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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB III

CDB 3062Z
SEP 2018 SEMESTER

LAB REPORT

EXPERIMENT : 2
GROUP : 12
GROUP MEMBERS :
1. Lim Hui Keat 22727
2. Wan Noor Athina Wan Mohd Rasdi 22728
3. Reshmitrah Silvom 22730
4. Muhamad Fahmi Rosli 22734
5. Muhamd Farhan Haqeem Othman 22740

LAB INSTRUCTOR : Anmol Fatima


LECTURER : Dr Nasser
DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 20th September 2018
DATE OF SUBMISSION : 27th September 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
INTRODUCTION AND THEORY ………………………………………………………….. 3
PROCEDURE………………………………………………………………………………….5
EXPERIMENT DATA AND CALCULATIONS …………………………………………….6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………….7
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………..10
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………..10
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………………11

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SUMMARY
Flowmeters are devices that is used to determine the amount of liquids, gases, or vapour that
passes through. There are various types of flowmeters used in industries, but in this experiment,
we focused on three types of flowmeters which are orifice flowmeter, magnetic flowmeter and
Coriolis flowmeter. All the three types of flowmeters were tested by setting the same flowrate and
the time taken for the water in the flowmeter to reach 75 L is measured. All three flowmeters work
differently, as orifice flowmeter adhere to the Bernoulli’s principle, the magnetic flowmeter is
following the Faraday’s Law of Induction while the Coriolis flow meter uses Coriolis force from
the vibration through the U-shaped tube. The accuracy of each flow meters is then calculated.
Based on the results, it is concluded that Orifice flowmeter has the highest accuracy for the
flowrate of 10 L/min and the Coriolis flowmeter has the highest accuracy for the flowrate of 15
L/min. All the three flow meters showed a similar trend, which is as the flowrate increases, the
accuracy of the flow meter decreases.

1. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY


A flow meter is a device used to measure the volumetric flow or mass flow of a gas or
liquid. Flow meters are commonly referred to by many names in industry, namely flow gauge,
flow indicator, liquid meter etc.
Orifice meters employs a flat thin orifice plate having a reduced diameter of orifice in the
centre which is supported and aligned within the orifice flow meter between a sealing ring and
compression ring that are held together by a fastener to form an orifice plate assembly. (Shiba,
1974). The Orifice meter adhere to Bernoulli`s principle which states that non-viscous,
incompressible fluid in a steady flow, the sum of pressure, potential energy and kinetic energy
per unit volume is constant at any point. When there is a fluid flow, the orifice plate causes a
pressure drop which varies with the flow rate. The pressure drop is measured using a
differential pressure sensor. When calibration take place, the pressure drop becomes a measure
flow rate.

Figure 1.1: Orifice Meter

A magnetic flow meter is used to measure the flow of an electrically conductive fluid along
a flow of path. The flow is detected using Faraday`s law of induction. The principle of magnetic
flow meter is that the meter applies a magnetic field across the flow path. A conductor moving in

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a magnetic field causes the induction of a voltage across the conductor. In fluid flow meter, the
conductor is the fluid (i.e.: water) which has conducting ions present in the fluid. The direction of
voltage which is induced is mutually perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow and magnetic
field. (ES et al, 2003)

Figure 1.2: Magnetic flowmeter

Coriolis flow meters are commonly used in plants. The principle behind coriolis flow meter
is that the flowmeter vibrates a U-shaped tube through which a fluid flows excited the coil. The
Coriolis force which is measured, is generated by the fluid flowing through an interior of the U-
shaped tube, based on torsion of the U-shaped tube. Since the Coriolis force increases in proportion
to the flow rate of the fluid, the flow rate can be measured through a width or phase of the torsion
of the U-shaped tube. As such, if the U-shaped tube undergoes, for instance, corrosion, an error in
measurement of the flow rate occurs. (Miyaji, Kadoguchi & Yoshino, 2011)

Figure 1.3: Coriolis flowmeter

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2. PROCEDURE

1. The tank T-505 had been calibrated using volume of 75 litres of water
2. The hand valves positions for the Orifice flowmeter are check and ensured as follows:
Close: HV511, HV514, HV515, HV516, HV518, HV519, HV520, HV521, HV525,
HV526
Open: HV512, HV517, HV522, HV523
3. The pump P-501 is started and HV524 is used to regulate the flowrate to 10 L/min. HV525
is then opened.
4. The stop watch is started when the water level reaches 0 L at the sight glass SG505. The
flowrate is ensured to be constant.
5. The time taken to fill 75 liters of water inside the calibration tank is recorded. The reading
from the flowmeter is measured again.
6. Step 2 -5 is repeated for Magnetic Flowmeter and Coriolis Flowmeter. The following are
the valves position for both flow meter.
Magnetic Flowmeter
Close: HV511, HV514, HV515, HV516, HV518, HV519, HV522, HV523, HV525,
HV526
Open: HV512, HV517, HV521, HV520
Coriolis Flowmeter
Close: HV511, HV515, HV516, HV520, HV521, HV522, HV523, HV525, HV526
Open: HV512, HV517, HV518, HV519

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3. EXPERIMENT DATA AND CALCULATIONS
3.1 Experiment Data
Table 1:Time taken for a 75L tank to be filled using different types of flowmeter

Type of flowmeter Flowrate Time taken to reach V2 (L)


(L/min) 75L (mins, sec)
Orifice 10.00 5 mins 43 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 32 sec 75.00
Magnetic 10.00 5 mins 32 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 34 sec 75.00
Coriolis 10.00 5 mins 32 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 35 sec 75.00
The experiment was conducted using three flowmeter which is orifice, magnetic and Coriolis
flowmeter. Water is pump in and the volumetric flowrate is measured by the flowmeter. In this
experiment, the water pumped flows through each of the flow meter until the calibration tank
reaches 75 L. The time taken to reach 75 L is measured and discussed.
At the flowrate of 10 L/min, the lowest time taken to reach 75 L is 5 minutes and 32 second for
Magnetic and Coriolis flowmeter. The highest time taken to reach 75 L is 5 minutes and 43 seconds
for Orifice flowmeter.
At the flowrate of 15 L/min, the lowest time taken to reach 75 L is 3 minutes and 32second for
Orifice flowmeter. The highest time taken to reach 75 L is 3 minutes and 35 seconds for Coriolis
flowmeter.
3.2 Calculations
For the data collected, we are required to calculate the V1 and the accuracy of the flowmeters using
specific equations. To calculate V1, we use the formula:

𝑉1 = 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 × 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑢𝑝 75𝐿 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘


Based on the reading from orifice flowmeter at 10L/min,

𝑉1 = 10𝐿/ min × 5 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠 43 𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 54.30 𝐿

To calculate the accuracy, we use the formula:


𝑉1
𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 (%) = × 100%
𝑉2
Based on the reading from orifice flowmeter at 10L/min.
54.3 𝐿
𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 = × 100% = 72.4 %
75 𝐿

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4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Results
Table 4.1: Accuracy and V1 data calculated for different types of flowmeter

Type of
Flowrate V1 (L) V2 (L) Accuracy (%)
flowmeter
(L/min)
Orifice
10.00 54.30 75.00 72.40
15.00 49.80 75.00 66.40
Magnetic 10.00 53.20 75.00 70.90
15.00 50.10 75.00 66.80
Coriolis 10.00 53.20 75.00 70.90
15.00 50.25 75.00 67.00
Based on table 4.1, the accuracy of the Orifice flowmeter is highest at the flowrate of 10 L/min
with an accuracy of 72.4% in comparison to the flowrate at 15L/min with an accuracy of 66.4%.
The accuracy of the Magnetic flowmeter is the highest at flowrate of 10 L/min with an accuracy
of 70.9% compared to the flowrate at 15L/min which has an accuracy of 66.8%. The accuracy of
the Coriolis flowmeter is at the peak when the flowrate is 10 L/min with an accuracy of 70.9%
while lower at flowrate of 15L/min with an accuracy of 67.0%.

Accuracy of Flowmeter at 10 L/min Accuracy of Flowmeter at 15 L/min


75 70
69
Accuracy (%)

Accuracy (%)

73
68
71 67
66
69
65
67 64
Orifice Magnetic Coriolis Orifice Magnetic Coriolis
Type of Flowmeter Type of FLowmeter

Graph 4.1: Accuracy vs flowmeters at flowrate 10L/min Graph 4.2 Accuracy vs flowmeters at flowrate 15L/min

Based on graph 4.1, the orifice flowmeter shows the highest accuracy at 72.4% followed by
magnetic flowmeter and Coriolis flowmeter at 70.9%. Based on graph 4.2, the Coriolis flowmeter
shows the highest accuracy at 67.0% followed by Magnetic flowmeter and Orifice flowmeter at
66.8% and 66.4% respectively. It is observed that when the flowrate is lower, the orifice flowmeter
gives a higher accuracy reading of flowrate while the Coriolis flowmeter gives a better accuracy
reading at higher flowrate.

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4.2 Discussion
Based on the experimental data collected, we compared and discuss the accuracy of the Orifice,
Magnetic and Coriolis flowmeter. Water is used in this experiment as it is an incompressible fluid,
which assumes that the density is constant.

Accuracy vs Flowrate for different flowmeter


73
72
71
Accuracy, %

70
Orifice
69
Magnetic
68
Coriolis
67
66
0 5 10 15 20
Flowrate, L/min

Graph 4.3: Accuracy vs flowrate for different flowmeter

Based on graph 4.3, for the orifice flowmeter, there is a steep decrease in accuracy. The difference
in the accuracy occurs due to the pressure drop in the Orifice flowmeter. This is because in an
Orifice flowmeter, a pressure drop is produces when the fluid passes through a barrier or a
restriction as the speed of the fluid will accelerates. This is proven by the Bernoulli’s Law which
states when a fluid accelerates, the pressure of the fluid decreases and thus would create a pressure
drop in the flowmeter. Therefore, for an Orifice flowmeter, the flowmeter is only limited for the
usage of low flowrate which reduces the error produced from the differential pressure.
For the Magnetic flowmeter, the accuracy at 10L/min is higher than the accuracy at 15L/min,
which is less steep slope compared to orifice and Coriolis flowmeter. The difference of accuracy
is because of the error present when conducting the experiment. Typically, for the Magnetic
flowmeter it measures the velocity of speed according to the Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic
Induction. In the Faraday’s Law when a conductor passes through a magnetic field, voltage will
be induced, and the intensity of the voltage is proportional to the velocity of the moving fluid.
Therefore, the faster the fluid moves, the higher the voltage induced and thus indicates a high
flowrate. The pressure drop is negligible for Magnetic flowmeter. So, the results of error for the
flowmeter is because of the low conductivity of the fluid or water which will make the
electromagnetic effect lower thus, becomes less accurate.
For the Coriolis flowmeter, the accuracy at 10L/min is higher than the accuracy at 15L/min. Also,
for this flowmeter the difference in accuracy is because of the error presence when conducting the
experiment. For a Coriolis flowmeter it measures the amount or quantity of mass of the fluids that
flows through it on the Coriolis Effect’s principle that the inertia created by fluid flowing through

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an oscillating tube will causes the tube to twist in proportion to mass flowrate. This will then send
vibration through the tubes and can be read in sinus signal and interpreted as flow rate to the
experimenter. The Coriolis flowmeter is not affected by the changes in pressure, temperature, and
viscosity. So, the results of error for the flowmeter is because of the presence of air bubbles in the
piping system. This air bubbles will create a fluctuation in the values on calculating the volumetric
flowrate as air is less dense than water.
At flowrate of 10L/min the highest accuracy is obtained by Orifice flowmeter as it is
suitable for lower flowrate with lower pressure drop. While, at flowrate of 15L/min the highest
accuracy is obtained by Coriolis flowmeter at an accuracy of 67%.
4.3 Errors and Recommendations
During the experiment, there are a few weaknesses spotted that may lead to errors in the
observations and results obtained. Hence, appropriate measures must be taken to avoid these errors
and increase the accuracy of results. The errors and recommendations are as follows:
1. Error: The flow rate during the experiment is inconsistent, leading to the inaccuracy of
data obtained. This is caused by the difficulty to adjust the flowrate, affecting the flow rate
and causing it to fluctuate.
Recommendations: Adjust the flowrate accordingly using hand valve while keeping track
on the flowrate reading on the sight glass. The fluctuation due to equipment error can be
reduced by replacing all the faulty equipment and perform regular maintenance so that the
equipment can operate at its best state.
2. Error: Parallax error when reading the water level in the tank, due to the restriction like
the height of the reader to the level of the tank.
Recommendations: Parallax error when taking the reading from sight glass can be avoided
by ensuring the eye level is perpendicular to the scale when taking the readings.
3. Error: Air bubble presence in the piping system that results in the fluctuating value of
flowrate and reduces the accuracy of some of the flowmeter.
Recommendations: Adjust the flow rate at maximum level at the beginning of the
experiment using pump to clear and push the air bubbles out of the tube. Ensure that the
time is taken only when no air bubbles are observed in the tubes.
4. Error: The stopwatch may not be started accurately when the water level reaches 0L/min.
Recommendations: The average readings should be taken by repeating the experiment 3
times and calculate the average values. This will help in reducing the errors cause by
inconsistence when recording the data.

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5. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, different flow meter has different accuracy. Based on the results, Coriolis
flow meter has the highest accuracy at high flow rate compared to orifice and magnetic flow
meter. This is because, instead of having a rotating frame of reference, this flow meter works
based on the inertia created by the flowing fluid passing through an oscillating tube. This
causes the tube to twist in the proportion to the mass flow rate. A Coriolis effect is produced
when there is a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference
frame. This effect is the used using a symmetrical design consisting of one or two measuring
tube (Miyaji, Kadoguchi & Yoshino, 2011).
The orifice flow meter showed the steepest decrease in accuracy. This is because of the
pressure drop produces, as proven by the Bernoulli’s principle. The accuracy of the orifice
flow meter shows the highest at the flow rate of 10 L/min, which means that the flow meter is
more suitable to be used at lower flow rate in comparison to magnetic and Coriolis flow meter.
The magnetic flow meter which adhere to Faraday’s Law shows that the accuracy is higher at
lower flow rate too. Although pressure is negligible in this flow meter, there might be some
error due to the low conductivity of the fluid which caused the time taken reading to be
inaccurate.
It can be concluded that as the flow rate increases, the accuracy decreases. The accuracy
observed from this experiment is around 0.6 to 0.75 percent of accuracy, which is slightly
different from most of the other experiment conducted. However, to improve the accuracy, the
flowmeter technology must consider a fully developed flow profile. As there might be some
errors occurred while conducting the experiments, recommendation must be made to reduce
the errors.

6. REFERENCES
Shiba, K. (1974). U.S. Patent No. 3,805,612. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Es, A. N. D., England, J. M. C., Jones, R. P., Topliss, R. J., Ansell, I., Collier, N., ... & Hember,
M. W. N. (2003). U.S. Patent No. 6,626,048. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Miyaji, N., Kadoguchi, A., & Yoshino, A. (2011). U.S. Patent Application No. 13/098,943.
F. (n.d.). Faraday's law's of Electromagnetic induction. Retrieved from
https://www.daenotes.com/electronics/basic-electronics/faraday-laws-of-electromagnetic-
induction
Yoder, J. (2012). Flow Measurement. Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering,
615-628

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7. APPENDICES
7.1 Tabulations of Data
Table 7.2:Time taken for a 75L tank to be filled using different types of flowmeter

Type of flowmeter Flowrate Time taken to reach V2 (L)


(L/min) 75L (mins, sec)
Orifice 10.00 5 mins 43 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 32 sec 75.00
Magnetic 10.00 5 mins 32 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 34 sec 75.00
Coriolis 10.00 5 mins 32 sec 75.00
15.00 3 mins 35 sec 75.00

7.2 Calculations
1) Calculation of V1
𝑉1 = 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 × 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑢𝑝 75𝐿 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘
Sample calculation
For Orifice Flowmeter, flowrate =10L/min , time = 5mins 43 sec.
𝑉1 = 10𝐿/ 𝑚𝑖𝑛 × 5 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠 43 𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 54.30 𝐿
2) Calculation of Accuracy
𝑉1
𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 (%) = × 100%
𝑉2
Sample calculation
For Orifice Flowmeter, V1= 54.3 L, V2= 75L.
54.3 𝐿
𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 = × 100% = 72.4 %
75 𝐿

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