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IChapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

Figure of speech is a form of expression used to convey meaning or heighten effect

often by comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning or connotation

familiar to reader or listener, or it is sometimes called rhetoric or locution. Rhetoric in a way that

speaker or writer is formally and effectively using an art or skill to persuade or influence people,

and locution is a particular way of using words or word phrase.

Quite often, a writer or speaker uses some words and phrases which are not intended to

be interpreted in the usual literal meaning. Any use of language for stylistic effect or plain,

normal, straight forward manner of writing or speaking is called figurative. Figure of speech are

employed in communication to make an idea vivid or to make the emotional impact of a

particular thing more intense (Regalado, 2002).

Nadell and Lagan (2004) stated that if we try to describe something using vivid creative

form of language called figure of speech, it may sound refreshing to the ear of your listener, but

if we used vague and dull sentences, well fail to create a strong impression to our listener.

Understanding a text or a story that has a broad meaning or having a figurative language

is too difficult for the student to understand, identify the text or what kind of figure of speech is

being used. That even when they are already in college, many students are still confuse and not

familiar with the figures of speech. Students fail to express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas in

a special way by using figurative language, hence it was express in a simple and literal manner.

In this sense, this usually results to failure in communication and understanding. Due to

the eagerness to express in an extra ordinary way, most of them find difficulty in choosing the

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appropriate figure of speech. Teaching figure of speech plays a vital role in ESL or English as

Second Language Learner. Learning figure of speech helps the learners to improve their

understanding of the figurative aspect of the language and also exposing them to use and

understand slangs. It is also believed that it helps them to enlighten their imagination and

stimulate the learner’s creativity in language. The importance of learning figure of speech to an

individual is to strengthen their ability in communication skills. A learner who has a wide

understanding of the figurative aspects shows a better understanding of the language.

The main reason that motivated the researchers to conduct this study is that, the

researchers want to determine the performance of senior high school students, specifically, the

Grade 12 students of public and private school in identifying and using figure of speech.

Statement of the Problem

This study focused on the performance of Grade 12 senior high students of private and

public school taking HUMMS in identifying and using figure of speech.

Specifically, this research aimed to find answer to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of respondents in terms of:

a. final grade in Creative Writing;

b. most preferred reading materials in English; and

c. time spent in reading daily?

2. What is the performance level of Grade 12 students in terms of :

a) identifying; and

b) using figure of speech?


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3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their

performance level in identifying and using figure of speech?

Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis is tested in null form at 0.05 level of significance

There is no significant relationship between the performance of the respondents in

identifying and using figure s of speech and their profile?

Significance of the Study

The researchers believed that the result of this study may be beneficial to the following:

HUMMS Students. This study help them enhance their creativity in language and

improve their understanding of the figurative aspect of the language in their literature subject

and also their communication skills.

School Administrators. The result of this study help them to determine the

performance level of their students in identifying and using figure of speech. The information of

this study helped and guide them on their teaching –learning process in the field of English.

Researchers. For future researchers who conduct the same research, it provides them

the basis in widening and enriching their study and this study served as their reference.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study focused on the performance of grade 12 students in identifying and using

figure of speech. The figures of speech used were delimited to simile, metaphor, personification,

hyperbole, oxymoron and irony. The respondents of this study were the Grade 12 senior high

students of Pangasinan State University, Urdaneta Campus and Lyceum North-Western


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University, Dagupan City who enrolled in the track HUMMS during the Academic Year 2017-

2018.

Definitions of Terms

The following terms are defined lexically and operationally in order to have a better

understanding of the study.

Performance. It is the act or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action,

task or function.(Cambridge Dictionary, 2007 ) In this study, it refers to the result of the

evaluation administered to measure the students ability in identifying and using figures of

speech.

Identifying. To establish or recognize the identity of; a certain person or thing.

(Cambridge Dictionary, 2007). In this study, it refers in identifying what figure of speech is being

used in every sentence.

Using. It is the action of using something or the state of being used for a purpose.

(Cambridge Dictionary, 2007). In this study, it refers in using figures of speech in constructing

sentences.

Figure of Speech. This refers to essentially metaphorical mode of expression, it is used

for the effect in speech and writing and to clarify on deeper meaning by suggesting similitude

which provoke though. In this study, it refers to the identifying and using of the selected six (6)

kinds of figures of speech that will be used in a sentence. (Rakesh Ramobal Patel, 2008).

Simile. It refers to a figure of speech in which one thing is likened to another in one

respect of the use of “like or as”. It is a stated comparison between two things that are literary
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unlike but share some quality or qualities that the writer wishes to emphasize (James E. Miller,

Helen McDonnell, Rosell J. Hogan).

Metaphor. This refers to the figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting

one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between

them (Brahan 2012).

Personification. It refers to the personifying. It is the assigning of human powers and

characteristics to something that is not human such an object, an aspect of nature, or an

abstract idea (Keoraf, 2002).

Hyperbole. It is an exaggeration or over statement, usually deliberate and not meant to

be taken literally (Larson, 1998).

Irony. This refers to the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; a

statement or a situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of

the idea (Erbertt, 2004).

Oxymoron. This term refers to a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory

terms are combined to produce an epigrammatic effect. This is used to an apparent

contradiction in the context. (Straker, 2012)


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;;

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter deals with a review of literature and studies which have direct bearing with

the study. These related literature and studies guided the researchers in the conceptualization

of this research work.

RELATED LITERATURE

On Literature

One of the elements of shorts story is theme, which refers to the controlling idea or its

central insight. The title of the short story usually points to what the written saying and he may

use various figure of speech to emphasize his theme, such as, symbol, allusion, simile,

metaphor, hyperbole and irony (Salome 2008).

In giving imagery and symbolism in poetry, figures of speech are deeply regarded as

one of the agents to carry these elements. The idea and message of great originality besides

the fact that excels in its entirely in style and admirable wealth of details and delicacy of

thoughts because of the figures of speech (Purino 2008).

E.W Burlinger (2009) cited that all languages were ruled by laws, but to convey special

emphasis of words, these general laws of language were invoked giving single word or group of
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words a new form. The Greeks called these departures from normal language use. A schema

with means “change of forms” from which the term “figure of speech” originated. When a word

or words failed to be true to fact, they were figure of speech and brought an added emphasis to

the basic truth of sentences.

On Figures of Speech

Reich (2010) said that a figure of speech is the use of other words or thoughts in a way

that is uncommon or out of the ordinary. Figure of speech are “uncommon” use of the language

because they standout to an audience and grab their attention. By using hyperbole, metaphor

and personification in speech to arouse the interest and attention of the audience, they usually

tend to make comparison, exaggeration and rhetoric word to persuade listeners. In describing,

hyperbole and personification can be used to establish physical attribute. They are an artful that

allows literature to resonate with the audience and ultimately to give image.

Figure of speech is a sort of the style. According to Holman, in the encyclopedia

Americana (1986), figure of speech are form or expression that depart from the normal word or

sentences order or from the common literal meaning of words, using alliteration, assonance,

and idioms are the best way to form a new and aesthetic phrase or sentences for the purpose

of achieving a special effect.

Nadell and Langan (2004) cited that an effective speaking and writing styles help gain

and maintain attention. Style could help to add interest and keep the readers and listeners tuned

in to what they were listening and reading. Styles was deliberately and carefully chosen words

and used structure. Using euphemism where mild and comforting words are better instead of

using literal word it could help the audience remember and recall the ideas more easily on the

other hand use of language, they should have the ability to play on the words of English

language.
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Figure of Speech, according to Encyclopedia Americana (1995), serves a variety of

purposes. Some of them are Hyperbole, onomatopoeia and personification which used to clarify

meaning of words to provide vivid examples. Hyperbole is used to emphasize exaggerated

statements or expressions. Onomatopoeia on the other hand, is the employment of sound

words which are related to its meanings, while personification is used to address inanimate

objects. They have an essential aesthetic purpose, widening and deepening the range of

perception response to the world of objects and ideas.

On Figurative language

Serrano et al (2006) cited that the figurative language adds to the imaginative and

emotional powers of words. They are of great value in poetry but may be used just as well in

prose.

Figure of speech makes writing rich and interesting therefore, there it is on the right

choice of figure of speech that the art of certain piece depend on. Furthermore, speaking

figuratively is generally taken to mean opposite of speaking literally, Saymo, (2004).

Tan (2011) emphasized that a school story as a form of fictional literature attempted to

recreate or represent on create human experience in such a way and with such an impact, as to

bring out meanings invisible to the strictly scientific observes. The author of fiction sought to

convey his readers not only matters capable of verification but also the whole unseen but

imaginative perceived world of human motives, responses, desire and energies. It is the truth

that could comprehend more fully by imagination and so its communication to the readers

depends upon a skillfully imaginative use of language. Here is where the importance of

figurative language comes.


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Elsbree et al (2005) emphasized that the figurative language is complex and powerful

means of creating, showing or limiting relationship. It is a vital tool for conveying thoughts and

for suggesting what cannot be directly stated.

RELATED STUDIES

Foreign Studies

Dwijayanti (2012) became interested in the proficiency level of (20) twenty Christian in

SatyaWakana University in Salatiga Christian School, Central Java in perceiving message from

Christian song of giving My Best, a youth Christian band. In her research, she found out that

metaphor was the figure of speech most identified by the respondents. She used quantitative

approach because her data was in a form of numbers and words. She also concluded that

metaphor was highly recognized by the respondents in explaining something abstract (e.g God,

sin, etc) by using concrete things and the used of figure of speech is used to emphasize

meaning.

Junty (2004) made a survey on the analysis of figure of speech used in the body care

advertisement. She sees body care advertisement which use figures of speech in their language

and the advertisements arise reader’s curiosity to buy the product. Almost all of the body care

advertisement use figurative language as a way to attract the people to buy or believed in the

product. Besides that both of the advertiser and the readers are expected to have the same

interpretation on the message of advertisement. The writer also analyze the literal and the

figurative meaning in the advertisement. In this analysis she wanted to know how figures of

speech use in the language of body care advertisement for adults in cosmopolitan and men’s

health magazines she used Perrines theory to analyze the figure of speech. Moreover she used

Linda’s thesis about an analysis of figures of speech used in language of body care

advertisement in television programs as a review of related studies. The data took the form of
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words and the researcher was the main instrument. The data for this research were taken from

body care advertisement in several edition of cosmopolitan (October 2003 until April 2004) and

men’s health Magazines (December 2003 until April 2004) that were using Indonesian edition.

The researcher collected twenty body care advertisement randomly, ten advertisement from

cosmopolitan and ten advertisement from men’s health Magazine. There were several editions

that put the same advertisement and there were few numbers of body care advertisements in

cosmopolitan and Men’s Health Magazine that used several figures of speech. Moreover, she

used Cleves (1998) theoretical to base the analysis of figure of speech in language of body care

advertisement in television program. She identified that metaphor, personification, and

hyperbole as the frequently used figure of speech and that hyperbole was the most perceived

figure of speech among the three because it was an intensifying device that exaggerated the

language for advertisement in advertising the product to attract the reader’s attention. In the

advertisement, hyperbole referred to the quality of the product in a bigger way so that it could be

raise the curiosity of the reader to buy the product. Based on her findings she concluded that

the using figure of speech in advertisement will raise the readers/buyers to consume the

product. At the end, she also recommended that a similar study about figures of speech but with

different respondents may be conducted.

Djafavora (2008) made a study in the contribution of figure of speech to the presentation

of tourism that tackles in language in Tourism Advertising. The study explores the ways figures

of speech such as metaphors, puns and alliteration contribute to the creation of tourism images

in print advertising qualitative content analysis of 600 advertisement, selected from the range of

sources, was carried out. Pragmatic approach, a branch of linguistic was implemented to

explain the existing textual meaning carrying different degrees of ambiguity. Complex use of

figure of speech might cause difficulties in the comprehension of the advertised product.

Although relevance theory is a part of pragmatics, successfully explains the interpretation for
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receipts. From another side, Djafavora was successful in proving that alliteration does not

require any interpretation and thus cannot be misled, as no semantic meaning is involved.

Hence the alliteration has more potential to succeed in advertising communication. Overall,

Djafarova stressed that figures to create deeper meaning in it.

Local Studies

Lusiana (2004) studied the stylistic approach to Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by

J.K Rowling. She became curious about the language style used by the author that made it

achieved literally value and being considered as the fine edition to English children’s fantasy

novel. Therefore, she wanted to find out the figures of speech used in a novel. She concluded

that the most frequent figures of speech appeared in the novel was metaphor because it was

very effective to evoke or describe things which were difficult to describe literally. Findings also

showed that with the use of figures of speech, more readers are attracted to read the fantasy

novel.

Bascos and Baribal (2012) conducted a study on the Proficiency Level in using and

identifying of figures of speech of the fifty (50) Fourth Year AB English students of Pangasinan

State University,Urdaneta Campus in Urdaneta City during S.Y 2011-2012. The profile used

were the final grade of the respondents in their English 101, types of secondary school

attended, reading materials available at home. They have found out that students have very

high proficiency in using and identifying figure of speech from the result of the data they

gathered using questionnaire on thirteen (13) figures of speech: alliteration, anticlimax,

apostrophe, assonance, climax, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, onomatopoeia, oxymoron,

personification, rhetorical question and simile. They concluded from their findings that only the

reading materials identified such as the dictionary and encyclopedia have significance on the

proficiency level of the respondents which implies that students prefer to read dictionary and

encyclopedia at home where they learn or encounter most of the figures of speech.
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Lacosta and Zamora (2008) made a survey on the efficiency level of ten (10) Fourth

Year Basic Secondary Education major in English students on using figures of speech as their

topic for demonstration. They became interested on how the future teachers will use metaphor,

simile, hyperbole, personification, and onomatopoeia in their practice teaching conducted using

a class of thirty-five (35) students of Urdaneta City National High School. To test the Efficiency

Level of the BSE English students, a questionnaire was given and that the topic was understood

well with the use of enhanced imagery brought by the figures speech.

Synthesis of Reviewed Related Studies and the Present Study

The foregoing studies reviewed by the researchers are related with the present study.

They all dealt with figure of speech.

The study of Dwijiyanti (2007) is similar to the present study because it deals with

identifying figures of speech used by the students. It differs from the present study in terms of

the respondents. Dwijiyanti’s respondents are the students of Satya Wakana University in

Salatiaga Christian School while the present study are the grade 12 students of Lyceum North-

Western University, Dagupan City and Pangasinan State University, Urdaneta Campus.

The research of Junty (2004) also deals with figures of speech, the research object of

Junty was taken from the advertisement. While the present study were grade 12 students from

public and private school.

Djafavora (2008) study explores the role of figures of speech in tourism images in print

advertising, which is different from the present study because it focused on the level of

performance of grade 12 in identifying and using figures of speech.


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The study of Lusiana (2004), on the other hand intended to identify the figures of speech

used in the novel, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J.K Rowling. In contrast the present

study in confined in determining the performance level of students in identifying and using

figures of speech.

The study of Bascos and Baribal (2012) is similar to the present study because it deals

with identifying and using figures of speech. They differ in terms of the respondents. The

respondents of Bascos abd Baribal are the fourth year AB English students of Pangasinan State

University, Urdaneta Campus.

Lacosta and Zamora (2008) made a study on the efficiency level on using figures of

speech as a topic for demonstration. While the present study deals on the performance level of

grade 12 students in identifying and using figures of speech. It differs from the present study in

terms of the respondents. The respondents of Lacosta and Zamora are the BSE students of

Urdaneta City University while the present study were the grade 12 students of Lyceum North-

Western University, Dagupan City and Pangasinan State University , Urdaneta Campus.

Theoretical Framework

Kennedy (1991) in his theory of Figurative Language, a figure of speech may be said to

occur whenever a speaker or writer, for the sake of freshness or emphasis, departs from the

usual connotations of words. Wren and Martin (1981) stated that figure of speech is a departure

from the ordinary from the expression or the ordinary course of ideas in order to produce a

greater effect. Figures and symbol are images used in a particular way to explore the less

known through to known. (K.L Knickerbocker, 1963) so it can be concluded that figure of speech

or language style is a way of describing something through a beautiful language that is used to

increase the effect by introducing and comparing the way of a particular object or thing with

objects or anything else that is more common.


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According to Turkovic (2005) it is deflection, deviation and exceptionality which specify

individuality as opposed to everything else, which remains supra-individual. Figures of speech

are a certain “meaningful exception“ they appear unexpectedly in a given immediate context.

They are exception along with other types of processes in film: optical links, out of shot written

and spoken lingual statements, accompanying out of shot music, generally any type of a scene.

They appear where additional help is typically necessary for the better understanding of

presentation structure: They are a sort of meta-discursive aid. Figures of speech are mostly a

complex phenomenon; very conceptual preparation is necessary for their comprehension, as

well as activation of meaningful linkage during presentation. In theoretical tradition, both literary

and film, figures of speech as well as some other processes in the composition of presentation

hold true to the theoretical aspect the matter of rhetoric.

Arnheim’s (2009) theory of aesthetic and figures of speech, there are great differences

between the perception of reality and the perception of its reproduction of film screen, and it is

with in these very differences that one should seek out the artistic possibilities available to film.

Arheims does not refer to film figures, but does however anatomize theoretical assumptions and

examples of film, which he then list as attributes of the theory of film as art. An indirect and

surprising tie is thus revealed, one between its own visions of the possible artistic achievements

in film and the figures of speech with in film. It is the connection between Arheims aesthetic

theory of film and the theory of stylization of figures of speech. Figures of speech, in this sense,

becomes a mean of expressing the artistic personality, an artistic effect is achieved through

these figures. Figures of speech help the viewer in better comprehending the presentation and

process.

Conceptual Framework
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To have directions and a clear concept of the study; a framework showing the flow of the

study were drawn. Similarly, the paradigm to be found on the next page reflected the

researcher’s central idea of this study.

Figure 1 represents the conceptual framework of the study, illustrates the relationship of

dependent and independent variables. The independent variables were the profile of grade 12

students such as final grade in Creative Writing, most preferred reading materials and time

spent in reading, while dependent variables were the performance of grade 12 Students in

identifying and using figure of speech.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Respondents’ Profile in terms of:

a) Final Grade in Creative

Writing Performance Level of Grade 12

b) Most preferred reading Students in Identifying and using


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________________

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods and procedures that are used in the study. It includes

the research design, population of the study, data-gathering procedure, data- gathering

instruments, and statistical treatment of data.


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Research Design

The researcher used the descriptive method of research in the study for the analysis and

interpretation of data. It refers to the quantitative investigation of characters, status, or practices

of individual on particular (Cabias 2008).

The basic reason for adopting descriptive research is to identify the result of the study

which is to determine the performance of Grade 12 senior high school students of private and

public schools in identifying and using figures of speech.

Respondent of the Study

The respondent of this study were the Grade 12 students of the track HUMMS at

Lyceum North-Western University, Dagupan City for the private school and Pangasinan State

University Urdaneta-Campus, Urdaneta City Pangasinan for the public school, who are enrolled

during the first semester of Academic Year 2017-2018 and have taken and passed their

Creative Writing subject. The entire population of the respondent were considered, thus

complete enumeration used.

Data –Gathering Instrument

The researchers used a questionnaire as their main tool in gathering the needed data for

the study. The questionnaire is consists of two parts: Part I consists the profile of the

respondents in terms of their final grade in Creative Writing in Grade 11, most preferred reading

materials in English, and time spent in reading daily. Part II-A consists of 30-item test on

identifying the kind of figure of speech used in a sentences, quotation or expression while Part

II-B, the researchers asked the assistance of their advisees in checking the answers of the

respondents.
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Data –Gathering Procedure

The researchers asked permission and approval to the Campus Executive Director of

PSU-Urdaneta Mrs. Gemma M. De Vera, the Dean of Arts and Education, Dr. Domingo

Cabarteja, the Chair of English Language Department Mrs. Marissa E. Sison, the Principal of

Pangasinan State University Urdaneta Campus Mr. Mark Kristian T. Carvajal, the Principal

Lyceum North-Western University, Dagupan City, Dr. Maria Martha Manette A. Madrid, and the

concerned teachers/advisers. A letter of request were also given to the respondents before the

administration of the questionnaire. Further, researchers requested the complete list of the

respondents from the principal or the registrar.

The researchers personally floated their questionnaire to the respondents. The content

and directions as to how they should answer the questionnaire was explained thoroughly by the

researchers. They were also supervised by the researchers for questions and clarifications on

the test items of the questionnaire. The researchers retrieved the questionnaire after giving the

respondents one hour time to answer questionnaire. Each question was carefully checked to

ensure that no question was left unanswered. On Part II.B the researchers asked the help of

their adviser in checking the answer of the respondent to ensure credibility and accuracy. The

needed data are finally collected and tabulated, it was subjected to data analysis using

appropriate statistical tool.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data gathered was classified, tabulated accordingly and analyzed and interpreted

based on their corresponding frequencies and percentages in accordance with the presentation

of specific problems. Descriptive statistics was used to qualify data.

For problem 1, which dealt on the profile of the respondents, descriptive statistical

analysis was used to interpret the data based on their corresponding frequencies and

percentage in terms of final grade in Creative Writing, most preferred reading materials in

English and time spent in reading daily. In particular, the final grades of the respondents in
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Creative Writing measured through the mean and standard deviation, the following scale with its

descriptive rating used.

______________________________________________________________________
GRADING SCALE DESCRIPTION

90-100 Outstanding

85-89 Very Satisfactory

80-84 Satisfactory

79.50 Fairly Satisfactory

75 below Did Not Meet Expectations

To answer problem number 2, on the performance level of the respondents in identifying

and using figures of speech, frequency counts of the test scores of each respondents and

percentage distribution used.

To assist in the data analysis of this problem, tabulated score of each student are

interpreted using the scale below:

A. Identifying Figures of speech

___________________________________________________________________
Score Interval Descriptive Rating
25-30 Very High

19-24 High

13-18 Moderate

6-12 Low

0-5 Very low

B. Using Figures of Speech

______________________________________________________________________
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Score Interval Descriptive Rating


25-30 Very High

19-24 High

13-18 Moderate

6-12 Low

0-5 Very low

______________________________________________________________________

For the overall frequency distribution of the respondents in identifying and using figures

of speech, the scale below were used.

______________________________________________________________________
Score Interval Descriptive Rating
49-60 Very High

37-48 High

25-36 Moderate

12-24 Low

0-12 Very low

For the problem number 3, the researchers determined if there is significant relationship

between the performance of the respondents in identifying and using figures of speech and their

profile variables. The statistical treatments used in the following variables are Chi-square

Correlation, Point Biserial, Chi-square Correlation and Spearman Correlation


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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings of the study together with the analysis of the data

gathered which were analyzed and interpreted according to the specific problems formulated.

PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

The profile of the respondents as to their final grade in creative writing, most preferred

reading materials in English, time spent in reading daily, are presented below with the use of

frequency counts and percentage distribution.

Table 1 presents the profile of the respondents in terms of their final grade in Creative

Writing subject. Data contains the frequency, percentage distribution and descriptive rating.

Table 1

Respondents’ Final Grade in Creative Writing

Frequency Percentage Descriptive Rating


______________________________________________________________________
Grade in Creative
Writing

90-100 13 21.7% Outstanding

85-89 19 31.7% Very Satisfactory

80-84 24 40.0% Satisfactory

75-79 4 6.7% Fairly Satisfactory

75 below 0 0.0% Did Not Meet Expectations


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______________________________________________________________________

Respondents Grade in Creative Writing

Table 1 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of their grade in Creative Writing. It

can be seen that 40.0% or 24 out of 60 respondents obtained a grade with the range of 80-84

and described as Satisfactory. It is followed by 31.7% or 19 of the respondents with a grade of

85-89 with descriptive rating of Very Satisfactory. 21.7% or 13 respondents with a grade of 90-

100 which was described as Outstanding and 6.7% or 4 with a grade ranges from of 76-79 and

described Fairly Satisfactory. None of the respondents got a grade of 75 below. Therefore,

this signifies that most of them have satisfactory performance in their Creative Writing subject

in grade 11.

Table 2 shows the respondents most preferred reading materials and the time they

spend in reading daily. Containing frequency counts and percentage distribution. This table will

also answer the most preferred reading materials in English of the respondents.

Table 2

Respondents’ Most Preferred Reading Materials and Time Spent in Reading Daily

Profile Frequency Percentage


Most Preferred Reading
Materials in English
27 45.0%
Textbooks 11 18.3%
Dictionary 6 10.0%
News Paper 9 15.0%
Magazines 7 11.7%
Others
Total 60 100%
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Time spent on reading


daily

above five hours (5) 6 10.0%


two to five (5) hours 20 33.3%
below two hours 34 56.7%

With the statistical findings shown, Table 2 shows that the profile of the respondents in

terms of their most preferred reading materials at home, 27 (45%) of them preferred textbooks,

it can be seen that 11 (18.3%) of the students preferred dictionary, 9 (15.0%) of the students

preferred magazines, 7 (11.7%) of the students preferred other books as their reading materials

and 6 (10.0%) of the respondents preferred newspaper. With the aforementioned statistical

results, it is clear that the most preferred reading material at home of the respondents is

textbooks. With regard to the time spent of the respondents in reading daily, there were 34 or

56% respondents spent below two hours in reading followed by 20 or 33.3% respondents spent

two to five hours in reading, while 6 or 10.0% spent above five hours in reading daily. Therefore,

most of the respondents spent below two hours in reading daily.

Table 3 will answer the problem number two which is the performance level of the

students in identifying figures of speech. It shows the frequency counts, percentage distribution

and descriptive Rating.

Table 3

Performance Level of Grade 12 Students in Identifying Figures of Speech

Score Range Frequency Percentage Descriptive Rating


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25-30 0 0.0% Very High

19-24 8 13.33% High

13-18 33 55.00% Moderate

6-12 19 31.67% Low

0-5 0 0.0 Very low

With regard to identifying figures of speech of the respondents 33 (55.0%) of them

obtained a score range of 13-18 with a Moderate Descriptive Rating, 19 (31.67%) got a score

range of 6-12 with a Low Rating, 8 (13.33%) garnered High Rating, Very High and Very Low

has the same frequency counts and percentage distribution . Which means only eight (8) out of

sixty (60) students got High Rating on the 30 items identification test. However, thirty three (33)

students attained Moderate Rating on the test. It’s also obvious on the table that nineteen (19)

of them got 6-12 which is rated Low. Therefore, majority of the respondents attained moderate

rating in identifying figures of speech.

Table 4 shows the performance level of the respondents in using figures of speech. It

also presents the frequency counts, percentage distribution and descriptive rating.

Table 4

Performance Level of Respondents in Using Figures of Speech


Score Range Frequency Percentage Descriptive Rating
_____________________________________________________________________________________
25

25-30 3 5% Very High


19-24 12 20.00% High
13-18 6 10.00 % Moderate
6-12 11 18.33% Low
0-5 28 46.67% Very Low

It appears in the table 4 that most of the respondents ranges 0-5 which described as

Very Low rating in using figures of speech as shown by the frequency and percentage of 28

(46.67%), 12 (20.00%) garnered High Rating with the score range of 19-24, 11 (18.33%)

obtained a score range of 6-12 and described as Low Rating, 6 (10.00%) exhibited an

Moderate Rating which ranges 13-18 and 3 (5%) have an Very High Rating and ranges 25-

30.

Table 5 presents the overall performance level of the respondents in identifying and

using figures of speech. The data contains frequency counts, percentage distribution and

descriptive rating.

Table 5

Overall Performance Level of Grade 12 students in Identifying and Using Figures of


Speech
Score Range Frequency Percentage Descriptive Rating

49-60 1 1.67% Very high

37-48 10 16.67% High

25-36 14 23.33% Moderate

12-24 33 55.00% Low

0-11 2 3.33% Very low


26

With regard to the overall performance of the respondents in identifying and using

figures of speech,14 (23.33%) of the students has a Moderate performance in using and

identifying figures of speech, followed by 10 (16.67%) of the students has High rating and 2

(3.33%) of the respondent has Very Low performance in using and identifying figures of speech

and only one out of 60 students has a descriptive rating of Very High 1 (1.67%).Therefore, the

students have Low Performance level in identifying and using figures of speech with a

frequency range of 33 (55.00%).

Table 6 shows the relationship between the profile and the performance of the

respondents in identifying figures of speech. Containing the correlation value, significance and

descriptive rating.

Table 6

Relationship between the Profile and Performance Level of the Respondents in


Identifying Figures of Speech.

Profile Correlation value Significance Descriptive Rating


Variables

Grade in Creative
Writing -0.401 0.002 Highly Significant

Most Preferred Reading


Materials 0.470 0.435 Not Significant

Time spent in
reading daily -0.256 0.048 Highly Significant

The table shows that the profile variable of the respondents which is grade in Creative

Writing has a significant relationship in the performance level of the respondents in identifying

figures of speech with the Correlation value of -0.401 and Significance value of 0-002. This

implies that the grade of the respondents affect their performance in identifying figures of

speech. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected. The most preferred reading materials in English
27

which is included in the profile variables of the respondents is not significant to their

performance in identifying and using figures of speech, based on the findings shown in the

table, implies a correlation value of 0.470 and significance of 0.435. In contrast with the findings

of Bascos and Baribal study, in which reading materials such dictionary, encyclopedias is very

significant in the performance of their respondents. However, significant relationship was found

in the profile variables which is, the time spent in reading with a correlation value of – 0.256 and

significance of 0.048.

Table 7 shows the relationship between the profile and the performance of the

respondents in using figures of speech. Containing the correlation value, significance and

descriptive rating.

Table 7

Relationship between the Profile of the grade 12 students and their performance in
using figures of speech
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Profile Correlation Significance Descriptive Equivalent
Variables

Grade in Creative Writing -0.478 0.000 highly significant

Most preferred reading 0.622 0.344 not significant


Materials in English

Time spent in reading -0.135 0.304 not significant


daily

The profile variables of the respondents concerning their grade in Creative Writing is

highly significant to their performance in using figures of speech, having the correlation of -0.478

and significance of 0.000. As for the most preferred reading materials with a significance of -

0.344, table shows that it is not significant with their performance in using figures of speech with
28

the correlation value of -0.622. With regards to their time spent in reading English daily is not

significant having the correlation of -0.135 and significance of 0.304.

Table 8 presents the overall profile and performance level of the respondents in

identifying and using figures of speech. The data contains frequency counts, percentage

distribution and descriptive rating.

Table 8

Overall profile and performance of grade 12 students in identifying and using figures of
speech
_____________________________________________________________________

Profile Correlation Significance Descriptive Equivalent


Variables

Grade in Creative
Writing -0.531 0.000 not significant

Most preferred reading


materials in English 0.787 0.022 significant

Time spent in reading


Daily -0.212 0.104 not significant
_____________________________________________________________________

Overall, the table shows that the profile variables of the students in Grade in Creative

writing is not significant in their performance level in identifying and using figures of speech, as

shown by the results with the correlation value of 0.531 with significance of 0.000, this implies
29

that there is no significant relationship between the grade in creative writing and their

performance level in identifying and using figures of speech. For the profile variable of the

respondents in Most Preferred Reading Materials in English stated in the table with the

correlation of 0.787 and a significant value of 0.022, this shows that it is significant to their

performance level in identifying and using figures of speech. While their time spent in reading

daily, with a correlation value of -0.212 and significant value of 0.104 which is not significant in

the respondent’s performance in identifying and using figures of speech.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


30

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions arrived at, and the

recommendations formulated based on the conclusions.

SUMMARY

The preeminent purpose of this study was to determine the performance level of grade

12 students in identifying and using figures of speech. Along with the profile variables of the

respondents in terms of final grade in creative writing, most preferred reading materials, and

time spent in reading English book. This study involved 60 sixty respondents from public which

is Pangasinan state University –Urdaneta Campus and private school of Lyceum North-western

University Dagupan City, during school year 2017-2018,To determine the performance level of

the respondents in identifying and using figures of speech, the researcher conducted a

questionnaire that adapted from various source.

SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

1. On the profile of the respondents

a) Final grade in Creative Writing. Majority of the respondents 24 or 40.0%

obtained grade with a range of 80-84 which is satisfactory academic

performance, however 19 or 31.7% respondents has a grade with a range of 85-

89 which is very satisfactory, and 13 or 21.7% students has an average Grade of

90-100 for outstanding performance, and 4 or 6.7% students obtained a low

grade with the range of 76-79, fairly satisfactory and 0.or 0.0% has a grade of 75

below.

b) Most Preferred Reading Materials in English. Majority of the respondents ,27

or 45% preferred textbooks, 11 or 18.3% chose dictionary, 9 or 15.0% selected

magazine, 6 or 10.0% selected newspaper as their reading material and 0 or

0.0% take others.


31

c) Time Spent in Reading Daily. 34 or 56.7% of the respondents spend below 2

hours on reading daily, followed by 20 or 33.3% who spend 2 to 5 hours in

reading daily and 6 or 10.0% spend above 5 hours in everyday reading English

books.

2. Performance in identifying and using Figures of Speech

a) Identifying figures of speech. Majority or 55% of the respondents, were

found to have a moderate performance, while 31% of them have a high

performance, however 31.67% of the respondents got low performance in

identifying figures of speech.

b) Performance in using figures of Speech. Majority of the respondents 28 or

46% were found to have a very low performance in using figures of speech,

however 12 or 20% of them have a high performance, while 11 or 18.33% of

them have a low performance and 3 or 5% of the sixty respondents obtained

very high performance in using figures of speech.

CONCLUSIONS

From the analyzed findings of this study, the following conclusions are formulated;

1. Majority of the students obtained a satisfactory academic performance in their

creative writing subject, it also found out that the most preferred English reading

materials of the students were textbook and majority of them spend below two hours

in reading daily.

2. The students have a moderate performance in identifying figures of speech, and

majority of them have a very low performance in using figures of speech and the

overall performance of the students in identifying and using figures of speech it

results in a low rate.


32

3. The profile variables which are grade in creative writing and time spent in reading

were highly significant in the performance of the students in identifying and using

figures of speech, while the most preferred reading materials is not significant in their

performance.

RECOMMENDATIONS

In line with the findings and conclusions, the researchers propose the

following recommendations:

1. The students are recommend to spend more time in reading daily and they are

advised to read some English materials also to improve their performance in

using figures of speech in constructing a sentence.

2. English teachers should imposed English language as a medium of

communication to exercise the student’s ability in using the language.

3. The students are encourage to study and be familiarized with the figurative

language.