea snakes have
zoological name of common indian krait is
identify the aquatic mammal from the following 1. balaenoptera 2.epuus 3. delphinus 4. pteropus 5. felis
assertion:bats and whales are classified as mammals reason:bats and whales have four chambered heart
which one of the following in birds indicates their reptilian ancestry
the number of gills present in osteichthyes is
connecting link between echinodermata and chordata is
syndactly prehensile tail and long protrusible tongue are the unique features of
select the correct order of classification of rana tigrina upto genus
which one of the following has exoskeleton of scales and paired copulatory organ or penis
which of the following is correct for axolotl larva 1. it shows neoteny and paedogenesis 2. the absence of thyr
jacobson's organ which are additional olfactory organ are present in
the missing link between amphibians and reptiles is
the largest RBC have been seen in
in which of the following animals post-anal tail is found
reason of death of a patient of cobra bite is
nucleated RBCs is found in
which of the following vertebrates show the formation of middle ear for the first time
post anal tail is present in
which of the following statements are correct 1. venom of cobra is neurotoxic 2. venom of sea snake is neurot
pecten a comb like struture is found in the eye of
a common scent producing gland among mammals is
identify the correct sequence of classification of the following 1. eutheria 2. mammalia 3. tubulidentata 4. l
in which of the animals notochord is not present
at retrogressive metamorphosis the unchordate larva
isinglass a type of byproduct of fish industry is principally used for
cartilaginious fishes have1. scroll valve 2. operculum. 3. placoid scales 4. cyloid or ctenoid scales
which of the followingbis not a charecteristic feature of the subphylum vertebrata
group of two plants having multiple root caps and root caps is
which of the following plants have roots modified to store food
the plant that has cauline adventitious buds is
which of the following is an incorrect statement
stolons and runners are quite similar to each other the only difference between them is
choose the incorrect match pair
ex- stipulate leaves are found in
number of leaves in peripinnate can be
the plant in which stipules modify into leaf tendrils is
in candytuft the older flowers have longer pedicels while newer ones have shorter pedicels. This type of inflo
in solanum nigrum all lateral branches develop on the same side of peduncle. This type of inflorescence is kn
in which of the following plants many sessile and centrifugally arranged flowers are formed around a disc - li
a flower is a modified
the feather like stigma stigma of grasses is known as
how many of these plants have inferior ovary coriander, carrot, apple, guava, stellaria, ranunculus, hibiscus
superficial placentation is seen in
which one of the following is a false fruit
the fruit of regma breaks up into single seeded dehiscent parts called cocci. These cocci remain attached onto
fruit of citrus is
which of the fruit is an etaerio of berries
the edible part of the jack fruit is derived from
parthenocarpy can be induced by which hormones
coconut fruit dispersed by hydrochory because its
triphenyl tetrazolium chloride is used for checking the
plants of which one of the flowing sets are actinomorphic
a flower is said to be zygomorphic if
which of the following are charecteristic features of family-liliaceae
zingiber officinale is an example of
an example of tuberous root is
roots of dahlia are
tinospora and trapa have photosynthetic roots
root pockets present in root apex are seen in
identify the epiphyte
which of the following is not a modified stem
identify the plant stem which contains scale leaves
wild strawberry is an example of
mentha is an example of
sharp pointed and curved hooks of bignonia are the modifications of
floral stalk modified into hook climbers occur in
transpiration is reduced in opuntia by the formation of
bougainvillea possesses
in mulberry the inflorescence is
sessile and hermaphrodite flowers arranged in ocropetal succession are found in
spathy bract is charecteristic of ---- inflorescence
spadix inflorescence with fleshy axis enclosed by one or more large bracts are found in
name the inflorescence in which the peduncle is disc like and bears sessile flowers lengh
in tagetes flowers are
calyx appears dotted due to the presence of glands in
the hair like modified sepalsparticularly for the dispersal of fruits occur in
polyphyllous petaloid perianth occurs in
vexillary aestivation is a charecteristic of
quincuncial type of imbricate aestivation is found in
gynobasic style arises directly from the center of ovary or from thalamus. It is found in
the outermost layer of scutellum is called
the seeds of black pepper are
the largest and heaviest seed belongs to
piston mechanism of dispersal is the alternate name of
many pulses of daily use belong to one of the families below
glumes are
vexillum wing and keel occuring in the flower of pisum sativum are the representatives of
an achenial fruit in which the seed is attached to pericarp only at one point and rest of the pericarp remains f
which one of the following charecters is related to mericarps
inflorescence of which one of the following sets completely develop into composite fruits
a seed is actually a
the mature seeds of plants such as gram and peas possess no endosperm because
which one of the following is not the structure associated with parachute mechanism of dispersal
which of the following pair does not match
find out the incorrect match pair
identify the correctly matched pair
consider the following statements regarding seed germination and identify correct statement
parts of two plants were observed structure A develops from underground part of the stem, grows obliquely, b
among the following plants, how many show bipinnately compound leaves? Mimosa pudica, caesalpinia, kikar,
identify the correct statement
the character of a nut fruid of anacardium occidentale is
which of the following statements is incorrect regarding capsular dry fruits
two dry fruits X and Y are observed X developed from monocarpellary and Y developed from bicarpellary ovary. A
respiratory roots 1. are assimilaritory roots which develop in plants growing in diverse habitats 2. help in t
flowers of which of the follwing plant sets are zygomorphic 1. adhatoda and pea 2. larkspur and ocimum 3. mu
in which of the following fruits the edible parts are endosperm and embryo 1. oryza sativa 2. triticum aestivum
read the given below statements. 1. amphisarca is a multilocular, many seeded berry. 2. calyx is persistent in bala
natural breaking of seed dormancy occurs through 1. leaching of inhibitors and salts 2. attainment of maturi
identify the correct order of the following four zones in the root from apex to base 1. mineral absorption zon
the following statements given below are in context of simple fruits. Read the statements.1. pericarp is fleshy
match: a. entire leaf modified into tendril - 1. tropaeolum b. petioles modified into tendril-2.lathyrus c. tip of ra
identify the correct combination
a fruit developed from a condensed inflorescence is
study the following statement: 1. buds are present in the axil of leaflets of the compound leaf 2. pulvinus lea
in citrus only one leaflet seperated from the petiole by constriction. This types of leaf is known as
which among the following match pairs is correct
laterose, introrse and extrorse are the terms used to reprsent the
in didynamous condition total number of stamens are four out of which two stamens are with shorter filament
when the thalamus is prolonged into gynoecium forming a central axis it is called -------- which can be found in-
option a option b
catabolism growth
growth substance protoplasmicsustance
non - availability of nutrients brain and other body part begin to degenerate
cell division and growth metabolism
cicada butterfly
hugo de vries gregor johann mendal
evolution the classification of life forms by their similarities and
classification and identification nomenclature and identification
international code for botanical nomenclature international code for nomenclature of biology
carolus linneaus julian huxley
there are not valid for plants there are the names with same generic and specific epi
genus and order class and kingdom
kew paris
herbarium of forest research institute, dehradun herbariam of national botanical garden, luknow
herbarium sanctuary
paris delhi
a collection of dry specimens only a collection of living plants obtained after tissue cultur
carolus linneaus, 1990 bentham and hooker, 1981
paired contrasting charecters called as epithet alternate forms of a character called as allels
animal life plant life
manual monograph
julian huxley john ray
historia animalium histoire naturelle
photosynthesis glycogenesis
epidermal cells cortical cells
a tendency to change with change in environmentendency to resist internal changes
envolutionary relationships between organisms the classification of life forms by their similarities and
rattus rattus prunus dulcis
binomial nomenclature autonyms
isotype paratype
order family
linnaeus de candolle
meyer linnaeus
classes phyla
manuals catalogues
miniparity poltcarpy
collection of plants and animals only classification of organism
chemotaxonomy numerical taxonomy
genus and spicies kingdom and division
habitat and distribution of animals of a given are habitat and distribution of all the plants found on earth

the classification of organism based on board delimiting varius taxa of organisms and establishing
morphological character their relationship
hutchinson system of classification bentham and hooker system
energy transfirmation and synthesis of biomolecuhomeostasis energy flow
organism higher than molecular level response to stimulus
classification of organism discovery of new organism
cell proliferation cell enlargement secretion of extracellular matrix
death has nothing to do with the continuation of though
l older die but new are produced due to reprodu
intake of food materials oxygen and water elimination of waste materials and energy
structure of cell and morphology development process
neotype lectotype
specific unit of evolution specific unit in the evolutionary history of the race
genus kingdom
a region a country
herbarium sanctuary
all living organism do not show growth many organism do not reproduce
intake of more salt during summer intake of more fat during winter
varying environmental conditions long term evolutionary changes
anatomical and physiological charecteristics presence or absence of notochord
identification of plant pests identification of weeds
lectotype neotype
closely related species differ in morphological fe genus comprises a group of related species
botanical gardens museum
0.1% mercuric chloride 0.1% mercurous chloride

key is taxonomical aid use for identification of separate taxonomic keys are required for each
plants and animals based on the similarties and taxonomic category such as family genus and spices
dissimilarities for identification purpose
museums often have collections of skeletons separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonom
biological organisation starts with submicroscorpihuman being showresponsiveness only when an external
the first word in a biological name represents th the first word denoting the genus starts with a capital l
mesotype isotype
family genus class order phylum family genus order phylum class

chordata crocodylidae
collection of living plants for reference indian botanical garden is at howrah
one species two biospecis
species genus
ICBN ICZN
1-FAMILY,2PHYLUM 1-PHYLUM, 2- GENUS
because holotype is the single physical example because holotype has the wrong information

1 and 2 only 2

1,2,3 only 4

TFTF FTTT
3125746 3245671

2341 1324
4123 1234

2341 1423

both assertion and reason are true and reason is both assertion and reason are true but reason is not co

the first word in biological name represent the g the names are writtern in latin and are italicised
quasi binomial system semi binomial system
kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus- speci kingdom-family-genus-species-class-phylum-order
aristotle linnaeus

species-genus-family-order-class-division-kingdo species-genus-family-class-order-division-kingdom
kingdom-order-division-class-genus-species species-genus-division-class-order-kingdom
taxon tribe
phylum,class,order,family phylum,order,class,genus
genus and spicies order and class

herbarium houses dried pressed and preserved botanical gardens have collection of living plants for
plant specimens reference
indian congress of biological names international code of botanical nomenclature
scientific names favour multiple naming for the
same kind of an organism scientific names are used all over the world

morphological and anatomical charecters evolutionary trends


classification of chemicals found in plants use of photochemical data is systematic botany
kolkata luknow
genus species
de vries carolus linnaeus
evolutionary trends floral charecters
based on a few charecters based on all natural affinities
r h whittaker c linnaeus
whittaker and copeland linnaeus and haeckel
monera, protista, plantae and animalia bacteria,fungi,protozoa and eukaryota
monera protista
protista plantae
monerans plants
kingdom-animalia kingdom-plantae
monera protista
monera protista
monera protista
amoeba, paramecium and chalamydomonas spirogyra, paramecium,and amoeba
prokaryotes myxomycetes
membrane bound nucleus the presence of cell wall
bentham and hooker hutchinson
the body is unicellular the cells are eukaryotic
fungi protista
methanogens and bacterial prokaryotes thermoacidophiles and halobacteria
two four
monera protista
copeland whittaker
monera plantae
1, 2 and 3 2 and 4
2 and 3 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are incorrect
4123 1234
4312 4132
both assertion and reason are true and reason is both assertion and reason are true but reason is not co
kingdom - monera kingdom protista
fungi protista
2 3
presence or absence of a well defind nucleas mode of reproduction
monera protista
bentham and hooker tippo's
mycoplasma euglenoids
only 1 only 2
ancestral lineage of existing organisms observable charecteristic of existing organism
4321 1234
carolus linneaus george bentham and joseph dalton hooker
herbert copeland r h whittaker
evolutionary relationships morphological features
origin of species genera plantarum
type of movement and placement in cell location in cell and mode of functioning
anderson, jacob and lwoff m bishop and harold varmus
they can pass through bacterial filters on getting favourable conditions they can reproduce out
multiply by own unaffected by antimicrobial drugs
binding to the host surface phagocytosis
10-30 nm 20-400 nm
single standard DNA as a genetic material double standard RNA as a genetic material
d j ivanowsky robert galio
humans and mosquiotes dogs,foxes,wolves,coyotes,bats and raccoons
paramyxoviruses rhabodoviruses
chickenpox virus HIV
gp 7 and gp 17 gp 9 and gp 120
poxviruses adeno viruses
olaf bang francis rous
cynophages mycophages
virus that is parastic on a bacterium bacterium with a lysed membrane
intracellular, obligate parasites intercellular, obligate parasites
genetic material of virus protein cover of virus
picorna DNA virus retrovirus
nucleic acid only proteins only
karsanin issacs and lindermann
dj ivonowsky mw beijerinck
hershey and chase gierer and schramm
viroid virion
bacteria virion
flex'd herelle hershey and chase
DNA single stranded DNA tripe stranded
bacteriam bacteriophage
nucleotides and amino acids ATP
they posses their own metabolic system all virus contain both RNA and DNA
occur only inside the bacteria multiply only in the host cytoplasm
1234 4321
2134 3412
the viroids were discovered by dj ivanowsky w m stanley showed that viruses could be crystallised
it is observed in gram positive and gram negativebacteria should be in state of competence
1234 5432
single standard RNA double standard RNA
DNA enclosed in a protein coat prokaryotic nucleus
3 and 4 1 and 3
TMV has a doublestranded RNA virus most plant viruses are RNA virus
bacteria algae
bacterium fungus
gemini viruses prions
a cell wall cytosol
reovirus TMV
HIV pea
m w beijerinck t o diener
bacterium bacteriophage
doubled stranded RNA single stranded RNA
plasmid capsid
lytic lysogenic
is caused by a varient of pneumococcus pneumo is caused by a varient of the common acid virus
immunoglobulins interferons
PROTEIN DNA
a free virus primitive virus
penetration phase eclipse phase
lysozymes lipolytic
mycoplasma halophiles
chain like colony plate like colony
cocus spherical bacilus rod shaped
rod shaped spherical
photosynthetic pigments a nucleoid with a circular chromosome
fibre enclosed by protein membrane fibre enclosed by unit membrane
monotrichous peritrichous
9+2 9+3
vibrio cocci
chitinous capsule slimy capsule
rotatory in function swimming in function
monotrichous peritrichous
trichous peritrichous
eosin crystal violet
posses incipient nucleus are small micriscopic plants which are not visible to th
photoautotrophs photoheterotrophs
10% of the cell wall 30% of the cell wall
capsulated non capsulated
drying injures thermal injuries
stain produced out of a gram trade mark
positive 5,6,7,8 negative 1,2,3,4 pos 1,2,3,4 neg 5,6,7,8
transformation general transduction
bacteriophage pseudomonas sp
one ss DNA one ds DNA
koch pasteur
streptomycin tetracyclin
they carryout photosynthesis and nitrogen fixati they carryout nitrogen fixation
presence of nucleoid presence of flagella
bacillariophyceae archaebacteria
green algae red algae
ulothrix nostoc
cyanobacteria bacteria
a true nucleus with double layered nuclear membwell developed nucleus with double layered nuclear
abundant secretion of pectin presence of phycocyanin c as dominant pigment
mosses which attack bacteria bacteria which attack cyanophyceae
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
1 and 2 2 and 3
1 and 2 2 and 3
1,2 and 4 2 and 3
53421 12345
23451 12345
both assertion and reasons are true and reason isboth assertion and reason are true but reason is not co
thermoacidophiles methanogens
golden algae are also called desmids eubacteria are also called false bacteria
mycoplasma archaebacteria
anabaena mucor
streptococci diplococci
shigella flexneri bordetella pertussis
pectin cellulose
azotobacter - nitrogen fixation streptococcus thermophilus - yogurt preparation
cell membrane structure mode of nutrition
flagella cilia
spirogyra chlamydomonas
3142 5423
DNA RNA
basal bodies pneumatophores
eubacteria blue-green algae
a class of insect a class of viruses
escherichia coli bacillus subtilis
protists slime algae
cell membrane cell wall
tetracyclin penicillin
indicater of water pollution insecticide
bordetella pertussis bacillus
zinder and lederberg wallace and jacob
they differ from both prokaryotes and eukaryotesthey completely differ from prokaryotes
cyanobacteria mycoplasma acitinomycetes and mycoplasma
amitotic mitotic
flagella absent flagella at one end
both assertion and reasons are true and reason isboth assertion and reason are true but reason is not co
chloroplasts are 32-40 vegetative reproduction occur by fragmentation
roots root hairs
quadriflagellate uninucleate
holdfast stipe
anabaena nostoc
chlorella fucus
scales rhizoids
fishes amphibians
ricia dawsonia
hornworts mosses
multicellular branched
trabaculae peristome
a fossil pteridophyte the juvenile phase of a moss gametophyte
r. fluitans r. gangetica
homospory heterospory
selaginella isoetes
bulbils tubers
pteris azolla
seed plants with evident sex organs non seed plants
zamia pigmaea sequoia
vessels tracheids
companion cells sieve tubes
ovule archegonium
apogeotropic bluish - green incolour
1 2
radicle plumule
tracheids only companion cells
fruit sporophyte
3n 2n
presence of archegonia vascular tissue
genera plantarum speceis plantarum
open scattered
7 series 8 series
presence of vessels presence of companion cells
secondary growth type of wood
dictyota ectocarpus
phaeophyceae chlorophyceae
favourable conditions unfavourable conditions
marine water both in sea and freshwater
red colour present in the sea chlamydomonas nivalis in sea water
ulothrix spirogyra
marchantia funaria
royal palm fish tail palm
cycus mangifera
spore spore mother cell
riccia marchantia
archegonia antheridia
sexual propagules gametes
flower fruit
algae bryophytes
circinate vernation furcate vernation
maize coconut
tracheids only vessels only
peristome dependent
haploid and is found in mosses diploid and is found in liverworts
lacking chloroplast oblique septa
acidic nature it does not undergo decay creeping capacity
thalloid bryophytes psilotum like ancestral pteridophytes
it is a system mostly based on evalutionary conceit is a natural systems of classification of all groups of p
pteridophytes gymnosperms
vascular tissue seed formation
bryophyte pteridophyte
by mitosis of gametophyte cells by meiosis of gametophyte cells
sporophyte give rise to gametophyte zygote produces gametophyte on germination
absence of miristem absence of vascular tissues
4-6 neck canal cells 1 venter canal cell and one 13 neck canal cells 2 venter canal cells and one oosphe
zygospore oospore
multicellular sporophyte speccialised cells originating from sporophyte
antheridia and archegonia on lower surface antheridia and archegonia on upper surface
a structure in pteridophytes formed before the tha sporophytic free- living structure formed in pteridop
in selaginella, sporangium develop from single supe
in adiantum sporangium develop from group of cells
1 and 2 only 1
only 1 1 and 3
2 and 3 only 4
5 and 4 1,2 and 4
2,3 and 4 2 and 3
only 1 1 and 2
1234 3421
25134 54321
35412 13245
both a and r are true . And reason is the correct both assertion and reason are true, but reason is not t
both a and r are true . And reason is the correct both assertion and reason are true, but reason is not t
both a and r are true . And reason is the correct both assertion and reason are true, but reason is not t
algin and carrageenan are products of algae agar-agar is obtained from gelidium and gracilaria
marchantia riccia
pteris funaria
gametophytes chlorophytes
heterogametic bisexual
haplontic diplontic
321 312
phaeophyceae chlorophyceae
ulothrix chlorella
rhodophyceae phaeophyceae
volvariella spirogyra
gigartina laminaria
fruit nucellus
sporophytic gametophytic
spores antheridium
parellel venation perennial plants
they are thalloid they contain chloroplast
pteridophytes bryophytes
angiosperms gymnosperms
algae gymnosperms
annulus stomium
sphagnum funaria
protonema embryo
algae bryophytes
entomophily hydrophily
dryopteris pinus
primary protonema gemmae
homospory heterospory
ulva ulothrix
homothallic fragmentation
fertilisation takes place in the presence of water gametophytic phase is dominant in life cycle
heterosporous species homosporous species
1 2
1 and 3 are true but 2 is false 2 and 3 are false but 1 is true
foot seta
wolffia ranunculus
swimmimg archegonia swimming antherozoids
volvax ulothrix
chlorella spirogyra
algae pteridophyte
cycas mosses
antheridium oogonium
long rhizoids coenocytic nature
elaters indusium
there is no change in success rate of fertilisation there is high degree of sterility
a cell in the pollen grain in which the sperms are a cavity in the ovule in which pollen grains are stored af
their reproductive phase requires water their sex organs are multicellular and jacketed
dictyledons gymnosperms
autospores aplanospores
rhodophyceae chlorophyceae
gametophytes capsule
blind sac cell aggregate
zygote morula
splitted mesoderm mesoderm and ectoderm
platyhelminthes nematodes
circulation movement
acoelomate pseudocoelomate
acoelomate pseudocoelomate
segmentation metamerism
poikilothermic homothermic
hemichordata urochordata
metazoa bryozoa
ellis ross
metazoa porifera
canal system several pores
excretion respiration
calcareous spicules siliceous spicules
ameobocytes chromocytes
amoeba hydra
cysts encyst
respiration egestion
amoebocytes choanocytes
sea anemone ascaris
unfertilised fertilised
demospongia tetractinellida
adamsia eupagurus
cliona euspongia
all parasites free living forms
1 and 2 1 and 3
1 and 2 are true, 3 and 4 are false 2 and 4 are true, 1 and 3 are false
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
1 and 2 1,2 and 4
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
1,2 and 3 2,3 and 4
1,2 and 3 are correct 2 and 4 are incorrect
2 and 4 1,3 and 4
2 and 3 1 and 2
1,2 and 3 1 and2
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
only 1 1 and 2
2 and 4 1,2 and 4
2 and 4 1,2 and 3
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
4213 2341
2314 3412
54132 12453
1234 2431
2314 1234
312 314
1432 1234
34125 12345
4123 1234
reptiles amphibians
insects have one pair antenna millipedes possess two pairs of appendages in each se
ancylostoma enterobius
sexual reproduction asexual reproduction
scales - reptilia comb plates - mollusca
echinoderms ctenophora
annelida platyhelminthes
jellyfish sponges
liver heart
eating imperfectly cooked pork tse-tse fly
coelenterata porifera
4312 4231
echinodermata annelida
roundworms are pseudocoelomates molluscs are acoelomates
multicellular with a gastrovascular system multicellular having tissue organisation but no body cav
thesocytes collar cells
ecothermic poikilothermic
cnidaria annelida
paramecium jellyfish
nerve ring cervical papilla
porifera annelida
annelida chordata
haemocoel amphicoel
wuchereria bancrofti leishmania donovani
nematodes cestodes
virus protozoan
hold fast tentacles
flatworms ctenophores
hydra adamsia
digestive glands excretory glands
cambrian precambrian
book lungs book gills
both arthropod and roundworm charecters parapodia
lungs book lungs
daphnia aedes
millipede centipede
pauropus julus
ammonia urea
sterile hermaphrodite
nephridia flame cells
polynoe aphrodite
arthropoda aschelminthes
branched jointed
pseudocoel schizocoel
book - gills book-lungs
limulus loligo
spider tick
stone canal ring canal
metameric segmentation parapodia
3142 3241
tse-tse fly, housefly, rat flea, sandfly anopheles, louse, housefly, termite
keratin sulphate and chondriotin sulphate d- glucosamine
peristome peristomium
1234 1423
chiton patella
1 and 3 only 5
coral ascidia
protocerebrum corpora cardiaca
echinodermata annelida
numerous singly arranged in bundles
pila sp chiton sp
mollusca echinodermata
both a and r are correct and r is the correct explaboth a and r are correct but r is not the correct explana
cuttlefish silverfish
earthworm,pinworm,tapeworm prawn,scorpion,locusta
all have 13 chambered heart all have 4 pairs of legs
joined appendages moulting
cnidaria annelida
sugarcane roots decaying fallen leaves and soil
arthropoda echinodermata
prawn snail
earthworm snail
insects birds
myxine carcharodon
sea anemone sea pen
silverfish,starfish,prawn clamworm, applesnail,honeybee
dogfish devilfish
cattlefish,jellyfish,silverfish bat,pigeon,kite
gorgonocephalus glypeaster
sponge starfish
larval stage pupal stage
osphradium ostracum
pupa larvae
fish bird
male culex male anopheles
flagellum cilia
haustellum rostrum
cephalothorax, gills and appendages head, thorax, gills and appendages
neopilina pderipatus
porifera annelida
several kinds of polysaccharides layers of proteins and a polysaccharide called chitin
pinctada neopilina
for spawning after spawning
mackerels and rohu lampreys and hag fishes
exoskeleton jaws with teeth
no gonads four semicircular duts in internal ear
antero posteriorly flattened laterally compressed
it front of the eyes behind the fins
mucous and poisonous sweat and mammary
gills lungs
lissamphibia stegocephalia
toad siren
limps are small infront and long behind limbs are of equal size
viviparous oviparous
urochordata cephalochordata
scoliodon labeo
pisces chondrichthyes
forwardly directed backwardly directed
single instead of two two instead of one
cartilaginious endoskeleton chitinous endoskeleton
clarias sark
hippocampus gambusia
marine inhabitants marine and freshwater inhabitants
is a living fossil. has two lobed dorsal fins
parastic fish pest of fishes
platypus flying fox
pigmented skin pneumatic bones
sirenia squamata
toad siren
urodela labyrinthodontia
wall lizard varanus
rhinology herpetology
aves fishes
lizards snakes
rabbit pigeon
turtles crocodiles
chamaeleon heloderma
ichthyology serpentology
snakes lizards
suckers and mouth claws on digits
walking swimming
omnivorous flying wings
four-chambered heart fulcrum
air sacs attached to lungs hollow bones
keep body warm facilitate blood circulation
heterocoelous procoelous
4- chambered heart homoiothermy
horse cow
gorilla chimpanzee
kangroo kangaroo rat
degenerated or reduced replaced by cartilaginous or bony vertebral column
absent present in the embryo
mammary glands, hair, gill cleft notochord, vertebral column, gill cleft
emu-flightless bird and confined to australia kiwi - national bird of new zealand
milk producing mammary glands presence of hair on skin
regulation of water content regulation of body heat
all mammals are viviparous all cyclostomes do not possess jaws and paired fins
breathing using lungs viviparity
river dolphin blue whale
both a and r are correct and r is the correct explaboth a and r are correct but r is not the correct explana
scoliodon and lchthophis crocodylus and hemidactylus
1 and 4 2 and 4
amphibia osteichthyes
scoliodon exocoetus
entatretus myxine
claspers placoid scales
3142 2314
both a and r are correct and r is not the correct eboth a and r are correct but r is the correct explanation
body divided into head trunk and tail two pairs of limb
all reptiles possess scales, have three chamberedall bony fishes have four pairs of gill and an operculum
lung fish protopterus latimeria
crocodiles chelonia
4 2
reptile, wetern ghats amphibian, western ghats
gallus gallus ravo cristatus
chelone, calotes,naja pavo, psittacula, ornithorhynchus
panthera pardus panthera uncia
mammary gland; hair on body ; pinnae; two pairsmouth ventral; gills without operculum; skin with placo
flying fox elephant
diphyodent tooth ten pairs of cranial nerves
a mammal commonly known as black buck
circannual rhythms effect of light pigmentation
earthwarm-annelida-superclass frog-rana-species
equus macropus
earthwarm sepia
panthera and equus macaca and macropus
hemichordata cephalochordata
bilateral symmentry triploblastic condition and bilateral symmetry
a is true but r is false both a and r are true but r is not the correct explanatio
body covered with moist skin which is devoid of sfreshwater animals with bony endoskeleton, air bladde
2 and 3 2 and 4
not come again come again with half the lengh
psittacula hemidactylus
pisces amphibia
thecodent teeth acrodent teeth
balanoglossus lampres
pharynx larynx
echidna kangaroo
viviparity and biconcave red blood cell extra abdominal testis and four chambered heart
7 cervical vertebrae 7 cernival nerve
myogenic neurogenic
monotremata eutheria
presence of milk producing gland they have two pairs of limbs
cylindrical tail dry honey scale at tail end
bungarus caeruleus ophiophagus hannah
1 and 3 2 and 4
both a and r are true and r is the correct explanatboth a and r are true but r is not the correct explanatio
two special chambers crop and gizzard in their digeggs with a calcareous shell
2 pairs 6-15 paires
peripatus archaeopteryx
rheus monkey archaeopteryx
chordata, craniata, amphibia, gnathostomata, ranchordata, craniata, gnathostomata,amphibia, rana
sharks lizards
1,2 and 3 1 and 2
rat snakes
archaeopteryx ichthyostega
amphibia whale
earthwarm lower invertebrate
permanent contraction of muscles inactivation of nerves
man rat
rana echis
cobra earthwarm
1 and 2 1 and 3
fishes frogs
anal gland prostate gland
2-4-1-5-3 2-1-4-3-5
myxine herdmania
experience reduction of nervous system of a visceloss of notochord
production of insulin feeding cattle, pig and poultry
1 and 2 2 and 4
dorsal tubular nerve cord ventral muscular heart
mirabilis, daucus avicennia, ceriops
mirablis jalapa cicer arietinum
bryophyllum begonia
rhizome is a underground modified stem runners have long weak and thin internodes
stolens grow below the surface of soil while runnstolens possess nodes while runners lack them
bougainvillea- phylloclade lilium bulbifora-bulb
solanaceae brassicaceae
even odd
smilax lathyrus
corymbose raceme umbel
helicoid cyme dichasial cyms
acacia nilotica calotropis
node flower meristem
capitate plumose
5 6
nympheae helianthus
cashewnut banana
winged appendages pappus
berry pome
michelia ailanthus
bracteole bract
auxin gibberellins
mesocarp is hard epicarp is waterproof
viability of seed seed dormancy
pisum and ocimum brassica and pisum
any vertical section passing through its center divonly one vertical section divedes it into equal vertical h
adventitious modified roots underground modified tap roots aerial modified stern unisexual actinomorphic
perennial plant herb
colocasia antiquorum ipomoea batata
fasciculated napiform
clinging roots velamen tissue
eichhornia maize
orchid fig
ginger turnip
bignonia casuarina
offset stolen
runner underground runner
leaf segments leaf blade
atrabotrys gloriosa
nodes internodes
prickles leaf spines
catkin capitulum
spadix corymb
umbel spadix
mulberry colocasia
corymb capitate
acropetally arranged basipetally arranged
brassica gossypium
tagetes aconitum
pdygonum festuca
minosoideae caesalpinoideae
calyx of pea cassia
ocimum salvia
hypothecium perithecium
endospermic exospermic
rafflesia sp borassus flagellifer
censer mechanism propeller mechanism
solanaceae fabaceae
calyx like, green leafy bracteoles present in who small dry scaly bracts found in spikelet of the members
sepals petals
taraxacum litchi chinensis
multi seeded parts which further do not dehisce multi seeded parts which further dehisce
spike,corymb,hypanthodium umbel, catkin,spadix
ripened ovary fertilised and ripened ovary
these plants are not angiosperms there is no double fertilisation in them
sticky seeds persistent hairy styles
ficus-prop root stilt root - zea mays
tuberous tap root-mirabilis jalapa respiratory root-heritiera
turmeric-tuber potato-rhizome
ricinus, helianthus and brassica show epigeal ger allium and rice exhibit vivipary germination
runner and sucker offset and runner
5 3
largest leaves are found in victoria regia free lateral stipules are found in rice
husky exocarp, woody pericarp and single seed phusky exocarp, woody pericarp and two seeds each poss
siliqua and silicula resemble each other but silquapod develops from monocarpellary ovary while capsule
legume, capsule legume,siliqua
1 and 2 2 and 3
only 2 1 and 2
1 and 2 1 and 3
1,3 and 4 1 and 4
1,2 and 3 1 and 3
2,3,4 and 1 4, 3,2 and 1
1,2,3 and 4 only 4
3124 2143
datura-solanaceae-epipetalous stamens allium-solanaceae-tricarpellary gynoecium
simple fruit aggregate fruit
1 and 3 are correct but 2 and 4 are incorrect 1 and 4 are correct but 2 and 3 are incorrect
unifoliate bifoliate
jaculator mechanism-papaver parachute mechanism-mustrad
length of filaments of stamens cohesion of stamens
ocimum citrus
gynophore, cleome gynophore,silene
option c
anabolism
apoplasmic substances
non - availability of oxygen
to reproduce and increase the gene pool
culex
AP de candolle
genetics
identification
international code for nomenclature of bacteria
gaspard bauhin
these are the names in which specific epithet and intraspecific epithet are
species and family
chennai
herbaria of agriculture college and research institute, coimbature
museum
jaipur
a collection of living plant for both pure and applied studies
henderson, 1983
paired contrasting charecters called as couplet
bacterial life
key
carolus linnaeus
systema naturae
anabolism
sieve tube cells
disturbance in regulatory controls
genetics
corvus splendens splendens
tautonyms
topotype
class
bauhin
lanmarck
species
monograph
iteroparity
identification nomenclature and classification of organism
biochemical taxonomy
all ranks of hierarchy
identification of names of specis found in an area

the classification of organisms based on their evolutionary history and


establising their phylogency on the totality of varius parameters from all
fields of studies
linnaeus system of classification
both a and b
reproduction
inheritance from a common ancestor
both a and b
both a and b
maintenance of constant internal environment in a living organism
genetic basis
paratype
specific class of evolution
phylum
a locality
museum
non living things show reprodution
sweating during exercises
short term evolutionary changes
resemblance in external features
identification of pathogens
holotype
taxonomic studies are useful in agricultural forestry and industries
zoological parks
carbon disulphide

keys are generally analytical in nature


taxonomic keys are based on the contrasting charecters
98% mass of every living organism is composed of C, H, N2, O2, P and S
both the words in biological name when handwritten are seoerately under
syntype
genus family order class phylum

loricata
it is a method of ex situ study
two sibling species
phylum or division
ICTV
1- FAMILY, 2. ORDER
because holotype was no longer exists

1,2,and 3

only 1

FFTT
3125764

4321
2314

4132

assertion is true but reason is is false

when writtern by land the names are to be underlined


monomial system
kingdom - order - species- genus- class- family- phylum
john ray

kingdom-division-order-class-family-genus-species
kingdom-division-class-order-family-genus-species
race
phylum,class,family,order
class and genus

a museum has collection of photographs of plants and animals


international congress of biological names
scientific names are often descriptive and tell us some important
charecters of an organism

floral charecters
application chemicals on herbarium sheets
coimbatore
order
prantl
only a few morphological charecters
based on phylogeny only
a roxberg
copeland and haeckel
bacteria,cynabacteria, protozoa and eukaryota
plantae
animalia
fungi
kingdom-monera
animalia
fungi
fungi
euglena,amoeba and spirogyra
eukaryotic algae
DNA
engler and prantl
the mode of nutrition is always autotropic
monera
halobacteria thermoacidophiles and methanogens
three
animalia
haeckel
protista
1 and 2
2 and 4 are correct
4321
1243
assertion is true but reason is false
kingdom- plantae
monera
4
mode of nutrition
plantae
linnaeus
slime moulds
only 3
dendrograms based on DNA charecteristics
3421
aristotle
carl woese
chemical constituents
historia plantarum
microtubular organisation and type of movement
fc bowden and norman w pirie
they undergo mutations via making changes in their nucleic acids
they may undergo mutations
protection
100-1000nm
single - stranded RNA as a genetic material
fraenkel conrat
foxes,ducks,dogs,chicken and pigs
paramyxoviruses of corona virus family
influenza virus
gp 41 and gp 160
retroviruses
wihelm ellerman
phycophages
tiny bacterium
intracellular, facultative parasites
extra genetic material of bacterium
corona RNA virus
lipids only
robert galio
stanley
jacob and monod
viral
prion
stanley
DNA double stranded
plasmodium
ribosomes
viruses are obligate parasites
are made up of proteins only
3412
4321
the term contagium vivum fluidum was coined by m w beijernck
transfer of DNA by a bacteriophage takes place
5321
single - stranded DNA
SINGLE CHROMOSOME
1 and 2
the bacteriophage has a double stranded DNA molecule
fungus
bacteriophage
viroids
DNA as genetic material
*174
mucor
j ivanowsky
viruse
double stranded DNA
vector
both a and b
is an acute form of asthma
antitoxins
RNA
integrated viral genome
absorption phase
lysogenic
rickettsia
bunch like colony
vibrio - t -shaped
spiral
membrane enclosed organelles
hook, basal body and filament
cephalotrichous
9+0
spirilla
suberised capsule
composed of lipids
lophotrichous
cephalotrichous
carmine
cause serious diseases to human beings domestigated animals and crop pl
chemoheterotrophs
70% of the cell wall
do not have cell wall
radiation injuries
staining technique developed by dutch scientist gram
pos 2,4,8 neg 4,5,6,7
restricted transduction
puccinia
two ds DNA
both a and b
erythromycin
they carryout photosynthesis
presence of 80s ribosomes
eubacteria
blue - green algae
aspergillus
eukaryote
presence of cell wall made of chitins, mucopolysaccharides and the absence
no plastids
autotrophic organism with phycocyanin
2 and 4
1 and 3
1 and 3
2,3 and 4
42135
54321
assertion is true but reason is false
eubacteria
phycomycetes are also called algal fungi
methanogens
vaucheria
staphylococci
staphylococcus aureus
chitin
chlorobium - photosynthesis
cell shape
pili
ulva
5321
cell wall
chromatophores
saprophytic fungi
bacteria
streptomyces coelicolor
green algae
ribosome
brodeaux mixture
agent for production of dairy products
diplococcus
herelle and tower
they resemble eukarya in all aspects
bacteria and archaebacteria
meiotic
flagella at both the ends
assertion is true but reason is false
conjugation forms hypnospores
scales
spherical
frond
synechococcus
cladophora
gemmae
reptiles
marchantia
liverworts
filamentous
columella
a part of the sporophyte
r. discolor
apospory
marsilea
fragmentation
marsilea
non seed plants with hidden sex organs
pine
parenchyma
sclerenchyma
fruit
unbranched
many
cotyledon
vessel only
ovary
4n
fruit formation
phylum plantrum
closed
14 series
nature of endosperm
differentiation of plant body
ulothrix
rhodophyceae
mild conditions
freshwater
red algae
nostoc
riccia
sago palm
guava
zygote
funaria
spores
gametophytic generation
nucellus
pteridophytes
lateral veins
cycas
both equal
apophysis
diploid and is found in pteridophytes
cellulosic cell wall
water absorbing capacity
gymnosperms
the description of the taxa are based on actual observation of the specim
monocots
thallus like plant body
ferns
by meiosis of sporophyte cells
spores give rise to gametophytic generation
presence of root system
8 neck canal cells one venter canal cell and two oospheres
zoospore
photosynthetic, free - living gametophyte
autheridia on upper surface and archegonia on lower surface
a gametophyte free - living structure formed in pteriodophytes
the axis of embryo is directed toward venter in equisetum
only 4
1 and 2
only 1
3,4 and 5
only 4
2 and 3
1243
51243
32154
assertion is true, but reason is false
assertion is true, but reason is false
assertion is true, but reason is false
chlorella and spirulina are used as space food
funaria
lilium
bryophytes
monoecious
haplo diplontic
231
rhodophyceae
spirogyra
chlorophyceae
nephrolepis
gelidium
ovule
zygotic
spore mother cell
distinct branches
they possess archegonia
gymnosperms
pteridophytes
bryophytes
indusium
anthoceros
antheridia
pteridophytes
anemophily
cycas
secondary protonema
parthenogenesis
chlorella
heterothallic
sporophyte is physiologically dependent on gametophyte
heterothallic species
3
1 and 2 are false but 2 is true
capsule
rafflesia
independent gametophytes
porphyra
ulothrix
fungi
pinus
archegonium
oblique septa
calyptra
one can conclude that the plant is apomictic
an opening in the megagametophyte through which the pollen grains deve
they have tracheids
monocotyledons
macrozoospores
phaeophyceae
seta
tube wiyhin a tube
blastula
ectoderm and endoderm
earthwarm
organ function
coelomate
enterocoelomates
metagenesis
aquatic
cephalochordata
parazoa
robert grant
parazoa
spicules in skeleton
circulation
spongin fibres
thesocytes
sycon
gemmules
asexual reproduction
thesocytes
sycon
unfertilised and unsegmented
hexactinellida
euplectella
hyalonema
both free living and parasites
2 and 3
1, 4,3 are true2 is false
2 and 4
3 and 4
2 and 4
only 4
only 4 is correct
1,2 and 3
3 and 4
2 and 4
2 and 4
2 and 3
1 and 4
only 3
2 and 4
4321
1234
41325
3214
4321
341
4123
54321
3412
birds
prawns have two pairs of antenna
rhabditis
binary fission
choanocytes-porifera
cephalochordata
porifera
helminthes
alveoli of lungs
mosquito bite
echinodermata
2431
porifera
insects are psedocoelomates
unicellular or acellular
pinacocytes
homothermic
platyhelminthes
cockroach
excretory system
aschelminthes
arthropoda
pseudocoel
plasmodium vivax
flatworms
bacterium
spicules
cnidarians
aurelia
reproductive glands
ordovician
tracheae
jointed legs
tracheae
laccifer
pauropod
bugs
uric acid
radially symmetrical
malpighian tubules
leech
porifera
reduced
enterocoel
tracheal system
echinus
mite
lateral canal
jointed appendages
4321
cockroach, louse, termite, housefly
n-acetyl glucosamine
protostomium
2341
pila
1,3 and 5
octopus
corpora allata
porifera
radially arranged in bundles
lamellidens sp
arthropoda
a is correct but r is incorrect
pufferfish
sponge, sea anemone, starfish
all have closed circulatory system
unsegmented body
platyhelminthes
soil insects organic matter
annelida
sea anemone
cockroach
angiosperms
balanoglossus
sea cucumber
sea star, tongue worm,scorpion
catfish
lobsters,spider,shrimps
salmacis
sepia
imago stage
ommatophore
adults
amphibian
female culex
pedicel
labellum
cephalothorax, book lungs and appendages
periplaneta
arthropoda
several kind of proteins
doris
after metamorphosis
pristis and hag fishes
paired appendages
pancreas and spleen as distinct organ
with trunk and tail
over the operculum
sweat and sebaceous
skin
caecilians
lchthyophis
hindlimbs are absent in adults
sexually sterile
protochordata
protopterus
osterichthyes
sparsely arranged
single in both
both a and b
gambusia
labeo
freshwater and terrestrial inhabitants
possesses two pair of external nares
fish predator of mosquito larvae
elephant
viviparity
neognathae
ichthyophis
gymnophiona
salamander
nidology
reptilia
crocodiles
crocodiles
lizards
ophiosaurus
herpatology
crocodiles
adhesive lamellar pads on digits
perching
beak without teeth
forelimb
ectothermic
maintain body temperature
acoelous
diaphragm
rhinoceros
orangutan
hedgehog
disappeard
replaced by abdominal gill slits
notochord, gill cleft, dorsal tubular nervous system
ostrich-wings modified into paddles
presence of pinnae or external ears
killing of skin bacteria
all reptiles have a three chambered heart
warm - blooded nature
sea-horse
a is correct but r is incorrect
ornithorhynchus and macropus
1 and 2
reptilia
pristis
neomyxine
filamentous gills
1324
a is incorrect but r is correct
exoskeleton
all sponges are marine and have collared cells
seymouria and sphencodon
squamata
5
fish;eastern ghats
choriotis nigriceps
canis, felis,rattus
panthera tigris
sucking and circular mouth; jaws absent integument without scales; paire
platypus
seven cervical vertebrae
an animal under data deficient category of wildlife
photoaxis
lancelet-vertebrata-division
ornithorhynchus
frog
balaenoptera and delphinus
urochordata
metamerism
both a and r are true and r is the correct explanation of a
marine animals with bony endoskeleton body covered with placoid scales
1 and 2
come again with same length
pteropus
reptilia
pleurodent teeth
pikaia
syrinx
polcapine
heterodont teeth and 12 pairs of cranial nerves
single ventricular chamber
voluntary
metatheria
skin is unique in possessing hair
laterally compressed tail
viper russelli
only 5
a is true but r is false
scales on their hindlimbs
5 pairs
balanoglossus
horse fish
chordata, amphibia, gnathostomata, craniata, tigrina
urodela
2 and 3
man
seymouria
elephant
snake
destruction of RBCs
rabbit
exocoetus
scorpion
2 and 3
birds
adrenal gland
2-1-4-5-3
adult tunicate
loss of tail
preparation of paints and varnishes
1 and 3
presence of notochord in the adult
phaseouls and ipomoea
ficus
artocarpus
each eye in a tuber represent internodes
stolons show tendrilmodification also while runners lack them
amorphophallus-corm
fabaceae
may be even or odd
clematis
corymb
polychasial cyme
euphorbia milli
root apical meristem
discold
4
nerium
apple
stylopodium
pepo
annona squamosa
peduncle
ethylene
mesocarp is fibrous
both of these
brassica and solanum
cannot be divided into two equal vertical halves by any vertical section
fusiform tap roots stern having star shaped trichmes bisexual actinomorphi
shrub
solanum tuberosum
fibrous
assimilatory roots
wheat
ficus
cococasia
parkinsonia
sucker
stolen
three terminal leaflets of the compound leaf blade
piper
flat, fleshy structures
curved throns
spadix
spike
raceme
achyanthes
catkin
centripetally arranged
hibiscus
atropa
polyanthes
papilionaceae
corolla of cucubita
china rose
epithecium
perispermic
cocos nucifera
jaculator mechanism
liliaceae
green coloured and in one or more whorls around and below the entire in
stamens
mirabilis jalapa
single seeded parts which further do not dehisce
spike, female catkin, hypanthodium
fertilised and ripened ovule
endosperm is not formed in them
pappus
buttress root-bombax
roots for balancing-utricularia
onion-tunicated bulb
in hypogeal germination hypocotyl elongates rapidly
bulb and stolon
2
in pisum sativum, the stipules are modified into tendrifree lateral stipules a
hard, brittle and somewhat spiny pericarp enclosing a non edible seed
legumes are charecteristic fruits of family leguminosae
capsule, folicle
2,3 and 4
3 and 4
2 and 3
2 and 3
only 3
2,4,1 and 3
2 and 3
4213
petunia-solanaceae-didynamous stamens
composite fruit
2, 3 and 4 are correct but 1 is incorrect
trifoliate
censer mechanism-sonchus
adhesion of stamens
mustrad
carpophore, passiflora
option d answer
both b and c 2
cytoplasmic substances 3
all of these above 4
all of these above 4
mayfly 2
carolus linnaeus 3
the history of the field of biology 4
nomenclature 4
international code for nomenclature of bats 3
john ray 4
these are commonly used for zoological names 4
order and kingdom 2
trombay 2
indian botanical garden, kolkata 4
parks 3
mexico 2
none of the above 3
john ray 1985 3
sequence of forms of different charecters 3
fungal life 2
flora 2
charles darwin 3
philosophie zooloqique 1
catabolism 1
erythrocytes 4
plant and animal extracts used in homeopathy 2
phylogency 2
albugo candida 1
synonyms 2
syntype 1
all of these 4
john ray 1
de candolle 2
orders 3
flora 4
semelparity 3
all of the above 3
experimental taxonomy 2
none of these 3
habitat and distribution of some useful animals of a gi 3

identification and arrangement of organism on the


basis of their cytological charecteristics 3
haeckel system of classification 2
none of the above 1
all of the above 4
homeostatic regulation 1
none of the above 3
none of the above 2
none of the above 3
ecological information of organism 2
holotype 4
not related to evolution 1
species 4
world 4
parks 3
all living organisms show small period of reproductive ph 2
heating the body during exercise 3
gradual internal changes 2
breeding habits 1
all of the above 4
syntype 3
family includes related genera 1
herbaria 4
acetic acid 1

keys is another taxonomical aid used for


nomenclature of plants and animals based on the
similarities and disimilarities 4
monograph is useful in providing information for identi 4
98% mass of every living organism consist of three ele 2
biological names are generally in english and written in 4
neotype 2
genus phylum order family class 3

reptilia 3
collections of preserved plants and animals specimens 4
none of these 3
kingdom 1
ICNB 3
1- KINGDOM, 2-FAMILY 3
because is the duplicate of the holotype 3

only 3 4

1, 3 and 4 4

TTFF 1
3127564 1

1243 1
3421 1

4123 4

assersion is false but reason is true 2

biological names can be writtern in any language 4


uninomial system 4
species - genus - family- order- class-phylum-kingdom 4
engler 3

kingdom-division-class-order-family-genus-species 4
species-genus-family-order-class-division-kingdom 4
variety 1
phylum,order,family,class 1
order and genus 4

key is a taxonomic aid for identification of specimens 3


indian code of botanical nomenclature 2
scientific names indigate relationship between
species 4

none of the above 3


use of statistical methods in chemical yielding plants 2
delhi 1
class 2
bentham and hooker 2
none of these above 3
none of these above 2
virchow 1
none of the above 2
archaebacteria, eubacteria,plantae and animalia 1
animalia 2
monera 4
animals 2
kingdom-protista 1
plantae 3
bacteria 2
slime moulds 4
slime moulds,euglena and chlamydomonas 4
protista 1
RNA 1
yippo 1
cell wall may or may not be present 3
plantae 2
halobacteria and prokaryotic bacteria 3
one 1
fungi 3
carl woese 4
animalia 3
1 and 3 1
only 4 is incorrect 3
2413 1
2314 2
assertion is false but reason is true 4
kingdom-fungi 2
archaea 2
5 2
complexity of body organism 2
fungi 4
takhtajan 3
all of these 1
only 4 4
sexual charecteristic 2
4231 1
adolf engler and karl prantl 4
carolus linnaeus 2
floral charecters 1
die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien 4
microtubular organisation and function 3
howard temin and d baltimore 1
they can be preserved as crystals outside host cells 2
both b and c 4
mesosome 3
1-10nm 2
double - standard DNA as a genetic material 4
flex'd herelle 3
cattle, dogs, sheep, pigs and dogs 2
filoviruses 3
dengu virus 2
gp 41 and gp 120 4
papovaviruses 3
sarah stewart 4
none of these 3
unusually large bacterium 1
intercellular, facultative parasites 1
house keeping genome of bacterium 2
corona DNA virus 3
all of these 2
anderson and jacob 2
robert hook 2
heinz fraenkal conrat 4
none of these 1
mycoplasma 3
ivanowsky 2
RNA double stranded 2
yeast 2
all of the above 4
nucleic acid of viruses is known as capsid 3
behave as if they were plants 2
2134 3
1234 2
mosaic disease in tobacco and AIDS in human being are 1
packaging of both host and phage DNA takes place 134
3412 4
DOuble - standard DNA 4
both DNA and RNA 1
2 and 3 4
most animal viruses are DNA virus 1
virus 4
cyanophage 4
satellite viruses 2
DNA and RNA as genetic material with no ribosomes 4
none of these 1
chlamydomonas 1
w m stanley 2
form of viroid 3
single stranded DNA 2
genome 2
repreogenic 1
affects non vegitarian much faster than the vegitarian 2
lipoproteins 2
both b and c 1
a free DNA 3
maturation phase 4
lytic 4
spirochaetes 2
cube like colony 3
spirillum spiral 3
comma 1
a (9+2)microtublar structure 2
membrane enclosed (9+2) microtubular structure 3
atrichous 1
9+1 3
bacilli 1
lignified capsule 2
composed of carbohydrates 1
atrichous 4
lophotrichous 3
hematoxylin 2
produce endospores which are resistant to adverse con 1
chemoautotrophs 1
90%of the cell wall 3
have nuclear membrane 1
physical injuries 2
chemical for the differentiation of bacteria 3
pos 1,8,3,2 neg 4,5,6,7 1
conjugation 1
cercospora 1
many dsDNA 2
devaine 3
neomycin 2
they oxidise inorganic substances to obtain energy 2
none of the above 1
cyanobacteria 4
brown algae 3
volvox 2
all of these 1
autotrophic in nature and only DNA is present 3
all of the above 4
none of the above 3
1 and 3 2
all of these 4
all of these 3
1 and 4 4
54321 1
41235 1
assertion is false but reason is true 2
halophiles 2
cyanobacteria are also called blue green algae 2
thermoacidophiles 1
volvox 1
pneumococci 3
yersinia pestis 4
muramic acid 4
streptomyces rimosus - chloromycitin 4
mode of reproduction 1
fimbriae 1
rhodospirillum 4
2453 2
a well define nucleus 4
heterocysts 3
archaebacteria 4
fungi 3
ampycolatopsis orientailis 1
blue green algae 4
mitochondria 2
none of these 1
source of industrial enzyme 2
mycobacterium tuberculam 1
lederberg and tatum 1
they have some novel features absent in other prokary 4
gram+ gram- 3
all of these 1
flagella all around 3
both are wrong 1
asexual reproduction occurs by zoospores 2
holdfast 4
pear shaped 3
all of these 4
chlamydomonas 3
charales 1
both a and b 2
aves 2
zoopsis 2
none of these 1
both a and b 4
all of these 4
none of the above 2
all of these 1
sporogenesis 2
none of these 4
all of these 4
pteridium 2
none of the above 1
cedrus 1
all of these 1
all of these 1
seed 3
presence of anabaena 4
3 3
all of these 1
both tracheids and vessels 4
pollen grains 3
n 1
anemophilly 3
none of these 1
none of these 1
21 series 1
siphonogamous fertilisation 4
seed formation 4
both a and b 3
none of these 3
both a and b 2
on soil 2
all of these 2
chlorella 4
sphagnum 4
date palm 3
all of these 1
protonema 3
anthoceros 1
protonema 4
sporophytic generation 3
ovule 1
gymnosperms 4
all of these 1
mustard 3
companion cell 1
trabeculae 1
haploid and is found in pteridophytes 1
coenocytic 2
both a and c 3
mosses 2
it also considers the phylogenetic aspects 3
bryophytes 4
presence of pigments 2
algal 1
by mitosis of spores 3
formed by vascular tissue 3
all of these 2
6 neck canal cells, 2 venter canal cells and one oosphe 1
carpospore 1
parasitic gametophyte 3
antheridia on lower surface and archegonia on lower s 4
a primitive structure formed after fertilisation in pter 1
selaginella show meroblastic embryo development 4
1, 2,3 and 4 4
only 3 3
1 and 2 4
1 and 2 2
only 1 4
1,2,3 and 4 1
3214 2
32154 1
42135 1
assertion is false but reason is false 1
assertion is false but reason is false 1
assertion is false but reason is false 2
mannitol is stored food in rhodophyceae 4
sphagnum 4
pinus 3
pteridophytes 3
dioecious 4
diplo haplontic 1
123 2
poaceae 2
polysiphonia 2
poaceae 2
gnetum 2
scytonema 2
embryo sac 3
none of these 1
egg 3
xylem with vessels 4
all of these 4
phaeophytes 1
both a and b 4
pteridophytes 3
both a and b 4
polytrichum 1
archegonia 1
gymnosperms 3
malacophily 3
funaria 4
all of these 4
parthenocarpy 2
laminaria 4
none of these 1
zygote undergoes meiosis to produce sporophyte 4
homothallic species 4
4 3
2 and 3 are true but 1 is false 4
all of these 3
stellaria 1
independent sporophytes 4
cephaleuros 4
gelidium 4
bryophytes 2
selaginella 1
sporangium 3
absence of cloroplast 3
peristome teeth 1
self fertilisation is prevented 4
the microsporangium in which pollen grains develop 2
all of these 1
all of these 4
zoospore 1
all of these 3
sporophyte 1
none of these 3
gastrula 4
mesoderm and body wall 3
echinoderms 2
all of these 1
haemocoelomate 2
schizocoelomates 2
metamorphosis 2
desert living 1
vertebrates 1
enterozoa 4
none of these 1
eumetazoa 3
all of these 4
all of these 4
all of these 4
archaeocytes 1
tapeworm 3
spicules 3
locomotion 4
collenocytes 3
boroe 2
fertilised and unsegmented 2
calcarea 3
euspongia 3
spongilla 1
digenetic forms 3
1,2 and 3 4
1,2,3 are true 4 is false 4
1 and 3 4
1,2 and 3 4
1 and 3 4
3 and 4 1
3 and 4 are incorrect 1
1,3 and 4 1
1 and 4 1
1 and 3 2
1 and 3 3
only 3 3
1 and 2 1
only1 2
1,3 and 4 4
3241 1
4321 2
35241 1
4321 4
3142 1
324 1
3214 2
43215 1
2341 1
fishes 3
animals belonging to the phylum perifera have nemato 4
ascaris 1
parthenogenesis 2
parapodia - annelida 2
cnidaria 4
urochordata 3
echinoderms 2
small intestine 3
drinking water containing eggs of ascaris 4
mollusca 2
2341 4
arthropoda 1
flatworms are coelomates 1
multicellular without any tissue organisation 4
sclerocytes 2
endothermic 1
nematoda 2
sea anemone 4
reproductive system 3
mollusca 3
echinodermata 2
schizocoel 3
trypanosoma gambiens 1
trematodes 3
helminthes 4
spongin fibres 4
aschelminthes 2
obelia 1
poison glands 2
silurian 1
absent 2
haemocyanin 2
gills 4
mysis 1
barnacle 2
scolopendra 1
all of these 3
dioecious 2
green glands 1
none of these 3
annelida 1
vestigial 2
haemocoel 4
all of these 4
ophiura 1
lice 4
madreporite 4
chitinous exoskeleton 2
4213 1
rat flea, butterfly, housefly, tse-tse fly 1
lipoglycans 3
protostome 2
1342 2
murex 1
1 and 5 4
king crab 4
thoracic gland 3
arthropoda 1
fused 1
pinctada sp 1
cnidaria 1
both a and r are incorrect 1
flying fish 2
malarial parasite, amoeba, mosquito 2
all belong to class - insecta 4
articulated exoskeleton 3
nematoda 2
small pieces of fresh fallen leaves of maize 2
mollusca 2
hydra 1
both b and c 4
fungi 1
asterias 4
sea horse 3
cockroach, scorpion,prawn 4
sawfish 2
oyster,otter,octopus 3
gorgonia 1
jellyfish 3
none of these 2
operculum 3
nymphs 2
sea cucumber 4
female anopheles 3
none of these 4
none of these 3
head, throx, book lungs and appendages 1
limulus 1
echinodermata 3
single complex protein called arthropodin 2
teredo 4
none of these 1
lampreys and eels 2
all of thsese 4
6-8 pairs of cranial nerves 3
both b and c 4
behind the eyes 4
mucous and sweat 1
all of thsese 4
anura 2
proteus 3
limbs absent altogether 2
parthenogenetic 1
non chordata 4
petromyzon 4
amphibia 2
none of these 2
two in both 1
bony endoskeleton 4
rohu 3
scoliodon 4
freshwater inhabitants 4
all of thsese 1
a mosqito spearding yellow fever 3
whale 1
warm blooded body 4
gymnophiona 4
proteus 3
none of amphibians have exoskeleton 3
cobra 3
ichthyology 2
amphibia 3
both b and c 4
frog 3
snakes 2
varanus 4
entomology 2
testudians 1
sticky ventral side of the animal 3
all of thsese 4
lay eggs with calcareous shell 4
hindlimb 3
amniote 3
reduce body weight 4
opisthocoelous 1
tracheae 3
zebra 2
gibbon 2
shrew 2
persistent 2
replaced by thoracic gill slits 2
dorsal tubular nervous system, vertebral column, scale 3
dodo - recently extinct bird 3
all of thsese 2
removal of excess of salt 2
all pisces have gills covered by an operculum 2
ossified endoskeleton 2
gangetic shark 1
a is incorrect but r is correct 3
ophiophagus and tropidonotus 1
2 and 3 4
cyclostomata 4
trygon 2
petromyzon 4
heterocercal caudal fin 3
3241 1
a is correct but r is incorrect 4
the presence of skull 4
all mammals are viviparous and possess muscular diap 2
all of thsese 1
rhynchocephalia 2
six 3
cavernicole, eastern ghats 2
raja hansa 1
bufo, rana, hyla 2
hylobates hoolock 2
body covered with feathers; skin moist and glandular lun 3
whale 3
left aortic arch in the circulatory system 2
a threatened indian wildlife 124
photokinesis 2
walrus - mammalia-class 4
pteropus 3
rat 4
canis and felis 3
vertebrata 3
all of thsese 4
both a and r are false 1
body covered with dry and cornified skin scales over t 4
1 and 3 4
come again with double length 3
crocodilus 4
aves 3
none of these 2
petromyzon 1
tracheae 3
whale 1
a muscular diaphragm and milk producing glands 4
fourteen cervical vertebrae 1
sympathetic 1
pantotheria 3
homodont type of dentition 4
dorsoventrally flattened tail 3
naja naja 1
4 and 5 1
both a and r are false 2
four chambered heart 3
4 pairs 4
none of these 3
chamaeleon 4
chordata, craniata, amphibia, gnathostomata, tigrina 2
urochordata 2
only 3 2
all of thsese 2
all of thsese 3
man 1
scorpion 3
none of these 2
frog 4
hippocampus 1
lower invertebrate 1
all of thsese 4
mammals 3
bartholin's gland 1
1-5-3-2-4 2
balanoglossus 3
all of thsese 4
clarification of vinegar, wines and beer 4
1,2 and 3 3
presence of kidneys 3
pandanus and lemna 4
portulaca 1
ipomoea 3
crocus have stem modified in the form of corm 3
stolons grow above the ground and runners grow belo 1
dioscores-bulbil 1
none of these 1
always odd 1
tropaeolum 1
spadix 3
cymose head 1
nerium 1
shoot meristem 4
bifid 2
2 3
wheat 4
tomato 3
carpophore 2
hesperidium 4
calotropis 3
endosperm 1
both a and b 4
both b and c 4
none of these 1
mustard and onion 4
only one vertical section passing through its centre divi 4
tap root having root nodules climber stem, bisexual zy 1
biennial 2
raphanus sativus 2
photosynthetic 1
cladode 3
bean 1
rafflesia 1
potato 2
ruscus 2
runner 2
offset 3
leaf axis 3
lathyrus 1
spines/scales 4
leaf sheath spines 3
cyathium 1
raceme 3
amentum 2
none of these 2
umbel 2
mixed arranged 3
citrus 4
salvia 1
crinum 1
none of these 3
bauhinia 3
both a and b 4
epithelium 4
polyspermic 3
lodoicea maldivica 3
parachute mechanism 2
poaceae 2
brightly coloured appering like the petals of a flower 3
carpels 2
helianthus 3
single seeded parts which further dehisce 3
female catkin, corymb, spike 3
ripened ovule 3
endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo du 4
balloon like appendages 1
piper-storage root 4
clinging roots-pothos 3
helianthus tuberosis-imbricate bulb 3
cotyledons in epigeal germination are non green whear 1
stolon and sucker 4
4 2
rose leaf has ochreate type of stipule 1
hard pericarp enclosing edible seed with two large cot 4
follicle and legumes both show dehiscence only by one 1
capsule, siliqua 2
only 1 3
all of these 2
only 4 1
none of these 2
only 4 1
1,2,4 and 3 1
none of these 3
1243 2
crotalaria-fabaceae-diadelphous stamens 1
etaerio 3
1 and 2 are correct, but 3 and 4 are incorrect 1
multifoliate 1
piston mechanism-ecballium elaterium 4
dehiscence of stamens 4
dianthus 1
carpophore, coriandrum 4
detail answer
reproduction cannot be taken as the defining property of all living beings because certain living beings in the world which d

agriculture faces many challenges e,g biotic and abiotic. Knowledge of taxonomy help in identification of pests weeds and p

solanum is the genus and nigrum is the species genus comes under the family poaceae and solanaceae are the families wh
scientific names are printed in italics or are seperately underlined to indicate their latin origin. The name of the author is w

biological names originate from latin language and are printed in italics
uninomial nomenclature is the designation of taxon above species ranked by a scientific name consisting of a single word

classification involves hierarchy of steps in which each steps represent a rank or category. Since the category is the part of o

museums have collection of preserved plants and animals specimens for study and reference.specimens are preserved in t
containers in preservatives.herbarium is a store house having collected dried,pressed and preserved plant specimens on
sheets.Potanical gardens have collections of living plants for reference.Key is a taxomic aid for identification of plants and a
on the similarities and dissimilarities.

scientific name is unique to an organism.i.e.these names are used all over the world,to describe some important characters
organism.it also indicate the species and germs of organism.

museums have collection of preserved plants and animals specimens for study and reference.specimens are preserved in t
containers in preservatives.herbarium is a store house having collected dried,pressed and preserved plant specimens on sh
linneaus placed all wall less organisms in kingdom - animalia, but according to whittaker's classification, eukaryotic, unicellu

the organism should be placed in kingdom - protista as it is unicellular and have well defind nucleas . i.e eukaryotic

adolf engler and his assoiate karl prantl published a phylogenetic system in the monograph die naturlichen pflanzenfamilian
green phytoplanktons are photosynthetic and have chloroplast for carriying out photosynthesis . Since these are unicellular

in ancient times the living organisms were classified into three classes and these were 1.jivaja 2. andaja. 3. udbhija

mycoplasma is the smallest living cell which is divoid of cell wall


mode of nutrition of kingdom - animalia is heterotrophic. Nuclear envelope is absent in kingdom monera. Protists are euka

according to five kingdom of classification of living beings, alage belong to the kingdom - plantae. Phycomycetes is one of t
all statements are correct except the statement which can be corrected as viroids were discovered by to diener in 1971 as a
transduction is a type of sexual reproduction. In bacteria whether it be gram positive or gram negative bacteria. It is a proc

bacterial viruses or bacteriophage generally have double stranded DNA as their genetic material needed for DNA replicatio
a complete virus particle, known as virion, consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called capsid
creutzfeldt - jacob disease is caused by piron. Prions are misfolded proteins that replicate by converting their properly folde

in addition to proteins, viruses also contain genetic material that could be either RNA or DNA not both. They have no cell w
aids virus also called reo virus has two single strands of RNA associated with the enzyme reverse transcriptase
gram negative bacteria do not the stain when washed with alcohal as they possess a very thin layer of peptidoglycan betwe
methanogens are group of dbligate anaerobic ancient and primitive bacteria they are involved in methanogenesis and prod

mycoplasmas are organism that completely lacks cell wall. It can live without oxygen and its mode of nutrition is heterotrop
anabaena is prokaryotic blue green algae having no true nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Rather a nucleoid regio
staphylococci are species of gram positive bacteria that cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals thr
plague is bacterial disease caused by yersinia pestis. It is a gram negative, rod shaped, coco bacillus, facultative anaerobic b
bacteria and blue green algae have peptidoglycan cell wall. It is made of N- acetyl glucosamine and n-acetyl muramic acid
streptomyces rimous produces antibiotic called terramycin. Chloromycitin is produced by streptomyces venezualae
archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in cell membrane structure the cell membrane of eubacteria is composed of glycol es

prokaryotic cell is found in bacteria . These cells lack nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles, which are present in pla
spirochaetes are slender and helically coiled bacteria varying in lengh from 3500micro meter some of them are saprophyte
the gram stain is named after the developer christian gram. About 75%of known bacteria are gram negative.

the main difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria lies in its cell wall. The cell wall of gram negative ba
in selaginella sporangium develops from a group of cells, i.e eusporangiate while in adiantum it is leptosporangiate i.e deve

bryophytes are the dwellers of transitional habitat between the aquatic and terrestrial habitats. It is represented by the sw
according to some botanists mosses originated from algae because protonema of mosses is similar to certain algae
gymnosperms are commonly known as naked seeded plants because their ovules are not covered by the ovary wall. Seed i
peat is mainly an accumulation pf partially decayed vegetation or organic matter and sphagnum. This accumulation can sto
lilium possesses the male gametophyte with least number of cells. The number of cells in male gametophyte shows the patt

alginic acid OF alginate is found in the cell, walls of sea weeds, such as laminaria, macrocystis, ascophyllum

the dominent phase in lifecycle of pteridphyte is sporophyte which is generally herbaceous, rarely woody. The plant body is
there are two generation in life cycle of bryophytes. The main plant body is gametophytic. The gametophytic phase starts w
gymnosperms are naked seeded plants in which ovule is not covered by the ovary. In gymnosperms , xylem contains only t
bryophytes is group of embryo producing plants, which do not bear fruits seeds and any vascular tissue. They are known as
the pteridophytes exhibit alternation of dominant sporophytic generation with an inconspicuous gametophytic generation.
eicher divided plant kingdom into two subkindoms. Cryptogamae with plants having no flower such as algae, fungi, bryoph

sphagnum is known as peat moss. The partially decomposed sphagnum accumulates to from compressed mass called peat
spores of funaria on germination gives rise to protonema.
pteridophyta is a group of non seed forming vascular cryptogams these contain vascular tissues for the conduction of mine

some of the pteridophytes producesmaller spores called microspores and large one called megaspore. This nature is called
brown algae are rich in sodium, potash and iodine. About 7% of total world production of iodine is obtained from kelps in j
fern gametophyte is homothallic. It bears male and female sex organs in same plant.
in bryophytes zygote is the beginning of the sporophytic generation. Within venter of the archegonium the zygote undergo

in cycas pollination occurs at three celled stage, microspore shed from the microsporangium at three celled stage i.e protha

the sporophyte of funaria consists of a foot, a long slender seta and a capsule. The capsule wall is several layers thick and is

cephaleuros is a green parasitic alga which causes red rust of tea and coffee.
gelidium, gracilaria, pterocladia are red algae having industrial importance. They produce a jelly like substance agar agar us

in the prothallus of a vascular cryptogam, the antherozoids and eggs mature at different times, as a result self - fertilisation
in gymnosperms the pollen chamber is a cavity in the ovule in which pollen grains are stored after pollination.
nematocysts are the stinging capsules produced by the cnidocytes or cnidoblasts present on the tentacles and the body of

comb plates are charecteristic feature of phylum-ctenophora. These animals have cilia in each row arranged to form a stack
cnidarian members are found both in freshwater and marine environments while members of ctenophora cephalochordata

choanocytes form the lining of paragastral cavity in sponges . By constant beating of flagella of choanocyte cells a water cu
in the life cycle of ascaris lumbricoides rhabditiform larvae is the infective stage of men. It reaches the alimentary canal thr

aschelminthes are triploblastic bilaterally symmetrical pseudocoelomate unsegmented organisms

metagenesis is the phenomenon in which one generation of certain plants and animals reproduces asexually followed by s
juvenile hormone in insects issecreted by corpora allata. This harmone regulates morphogenesis and so, promote metamo
pentaradial symmetry is found in echinodermata, whereas phylum-annelida and arthropoda have bilateral symmetry and p
setae in polychaeta are numerous and are borne upon lateral prominances of the body wall known as parapodia
pila possesses radula. It is a rasping organ of molluscs situated in a sac on the underside of the buccal cavity. It is used for t

most arthropods certain molluscs and tunicates have open circulatory system. In them a fluid composed of blood mixed wi
silverfish is representative of arthropoda

in annelids alimentary canal is straight with anterior mouth and posterior anus. Due to spacious, fluid-filled body cavity bet
food of earthwarm consists of organic matter, fallen decaying leaves, algae. Present in the soil. Food is swallowed along wit

prawn belongs to class - crustacea of phylum - arthropoda. Hydra and sea anemone are coelenterates, snil belongs to class

more than 70% of all the species recorded are animals. Among animals, insects are the most species rich taxonomic group
in the members of phylum - echinodermata like asterias, echinus, antedon, cucumaria and ophiothrix excretory system is a
sea cucumber is an echinoderm. These have water vascular system as a charecteristic feature.

the body outline of ophiuroidea e.g gorgonocephalus sp. Is similar to the asteroidea, i.e ophiuroids have five arms joined to

sea cucumber ia an echinoderm that has the capacity toregenerate entire alimentary canal. On being frightened, the anima
cyclostomata is a class belonging to group I agnatha of subphylum- vertebrata. It is paraphyletic superclass of jeweless fishe
mammals are viviparous while birds are oviparous. Viviparous means giving birth to offspiring that develops within the mo

chondrichyes or cartilaginous fishes do not have air bladder but it is present in bony fishes. In cartilaginous fishes heteroce
solioddons and lchthyopis have amphicoelous vertebrae. This type of vertebrae is concave at both ends and present in fish

the animals of class cyclotomata are all ectoparasites on some fishes. The animal possess jawless suctorial mouth surround
exocoetus evolans is the flying fish. It is called so because of its ability to leap into air by its tail and cover long distances in
petromyzon is jawless fish belonging to class cyclostomata which lays eggs in freshwater rivers and streams. After breeding
the chondrichthyes have lamelli form gills not filamentous gills. Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are jawed fishes with

all vertebrates without any exception have skull which protects the brain well developed internal skeleton of certilage and

lung fish is a living fossil


anapsid skull is found in chelonia an anapsid is an amniotic whose skull does not have openings near the temples.
in reptiles two pairs of limbs are present and are pentadactyle. Hence 5 digits in the limbs are used for walking in reptiles.
nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis is a frog species belonging to family soolossidae. It can be found in the western ghats in india

pavo, psittacula, ornithorhynchus are odd ones as pavo and psittacula belong to class - aves, whereas ornithorhynchus belo

cyclostomata bears sucking and circular mouth with no jaws, integument without scales and gills are present as paired app

antelope cervicapra is an ungulate species of antelope, native to the indian subcontinent that has been threatened by IUCN
proteus anguinus is acave salamander. It is an example for effect of light pigmentation. They have generally depigmented s
out of options given the correct one is walrus a large flippered marine mammal which belongs to class - mammalia.

marine mammals cretacean like balaenoptera and delphinus have intra abdominal tests. They are surrounded by tissues th

mammals evolved from the reptiles during triassic period of mesozoic era

hemichordata includes marine worm like animals called acorn worms. Balanoglossus is a sluggish marine animal, which is a
human larynx contains vocal cords, the sound producing organ in birds is syrinx
echidna belongs to prototheria group of class-mammalia. It is oviparous and only female incubates the eggs. Young ones su
any animal of the mammalia a large class of warm blooded vertebrates having milk producing mammary gland in the fema

metatherians are pouched mammals. The complete development of embryo takes place in abdominal pouch or marsupium
in mammals, dentition is of heterodont type. In heterodont, more than one type of teeth are present, like in humans four t

bats resembles birds in having wings for flying. But they share more features to mammals like presence of teeth, hair, urea

seymouria is a connecting link between amphibians and reptiles. It was a lizard like animal that lived about 250 million yea

in birds the power of accommodation of eyes is well developed due to the presence of comb like structure pecten.

isinglass is a gelatinous byproduct obtained from the air bladder of some specific fishes and is used in clarification of vinega
cartilaginous fishes belong to class chondrichthyes in which exoskeleton is cartilaginous with placoid scalesv and the gills ar
datura belongs to solanaceae family with epipetalous stamens. Allium is of amaryllidaceae family with epipetalous stamen

in some legumes the leaf base may become swollen, which is called the pulvinus. In opposite phyllotaxy a pair of leaves ari
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