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Royal Armouries

Ms. I.33
Walpurgis Fechtbuch

Translation and notes on the text copyright 2016 by Joey Nitti

Royal Armouries Ms. I.33 History
From the Wiktenauer

Also known as the Tower Manuscript. The author is possibly a cleric named Lutegerus or Luitger, and was owned
by Franconian monks until 1552. It appears to be the work of at least 3 different scribes and as many as 17

 Written in the 1320s, possibly by a priest named Liutger; owned by Franconian monks until the 1500s.
 1400s – an additional couplet was inscribed at the top of folio 1r, possibly by Pope Pius II; 1405-1464
 1552-53 – looted from a monastery by Johannes Herbart von Würzburg during the Franconian campaigns. He
served as fencing master to the dukes of Sachsen-Gotha; he inscribed his name on folio 7r.
 late 1500s-1945 – owned by the dukes of Sachsen-Gotha. The second device on folio 26r was copied into
the Codex Guelf 125.16 Extravagante in the 1600s by a scribe who couldn't decipher the Latin text.
 1945-1950 – location unknown (sold London, Sotheby's, 27 March 1950).
 1950-1996 – held by the Royal Armouries and stored in the Tower of London; known variously as "Tower of
London Ms. I.33" or "British Museum No. 14 E iii, No. 20, D. vi. I".
 1996 – moved to the newly-opened Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds.

Acknowledgements and Goals of This Work

This work would not have been possible without the work done by Dieter Bachmann and Dr. Jeffrey
Forgeng on their respective transcriptions and translations of MS I.33. Their works provided helpful reference
throughout the process of this work, as well as providing me years of studying MS I.33 through reading their works.
Also, all scans of the manual are courtesy of and copyright of the Royal Armouries, being used for non-commercial
and personal use. I am making this work freely available and give permission for anyone to use it freely and share it
with others, so long as they do not modify it (without permission) or claim it as their own.

The goal of this translation is to provide an attempt at a literal or 1-to-1 translation of the text. What this
means is that I have attempted to translate each word as literally as possible, and have tried to preserve the original
order of the sentences and such as much as possible while still being readable and making sense in English. In
translating the words, where possible I have tried to use an English word which has the same root word as the Latin
word (ex. ‘conduct’ for ‘duco’). With this sort of translation, there are flaws and drawbacks. As any translator
knows, often the ‘literal’ translation will not be the best translation of the meaning and intent of the text. I am fully
aware of the flaws that come with this kind of translation, and make no claims as to this work being a ‘best’
translation of the original text. For that, I would defer to people much more experienced and qualified than I am,
such as Dr. Jeffrey Forgeng, whose translation has been the standard for I.33. The purpose of this work was simply
to gain better personal understanding of the text, as well as provide an updated free translation for people to use, as
Dieter Bachmann’s translation has some typos and inconsistencies, and has not been updated for several years.

Latin Terms:

 attingere (‘reach’, also ‘to touch’ or also a ‘strike’. Take as meaning ‘to reach with a strike’)
 calcat/calco (‘step’, also ‘tread’. Compare to footwork in later German manuals)
 contrarium (‘opposition’, also ‘contrary’. Refers to using a technique as a counter or opposition)
 clientuli (‘client’, interestingly, Lewis & Short defines it as ‘poor/small/insignificant client’)
 custodia (‘ward’, also ‘guard’ or ‘watch’. Similar to the later German ‘leger’ or ‘hut’)
 duco (‘conduct’, also ‘lead’ or ‘guide’. Has the context of performing an action)
 fixura (‘thrust’, synonymous to the German stich)
 frustus (‘piece’, possibly comparable to the later ‘stucke’)
 generalis (‘common’, also ‘the general’, refers to the common or general fencers and actions)
 inferior (‘below’, almost always refers to being below in the bind; an underbind. See ‘sub’)
 intrare (‘enter’, often refers to closing distance with a strike or thrust)
 invadere (‘attack’, in this context, compare to the word ‘invade’. Implies offensive action)
 iuvenium (‘youth’, also ‘junior’. One of the words indicating who is learning from the priest)
 ligans/allegacio/liga (‘bind’, refers to the swords binding as in later German and Italian manuals)
 ludus (‘play’, also ‘game’ or ‘sport’. In context, refers to a given sequence of techniques)
 lutegerus (‘Lutegerus’, also ‘Luitger’. Possibly the author of the manual)
 mutacio/mutuare (‘mutate’, also ‘change’. A technique where you move from under to overbind)
 obsessio (‘siege’, also ‘blockade’. Refers to a technique used to enter distance against a ward)
 plaga (‘strike’, also ‘blow’. Used to refer to striking with the sword, most commonly at the head)
 ponere/ponit/pono (‘place’, also ‘put’ or ‘set’. Refers to the position of yourself or your sword)
 recipio (‘seize’, also ‘retake’. Refers to doing a strike or to taking the opponent’s sword/buckler)
 regens/rego (‘guide’, similar to duco. Refers to using a ward, or the hand using sword/buckler)
 religacio (‘rebind’, a binding done in response to the opponent’s action or bind)
 sacerdos (‘priest’, one of the figures in the illustrations, also the one teaching the system)
 scolaris (‘scholar’, the student learning from the priest, featured in the illustrations)
 sequi (‘follow’, following someone who flees the bind. Compare to later German ‘nachreisen’)
 sub (‘under’, almost always refers to being below in the bind; an underbind. See ‘inferior’)
 superior (‘above’, almost always refers to being above in the bind; an overbind.)
 Walpurgis (‘Walpurgis’, possibly referring to St. Walpurga, who was a missionary in the region)

German Terms:

  alkersleiben (possibly referring to the town of the same name in the region)
 durchtreten, durchtritt (‘tread-through’, a technique that involves stepping past the opponent)
 halpschilt (‘halfshield’, a siege used by both the priest and the common)
 krucke (‘crutch’ or ‘crook’, as in ‘bent’, a rare siege used only by the priest)
 langort (‘longpoint’, refers to any time the sword is extended)
 nucken (‘nodding’, flicking the sword up towards the head from a left overbind)
 schiltslac (‘shield-strike’, a common technique used to strike safely)
 schutzen (‘protection’ or ‘cover/shelter’, a kind of siege that relies on covering a line)
 stich (‘thrust’, synonymous to the Latin fixura)
 stichslac (‘thrust-strike’, a kind of thrust that involves also closing the line)
 vidilpoge (‘fiddle-bow’, a common ward)
English Translation by Joey Nitti Transcription

[1r] Stygian Pluto does not [1r] Non audet stygius pluto
attempt what the unruly monk and tentare, quod aude[t] Effrenis
the deceitful old woman dare. monachus plenaque dolis anus

Note how in general all fencers, or Notandum quod generaliter omnes

all men holding a sword in hand, dimicatores, sive omnes homines
even ignorant in the art of fencing, habentes gladium in manibus,
use these seven wards, of which we etiam ignorantes artem
have seven verses: dimicatoriam vtuntur hijs septem
custodijs de quo habemus septem

Seven wards there are, ¶ Septem [cust]odie sunt sub

beginning with under the arm, brach incipiende

give to the right shoulder [the Humero dextrali datur alter

second], and the third is the left terna sinistro
[shoulder]. Capiti da quartam da dextro
Give to the head the fourth, give latere quintam
to the right side the fifth, give to
the breast the sixth, and langort Pectori da sextam, postrema sit
is your last. tibi l[angort]

It should be noted that the art of Notandum quod ars dimicatoria

fencing is described as: Fencing is sic describitur Dimicatio est
setting in order diverse strikes, and diversarum plagarum ordinatio &
it is divided in seven parts, as here. diuiditur in septem partes vt hic
[1v] Note that the entire core of the [1v] Nota quod totus nucleus artis
art of fencing stands in this final dimicatorie consistit in illa vltima
ward which is called langort. Also, custodia que nuncupatur langort
all the actions of the wards or of preterea omnes actus custodiarum
the sword are defined by it, i.e. siue gladij determinantur in ea i.
they finish in it and not in others. finem habent & non in alijs Vnde
And so consider well the above- magis considera eam supradi[c]ta
mentioned first. prima
There are three that are the fore, Tres sunt que preeunt relique tunc
the remaining flee. fugiunt
These seven parts are conducted by Hec septem partes ducuntur per
the common, generales
The opposition is the clergy, Oppositum clerus mediumque
Lutegerus holds the middle. tenet lutegerus
[2r] (+) It should be noted that contained [2r] (+) Notandum hic continetur prima
here is the first ward, namely under the custodia, videlicet sub [brachio] obsesseo
arm, and the siege is halpschilt. I advise vero halbschilt ¶ Et consulo sano consilio
with good counsel that the one under the quod il[...] sub brachio non ducat aliquam
arm does not conduct a strike, which is plagam quod probat de al[k]ersleiben, per
proved out of alkersleiben, the reasons raciones quia partem superiorem attingere
being that he could not reach the higher non potest si inferiorem capiti erit
part, and [reaching] the lower part would perniciosum sed obsessor intrando potest
be dangerous to the head. The besieger eum invader quandocumque si obmittit
entering can invade him whenever if he quod tenetur vt infra scriptum est
omits to grasp what is written below:
Verse: Versus:
The first ward has two oppositions, Custodia prima retinet contraria bina
the first opposition is halpschilt, the second Contrarium primum halpschil langortque
langort. secundum
If halpschilt is conducted, fall under sword Dum ducitur halpschilt cade sub
and shield. gladium quoque scutum
If he is common, he will seize the head, Si generalis erit recipit caput sit tibi
then you stichslach, stichslach
if he rebinds and steps against you, then Si religat calcat contraria si(n)t tibi
you schiltslac. schiltslac
It should be noted that the one who is above Notandum quod qui iacet superius dirigit
is directing a strike to the head without plagam post [c]apud sine schiltslach si
schiltslac if he is a common fencer. But if est generalis Si autem uis edoceri
you would be taught by the counsel of the consilio sacerdotis tunc religa et calca
priest, rebind and step.
Note that the first ward, namely under the Nota quod prima custodia videlicet sub
arm, may be besieged by itself, namely, the brach potest obsederi se ipsa ita videlicet
besieger may besiege the one in the ward quod obsidens cum eadem custodia
with that same ward. Nevertheless, the one potest regentem primam custodiam
guiding first ward can, on the other hand, obsidere nichilominus tamen regens
oppose the besieger with a siege that in a custodiam primam econtrario
way corresponds to the displacement called possessorem obsidere potest obsessione
halpschilt. It differs, however, in that the quadam que quodammodo concordat
sword under the arm is extended over the cum possessione que vocatur halpshilt
shield, so that the hand guiding the shield is differt tamen in eo quod gladius sub
confining the hand guiding the sword. brachio extenditur supra scutum taliter
quod manus regens scutum includitur in
manu regente gladium
[2v] It should be noted that the [2v] Notandum quod scolaris [religat
scholar is here rebinding and hic & calcat] ad hoc ut recipiat
stepping, so that he may seize a schiltslac vt infra Sed caueat de hiis
schiltslac, as below. But beware of que sunt facienda ex parte
those things done by the priest, as
after the rebind the priest will be the sacerdo[tis quia ...] post religationem
first to act. sacerdos erit prior ad agendum
It should be noted that the scholar has Notandum est etiam quod scolaris
nothing to do but to do a schiltslac, or nichil habet aliud facere quam
enclose the arms of the priest with his schiltslac vel circumdare sinistra
left hand, namely sword and shield. manu brachia sacerdotis videlicet
gladium & scutum
Verse: Versus:
Here the scholar rebinds and steps, Hic religat calcat scolaris sit sibi
he is to [do the] schiltslac. schilslach
Or enclose the arms of the priest Siue sinistra manu circumdat brachia
with the left hand. cleri
The priest has three options, namely, Sacerdos autem tria habet facere
mutating the sword so that it is videlicet mutuare gladium q vt fiat
above, or to do the durchtreten, or superior Siue durchtreten vel
with the left right hand grasp the sinistradextra manu comprehendere
scholar’s arms, i.e. sword and shield. brachia* scolaris i. gladium &

These three are of the clergy: Hec tria sunt cleri durchtrit mutacio
durchtritt, mutating the sword, or gladii dextra siue manu poterit
with the right hand he may grasp the deprehendere gladium schutum
sword and shield.

Note what was said above is found Nota quod supradictum est invenies
here in these examples. hic exempli gestum
[3r] (+) It should be noted how the [3r] (+) Notandum quod prima
first ward is re-assumed here, custodia resumitur hic propter
because of certain actions of this quosdam actus illius primi frusti i.
first piece, i.e. the first ward that prime custodie de quibus prius
was treated already. But all things actum est sed omnia que ponuntur
that are placed here you will find on hic invenies in primo folio vsque
the first page, up to the mutation of ad mutacionem gladii
the sword.

If halpschilt is conducted, fall Dum ducitur halpschilt cade

under sword and shield. sub gladium quoque scutum
[3v] Here is a rebind from the part [3v] Hic fit religatio ex parte
of the scholar, and all other parts scolaris & omnia alia de quibus
which were mentioned above, up superi[u]s dictum est vsque infra ad
until the mutation of the sword. mutationem gladij
Here the scholar wants good Hic eget scolaris bono consilio
counsel how one could resist this, quomodo possit resiste[re] huic Et
and it should be known that if the est sciendum quod quando ludus
play stands as here, then a stich ita se habet vt hic tu[nc] debet duci
must be conducted, as commonly stich sicut generaliter in libro
contained in the book, although continetur quamuis non sint
there are no pictures of it. ymagines de hoc.
It should be noted that the priest is Notandum quod sacerdos mutat
mutating the sword, and will be gladium hic quia fuit inferior nunc
above, when before he was below. vero erit superior demum seorsum
Finally, he conducts the sword ducit gladium post capud adversarij
separately at the adversary’s head, sui quod nuncupatur nucken de quo
which is called nucken, Which generatur separatio gladij et scuti
produces a separation of sword and scolaris
shield of the scholar.
Thence the verse: The clerics Vnde versus Clerici sic nucken
thus nucken, the common generales non nulli schutzen
sometimes schutzen.
[4r] Here the priest should beware [4r] Caveat hic sacerdos ne faciat
that he doesn’t delay with the aliquam moram cum gladio ne
sword, lest the delay produces an generatur ex illa mora actus
action, which is called grappling, quidam qui vocatur luctacio sed
but he must immediately reform statim debet reformare ligaturam
the bind, for the sake of caution. propter cautionem
(+) Here, first ward is re-assumed, (+) Hic resumitur prima custodia
the ward’s siege will be very rare, cuius custodie obsessio erit valde
because nobody uses it except the rara quia nu[llu]s consweuit eam
priest or his clients, i.e. his ducere nisi sacerdos vel sui
scholars, and this siege is called clientuli i. discipuli & nuncupatur
krucke, and I counsel in good faith illa obse[ssio] krucke & consulo
that the one guiding the ward bona fide quod ille qui regit
should bind immediately after the custodiam statim post obsessionem
siege, because it is not good to lie ligat quia non est bonum latitare
low, or do any of those things by vel aliquid talium faciat per quod
which he may be saved, or at least possit salvari vel saltim ducat id
that he does that which his besieger quod ipse possessor ducit

Know that the besieger should not Sciendum quod obsessor non debet
hesitate, but he should immediately h[esitare sed] ducat statim stich
conduct a stich after the siege, so post obsess[ionem ...] tunc non
that his adversary cannot decide potest adversarius delibe[rare
what he intends, and understand quod] intendat & hoc diligenter
this diligently. intell[igatur]
[4v] Here the priest binds above [4v] Hic ligat sacerdos super
the disciple's siege, and obsessioenem discipili &
immediately, you have all the inmediate veniunt omnia
preceding things which you had precedentia que prius habueras
before, although, you don’t have licet alias duas ymagines non
the other two images which habueris que subsecuntur vbi
follow, where he seizes the recipit gladium & scutum
sword and shield.

Note that whenever binder and Nota quod quandocumque ligans

bound are in conflict the same & ligatus sunt in lite vt hic tunc
as here, then the bound can flee ligatus potest fugere quocumque
wherever he wants if he likes, vult si placet & requiritur in
and, required in all bindings, omnibus ligaturis sed de hoc
you should be prepared that debes esse munitus vt vbicumque
wherever the bound [flees], you ligatus sis sequens eum
should follow him.

Binder and bound are opposed Ligans ligati contrarij sunt & irati
and irate; ligatus fugit ad partes laterum
The bound flees to the side, I peto sequi
try to follow.

Here the priest teaches his Hic docet sacerdos discipulum

disciple how he may seize the su[um quo] modo debet ex hiis
sword and shield from these superioribus recipere gladium &
above things. And know that the scutum & sciendum quod
priest cannot free himself from sacerdos non potest absolui a
such a grasp without the loss of tali deprehensione sine
his sword and shield. amissione gladij & scuti
[5r] Here the priest defends [5r] Hic defendit sacerdos quod
against what the scholar did above. superius fecit scolaris

(+) Here, first ward is re-assumed, (+) Hic resumitur prima custodia
but all things that are required sed omnia que requiruntur hic
you have here the same, except habes in eadem excepta sola
only omitting the bind which the obmissione ligacionis quam
scholar omits. scolaris obmittit
[5v] Here the scholar has neglected [5v] Hic obmisit scolaris quod
to bind, and the priest has entered non ligauit prossus sacerdos
at once, and not without reason, as intrauit & non inmerito quia
whenever the one guiding the ward vbicumque regens custodiam
omits what he should do, the obmittit quod suum est facere
besieger must immediately enter, obsessor statim debet intrare vt
as here. hic

(+) The same siege as before, but (+) ¶ Obsessio vt prius sed ludus
the play is varied. variatur
[6r] Above, the priest besieged the [6r] Svperius sacerdos obsedit
scholar. Here the scholar is scolarem hic vero scolaris ducit
conducting the same action as the eundem lu actum quem duxit
priest before. But the besieger sacerdos sed obsidentis prius est
should enter first if the scholar intrare si sacerdos scolaris obmittit
omits it, as below. Moreover, vt infra preterea caueat hic ne alter
beware here lest the other seize his recipiat capud quod potest
head, which he can.

And from those above [actions], Et hiis superio[ri]bus sacerdos

as I said above: the priest enters, intrat vt supra dixi caveat ergo
therefore beware his head. capud
[6v] (+) Here first ward is re- [6v] (+) Hic iterum resumitur
assumed, again, namely under the prima custodia videlicet sub
arm, which is besieged with an brachio que obsedetur cum
opposition that is called langort, quodam contrario quod dicitur
and it is a common siege, and the langort & est generalis obsessio
oppositions to this siege are, from cuius obssessionis contraria sunt
the one guiding the ward, binds ex parte regentis custodiam
below and above, hence the verse: ligationes sub et supra vnde versus
If langort is conducted, Dum ducitur langort statim liga
immediately bind below or above. sub quoque supra Sed superior
But a bind above is always more ligacio semper vtilior erit quam
useful than the lower. inferior
[7r] Here will be the play of the [7r] Hic erit ludus prioris custodie
prior ward, namely of binder and scilicet ligantis & ligati vnde
bound, hence the verse: versus Ligans ligati contrarij sunt
& irati ligatus fugit ad partes
Binder and bound are opposed and laterum peto sequi
irate; the bound flees to the side, I
try to follow.

Johannes Herwart of Würzburg Johannes Herbart von Wirtzburck

[7v] (+) First ward and common [7v] (+) Custodia prima [&]
siege as above, but the obsessio generalis vt supra sed
play varies at the final section. variatur ludus in fine frusci
Above ¶ Superior
Below. But the priest is bound, ¶ Inferior Sed sacerdos ligauit
even if it is below. licet sit inferior
[8r] Here takes place a mutation [8r] ¶ Hic fit mutatio gladij
of the sword below. inferioris
[8v] (+)The first ward is re- [8v] (+) Custodia prima resumitur
assumed here and besieged by the hic et obsedetur cum prima
first siege, namely halpschilt, possessione videlicet halpschilt et
and you will have all the prior. habebis omnia priora

Verse: If halpschilt is conducted, Versus: Dum ducitur halpschilt

fall under sword and shield. cade sub gladium quoque scutum
[9r] (+) It should be noted here that [9r] (+) Notandum quod hic
it should be taught now the siege of docetur qumodo debeat secunda
second ward. And I say the second custodia obside & dico secunda
ward because the third ward (which custodia quia tertia custodia non
has the left shoulder) does not differ multum differt a secunda que
much from the second. But here we habetur in humero sinistro sed
speak of the second ward, which is hic loquimur de secunda custodia
given to the right shoulder. And out que datur humero dextro Et de
of the same ward, the besieger eadem custodia obsessessor ducit
conducts the siege called schutzen, obsessionem que vocatur
for that reason each ward holds one schutzen quare quelibet custodia
protection (ie. schutzen). tenet vnam proteccionem i.

Here the priest places himself in a Hic ponit se simili modo

similar manner to the scholar, and sacerdos ad scolarem et docet
teaches what happens from these quid ex hijs fiat & sciendum
things. And know that the saving quod salua doctrina sacerdotis
doctrine of the priest is he who qui prius fuit obsessorus potest
had been besieged prior can do tria facere Primo potest
three things: first, he can press out exprimere gladium deorsum &
the sword downwards and then tunc durchtreten Secundo potest
durchtreten; second, he can seize recipere plagam latere dextro
a strike on the right side; third, he Tertio potest recipere plagam
can seize a strike on the left side. latere sinistro Nota quod hoc
Note that the adversary can do the idem potest facere aduersarius
same thing, although the besieger licet obsessessor ad hoc prius sit
is first to be prepared. paratus
[9v] Here the scholar instructed by [9v] ¶ Hic scolaris instructus
means of the priest’s counsel, mediante consilio sacerdotis
conducts an action that is called ducit actum quemdam qui
durchtritt. However, he could seize nuncupatur durchtritt posset
a strike on the left, as conducted by tamen recipisse plagam tam
the common fencer, or on the right, sinistram que ducitur ex parte
as usually conducted by the priest dimicatorum generalium quam
and his youths. The opposition to dexteram que consueuit duci ex
these two paths, the priest goes parte sacerdotis & suorum
with the sword under the arm, he iuuenium Contrarium illarum
then reaches the bare hands of the duarum viarum erit sacerdotis
one conducting the above- euntis cum gladio sub brachio*
mentioned strikes, although this qui tunc attingit manus nudas
opposition is not depicted in the ducentis plagas supradictas Licet
example image. contrarium istud non sit depictum
in exemplum ymaginum

Note that here the priest defends ¶ Nota quod sacerdos defndit hic
[against] the action mentioned actum superius dictum quia cum
above while the scholar was in the scolaris vero esset in actu itineris
act. In this way, the priest rebinds, sacerdos religando atque
and even depressing the sword the subpremendo gladium scolaris
scholar bound, as shown here by ligatum demonstrat vt hic patet
this example. Moreover you can be per exemplum Preterea quid
taught what the priest will do, if sacerdotem ex hijs facere
you inspect diligently, etc. contingat si diligenter inspexeris
poteris edoceri & cetera
[10r] Here, when the priest is in [10r] ¶ Hic vero cum esset sacerdos
the act of binding above, he in actu superius ligandi informat
informs the scholar what must be scolarem quid sit faciendum
done against this, namely aduersus hec videlicet stichslac
stichslac, which he in general quod generaliter ducere consueuit
usually conducts, used here as an Patet hic per exemplum

(+) right shoulder is given the (+) Hvmero dextrali datur altera
other, i.e. the ward. And note, both i. custodia & nota quod tam rector
the one conducting the ward and custodie quam obsessor eiusdem
the besieger are in the same act as sunt in eodem actu vt supra
in the previous example. exemplo proximo
[10v] Here, the priest omits all acts [10v] ¶ Hic sacerdos obmisit omnes
both binding or rebinding, and this actus tam ligandi quam religandi &
is an example for his scholars, so hoc in exemplum suorum scolarium
they may discern what is to be vt possint dischere quid sit
done; the scholar attacks and faciendum scolaris vero inuadendo
conducts an action placed here in eum & ducit illum actum qui
the example. ponitur hic in exemplum

(+) The same ward, but with (+) ¶ Eadem custodia & alia vero
another siege, and it is the one obsessio & est illa que appellatur
called halpschilt first touched on halpschilt prius tacta contra primam
opposing the first ward, namely custodiam videlicet sub brachio
under the arm.
[11r] Note that many common [11r] Nota quod multi generales
fencers are seduced by this siege dimicatores seducuntur ista
placed here. They believe it is obsessione hic posita qui credunt
possible to separate the shield and fieri posse separacionem scuti &
sword by means of the strike gladij mediante plaga illa que
conducted here. It is therefore ducitur hic quod secus est quare
otherwise, because the besieger obsessor non facit moram aliquam
does not delay, through which may per quam possit periclitari sed illa
endanger him, but this here is hic ducta depicta est in exemplum
depicted for all that wish to use the omnibus volentibus vti consilio
counsel of the priest. sacerdotis

Here when the priest is in the act of Hic vero cum sacerdos esset in
conducting the strike above, he actu ducendi plagam superiorem
teaches the scholar to turn the docet scolarem vertere scutum &
shield and sword and to enter with gladium intrando cum gladio vt
the sword as here, so that the hic quod is existens adversarius
existing strike conducted by the plagam ducere nequiuit ad
adversary is unable to effect. effectum
[11v] (+) Here the priest re- [11v] (+) Hic resumit sacerdos
assumes the first ward, namely custodiam primam videlicet sub
under the arm; some things omitted brachio obmissis quibusdam prius
and previously not placed, as is non positis vt patet infra per
shown below by example. exemplum

One might doubt how the scholar ¶ Posset quis dubitare quomodo
should attack the priest. And know scolaris inuaderet sacerdotem &
that the priest lays low, omits all sciendum quod sacerdos latitando
defences, informing the scholar obmittit omnes suas defensiones
who stands there, not varying informando scolarem qui sicut stat
sword or shield, approaches more, non variando scutum nec gladium
i.e. soon he seizes a strike, as magis appropinquat i. paulo plus
shown here by images. recipiendo plagam vt hic patet per
[12r] (+) Here the priest conducts [12r] (+) Hic ducetur tertia
third ward, which is besieged by custodia que per scolarem
the scholar as here. The opposition obsessa est vt hic cuius
to this siege will be a bind, and obsessionis contrarium erit
therefore I say bind, but only ligacio & dico ligacio quare sola
above, and not another, as in the superior & non alia vt infra
example below. proximo exemplo

Here the priest binds, which is ¶ Hic ligat sacerdos quod est
better and more useful, because melius & vtilius quare si quid
anything else not occupying the aliud faceret quominus gladius
adversary's sword would result in aduersarii occuparetur in
harm. dampnum suum redundaret
[12v] From the above bind, the [12v] ¶ Ex illa ligacione superius
priest next teaches his client to proxime tacta docet sacerdos
enclose the arms of the adversary clientulum suum circumdatis
to seize the sword and shield as brachijs adversarij recipere
shown here. gladium & scutum vt hic patet

(+) Here third ward is conducted (+) ¶ Custodia tertia ducetur hic vt
as before, and the siege is the prius & eadem obsessio licet
same, but the play is varied. varietur ludus
[13r] Here the priest teaches the [13r] ¶ Hic docet sacerdos
client, who conducts a siege, and clientulum suum qui ducit
he teaches him to enter if a bind is obsessionem & docet eum intrare
omitted. si obmittuntur ligaciones

(+) The same third ward, namely (+) ¶ Eadem custodia tertia
the left shoulder, and the same videlicet in humero sinistro & est
siege called halpschilt, as eadem obsessio que vocatur
above. halpschilt vt supra
[13v] Note that all actions of the [13v] ¶ Nota quod omnes actus
first ward, namely under the arm, custodie prime videlicet sub
are had here until the next sign of brachio habuntur his vsque ad
the cross. proximum signum crucis
[14r] (+) Here the same third ward [14r] (+) ¶ Hic resumitur eadem
is re-assumed, which will be tertia custodia cuius obsessio erit
besieged by langort, which all langort quam omnes ducunt
common fencers conduct, and the generales dimicatores et cuius
opposition to this siege are two obsessionis contraria sunt due
binds, of which one is on the right ligaciones quarum vna est in
above the sword, the other on the dexteris super gladium reliqua
left. vero in sinistra
[14v] Verse: Binder and bound are [14v] ¶ Versus: Ligans ligati
opposed and irate; the bound flees contrarij sunt & irati ligatus fugit
to the side, I try to follow. ad partes laterum peto sequi

(+) After having determined the (+) ¶ Postquam determinatum est

third ward, here the fourth [ward] de tertia custodia hic determinat
is determined; the siege will be de quarta cuius obsessio erit
halpschilt, all you had before you halpschilt que omnia prius habuisti
will find until the next sign of the invenies hic vsque ad proximum
cross. signum crucis
[15r] (+) Here the priest re-assumes [15r] (+) Hic sacerdos resumit
the fourth ward; the fourth ward will quartam custodiam cuius
be besieged by the first ward, and custodie quarta erit obsessio
this is an example for his scholars, custodia prima & hoc in
as is shown here by example. exemplum suorum scolarium vt
hic patet per exemplum

After the scholar above has besieged Postquam scolaris superius

the priest, here he again besieged obsedit sacerdotem hic iterum
him, and this under the arm, and it ipse obsedit eum & hoc sub
should be noted that all this has been brachium & notandum quod
touched upon in the the first ward, omnia ista tanguntur in prima
namely under the arm, until the next custodia videlicet sub brachium
sign of the cross. vsque ad proximam signum
[15v] [No text] [15v] [No text]
[16r] (+) Here the first ward is re- [16r] (+) Hic resumitur custodia
ssumed, namely under the arm, and prima videlicet sub brachio
its siege will be langort, and it is cuius obsessio erit langort & est
common and of little worth, and generalis & modicum valens &
note that the one guiding the ward nota quod regens custodiam tria
can do three things: first, he may habet facere Primo potest ligare
bind on the right above the sword; in dextris super gladium
second, he may bind on the left Secundo potest ligare in sinistris
below the sword; third, he may sub gladio Tertio potest
grasp the sword with his hand, as comprehendere gladium manu
shown below in the next example. vt infra patet exemplo proximog
[16v] Here the priest grasps - or [16v] Hic sacerdos deprehendit
teaches to grasp - the besieger’s siue docet deprehendere gladium
sword. And note that the sword of obsedentis & nota quod gladius
the besieger may not be freed ipsius obsedentis non potest
except by means of a schiltslac, absolui nisi mediante schiltslac
where the priest's hand is struck vbi sacerdotis manus percutiet
with the shield, as below in the next cum scuto vt infra exemplo
example. proximo

Here the scholar's sword is relieved Hic relevatur gladius scolaris

by means of a schiltslac, and let the mediante schiltslac et caueat
priest beware that the scholar does sacerdos ne scolaris ducet plagam
not conduct a strike to his head or a capiti siue fixuram generalem
common thrust, which the priest quam sacerdos consueuit docere
will usually teach his disciples. discipulos suos Preterea scias
Also, you should know that if the quod si scolaris dat plagam capiti
scholar gives a strike to the head, protectionem duc gladio
conduct a protection with the sword connexoque scuto quod habetur in
connected with the shield in the left sinistra manu & sic frangis scutum
hand, and so break the shield out of de manibus tui aduersarij vt patet
the hands of your adversary, as infra proximo exemplo
shown below in the next example.
[17r] (+) Here the priest conducts [17r] (+) Hic sacerdos ducit
the sixth ward, which is given to sextam custodiam que datur
the breast. And note that solely this pectori & nota quod solum illa
thrust is conducted, which is also fixura est ducenda que ducetur
conducted from the fifth ward, up de quinta custodia vsque ad
to the next sign of the cross. proximum signum crucis

Here the priest from this sixth Hic sacerdos de ista custodia
ward conducts a thrust, which is sexta iam dicta ducit fixuram que
the thrust also conducted from fifth fixura etiam de quinta custodia
ward. est ducenda
[17v] Here the scholar by rebinding [17v] Hic scolaris per religacionem
resists and defends this thrust of the resistit & defendit sacerdoti illam
priest's in the next above in the fixuram in proximo superius in
next example by the fact itself. proximo exemplo per ipsum facto

(+) After all the above-mentioned (+) Postquam determinatum est

wards have been determined, here de omnibus custodijs supradictis
the seventh ward is determined, hic determinat de septima
which is called langort, and it custodia que nuncupatur langort
should be noted that there are four & notandum quod quatuor sunt
binds which regard this ward, ligaciones que respiciunt illam
namely two bound from the right, custodiam videlicet due liguntur
and the remaining bound from the de dextra parte relique vero due
left side. But here we speak of the de sinistra parte sed loquimur hic
first bind, known to be above the primo de ligatura scilicet super
sword, which you have all in the gladium quod habes totum in
first ward, up to the fourth custodia prima vsque ad quartum
example, where sword and shield exemplum vbi recipitur gladius
are seized. & scutum
[18r] It should be noted that the [18r] Notandum quod scolaris
scholar was the first to do a bind prius in exemplo immediate
above the priest’s sword in the precedenti fecit ligaturam super
immediately preceding example. gladium sacerdotis hic sacerdos
Here the priest approaches and appropinquat erigendo gladium
erects his sword and shield for the & scutum propter proteccionem
protection of the head. capitis

Here the scholar seizes a schiltslac, Hic scolaris recipit shiltslac & ex
and from the opposition, strikes contrario plagam infert sacerdoti
against the priest.
[18v] Here the bound, i.e. the one [18v] Hic recipit ligatus i. inferior
below, seizes the sword and shield gladium et scutum superioris.
of the one above.

Here the scholar voluntarily Hic dereliquit voluntarie scolaris

discards the sword and shield, gladium & scutum volens luctare
wishing to grapple with the priest cum sacerdote vt infra.
as below.
[19r] Above the priest was grasped [19r] Svperius sacerdos
by the scholar by means of a deprehensus fuit per scolarem in
grapple, which the priest here modum luctationis quod sacerdos
defends, as shown in the example. hic defendit vt patet per exemplum

(+) Here again the final ward is (+) Hic resumitur iterum illa
re-assumed, which is conducted by custodia vltima que ducetur per
the scholar. The priest conducts the scolarem Contrarium vero ducet
opposition, and it is one bind of the sacerdos & est vna ligatura de illis
four binds, namely the underbind quatuor ligaturis videlicet
on the left, as shown in the images. subligacio in sinistra parte vt hic
patet per ymagines
[19v] After the above example, [19v] Postquam superius
next the priest is underbound, the exemplo proximo subligatum est
scholar may seize the priest's head, per sacerdotem scolaris vero
because his sword was above, and recipit capud sacerdotis quia fuit
note that whenever underbound, superior gladius suus & nota
one ought to ward the head, lest it quod quandocunque subligatur
be hit as here, hence the verse: capud debet teneri in custodia ne
When underbinding, beware that percutiatur vt hic vnde versus
you are not deceived; when you Dum subligaueris caueas ne
underbind, the head of the binder decipieris Dum subligatur capud
can be seized. ligantis recipiatur

Above, the scholar conducts a Svperius scolaris duxit plagam

strike hitting the head of the priest, percutiens capud sacerdotis quod
which the priest here defends by sacerdos hic defendit quia ducit
conducting the opposition, as contrarium vt patet per
shown in the example. exemplum
[20r] (+) Here again the final ward [20r] (+) Hic iterum ducitur
is conducted, which is called vltima custodia que nuncupatur
langort, which in this case the priest langort quam in hoc loco regit
guides. But the scholar conducts one sacerdos scolaris vero de hijs
of the four binds, namely above the quatuor ligacionibus ducit vnam
sword, as shown here by the videlicet super gladium vt patet
example. hic per exemplum

After above there was a bind above Postquam superius ligatum est
the priest's sword, as seen above super gladium sacerdotis vt supra
here, but the priest defends against visum est hice vero sacerdos
this by an action called stich, as defendit per illum actum qui
shown here. vocatur sthich vt patet hic
[20v] (+) Here the last ward, namely [20v] (+) Hic vltima custodia
langort, is conducted here by the videlicet Langort ducitur hic per
scholar. Above this ward, the priest scolarem super quam custodiam
binds with one of the four binds, ligat sacerdos de illis quatuor
namely, above the sword and on the ligacionibus vnam videlicat super
right. And note that whenever there gladium in dextris & nota quod
is a bind, the bound may flee from quandocumque ligatum est ex
the binder to wherever he wants, to parte ligantis ligatus potest fugere
the left or to the right. Hence quocumque vult aut in sinistris aut
diligently see that if he begins to in dextris vnde diligenter videas si
flees, you follow him, hence the fugere incipiat dum sequaris vnde
verse: the bound flees to the side, I versus ligatus fugit ad partes
try to follow. laterum peto sequi

From this bind touched on above, Ex illa ligatura superius tacta que
which is conducted by the priest, the ducta est per sacerdotem scolaris
scholar flees as said above, and as fugit vt supra dictum est vt patet
shown here: Because he flees under hic quia fugit sub brachio quod
the arm, what follows immediately; immediate sequitur sacerdos
the priest hits the head as here. percutiendo capud vt hic
[21r] (+) Note that here is another [21r] (+) Nota quod hic est alia
ward, namely high langort which is custodia videlicet superior Langort
conducted here by the priest as an que ducitur hic per sacerdotem suis
example to his scholars, and he scolaribus in exemplum iubendo
orders his scholar to conduct this scolarem suum ducere illum actum
action, namely to place himself as videlicet ponendo se ad eum vt
shown here by the example. patet hic per exemplum

Here the priest rebinds, defending Hic sacerdos religat defendendo

and opposing the scholar and it will atque contradicendo scolari &
be one bind of the four binds, erit vna ligacio de illis quatuor
namely above the sword on the ligacionibus videlicet super
right, which you had all above, in gladium in dextris quod habes
the other above-mentioned. superius totum in alijs supradictis
[21v] After the above rebind by the [21v] Postquam superius religatum
priest, here the scholar seeks est per sacerdotem hic scolaris
another way to hit the priest, and it querit alias vias percutiendi
should be noted that the priest sacerdotem & notandum quod cum
believes that he is able to bind, credit se sacerdos posse ligare
meanwhile the scholar hits the scolaris interim percutit brachia
above-mentioned priest's arms. ipsius sacerdotis supradicti Nota
Note here also that he not only hits hic etiam quod non solum
the arms, but the strength of this percutuntur brachia sed vis istius
action or strike lies in the thrust, actus siue plage consistit in fixura
which may be conducted here. que potest hic duci

Here the priest senses that his arms Hic sacerdos sentiens brachia sua
are to be injured, he wants to esse lesa volens ducere plagam
conduct a strike and draws himself trahendo se seorsum demum
back, finally the scholar follows as scolaris sequitur vt hic & cetera
here etc.
[22r] (+) Here a common ward is [22r] (+) Hic ducetur quedam
conducted, which is called custodia generalis que nuncupatur
vidilpoge, guided by the priest. The vidilpoge quam regit sacerdos
scholar opposes it placing himself scolaris vero contrariando sic
as shown here in the images. ponendo se ad ipsum vt patet hic
per ymagines

After the scholar placed his sword Postquam scolaris posuit gladium
above the priest's arm, which is suum super brachium sacerdotis
also considered a bind, as shown quod habetur etiam pro ligatura vt
above, here the priest turns the patet superius hic sacerdos vertit
hand which guides the shield and manum que regit scutum recipitque
seizes the scholar's sword, as in this gladium ipsius scolaris vt in hoc
example. exemplo
[22v] (+) Here again the same ward [22v] (+) Hic iterum resumitur illa
is re-assumed, namely vidilpoge, custodia videlicet vidilpoge &
and conducted by the priest, the ducitur per sacerdotem scolaris
scholar here conducting the same ducit hic idem vt supra
as above.

Here the priest rebinds as above. Hic religat sacerdos vt supra

[23r] From this bind the priest [23r] Ex illa ligatura sacerdos
seizes a schiltslac as above was recipit schiltslac vt supra sepius
often touched on, from above- tactum est ex ligaturis supradictis
mentioned binds.

(+) Note that again here the final (+) Nota quod iterum hic resumitur
ward is re-assumed, namely vltima custodia videlicat Langort
langort, about which it should be circa quod notandum est quod illa
noted that a thrust is conducted fixura ducetur hic mediante qua
here, by means of which the one regens custodiam fingitur super
guiding the ward is stabbed in the ventrem siue penetratur gladio &
belly or penetrated by the sword, nota quod non est plus depictum
and note that no more is depicted de illo frusco quam ille due
of this section than these two ymagines quod fuit vicium pictoris
images, which was the fault of the
[23v] (+) Here, the priest conducts [23v] (+) Hic ducit sacerdos
his specific ward, namely langort, suam custodiam specificatam
which is besieged by the scholar, videlicet Langort que opsedetur
whose siege will be halpschilt, as per scolarem cuius opsessio erit
shown here by the example. halpschilt vt patet hic per

Here the priest places himself under Hic ponit se sacerdos sub
the sword of the scholar, as has often gladium scolaris quod sepius
been touched on, hence the verse: if prius tactum est unde Versus
halpschilt is conducted, fall under Dum ducitur halpschilt cade sub
sword and shield. gladium quoque scutum
[24r] After the priest above placed [24r] Postquam sacerdos superius
himself to the scolar, here the posuit se ad scolarem hic scolaris
scholar rebinds and steps, religat & calcat volens facere quod
intending to do as follows, and subsequitur & quia multas formas
because we had many forms superius habetis vnde non est
above, so it is not necessary to necesse plura ponere exempla vnde
give more examples. Hence the versus Ligans ligati & cetera
verse: the binder and the bound,
Note that from this rebind on the Nota quod ex illa religacione ex
part of the scholar a useful strike is parte scolaris ducetur vtilis plaga
conducted, namely making a videlicet faciendo separacionem
separation of sword and shield of gladij & scuti sacerdotis necnon
the priest, and entering (but no intrando quod nusquam plus in
more is written in the book) as libro scriptum est vt patet hic per
shown here by the example. exemplum
[24v] (+) Here again the specific [24v] (+) Hic iterum resumitur
ward of the priest's is re-assumed, specificata custodia sacerdotis
which is called langort, as seen que nuncupatur Langort vt
above, and next the scholar superius visum est deinde scolaris
besieges him as above, which is obsedit eum vt supra quod est
halpschilt, but other examples halpschilt sed alia exempla
follow, as shown below. subsecuntur vt patet infra

Here the priest places himself to Hic sacerdos ponit se ad scolarem

the scholar as was seen often vt sepius prius visum est
[25r] It should be noted that the [25r] Notandum quod scolaris
scholar is here conducting a ducit hic plagam generalem
common strike, which all common quam consueuerunt ducere
fencers usually conduct from what omnes generales dimicatores ex
was just touched on in the above- supradictis proxime tactis
mentioned, namely when binder and videlicet quando ligans & ligatus
bound are in conflict and then the sunt in lite tunc ligans qui est
binder who is above goes to the superior vadit post caput &
head and omits a schiltslac, by obmittit schiltslac mediante quo
means of which follows a strike, and subsequitur plaga sacerdos vero
the priest enters, as here. intrat ut hic

(+) Note, that here the specific ward (+) Nota quod resumitur hic
of the priest is re-assumed, called specificata custodia sacerdotis
langort, but it is a very strange siege appellata Langort sed est valde
that is depicted here, and very rare, aliena obsessio hic depicta &
and it must be known that all this valde rara & sciendum quod
can be reduced to the first ward and omnia ista reducuntur ad
to the siege which is called custodiam primam et ad
halpschilt etc. obsessionem que dicitur
halpschilt & cetera
[25v] Here, the priest conducts the [25v] Hic sacerdos ducit quandam
previously touched on thrust, fixuram prius tactam quia scolaris
because the scholar, who was the qui fuerat obsessor supra exemplo
besieger in the previous example, proximo obmittit omnes suos actos
omits all his actions, because had quia si religasset fuisset
he re-bound, he would have been subportatus vt patet infra exemplo
protected, as shown below in the proximo
next example.

It should be noted, that from these Notandum quod ex hiis ista fixura
is a thrust by the priest, as touched superius tacta per sacerdotem erit
on above, then here a rebind will hic quedam religacio facta per
be made by the scholar, which scolarem quod oportet de
must be necessary, if we want to necessitate si volumus quod
defend the thrust depicted above. defendatur fixura superius depicta
[26r] Binder and bound are [26r] Ligans ligati contrarij sunt
opposed and irate; the bound flees & irati ligatus fugit ad partes
to the side, I try to follow laterum peto sequi

(+) Here the third ward is besieged (+) Hic tertia custodia obsessa
by the specific ward of the priest's est cum specificata custodia
that is called langort, and I counsel sacerdotis que nuncupatur langort
in good faith, that he who is et consulo bona fide quod is qui
guiding the third ward should not regit tertiam custodiam non
delay his actions, otherwise he who protrahat suos actus alioquin is qui
guides the the priest's siege will regit obsessionem sacerdotis intrat
enter with a thrust, which is the cum fixura quod est in communi
common use of the priest’s. vsu sacerdotis
[26v] After the priest has been [26v] Postquam sacerdos superius
besieged above, the scholar here obsessus fuit hic scolaris schutzen
does schutzen, while the priest is sacerdos vero ducit quandam
conducting a rebind, as shown religacionem vt hic patet

(+) Here the fourth ward is re- (+) Hic resumitur quarta custodia
assumed, which is besieged by the que est obsessa cum specificata
specific ward of the priest. The custodia sacerdotis Sacerdotis est
priest should oppose by besieging, econtra obsidere aliquin scolaris
otherwise the scholar enters as intrat vt prius & veniunt omnes
previously, and then come all the actus quos prius habuisti
actions that you had previously.
[27r] (+) Here again the fifth ward [27r] (+) Hic iterum sumitur quinta
is assumed, and also besieged with custodia que etiam obsessa est cum
the priest’s specific ward which is specificata custodia sacerdotis que
called langort, as shown here by dicitur langort vt patet hic per
the example. exemplum

Binder and bound are opposed and Ligans ligati contrarij sunt & irati
irate; the bound flees to the side, I ligatus fugit ad partes laterum peto
try to follow. sequi
[27v] (+) Here the fifth ward is [27v] (+) Hic obsedetur quinta
besieged, the siege being halpschilt. custodia cuius obsessio erit
And note, the one guiding the ward halbschilt & nota regens custodiam
may only do two things: Firstly, he solum habet due facere primo
can conduct a thrust, secondly, he potest ducere fixuram secundo
can conduct a strike to divide shield potest ducere plagam diuidendo
and sword. scutum & gladium

Above, the scholar was besieged. Superius scolaris obsessus est hic
Here, however, he seizes a thrust, vero recipit fixuram vt patet per
as shown by the example. exemplum
[28r] After the thrust conducted [28r] Post fixuram superius
above by the scholar, here the ductam per scolarem hic sacerdos
priest defending does schutzen and defendendo schutzet & recipit
seizes a strike, which is a general plagam hoc est generalis regula in
rule in the art of the priest. arte sacerdotis

(+) Here again the fifth ward is (+) Hic iterum resumitur quinta
re-assumed, whose opposition will custodia cuius contraria erit
be halpschilt as shown by the halpschilt vt patet per exemplum

Note, that whenever halpschilt is Nota quod quandocumque ducetur

conducted against this fifth ward, halpschilt contra illam quintam
or against the second ward, then custodiam vel contra secundam
always fear a strike conducted by custodiam tunc semper timendum
the one guiding the ward dividing est de plaga ducenda ex parte
shield and sword with the strike. regentis custodiam dividendo
Hence the counsel that whenever scutum & gladium cum plaga vnde
you conduct this siege, namely consulo quod quandocumque ducis
halpschilt, enter with a thrust illam obsessionem videlicet
without mercy. halpschilt intras cum fixura sine
[28v] Here the scholar conducts a [28v] Hic scolaris ducit stich, quare
stich, because the priest omits his sacerdos obmittit suam
defense, as shown here in the defensionem vt patet hic per
example. exemplum

Here the priest defends the action Hic sacerdos defendit illum actum
conducted above, as shown here by superius ductum vt patet hic per
the priest. sacerdotem
[29r] Previously, as above in the [29r] ¶ Prius quam superius in
third example of the pictures, the tertio exemplo ymaginarum fixura
thrust was conducted by the quedam ducta est per scolarem
scholar, and this same thrust the eandem vero fixuram sacerdos hic
priest here defends by seizing a defendit recipiendo schilslac
schiltslac, as shown here by the schiltslac ut patet hic per
example. exemplum

(+) Here again is re-assumed the (+) ¶ Hic iterum se resumitur quinta
fifth ward, of which was often said custodia de qua superius dictum est
above, and it should be noted that sepius & est notandum quod
the priest is besieging the scholar sacerdos obsedit scolarem
with a siege that is rare and very obsessione quandam rara & valde
good, as an example for his bona in exemplum suorum
disciples. And you should know, discipulorum & sciatur quod si
that if the scholar conducts a thrust, scolaris ducet fixuram que duci
which is usually conducted by consueuit de consuetudine sacerdos
custom, the priest must also debet etiam ducere fixuram contra
conduct a thrust against the thrust fixuram scolaris quia sua magis
of the scholar, because it is more valet intrando cum sinistro pede si
strong, entering with the left foot. autem intrare nequiuerit cedat cum
dextro pede nichillominus non
If he is unable to enter, fall back
obmittatur quin etiam ipsa fixura
with the right foot. Nevertheless do
perficiatur si autem scolaris obsedit
not even omit completing the
eum econtrario mediante halpscilt
thrust. But if the scholar besieges
sacerdos cadet sub gladio & scutum
him, on the other hand, by means & tunc superueniunt ea que prius
of halpschilt, the priest will fall visa sunt in custodia prima Vnde
under sword and shield, and then versus Dum ducitur halpscilt cade
will supervene those things which sub gladium quoque scutum
were seen before in first ward.
Hence the verse: when halpscilt is
conducted, fall below sword and
[29v] Here the scholar completes his [29v] ¶ Hic scolaris perfecit suam
thrust, the priest omitting all actions. fixuram sacerdos vero obmittit
omnes suos actus

Here note that the priest here ¶ Hic nota quod sacerdos
defends the thrust of the scholar. defendit hic fixuram scolaris
[30r] (+) It should be noted that here [30r] (+) ¶ Notandum quod hic
the fourth ward is re-assumed, whose resumitur quarta custodia cuius
siege of this fourth ward is the quarte custodie obsessio est
specific langort of the priest. But the specificatum langcort sacerdotis
besieger should see lest the one videat autem obsessor ne regens
guiding the ward conducts any strike, custodiam ducet aliquam plagam
because it is dangerous to lie low too quia periculosum erit sic diu
long; hence he should conduct first latitare vnde ducat primo schuzin
the schutzin, and finally not omit a demum fixuram non obmittat

Here, on the other hand, the priest ¶ Hic sacerdos econtrario obsedit
is besieging the scholar, which I scolarem quod puto melius esse
think is better, which can be learned quod potest ab aliquo edoceri
by anyone, because if it is not done, quia si hoc non fiet scolaris
the scholar will attack with a thrust ipsum invaderit cum fixura quod
which now will be his. But from this nunc suus erit sed ex hiis oritur
arises the play of the first ward, ludus prime custodie videlicet
namely, binder and bound, which is ligantis & ligati quod patet infra
shown below in the next example. in exemplo proximo
[30v] Here will be the bindings that [30v] ¶ Hic erunt ligaciones que
were touched on often above, superius tacte sunt sepius vnde
hence the verse: binder and bound versus ligans ligati contraria sunt
are opposed and irate, etc. & irati & cetera

From these above conducted ¶ Ex illis ligacionibus superius

bindings the scholar conducts this ductis scolaris ducit illam plagam
strike directing his sword to the per caput ducendo gladium
head by means of a schiltslac. [median]te schiltslac
[31r] It should be noted that the [31r] Notandum quod plagam
priest here defends the above superius ductam per scolare
strike conducted by the scholar in sacerdos defendit hic in hunc
this way, as the scholar’s sword modum quia scolaris gladius fuit
was below, and when he was in inferior & cum esset in actu
the act of conducting the strike, ducendi plagam ducendo
conducting his sword separately, gladium seorsum sacerdos vero
the priest, before the scholar, antequam scolaris ducat gladium
conducts his sword to its due use suum ad usum debitum recipit
and seizes a strike, as shown here plagam vt patet hic per
by the example. exemplum

(+) Here again the fourth ward is (+) Hic iterum resumitur quarta
re-assumed, whose siege is the custodia cuius custodie obsessio
specific langort of the priest. And erit specificatum langort
it should be noted that whenever sacerdotis & notandum quod
the play is had this way, here then quandocunque sic se habet ludus
counsel both the one guiding the ut hic tunc consulo tam regenti
ward and the one besieging him, custodiam quam obsedenti eam
that neither one should delay, ne quisquam eorum protrahendo
omitting what he has, namely on obmittat quod suum est videlicet
the part of the one guiding the ex parte regentis custodiam
ward, a siege, and on the part of obsessio & ex parte obsidentis
the besieger, a thrust. fixura
[31v] Above-mentioned is both the [31v] Superius dictum est tam de
one that guided the ward and the one eo qui regit custodiam quam de
besieging it; and because the scholar eo qui eam pobssedit & quia prior
who was the besieger will be first, he erit scolaris qui superius fuerat
conducts what he should, namely first obsessessor ducit quod suum est
a schutzin, as here, and below in the videlicet primo schuzin ut hic &
next example a thrust, because the infra exemplo proximo fixuram
priest is omitting all his actions. quia sacerdos omnes suos actus
Hence, the one going first will be the obmittit vnde qui prior vadit prior
first to do harm to his adversary. erit ad faciendum dampnum suo

After which was determined above, Post quam determinatum est

the actions of the scholar and the superius de actibus scolaris & de
omission of the actions of the priest, obmissione actuum sacerdotis hic
here again the priest omits what is his iterum sacerdos obmittit quod
own until the scholar is conducting suum est donec scolaris suam
the present attack, as shown here. perducit adessentem intracionem
ut patet hic
[32r] (+) Note that here the first [32r] (+) Notandum est quod hic
ward is re-assumed, namely under resumitur custodia prima
the arm, whose siege is the specific videlicet sub brachio cuius
second ward of the priest located on obsessio est specificata custodia
the right shoulder, and note that the secunda sacerdotis locata in
one guiding the ward will schutzin humero dextro & nota quod
immediately, otherwise, without any regentis custodiam statim erit
delay on the part of the adversary, schuzin nulla mora interposita
halpschilt will be conducted, will be alioquin ex parte adversarij
very dangerous to the one guiding ducetur halbschilt quod erit
the ward. And from here will be regenti custodiam valde
produced all of which was had by perniciosum & ex hiis generantur
the first ward, which we find in the omnia que habuntur de prima
first quire. custodia de quibus habetur in
primo quaterno

Here the priest who guides the ward, Hic sacerdos qui regebat
conducts a schutzin, which will be custodiam ducit schutzin quod erit
because he is the first to be prepared. proptereo quia prior erit paratus &
And it is good counsel that the est bene consulendum quod
besieger will bind immediately obsidens statim ligat super
above the sword of the one guiding gladium ipsius regentis custodiam
the ward (which is here omitted), as quod hic obmittitur ut patet per
shown by the example. exemplum
[32v] Here will be bindings, above [32v] Hic e[runt] ligations superius
and below, which are often & inferiores que [?sepius] ducte
conducted, hence the verse: binder sun[t] [...] Vnde versus Ligans
and bound, etc. ligati & ce[tera]

From these above bindings, Ex hiis super[ioribus]

Walpurgis seizes a schiltslac allegacionibus sacerdoswalpurgis
because she was above, and was recipit schiltslac quia erat superior
prepared prior. & prius parata