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Level 2 Anatomy and Physiology

Unit 1 – The skeleton

Lesson 1.7 – Diseases and injuries of the joints


Level 2 Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.7 Diseases and injuries of the joints

Step 1 – Inflammation of the joints

Arthritis is a name for several kinds of disease that cause joint inflammation.

Rheumatism is discomfort in the joints, including the synovial membranes,


ligaments, tendons and tendon sheaths.

Inflammation of the spine and its joints is called spondylitis.

Whatever the cause, the inflammation may cause pain, stiffness, and/or swelling.
There may also be some redness of the skin around the joint. The joint cavity may
fill with fluid.

Clients with these conditions should obtain medical advice before exercising.

Step 2 – Sprains

A sprain is the overstretching or tearing of one or more of the ligament fibres


supporting a joint. It results from forced movement beyond the range of the fibres.

Typical symptoms are sudden pain and swelling around the joint. There will be
stiffness and the joint may appear heavily bruised due to bleeding into the joint.

Common sites for sprains are the ankle, wrist, knee, fingers and toes. The
sacroiliac joint in the lower back may also become sprained.

Sprains should receive medical attention, and people with sprains should not
exercise.

May 2015 © Future Fit Training, 2015 Page 1 of 3


Level 2 Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.7 Diseases and injuries of the joints

Step 3 – Osteoarthritis

As people get older, their articular cartilage generally deteriorates. More than 80%
of 70-year-olds suffer from this degeneration, called osteoarthritis. (Although the
word arthritis appears in the name, there is no inflammation of the joint in
osteoarthritis.)

There may be no symptoms in the early stages, but stiffness, pain and a limitation
of movement may gradually develop. The vertebrae, knees and hips are common
sites of discomfort.

Exercise can sometimes help this condition, but clients should consult their doctor
first.

May 2015 © Future Fit Training, 2015 Page 2 of 3


Level 2 Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.7 Diseases and injuries of the joints

Step 4 – Summary

Some diseases and injuries of the joints include:

 Arthritis
 Rheumatism
 Osteoarthritis
 And sprains

May 2015 © Future Fit Training, 2015 Page 3 of 3