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МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ (УНИВЕРСИТЕТ)


МИД РОССИИ

Кафедра английского языка №7

Английский язык

Законодательная власть и правоохранительная


деятельность в Великобритании и США

Учебное пособие

Уровень В1

Составитель:
Тюкина Т.А.

Издательство
«МГИМО-УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
2008
ББК 81.2 Англ

Английский язык
Тюкина Т.А. (составление)

Законодательная власть и правоохранительная деятельность в Великобритании и


США. Учебное пособие для студентов 1 курса. / Составитель: Тюкина Т.А. Моск. гос.
ин-т межд. отношений (ун-т), каф. англ. яз. №7. – М.: МГИМО Университет, 2008. – с.109

Настоящее пособие предлагает материал по общему языку и может быть рекомендовано


студентам, изучающим английский язык в курсе «общий язык».
Пособие предназначено для студентов первого курса факультета политологии
(специальность 020200 - Политология).

ББК 81.2 Англ

©Московский государственный институт международных отношений


(университет) МИД России, 2008
© Тюкина Т.А., составление, 2008

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Contents
Предисловие ………………………………………………………………………………. стр 5
Методическая записка …………………………………………………………………... стр 7

Language Input Skills Development


Unit
Grammar Vocabulary Reading Listening Speaking Writing
1 Verb Criminal and Crime and Interview Roleplay – A A paragraph
The need patterns deviant Criminals with Evelina crime report about a
for law behaviour p 17 and Arpad – p 16 social
p 10 Crime in Troubleshooting problem
society – Violence today p 23
today p 23
p 22

2 Reported Types of crime Types of Game Board Writing a


Types of statements crime p 28 survey report
crime and p 27 Interpreting – Handgun
p 24 questions graphs control
p 30 p 32

3 Reported Forms of Criminal Two people Discussion – Essay ‘for


Punishment commands punishment; Rehabilitation: give Students discuss and against
p 37 Types of Prison – statements what providing
courts, the Revenge or to the police punishments criminals
legal Rehabilitation? (jigsaw) they think are with training
profession p 42 p 39 suitable for and
Capital People certain crimes education’
punishment stating what p 41 p 45
(jigsaw) punishments Discussion – Writing a
p 46 they think Advantages and survey report
The Court are suitable disadvantages of – Capital
Systems of the for certain imprisonment as punishment
USA and the crimes a form of p 50
UK (jigsaw) p 40 punishment Essay ‘for
p 54 Arguments p 44 and against
The Legal against the Discussion – capital
Profession death Arguments for punishment’
p 59 penalty and against p 54
p 51 capital
punishment
p 53
Comparison of
the court systems
of the USA, the
UK and the RF
p 58
Discussion – The
legal profession
in the UK, the
USA and the RF
p 61
Roleplay ‘In
Court’ p 62

3
4 Crime The War on Interview Supporting your Essay ‘for
Controlling prevention, Drugs with David opinion – and against
crime the drug p 68 – Preventing students argue the
p 64 problem juvenile their opinions legalization
crime about statements of drugs’
p 64 on the unit topic p 72
Interview p 67
with Amy – Discussion –
The prison Arguments for
experience and against the
p 66 legalization of
drugs
p 71

Additional exercises ……………………………………………………………………… стр 73


Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………….. стр 109

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное пособие адресовано студентам первого курса факультета


Политологии Университета МГИМО (специальность 020200 Политология),
продолжающим изучать английский язык в качестве основного на ступени
высшего образования. Пособие предназначено для работы по аспекту общий
язык во втором семестре, его содержание соответствует учебной программе
дисциплины «Иностранный язык (основной)» «Английский язык». Пособие
не требует сочетания с другими учебниками и пособиями. Настоящий
сборник материалов охватывает лексическую тему «Законодательная власть и
правоохранительная деятельность» согласно действующей основной программе
для первого курса.
Пособие является сборником англоязычных учебных материалов,
предназначенных для работы на пороговом уровне обучения английскому
языку (B1) в высшем учебном заведении. В сборник вошли материалы из
учебников уровня Intermediate и Upper-Intermediate британских издательств
Cambridge University Press, Longman (Pearson Education), MacMillan, Oxford
University Press, а также из ресурсов Интернета и одноязычных словарей.
Пособие представляет собой систему заданий и упражнений, целью
которых является формирование иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции, в
таких ее частях, как лингвистической, социолингвистической и дискурсивной.
В основу пособия положен коммуникативный подход, целью которого
является обучение студентов иностранному языку через коммуникацию.
Материал пособия и задания подобраны таким образом, что в процессе
взаимосвязанного обучения всем видам речевой деятельности (устная и
письменная речь, аудирование и чтение) происходит формирование
коммуникативной компетенции. В пособии приводятся коммуникативные
задания, предусматривающие, в основном, групповую и парную работу,
которая в значительной мере стимулирует развитие речевой деятельности
студентов. Грамматический материал пособия ориентирован на освоение

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студентами правил употребления различных глагольных моделей и перевода
диалогической речи из прямой в косвенную. Сборник содержит следующие
лексические темы: роль закона в современном мире; преступление закона и
виды преступлений; система наказаний правонарушений; судебная система в
Великобритании и США; правоохранительная деятельность и система
предотвращения правонарушений.
Пособие структурировано на основе стратегиального подхода, то есть
студентам предлагаются стратегии чтения, аудирования, работы со словарем,
ведения дискуссии, написания эссе и статистического отчета, что
способствует формированию у студентов индивидуального стиля обучения.
Каждый урок пособия включает в себя большое количество упражнений,
направленных на закрепление умений лексико-грамматического оформления
высказываний, а также на расширение словарного запаса студентов. Пособие
предоставляет возможность выбрать упражнения и задания, наиболее
отвечающие потребностям конкретных групп студентов.
Материал пособия представлен в виде четырех уроков, содержащих
основной материал курса, направленный на развитие умений речевой
деятельности. В конце пособия приводится часть ‘Additional Exercises’, где
собраны дополнительные упражнения, предназначенные для внеаудиторной
работы и обеспечивающие необходимый уровень усвоения материала.
Составитель выражает благодарность заведующей кафедрой
английского языка №7 Мазаевой И.А. за помощь в редактировании пособия.
Библиография находится в конце сборника. Авторские права
соблюдены1.

_____________________________________________
1
В соответствии с Законом Российской Федерации от 9 июля 1993 года №535101 составители данного
сборника использовали в своей работе с обязательным указанием имени автора, произведение которого
используется, и источника заимствования правомерно обнародованные произведения и отрывки из них в
качестве иллюстраций (в широком смысле) в объеме оправданном поставленной целью или методикой.

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МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Настоящее пособие предназначено для обучения студентов уровня В1


по классификации Совета Европы. Целью пособия является развитие всех
видов речевой деятельности с уровня “Intermediate” до “Upper-Intermediate”:
чтения, аудирования, письма и говорения. Материалы, представленные в
пособии, предназначены для обучения иностранному языку студентов,
продолжающих изучать английский язык в высшей школе. Данный сборник
материалов направлен на решение следующих учебных задач:
 обеспечение становления, закрепления и активизации умений
свободного владения грамматическим материалом, предусматриваемым
основной программой первого курса;
 расширение словарного запаса по изучаемым темам;
 развитие умений говорения, в таких жанрах, как беседа, дискуссия и
ролевая игра;
 развитие умений письменной речи, в частности написания эссе
формата «за и против» и статистического отчета;
 развитие умений поискового, изучающего и просмотрового видов
чтения;
 развитие умений аудирования.
Названные задачи определяют структуру пособия, которое состоит из
четырех уроков. В конце пособия имеются дополнительные лексико-
грамматические упражнения (Additional exercises) для каждого урока,
предназначенные для самостоятельной работы студента и обеспечивающие
необходимый уровень усвоения материала пособия. Каждый урок, за
исключением последнего, начинается с введения грамматических явлений в
контексте, последующего закрепления грамматического материала и его
актуализацией в свободной речи. Далее следуют разделы Reading, Listening,
Speaking, Writing, направленные на развитие речевых умений. Каждый из
разделов содержит аппарат лексико-грамматических упражнений для

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развития языковых умений. Такое построение урока позволяет
преподавателю быть гибким в отборе материала. Весь курс рассчитан
приблизительно на 40 академических часов.
Раздел Presentation рекомендуется выполнять на аудиторных занятиях
в форме фронтального обучения. Введение грамматического материала
осуществляется индуктивно через выведение правила самим студентом при
ответе на грамматические вопросы, что делает процесс усвоения более
эффективным. Раздел Practice Bank содержит комплекс грамматических
упражнений различной сложности, позволяющих перейти от закрепления
того или иного грамматического явления к его свободному употреблению в
речи. В конце грамматического раздела приводится краткий обзор изучаемой
грамматики (Language Review), который может быть использован студентом
самостоятельно для повторения пройденного.
Раздел Reading содержит текст, предназначенный для развития
определенного вида чтения и знакомящий студента с подходящей для этого
стратегией, и систему упражнений к нему. Задания из раздела Pre-reading
направлены на актуализацию фоновых знаний студента, развитие языковой
догадки, прогнозирование, что облегчает понимание при последующем
прочтении текста. Такие упражнения, как и само чтение, выполняются в
аудитории. Над некоторыми текстами необходимо работать дома с
последующей проверкой понимания прочитанного (Comprehension check) и
ключевого словаря (Language in focus), а также выполнением послетекстовых
заданий на занятии.
Раздел Listening тематически связан с разделом Reading или Speaking и
включает задания, направленные на развитие умений понимания общего
смысла, детального понимания, а также определение и понимание
информации, определенной заданием. В начале каждого такого раздела
содержатся коммуникативные задачи, задающие контекст обсуждаемой темы,
развивающие языковую догадку и направленные на выдвижение гипотез, а
также задания, снимающие возможные языковые трудности, что помогает

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пониманию звучащего текста.
Раздел Speaking тематически связан с соответствующим разделом либо
Reading, либо Listening, либо Grammar Practice, что способствует
взаимосвязанному развитию речевых умений. Данный раздел содержит
задания для развития умений подготовленной и неподготовленной
монологической и диалогической речи (комментарии высказываний,
обсуждение проблемы в парах, ролевые игры, дискуссии, интерпретирование
информации, представленной в графическом виде) на аудиторных занятиях.
Особое внимание уделяется обучению построению логического и связного
высказывания. В рамках развития социокультурной компетенции в заданиях
приводятся формулы речевого этикета, подходящие для определенной
коммуникативной ситуации.
Раздел Writing логически связан с разделом Speaking и предлагает
последовательную систему обучения написанию эссе формата «за и против»
и статистического отчета с использованием соответствующих языковых
средств.
Работа с пособием не предполагает последовательного выполнения
всех заданий и упражнений. Преподавателю, работающему с данным
пособием, предлагается выбирать материал, который соответствует
индивидуальным особенностям студентов и отвечает задачам преподавателя.

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Unit 1 ‘The Need for Law’
Presentation
Test your grammar
1. Complete the following sentences about yourself.
a I'm good at... g I'd like ...
b I find it difficult... h I can't afford ...
c I enjoy... i I'm thinking of...
d I'm interested in ... j I'm looking forward to ...
e I can't stand ... k I always forget...
f I like ... l Our teacher always makes us ...

2. Read your sentences aloud to the rest of the class.

3. Which sentences did you complete with the -ing form of a verb? Which did you complete
with the infinitive?

Language in context Verb patterns


1. Sean /o:n/, aged eight, lives in Brighton on the south coast of England. He has written to
his grandmother, who lives far away in the north. Read and listen to his letter.

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2. Read the sentences about Sean's letter. Tick the verbs or phrases below which can fill the
gap correctly. Cross out the verb or verbs which cannot.
Example
Sean is writing to his grandmother because he ______ help him with some schoolwork.
1 wants to
2 wants her to 
3 needs her to 

a His mother thinks that his grandmother will _______ do it.


1 help him 2 agree to 3 enjoy
b Miss Bixby _______ the children to do the homework.
1 has told 2 said 3 expects
c She has _______ them to talk to an old person.
1 suggested 2 advised 3 encouraged
d Sean begs his grandmother _______ about the war.
1 to tell 2 to tell him 3 telling him
e Sean wonders if his grandmother has difficulty _______ the war.
1 to remember 2 in remembering 3 remembering
f He'd like _______ stories about the war.
1 to hear 2 hearing 3 her to tell him
g He always enjoys _______ his grandmother talking about her childhood.
1 to listen to 2 listening to 3 hearing
h Sean _______ play with his little brother.
1 is made 2 is told to 3 is made to
i He _______ playing with Liam.
1 can't stand 2 doesn't want 3 dislikes
j Liam _______ to walk.
1 is trying 2 isn't able 3 can't
k Sean's looking forward _______ his grandmother soon.
1 to seeing 2 to see 3 seeing
1 He _______ her to send him a birthday present.
1 remembers 2 reminds 3 asks

3. Match a pattern in A with a sentence in B.

A B
verb + -ing She wants to go to the cinema.
verb + infinitive (with to) It's impossible to stop her.
verb + sb + infinitive (with to) I'm interested in coming.
verb + sb + infinitive (without to) She wants you to take her.
adjective + infinitive She's finished doing her homework.
preposition + -ing I won't let her go out.

Grammar questions
- Which of the verb patterns in Exercise 3 can you identify in Exercise 2?
- Which can you identify in Sean's letter?
Read it again and underline them.

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Practice bank

1. Discussing grammar

Match a line on the left with a line on the right.


a They stopped playing football because they were tired of working.
They stopped to play football because it got dark.

b I simply don't remember giving you any money yesterday.


Please remember to give my best wishes to your parents.

c Try counting from 1 to 10 in Arabic. I bet you can’t!


Try to count sheep if you can't get to sleep.

d We prefer staying at the Ritz whenever we're in London.


We'd prefer to stay at the Ritz next time we're in London.

e He seems to drink too much. He's fallen asleep.


He seems to be drinking too much. He's rarely sober.
He seems to have drunk too much. He's swaying.

f I like going home now, please.


I like to go to the cinema.
I'd like to go to the dentist twice a year.

2. We'd love to!

Sometimes the whole infinitive need not be repeated if it is understood.


Example
A Can you and Mary come to lunch next Sunday?
B Oh yes, we'd love to.
Write a reply to A, using the verb in brackets.

a A Are we going to have a break?


B No, _______________________ (not have time).
b A Can I smoke in here?
B No, __________________________ (not allow).
c A I can't help you do your homework this evening. Sorry.
B Oh, but _____________________ (promise).
d A Why did you do Exercise 2?
B Because you ________________________ (tell).
e A You said you'd phone me last night.
B I'm really sorry, ________________________ (mean), but I forgot.
f A Have you finished marking the homework yet?
B Sorry, _________________________ (not have a chance).

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3. Grandma's reply
a. Read Grandma's letter to Sean. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.

22 St Bede’s Terrace,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Tuesday

My dear Sean,

How lovely (a) _________ (get) your letter! Mummy is right! I will really enjoy
(b) _________ (help) you with your schoolwork, and I will try very hard (c) _________
(remember) what it was like when I was a little girl all those years ago.

When the war started, I was just five and I’ll never forget (d) _________ (watch) my
grandfather dig a big black hole in the back garden. This was our air raid shelter. At first I was
really scared of (e) _________ (go) into it. Every time the siren went off, I started (f) _________
(tremble) and I was sick, actually sick with fear. I refused (g) _________ (leave) my bed. I didn’t
find it easy (h) _________ (get) used to (i) _________ (sleep) in that shelter. But soon, (j)
_________ (live) in cities was so dangerous that the government decided (k) _________ (send)
all the children away to the countryside. I think I was lucky because I was able (l) _________
(go away) to my aunt’s. Some children were forced (m) _________ (stay) with total strangers.
My aunt lived in a small town, called Alston, high in the hills, not too far from Newcastle. And
guess what, Sean, she had a sweet shop! Mrs Crozier’s Sweet Shop. But, oh dear me, at first I
was so unhappy, I couldn’t help (n) _________ (worry) about my mother back home. My aunt let
me (o) _________ (have) as many sweets as I wanted, but I was too miserable (p) _________
(eat) many. Silly me! Most children didn’t have the chance of (q) _________ (get) lots of sweets
because sweets were rationed. That meant that you couldn’t buy all you wanted. You were only
allowed (r) _________ (buy) a small amount. Lots of other things were rationed, too. It was
impossible (s) _________ (get) butter, cream, fruit, vegetables, and petrol. We did without a lot
of things during the war. Can you believe that just after it ended, someone gave me a banana and
I didn’t know what (t) _________ (do) with it?

Sean, I hope this is useful. I’m longing (u) _________ (see) you all. Give my love to
Mummy, Daddy and Liam. Don’t worry, he’ll be much more fun soon.

Lots of love and kisses,


Grandma xxx

b. Listen and check your answers.


/from New Headway Upper-intermediate, John and Liz Soars/

4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. Have you ever heard me ___________ (sing) O Sole Mio?
2. They saw a suspicious young man ___________ (enter) the building shortly before the
incident.
3. As we drove over the river we noticed local women ___________ (wash) their clothes
in the water.
4. I once heard Karajan ___________ (conduct) the whole Ring cycle – it was wonderful.
5. The woman woke up in the middle of the night, looked out of her window and saw
something strange ___________ (fly) over the trees in the park.
/Adapted from Advanced Learners’ Grammar, Mark Foley and Diane Hall/

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5. Bringing up teenagers
Look at this list. Check the things you think are important to make and let a teenager do.
Compare and discuss your list with a partner.

 stay out until midnight on weekends  take care of younger children


 stay over at a friend’s house  learn to drive
 travel alone to a foreign country  study every day, including weekends
 get a part-time job  exercise
 dye his or her hair another colour  go to the dentist every year
 smoke  learn another language
 drink alcohol  pay part of the bills

Example:
A: I think it’s important to make your kids come home before midnight – even on
weekends.
B: I’m not so sure. I think parents should let their children stay out late one night a week.
It gives them a sense of responsibility. …
/from Focus on grammar, Marjorie Fuchs, Margaret Bonner/

Language review Verb patterns


When you use two verbs together in English you need to decide whether the second verb should
be the infinitive with or without to, or the –ing form. The structure you use depends on the first
verb.

1. Verb + to + infinitive
These verbs are followed by to + infinitive:

agree appear arrange ask attempt choose decide


expect fail hurry learn manage offer prepare promise
refuse seem tell tend try want warn

We can group some of these verbs like this:


 Reality verbs: appear, seem:
He seems to like music.
 Effort verbs: try, attempt, fail, manage:
She failed to reach the final of the competition.
Tend + to + infinitive means you usually or often do something.
I tend to get up earlier when the weather’s good.
I tend not to drink coffee in the afternoon.

2. Verb + object + to + infinitive


These verbs are followed by an object + to + infinitive:

ask choose expect tell want warn


encourage recommend forbid permit allow advise

I wanted the sun to shine on my birthday.


Many of these are reporting verbs: ask, tell, encourage, warn:
She asked him to speak more quietly.
I told her not to leave the room until I came back.

3. Verb + object + infinitive without to:


Make and let are followed by an object + infinitive without to:
14
My mother made me wear the most awful clothes.
She let me stay out later than most of my friends though.

4. Verb + -ing form


These verbs are followed by the –ing form of the second verb:

avoid can’t help can’t stand consider deny enjoy


feel like finish give up hate imagine keep like love
mind practise prefer put off suggest
encourage recommend forbid permit allow advise

We can group some of these verbs like this:


 Like and dislike verbs: like, love, mind, can’t stand, enjoy, hate, prefer:
I don’t like getting up early.
 Time verbs: start, stop, continue, begin, put off:
I began taking singing lessons as a child.

5. Verbs that can take to + infinitive or –ing form


Some verbs – like, love, begin, start, continue – can be followed by either the infinitive or the
-ing form.
I like sailing. / I like to sail.
She began having lessons. / She began to have lessons.
With some verbs, different meanings are expressed through these two structures:

Verb + to + infinitive + -ing form


go on They went on to talk about their They went on talking after the
travel arrangements. (They did waiter brought the bill. (They
something new.) continued doing the same thing.)
need I need to repair my washing My washing machine needs
machine. (I will do the job.) repairing. (Someone else will do
the job.)
remember I remembered to buy the milk. (I I remember buying the milk. (I
/ forget remembered and then I bought the bought the milk and now I
milk.) remember doing it.)
stop He stopped to talk to me. (He He’s stopped talking to me. (He’s
stopped in order to talk to me.) not talking to me any more.)
try I’m trying to lose weight. (I’m I’m trying eating just fruit for
trying something difficult.) breakfast. (I’m trying something
new.)

6. Sense verbs: hear, see, feel, notice


These verbs can either be followed by the infinitive without to or the –ing form but there is a
difference in meaning. Compare:
I heard a dog bark, and then a car started and drove off. (I heard the whole of the barking.)
I heard a dog barking as I went past the house. (I heard part of the barking.)

7. Other points
 With some of these verbs there is a choice of negative with different meanings. Compare:
I didn’t ask him to leave (I didn’t ask him, but he left) and I asked him not to leave (I said,
‘Please don’t leave.’).
 We use the –ing form after a preposition: We talked about starting earlier.
/from Developing Grammar in Context, Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins/

15
Speaking 1 ROLEPLAY ‘A Crime Report’
Work in groups of four. There was an armed raid on a security van outside Barclays
Bank, Newtown, today. A reporter is interviewing three witnesses.

Student A Mr. Clarke, a reporter


Interview the three witnesses (PC Chris Green; Liz Leigh, a secretary; and Kevin Billings, a
hospital porter). From their accounts prepare a report of the crime, giving the facts and
quoting the witnesses where relevant.
Before the interview, you made the notes below to help you.
 when/happen
 where/you
 what/you do
 how many robbers
 what/they/look like
 what/they/do
 any other details

Student B PC Chris Green


You took part in chasing the robbers. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt , answer
his questions, giving the following details:
 about 11.17 am/hear on our car radio/ security van/ hijack/as it/unload at
Barclays Bank in Albion Road
 immediately rush to the scene/ just in time to see/the security guards/lock into
their own van by two men in grey balaclavas
 they/leap into a white Ford Escort/ drop at least two bags
 there/be/a third man behind the wheel/ they/drive off at great speed
 we/ give chase/ but the guy in the back/start/ shoot at us
 we/ unarmed/can’t/return the shots
 one shot/ narrowly miss PC Dixon, the radio operator/ as they/ turn a
corner/another shot /hit me in the right leg
 I only just managed/ stop the car/ pull over to the kerb
 I/not remember anything after that — I/black out
Student C Liz Leigh, a secretary
You witnessed the robbery. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt , answer his
questions, giving the following details:
 I/come out of the bank/ put my money into my purse/ when I/hear this crash
 it /just after 11.00/because I/slip out of the office in my coffee break
 I/look up/see this white car/crash into the front of the security van
 three men/get out
 two of them/wear balaclavas/ but they/young
 one/wear jeans/ the other/wear/a black leather jacket/ trainers
 I/not get a good look at the third one/I/back into the doorway of the bank
 they/yell, 'Get out! get out!' at the driver of the van/he obviously/not move fast
enough/ they/open the door/drag him out/hold a gun at his head/while he/open the
back of the van

16
 they/go wild/shove him and his partner in the back/while they/grab at the bags of
money
 there/ bags of money all over the street
 they/hear the police siren/start/scream at each other, 'Get a move on!'/drop even
more money about the place
 I/ terrified/ they/notice me/ point the gun at me
 when the police/arrive/they/drive off
 I think I/hear some shots from down the street
 I/ stunned/I/get the number of the car
 it/B180 VHS
Student D Kevin Billings, a hospital porter
You saw the robbers. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt , answer his questions,
giving the following details:
 I/not know/what/happen
 I/think/they/ make a film at first
 I/come round the corner/ this fellow/barge into me/ knock me over
 he/carry a shotgun/he/fire it into the air/at the same time shout, 'Keep down or I'll
shoot you!'
 he/in his forties/graying/he/have a Scottish accent
 that's when I/realize/it/not a film
 I/really think/I/die
 He/keep his foot on top of me/while his mates/rush past into a car
 I/have my head down on the pavement
 I/can't see anything/I/keep/expect a final shot in the head
 I/hear sirens/ doors/bang/ tyres/screech/ they were gone
 I/hear shots/fire then, but down the road. Two, I think.
 I/feel really lucky/be alive.'
/Adapted from Headway English Course. Advanced Workbook. John and Liz Soars/

Reading Crime and Criminals

Pre-reading task

1. Check the meanings of deviance and crime in a dictionary.

2. Work with a partner. Think about the relationship between deviance and crime. Discuss
the following questions:
1 How would you define deviant behaviour? Write a definition, beginning with: Deviant
behaviour is behaviour that…
2 How would you define criminal behaviour? Write a definition, beginning with:
Criminal behaviour is behaviour that…

3. List some examples of deviant and criminal behaviour.

17
4. Complete the table with behaviours that relate to the issues listed on the left.
Some behaviours that are generally considered normal, deviant, or
criminal in most Western industrialized societies
Issue Normal Deviant but not Deviant and
criminal criminal
Use of the streets Crossing the street at Failing to stop after a
the traffic light traffic accident
Use of alcohol Moderate social Alcohol abuse
drinking
Making money Earning a living as Begging on the
an adult streets
Source: Knox, 159. (adapted)

5. Think of another culture you know well. Would the behaviours in the table above be
considered normal, deviant, or criminal in that culture?
THE SQR3 SYSTEM
SQR3: Survey (S), Question (Q), Read, Recite, and Review (R3)
Many books about studying at university recommend the SQR3 approach to reading. The SQR3
approach helps you become an active reader. Active readers do not simply pick up a text and read
it. They do tasks before reading, while reading, and after reading. These tasks help them
understand and remember what they have read.

In this pre-reading activity, we will look at the first three steps in the SQR3 system: survey,
question, and read.
1 Survey
• Survey this text before reading it closely.
• Look at the title, subheadings, boxed text, and pictures.
• Skim through the text, reading the beginnings and ends of paragraphs.
• Report back to the class on what you looked at and discovered.

2 Question
• Before you read this text, think of questions that you expect the text will
answer. One trick is to look at the subheadings and key terms that you noticed in
your survey and turn them into questions. For example, the subheading "Age
group" might prompt the question, "Which age group is most likely to commit
crimes?"
• Write your questions in the margins.
• Compare your questions with a small group.

3 Read
• As you read, think about the questions you wrote in the margins.
• See if you can answer your questions.

DEVIANCE AND CRIME


(1) Have you ever . . .
minor
crossed the street against the traffic light? someone too young to be
legally considered an adult;
driven through a stop sign without punishments for minors are
stopping? usually different than those
for adults.
drunk or bought alcohol as a minor?

18
cheated on a test?
(2) If so, you have broken a socially accepted norm or practice, and you could therefore
be considered deviant. Deviant behaviour is behaviour that is considered to be unacceptable, or
outside the norms for that society.
(3) There are, of course, degrees of deviance and not every member of society will agree
on what is deviant behaviour and what is normal behaviour. For
example, while many people believe that prostitution is deviant, others
see it as a legitimate way for people to earn a living. Also, what is seen
as deviant behaviour will change over time and vary from place to
place. Drinking alcohol, for example, has been regarded as deviant or as
acceptable in the United States at different times in the past. In fact, in
the 1920s, alcohol was considered to be so unacceptable in the U.S. that
it was illegal to sell, buy, or consume it. Now drinking in moderation is
This man has been
arrested and charged accepted by the majority of the population as normal social behaviour
with a crime. He is
being searched for for adults.
weapons before (4) What is considered to be deviant may also vary from culture to
going to jail.
culture. In most cultures, but certainly not in all, it is regarded as deviant
for a man to have more than one wife at the same time. However, there are some religious groups
and cultures where polygamy is an accepted practice.
(5) Some acts of deviance may simply result in a person being regarded as odd or
unusual, while other deviant behaviours actually break the law. These behaviours are seen as
crimes.

WHO COMMITS CRIME?


(6) Reports on crime can't give us a complete picture of who commits crimes because not
all crimes are reported. Furthermore, law enforcement agencies don't always share their
information. However, available information on reported crimes can give us information about
the people who commit crimes. If we consider all categories of crime together, the most likely
people to commit crimes are young men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.
Age group
(7) Young people have the highest rates of arrest for reported crime. Almost half of all
people arrested are under the age of 25. Older people may gradually move away from crime or
they may become skilled in not getting caught. Younger people are more likely to be involved in
crime because they have fewer relationships that encourage them to follow conventional
behaviour. A married person with two children and a steady job is less likely to commit a crime

19
than an unemployed, single, child-free person.
Gender
(8) According to FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) reports, 78 percent of all those
arrested for crimes are males. Females are arrested for criminal behaviour in only 21 percent of
all arrests. (Percentages for males and females don't add up to 100 percent because of rounding
of numbers.) Most women criminals are unemployed, uneducated, single mothers with small
children.
(9) Why is it that the figures for males and females are so different? Sociologists suggest
that it is more socially acceptable for males to be deviant and involved in crime than it is for
females. Women are under a greater social pressure to conform than men are. If they do not con-
form to the expected social roles of wife and mother, they are more likely to be assigned
extremely negative labels. It has also been suggested that women have fewer opportunities to get
involved in criminal behaviour. Compared to males, potential female criminals are less likely to
be selected and recruited into criminal groups, have a more limited range of criminal career paths
open to them, and have fewer opportunities for learning criminal skills (Steffensmeier 1983). In
other words, like employment opportunities, criminal opportunities are still much less available
to women than to men. A further argument is that in a male-dominated society, women are
socialized differently from men. Consequently, women are less interested in achieving material
success and more interested in achieving emotional fulfilment through close personal relations
with others. A drive for material success, it is argued, can lead people into crime if they lack
other opportunities to gain such success.
Socioeconomic status
(10) The majority of those arrested are also from lower
socioeconomic groups
people grouped by socioeconomic groups in the community. Without money, it is harder
sociologists according to
social status, jobs, and to keep out of trouble. You are more likely to do your gambling, for
amount of money earned
example, in a public place rather charged
officially accused of committing a
than in the safety of a suburban living room, and you cannot crime
afford a private attorney to represent you if you do get caught. convicted
found guilty of committing a
The poor are far more likely than the well-off to be arrested. If crime
they are arrested, they are more likely to be charged. If they
are charged, they are more likely to be convicted, and if they are convicted, they are more likely
to be sentenced to prison (Reiman 1979).

After you read


1. USING THE SQR3 SYSTEM

20
The SQR3 system continues after reading a text. The fourth step is to recite, or say aloud
from memory, and the last step is to review.
1 Recite
Look again at the subheadings in the text. Choose one. Re-read that section, and then give
an oral summary of the main ideas to a partner.
2 Review
 Go back and skim the text, placing a check (v) next to the parts of the text that you
are sure that you understand and a question mark (?) next to those parts that are
still unclear to you and that you need to study further.
 Return to the sections of the text where you placed a question mark. Underline
any difficult words in those sections. Try to figure out the meaning of the words
from the surrounding context. Then check the dictionary.
 Discuss with a small group any parts that you still do not understand.

2. Language focus

a. Find the following verb patterns in the text and complete the table.
Verb patterns Examples from the text
verb + infinitive (with to)

verb + sb + infinitive (with to)

adjective + infinitive

preposition + -ing

b. Building vocabulary: Dealing with unknown words


It is important to develop strategies for dealing with difficult or unfamiliar vocabulary in the
texts you read. Strategies you might use are:
 finding the definition within the text
 looking at the context (that is, the words and sentences that come before and after the
unknown word) for clues to the word’s meaning
 using knowledge of a related word
Find these words in the text. Discuss which strategies to use for each word, and write a
brief definition next to each one.
Word Definition
consume (par. 3) (v) eat or drink
moderation (par.3)
polygamy (par.4)
commit (par.6)
conventional (par.7)
conform (par.9)
well-off (par.10)
sentence (par.10)
Discuss the meanings of the words with your classmates. Compare the different strategies
you used.
3. READING ACTIVELY
Remember that when you read actively, you do not simply read to understand the words on

21
the page. You think about how the ideas relate to what you already know, and you think
about the implications of those ideas.
Re-read paragraph 7, which is about youth crime. Write down any thoughts you have while
you are reading the text. Discuss your thoughts with a small group.
/Adapted from Academic encounters: reading, study skills, and writing; Kristine Brown, Susan Hood/

Listening INTERVIEW WITH EVELINA AND ARPAD:


Crime in society today
Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Evelina and Arpad printed in bold and
given in the context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.
I've never actually been struck by crime: personally affected
I see big groups of kids roaming the streets: walking around with no clear purpose
if it's a rowdy teenage group: noisy, wild
Guns might not be visible: able to be seen
I've never seen anyone with a gun and much less seen a shooting: even less, certainly haven't

True/false questions check your understanding of a reading or listening passage. Read this list
of strategies for answering them.
 Answer every question. You always have a 50/50 chance of being right.
 Pay special attention to statements with negatives in them. These are often tricky to
answer. Remember that a negative statement that is correct is true.
 Pay attention to words like always, never, and all. Statements that represent extreme
positions are usually false. On the other hand, more tentative statements are more likely
to be true.
 Read all parts of a statement carefully. Some parts may be true, but if any part of it is
false, then the whole statement is false.
 In any series of true/false questions, there are usually about the same number of true
statements as false ones.
1. Read the following statements before you listen to the interview with Arpad and Evelina.
______ 1 Evelina is concerned about the crime news that she sees
on TV.
______ 2 Arpad is not bothered by loud groups of teenagers on the
street.
______ 3 Evelina is not worried about the availability of guns.
______ 4 Arpad says that someone was recently shot in a local
restaurant.
______ 5 Evelina says that parents need to have more contact with
their children.
______ 6 Arpad blames the high levels of crime on the availability of guns.
______ 7 Arpad thinks that teachers have the main responsibility for teaching values to children.
______ 8 Arpad supports gun control by the government.

2. Listen to the interview and take notes. Use your notes to answer the questions above.
Write T (true) or F (false) in the blanks.

3. Compare your answers with a partner and then with the class. Correct the false
statements together.
/Adapted from Academic listening encounters: life in society. Student’s Book. Kim Sanabria/

Speaking 2 TROUBLESHOOTING
Work in small groups. For each of the problems below, brainstorm as many solutions as

22
you can in five minutes. Then compare your answers with those of another group. You can
use some of the following expressions.
I’m in favour of … I’m opposed to …
I support … I’m against …
I suggest … What about …
I go along with … We need …
I advise … I recommend …
We should start/stop … I urge …
1. There is so much violence among today's youth, especially in the United States. What
can people do about this problem?
2. The majority of those arrested are from lower socioeconomic groups in the community.
What do you think should be done about the problem?
3. Nowadays a lot of people feel unsafe in their city. How can we help solve this problem?
4. Many victims of crime do not report the crime which results in actual crime rates being
2/3 times higher than the official figures. What can we do about it?

Writing
Write a short paragraph about a social problem in Speaking 2. Express your opinion and
give reasons for your ideas.
Example:
I’m in favour of requiring people to take a road test every time they renew their license.
By polishing their skills and knowledge every few years, people will become better
drivers …
Exchange paragraphs with a classmate. After you read your classmate’s paragraph, write
another one explaining why you agree or disagree with your classmate’s viewpoint.
Example:
I go along with requiring additional road tests for drivers. People’s eyesight and reflexes
can change a lot in five years. …
/Adapted from Focus on grammar, Marjorie Fuchs, Margaret Bonner/

23
Unit 2 ‘Types of Crime’

Presentation Reported statements and questions


Read the article about a robbery and answer the questions.
 Who was the painting of?
 How did the thief escape with the painting?

GUNMAN STEALS £650,000 PICASSO


A thief stopped a taxi outside He demanded the picture
the Hilton hotel at midday from the other assistant,
yesterday and asked to go to Jacqueline Cartwright. 'He
the Lefevre Gallery in looked like an art student
central London. Giving the with long hair,' she said. He
driver a £10 tip to wait, he told her he had a gun and he
walked into the private wanted the picture. He told
gallery and asked the value her to get it off the wall, but
of Picasso's Tête de femme. she said she could not. The
The portrait of Picasso's man then pulled the picture
girlfriend, Dora Maar, was from the wall and ran out of
painted in 1939 and is valued the gallery. The whole
at £650,000. operation took 35 seconds.
'He seemed very civilised At the taxi, the thief pointed
until he pulled out his gun,' the gun at the driver and
said Camilla Bois, one of demanded to be taken to
two assistants in the gallery Wimbledon, south-west
when the thief entered. London.

Grammar questions
- Find and underline two examples of direct speech (words in quotation marks) and
two examples of reported speech in the text.
- Look at these examples of reported speech from the text:
a) He told her he had a gun and he wanted the picture.
b) … she said she could not.
Which of the sentences below, i) or ii), do you think were the original words?
a) i) ‘I’ve got a gun and want the picture.’…
ii) 'Do as I say because I've got a gun. Give me that picture now.'…
b) i) 'I can't.'…
ii) 'I'm sorry, I can't do that.'…
- What is the basic rule about the use of tenses in reported speech?
Complete the spaces by filling in the space in the right-hand column.

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH


I don’t have any Present Simple Past Simple I said that I (1)
money. ___________________ any
money.
I’m feeling well. Present Continuous Past Continuous Peter said that he (2)
___________________ well.
I woke up feeling very Past Simple Past Perfect She said that she (3)
ill. ___________________
feeling very ill.
They were playing Past Continuous Past Perfect She said that they (4)

24
tennis at 10. Continuous ___________________
tennis at 10.
I have had a driving Present Perfect Past Perfect She said that she (5)
licence for a month. ___________________ a
driving licence for a month.
I have been working Present Perfect Past Perfect I said that I (6)
in my present job for Continuous Continuous ___________________ in
a year. my present job for a year.
Paul had already gone Past Perfect Past Perfect She said that Paul (7)
home. ___________________
home.
It had been raining at Past Perfect Past Perfect He said that it (8)
night. Continuous Continuous ___________________ at
night.
will, can, may, must Other changes Other changes would, could, might, had to

- What is the basic rule about the use of pointer words in reported
speech? ('Pointer words' are words referring to specific times and places, e.g. 'this',
'now', 'here', 'tomorrow'.)
Complete the spaces by filling in the space in the right-hand column.

Direct Reported
now
this (e.g. morning)
today
yesterday
tomorrow
next (e.g. week)
last (e.g. year)
here

- What is the difference in the way say and tell are used?

‘Are you on your own?’ he asked.


He asked if I was on my own.

‘How do you know John and Moira?’ he asked.


He asked how I knew John and Moira.
- What differences are there between direct questions and indirect questions?
- When is if used?
/Adapted from Developing Grammar in Context. Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins/

Practice bank
1. Put the following direct speech into reported speech.
a 'I'm exhausted!' he said.
b 'Are you leaving on Friday?' she asked me.
c 'We haven't seen Jack for a long time,' they said.
d 'We flew to Madrid,' they said.
e 'Which airport did you fly from?' I asked them.
f ‘The flight has been cancelled,' the announcement said.
25
g 'Our plane was delayed by five hours,' they told us.
h ‘What time did it take off?' she asked.
i 'I'll help you unpack,' he said.
j 'I can't do this exercise,' he told the teacher.

2. What's the difference in meaning in the following examples of reported speech? Discuss
with a partner.
a Beatrice said she lived in New York.
Beatrice said she'd lived in New York.
b Moira told her mother that she'd love John.
Moira told her mother that she loved John.
c Adam asked them how they'd travel to Paris.
Adam asked them how they'd travelled to Paris.
What did the people actually say in direct speech?
/From New Headway English Course, Intermediate Student’s Book, Liz and John Soars/

3. The CNN reporter Manav Tanneeru interviewed Kevin Mitnick, a notorious American
hacker.
a. Read the information about Kevin Mitnick and answer the question below.
Why is Kevin Mitnick famous?

To many people, the name Kevin Mitnick is


synonymous with hacking. But Mitnick says the
legend is untrue.
It is true, he says, that he broke into corporate
computer systems and stole source code to satisfy
his curiosity, but he denies the stories that he
hacked into NORAD – North American Aerospace
Defense Command – or that he wiretapped the FBI.
The FBI arrested Mitnick in 1995. He served five
years in prison after pleading guilty to charges of
wire and computer fraud. He was released in 2000
and today runs a computer security firm.

Kevin Mitnick

b. Now read the interviewer’s notes and report which questions he intended to ask.

1. why / become so famous? 1. wiretapped the FBI - something out of a


movie like “War Games” "Enemy of the
 State"; true - took code from Motorola and
Nokia to look at the information

 2. what / make of your celebrity?

3. how / firm / been received? 3. people who don’t trust me; but company
 receives phone calls, keep business going
pretty well

 4. how easy / to hack a computer? 4. get hired to hack into computers now,
security improved? easier than years ago; only thing that’s
changed – technical issues; depends on
 vigilance of operators of computer systems

26
and network

 5. how much / trust online banking, 5. trust online banking; if somebody hacks
usage of credit cards online? into my account, bank takes the loss

 6. pay bills online / shop online?

7. worried about ID theft? 7. somebody stole my identity once, used it to


 apply for cell phone account; $400 bill, used
mom’s address in Las Vegas when I was
living in California under my name; really
 easy, all you need to steal someone’s identity
– social security number

 8. miss being on the run?


/Adapted from http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/internet/10/07/kevin.mitnick.cnna/index.html/

c. Report the whole interview. Pay attention to the fact that the interviewer did not have
time to ask all the questions.

4. INTERVIEW
a. Use the questions below to interview three people in your class about their opinions and
experiences.
 What are the most frequent types of crime in your country/city?
 How safe do you feel in your country/city?
 What is the most dangerous city in your country?
 Have you ever been the victim of a crime?

b. Report your findings to the class. Try to use the following verb patterns:

admit doing smth / admit + that-clause


complain to sb about smth / complain + that-clause
deny doing smth / deny + that-clause
explain to sb + that-clause
wonder where/what/why/how + clause

c. Write a short survey of your findings.

Listening
1. Pre-listening task BRAINSTORMING ABOUT THE TOPIC

When you brainstorm about a topic, you allow yourself to think about it freely and can generate
unexpected ideas and reactions. A good way to brainstorm is to use a word map that indicates
your ideas about different aspects of the topic.

Work with a partner. Look at the word map below. Think about crime and
brainstorm different aspects of crime. You may, for example, focus on types of crime,
causes and effects of crime, personal experiences with crime, punishments for crime, or any
other aspects of crime that occur to you. Write notes about your thoughts on the word map.
Add as many lines to the word map as you wish.

27
Share your ideas with another pair of classmates.

2. Listening Technical terms

Many fields of study have technical terms that you need to know in order to understand and
discuss topics in that field.

1. Read the technical terms for various types of crime and their definitions (given in
parentheses) in the left column of the chart below. Then listen to a series of radio crime
reports. As you listen, write the number of the report next to the type of crime that is being
reported.

Type of crime Report number


Arson (setting property on fire)
Burglary (going into a building to steal something)
Motor vehicle theft (stealing a car)
Murder (killing someone, also called "homicide")
Rape (forcing someone to have sexual relations)
Shoplifting (stealing from a store)
Weapons possession (having a weapon without a license)

2. Compare your answers with a partner.

3. Speaking 1 Game Board

1. Look at the ‘game board’ below. It has questions about different aspects of crime and
criminals. Circulate among your classmates, using the game board to ask questions (one
question per classmate). If your classmate can give you a well-developed answer to a
question – not just one sentence – write the name of the classmate in that box and make
some brief notes about the answer. When you complete three boxes across and three down,
stop the activity.

2. Work in small groups. Report back the answers you got from your classmates. Then
choose the most interesting answer in your group and share it with the class.
Apart from using the verb patterns from Exercise 4 on the previous page, try to use the
following:
demand to do smth
claim + that-clause
insist on sb doing smth
suggest doing smth

28
Find someone who …
has a suggestion about how to has an opinion about the knows the name and story of a
reduce the level of crime in causes of crime and can famous criminal in history.
society. explain what makes someone
break the law.

has read a crime novel or seen can offer an explanation of the can describe a really well-
a crime movie and can tell you high level of violent crime in publicized crime – something
the story. the United States. that dominated the newspapers
and TV and captured the
public’s interest.

can comment on one of the can describe an activity that is has been the victim of a crime
following types of crime: considered illegal but that the and is prepared to tell the story
 youth crime person believes should be of what happened.
 crimes committed by legalized.
women
 Internet crime

/Adapted from Academic listening encounters: life in society. Student’s Book. Kim Sanabria/

29
Speaking 2 Interpreting graphs
A lot of information that you find on a topic is presented in graphic form, so it is important
to practice reading and analyzing graphs and charts. Basing a report on the information
provided by a graph is partly a matter of interpretation, but also requires correct use of the
technical terms.

 The language of statistics


Two quotations:
'There are three kinds of lies: lies, damn lies, and statistics.' (Mark Twain)
'He uses statistics as a drunken man uses lamp-posts - for support rather than
illumination.' (Andrew Lang)

1. Describing trends

Notice the language patterns that can be used.


risen
gone up sharply
numbers have increased

fallen slightly
dropped
gone down
decreased
declined

tremendous increase
there has been a / there was a huge decrease in
significant rise
considerable

(has) increased greatly


(has) decreased significantly
has gone up (or down) / went up (or down) steeply
a little
by a small amount / large amount
steadily
consistently
noticeably
(has) almost halved
(has) more than doubled
tripled
/Adapted from New Headway English Course. Upper-Intermediate Student’s Book. Liz and John Soars/

30
2. Look at the graphs.
The incarceration rate in the USA doubled from 300 to 600 people per 100,000 population.
(Incarceration means being put into prison.)

Make similar sentences about South Africa, England / Wales, Denmark, the Netherlands
and Japan.
Which country had the most/fewest people in prison in 1985? Which country had the
most/fewest people in prison in 1995?

Incarceration rate
South Africa
USA
330
600

300 300

0
1985 1995 270
1985 1995

England / Wales Denmark

100 80
Netherlands Japan
60

90 40
50
40
20
60
30
95 0
201985
30 1985 1995 1995
10
0 0
1985 1995 1985 1995

3. Work in pairs. Look at the graph and fill in the gaps.

The graph represents statistics concerning offences involving firearms recorded by


the police in England and Wales during the period 1972-90 submitted by the Home
Office. The graph shows that in the last quarter of the twentieth century there was a
definite (1)___________ in crimes with firearms (guns, rifles etc) in England and
Wales.
During the period 1972-90 the number of criminal damage offences involving
firearms showed (2)____________ from 4,500 to 11,000. From 1972 to 1981 there
was a consistent (3)________________ in the number of criminal damage
offences. From 1977 to 1978 criminal damage offences rose (4)___________ by
(5)__________. During the period 1981-90 each fall in criminal damage offences
was followed by (6)___________ . Criminal damage figures (7)_____________
steeply from 1985 to 1988.

31
Continue the analysis of the graph with
information about robberies and violence against
the person involving firearms.

Writing Writing a
survey report
1. Read the definition of a survey report and do the task that
follows.
Survey Reports
Reports are pieces of factual writing which are usually based on some type of research. There are
various types of reports such as: survey reports, reports assessing good and bad points of
something, travel/holiday reports, news reports, witness statements, etc.
A survey report is a formal piece of writing presenting and analyzing the results/findings of
research concerning reactions to a product, plan, etc, including general assessment conclusions
and/or recommendation(s).
The results of research can be presented in different ways:
A property developer is building a retirement complex. There is some extra space, so they
have surveyed prospective residents as to which facility they would like included.
50% sw im m ing
pool
40% bow ling
green
30%
library
20%
gym /aerobics
10%
arts & crafts
0% centre Pie graph/chart
Bar graph/chart

The pie chart represents the same results as the bar chart on the left. Can you fill out its
sections with percentages?

2. Look at the results of the survey above, then fill in the sentences below with the
vocabulary provided.

32
In order to describe the results/present them as a text, special vocabulary is used, e.g.
Number majority per cent percentage one in four

1. The ______________ of those questioned wanted a swimming pool built.


2. A very small ______________ of the people surveyed were interested in having
an arts and crafts centre.
3. A reasonably small ______________ of those who responded wanted a bowling
green or library.
4. Twelve ______________ of the people who responded to the survey wished to
have a gym included in the facilities.
5. ______________ of those questioned wanted a bowling green.

3. All the sentences in Ex.2 state facts. Generalisations are statements which can help clarify the facts.
They can either precede or come after the facts. Depending on their position, facts and generalizations can be linked
by using verbs either in their active or passive form as in the examples:
Fifty-five per cent of young people go the cinema at least twice a month. This
indicates/shows/demonstrates/illustrates that the cinema is still quite a popular form of
entertainment among young people.

The cinema is still quite a popular form of entertainment among young people, which is
shown/indicated/illustrated/implied by the fact that fifty-five per cent of young people
go the cinema at least twice a month.

Read the facts and the generalizations listed below, and decide which sentences go together.
Link them using one of the two possible ways.

Facts:
1. About one quarter of those questioned expressed interest in having a bowling green.
2. By far the largest number of those surveyed responded positively to the idea of having a
swimming pool installed.
3. A small minority of those questioned thought that an arts and crafts centre would be a useful
addition.
4. Twenty-four per cent of respondents wanted a bowling green and nineteen per cent requested a
library.
5. A small proportion of the people asked wanted the developer to build a gym and aerobics
studio.

Generalisations:
a. Some of the prospective residents enjoy taking strenuous exercise.
b. Sociable team-sports appeal.
c. In general, pensioners do not enjoy creative activities like painting and pottery.
d. Among pensioners, relaxing aquatic sports are generally preferred to working out in a gym. e.
e. Outdoor activities and reading are quite popular pastimes.

4. Two people were asked to conduct a survey about reading habits.


a. Read Model A and underline the facts and circle the generalizations in it.
b. Read both models and decide which one
 is good  is more impersonal
 is formal  uses the Passive Voice
 uses short forms  is more objective
 includes facts and generalizations  does not include subheadings
 includes relevant details

33
Model A

From Michael Green

To Prof. White

Subject: People’s reading habits

Introduction
The aim of this report is to analyse the result of a recent survey into people's reading habits. In
this survey, people on the street were asked what type of books they read, how often, and where
they got their books from.

Types of books
The most popular type of book for men is thrillers, while for women it is romance. This is
shown by the fact that 46% of men read horror books and 53% of women read romances.
Both men and women do not find factual books very interesting. Only two in ten men and one
in ten women read this type of book. A third of the women surveyed read mysteries, while
only a quarter of men read them.

Number of books read


The most enthusiastic readers are those who read romances. A significant number of them
read more than five books a month. Amongst the mystery fans, women read more than men.
This is demonstrated by the fact that seven out of ten women read more than three books a
month, while only 20% of men read more than two.

Source
In general people prefer borrowing books from a library to buying their own. Book clubs are also
becoming more popular. This is exemplified by the fact that membership of these clubs has
increased by 10% over the past ten years.

Conclusion
In conclusion, this survey indicates that men and women have different reading tastes. Women
also tend to read more than men. However, neither men nor women buy many of the books
they read, choosing to borrow them instead.

Model В
I carried out this survey on books by asking people on the street about the books they
read. I found out a lot and here are my findings:
Firstly, I learned that men read horror stories, while women like romances. I don't
like romances myself, but that's not the point here. Neither men nor women like factual books
very much. Many people, including me, enjoy eating apples while they read. Women read
more mysteries than men, and in general, read more books than men each month.
Furthermore, most people borrow their books from libraries rather than buy them. Many
more people are members of book clubs now than ten years ago. I used to be in a book club.
Are you in one?
To sum up, men and women read different kinds of books. Women read more than men. Both
men and women borrow a lot of books from libraries so I think maybe bookshops should
close down or reduce their prices.

5. Analyse the structure of Report A so that you could add ideas to the plan of a survey
report presented below.
34
Paragraph 1 State the_________ of the
report and the content of the
_________; who/how many
_________ participated; what
_________ were asked
Paragraphs 2,3,4* Main Body Summarise each aspect of the
survey under a separate
_________
Final paragraph General _________
Recommendation(s)/Suggestion
s
*The exact number and
division of paragraphs will
differ from one report to
another and depend on the
results to describe

6. The chart below gives useful language to be used in survey reports. Look at the examples
of the language used in exercises 2, 3 and 4 to add to the expressions in the chart.

USEFUL LANGUAGE
To introduce To express facts To express To conclude/ Other
and proportions generalisations summarise
- The intention of - A significant - On the whole... - - To sum up...
this report is to percentage Mainly... - The results of this
examine / assess / - Over one third - the average survey suggest /
evaluate the results - a large/small person chooses... demonstrate /
of a survey in proportion - Generally reveal...
which... - speaking, ... -
- This report -
outlines the results
of a survey
conducted / carried
out to ...
- This survey report
contains
information …
- The data included
in this report
was
gathered/obtained
by means of a
questionnaire/ a
telephone survey/ a
door-to-door
interview

7. Analyse the good report in order to say whether these statements about writing a survey
report are true or false.
1. Reports are fictional writing. __________
2. Survey reports can be written only in formal style. __________
3. Survey reports include only generalizations. __________
4. Survey reports should have a heading and subheadings. __________
5. Passive Voice is not normally used in formal style. __________

35
6. Impersonal language is used in formal style. __________
7. When the results of a survey are reported, the figures gathered can be recorded in the
form of percentages (16%) or proportions (six out of ten, a quarter). __________
8. Precise percentages (23%) are more likely to hold the readers' attention than less
accurate expressions (the majority, a minority, the largest proportion etc.) __________
9. Short forms are acceptable in a report. __________
10. While reporting the answers of respondents such reporting verbs as claim, refuse,
mention should not be used. __________
11. Insignificant details cannot be used in a report. __________

8. Look at the survey ‘Handgun control in the USA’ conducted by Gallup in 1986. Write a
survey report describing some of the information it contains, and giving some possible
explanation for the data.

HANDGUN CONTROL
Should laws covering the sale of handguns be made stricter, less strict or kept as they are now?
(Gallup)
1975 1980 1981 1983 1986
Stricter 69% 59% 65% 59% 60%
Less strict 3 6 3 4 8
Kept same 24 29 30 31 30
Some countries have passed laws banning the sale and possession of handguns. Would you
favour or oppose having such a law in your community? (Gallup)
4/86
All Men Women Whites Blacks
Favour 47% 39% 55% 45% 59%
Oppose 47 57 38 49 34

/ from America in Close-up. Eckhard Fielder, Reimer Jansen, Mil Norman-Risch/

36
Unit 3 ‘Punishment’
Presentation Reported commands
1. Read the newspaper article.

This is how Judge and told them to stop, but still they
'A marriage Margaret Pickles didn't. They threw a chair at him out
made in hell!' described the marriage of the window. It just missed him!
So that was it! We rang the police
of Patrick and Pauline
and asked them to come
Peters as she ordered
immediately.'
them to spend fourteen Mr and Mrs Peters admitted
days in prison for they had been arguing. Mrs Peters
rowing. said that she had accused Mr Peters
of wasting their money on drink and
THE COUPLE only married six gambling. However, they denied
months ago and already t h e y throwing the chair.
a r e f a m o u s f o r their rows. The judge clearly did not
Neighbours complained that believe them. She reminded them
they could hear them shouting that they had already had two
from the bus stop six hundred previous warnings from the police
yards away. Mrs Iris Fish, who and she told them that they would
lives opposite, said, 'First I soon cool down in prison, especially
asked them nicely to stop as they would be in separate
because my baby couldn't get to prisons. She advised them to talk to
sleep, but they didn't. Then my a marriage guidance counsellor.
husband knocked at their Mr and Mrs Fish and their
door baby are looking forward to some
sleep! ■

2. Who is speaking? Find the lines in the text that report the following.
a 'You must go to prison for a fortnight.'
b 'It's terrible. We can hear them shouting from the bus stop.'
c 'Please, will you stop making that noise? My baby can't get to sleep.'
d 'Stop making that noise!'
e 'Please, can you come immediately?'
f 'OK. OK. It's true. We were arguing.'
g 'You've been wasting our money on drink and gambling again!'
h 'We didn't throw the chair.'
i 'Remember that you have already had two warnings from the police.'
j 'You'll soon cool down in prison.'
k 'I think you should see a marriage guidance counsellor.'
Compare the direct and reported speech.

Grammar questions
- Four of the sentences a-k are commands or requests. Which are they? How are they
reported in the text? Which verbs are used to report them?
- Underline the two sentences with told in the article. Which is a reported statement
and which is a reported command?
- Which of the sentences below is a reported question? Which is a reported request?
I asked them to stop making a noise.
She asked me if I knew the time.
- Say and tell are both used to report statements. How many other reporting verbs can
you find in the article?

37
Practice bank Other reporting verbs
1. Which verb can be used to report the direct speech in the sentences below? Put a letter a
- j in the box.
tell order remind beg advise ask invite warn
refuse offer
a ‘Please can you translate this sentence for me?' Maria said to Mark.
b 'Don't forget to send Aunt Maud a birthday card,' Mary said to her son.
c ‘Sign on the dotted line,' the postman said to me.
d 'Please, please, please marry me. I can't live without you,' John said to Moira.
e ‘Please come to our wedding,' John said to his boss.
f ‘I'll pay for the next round,' Mark said.
g 'Don't run round the edge of the swimming pool or you'll fall in,' Mary said to her
children.
h ‘I won't go to bed!' Bobby said.
i 'You should talk to your solicitor,' Ben said to Bill.
j ‘Take that chewing gum out of your mouth immediately!' the teacher said to Jo.
Change the sentences in Exercise 1 into indirect speech using the appropriate verbs.

2. Put the correct preposition into each gap.


a. He was accused ____________ stealing from the till.
b. I apologized ____________ the mess.
c. She blamed me ____________ losing the contract.
d. She's always boasting ____________ her children's achievements.
e. I wish you'd stop complaining ____________ everything!
f. The manager complimented her staff ____________ their loyalty and devotion.
g. He congratulated me ____________ passing my exams.
h. I managed to convince him ____________ the need to invest his earnings.
i. She never forgave me ____________ losing the ring she had given me.
j. He insisted ____________ leaving immediately.

3. Report the following direct speech, using one of the verbs in Exercise 2. Make the
sentences quite short. Report the essence of the direct speech, not every word.

Example
'Listen, I really am terribly sorry about scraping your car. I'll get it repaired, honestly,' he said.
He apologized for scraping her car, and offered to get it repaired.
NOT
*He said that he really was sorry about scraping her car, and that he would honestly get it
repaired.

a. 'Peter, don't forget about the phone bill. Otherwise, we might get cut off,' she said.
b. 'I wasn't involved in the bank robbery at all,' James Last told the police.
c. 'You've had a boy! That's great! Well done!' he said to Sheila.
d. 'True,' she said to Henry, 'I haven't always told you the whole truth, but I have never,
absolutely never, told you a lie.'
e. 'I really do think you should take the job in America, Joanna. I'll pay the air fare for you,'
said John.
f. 'What absolutely appalling weather!' Lisa said to her husband. 'It's your fault. You wanted
to come to Scotland in winter.'
g. 'Actually, Lisa,' said Malcolm to his wife, 'we came to Scotland because you went on and
on and on about visiting your friends here.'
h. 'Why don't you open a second shop?' said the bank manager to Alice. 'Of course, the bank

38
would be prepared to lend you the capital.'
i. 'But don't forget that I already have debts of over ten thousand pounds!' replied Alice.
'And anyway, the market isn't big enough for two shops.'

4. Listening 1
You are policemen or policewomen taking statements.
1 Divide into two groups.
Group A
Listen to Pauline Peters and take notes about what she says happened.
Group B
Listen to Iris Fish and take notes about what she says happened.

2 Find a partner from the other group and report what you heard.
Find the differences. Begin like this.
A Pauline admitted that they sometimes argued. She said that ...
B Iris complained that they argued every night. She said that ...

3 Write the reports for the police records.

LANGUAGE REVIEW
Reported statements
The usual rule for reported statements is that the verb form moves back one tense when the
reporting verb is in the past tense. The verbs say and tell are used to report statements but other
verbs can also be used.
‘He's having a shower.’
She said/told me (that) he was having a shower.
‘I've lost my wallet!'
He said/complained (that) he had lost his wallet.
'They took a taxi.’
I said/thought (that) they had taken a taxi.
‘I’ll ring you tomorrow.’
He said (that) he would ring me the next day./He promised to ring me the next day.
The Past Simple and the Present Perfect both change to the Past Perfect.

Reported questions
In reported questions the word order is like a statement. Verbs other than ask can be used.
When are you leaving?
He asked (me) / He wondered when I was leaving.
Where does John live?
She inquired where John lived.
Have you met Moira?
He asked (me) if I had met Moira.
When there is no question word, if is used, and there is no question mark.

Reported commands
These are formed with the infinitive with to. The verbs ask and tell are used to report commands
but other verbs can be used as well according to the meaning.
Sit down and be quiet!
He told/ordered them to sit down and be quiet.
Please can you give me a lift?
She asked him to give her a lift.
If I were you I'd see a doctor.

39
She advised me to see a doctor.
‘Pointer word’ changes
'Pointer words' are words referring to specific times and places, e.g. 'this', 'now', 'here', 'tomorrow'.
Direct Reported
now at that time / then
this (e.g. morning) that (e.g. morning)
today that day
yesterday the day before
tomorrow the day after
next (e.g. week) the following (e.g. week)
last (e.g. year) the (e.g. year) before
here there
ahead ahead of (him)
come go
/Adapted from New Headway English Course. Intermediate Student’s Book. Liz and John Soars/
Listening 2
1. Put the crimes below in order of seriousness. Decide on the punishment you think a person guilty of each crime
should get.
mugging swearing in public kidnapping drink driving graffiti
creating and releasing computer viruses trespassing dropping litter

2. Compare your answers with a partner.

3. Nine people were asked what punishment they would give people guilty of the above
crimes. Listen and answer these questions:
a) Which crime is each person talking about?
b) Which speaker does not refer to one of the crimes above?

4. Listen again and answer these questions:


a) What punishments do the speakers suggest?
b) Which punishments do you agree with? Do you disagree with any of them? Why?
Speaker Crime Punishment
1

/from Inside Out. Advanced. Student’s Book. Ceri Jones, Tania Bastow, Sue Kay and Vaughan Jones/
Speaking 1 Supporting your opinion

40
If you are able to support your opinion, your audience will respect you because you are showing
them that you have thought about the topic in depth and can develop your argument.
Support for your ideas consists of explanations and examples. You should have at least two or
three pieces of supporting information. You can introduce and link your supporting information
with transitional phrases, such as these:
 first / first of all / first and foremost / to begin with
 in addition / additionally / secondly / furthermore / moreover / also / then / as well as
 finally / last but not least

1. Here are some of the sentences possible in an English court.


SENTENCE What does it mean?
Community service You have to do a period (eg. 100 hours) of
unpaid work in hospitals / old people’s homes
Fines You pay money to the court
Probation You have to stay out of trouble. Once a week
you visit a “probation officer”, who asks about
your behaviour
Suspended prison sentence You don’t go to prison immediately, eg. “a six-
month sentence suspended for one year”
means if you behave well for one year, you are
free. If you do something wrong, you go to
prison for six months
Prison You go for a fixed period (ranging from a very
short period to “life”)

Now look at these cases. If you were a judge, what sentence would you give to these people?
Choose from the chart, give full details (eg. a £1000 fine/3 years in prison/one year on
probation) and discuss your decision(s).

a. 18-year-old Miranda worked in a shoe-shop. She lost her job when she stole £92 from the
shop.
b. Nigel is 38. He drank a bottle of wine and then drove home. He had a car accident and killed a
13-year-old boy.
c. Kevin, 15, was caught travelling on the train without a ticket. The correct ticket would have
cost £1.75.
d. Stacey, aged 22, was caught selling marijuana at a disco. At her flat about 50 grammes of the
drug were found (value: around £250).
e. Dean, 17, broke the window of a new Mercedes and stole a mobile phone and four CDs.
f. Samira is 32. She killed her husband with a knife while he was asleep. He had been very cruel
and violent with her for more than 10 years, and he often had girlfriends.

2. Work in small groups and discuss these questions:


a) Do you think punishment is an effective deterrent to crime? If yes, which kind of
punishment do you think is most effective? If not, how would you prevent crime?
b) Do you think crime is ever justifiable?
/from Inside Out. Advanced. Student’s Book. Ceri Jones, Tania Bastow, Sue Kay and Vaughan Jones/

Reading 1

41
1. Pre-reading

a. You are going to read an article about the role of prisons. First, decide which of these
statements you agree with. Jot down some arguments in favour of your position.

1 The best way to deter criminals from re-offending is to make prison as unpleasant as
possible.

2 The best way to deter criminals from re-offending is to give them training and
education while in prison.

b. The article contains a number of quite formal words relating to crime and criminals.
Match these words from the text with their neutral or less formal equivalents.

1 incarceration (main text) A killed, murdered


2 remorseful (main text) B wrong-doer
3 recidivism (main text) C person who has committed a serious crime
4 dispassionate (main text) D prison or similar place for convicted offenders
5 felon (main text) E re-offending (after being released from prison)
6 miscreant (main text) F very sorry (for what you have done)
7 travesty (para C) G objective
8 penal/correctional institution (para D) H imprisonment
9 slain (para E) I mockery

2. Read the base text, ignoring the gaps, and try to follow the development of the argument.
Think about these questions.

1 The first paragraph refers to a TV debate. Who are the participants in the debate? What
is the debate about?

2 Which views are those of the participants? the writer of the article?

42
CRIMINAL REHABILITATION
Prison - revenge or rehabilitation?
One night, I turned on the (3) to watch TV. For a while, the stories
television and found myself in the Makes you sit up and think. Except about people who, immediately after
middle of an emotional and highly- that, as with all passionate speeches, they were released from jail, lost no
charged debate. On one side was a this argument was more than a bit time committing another crime —
father whose teenage son had been exaggerated. The number of mugging, break-ins, car theft —
murdered. He was outraged that the prisoners who receive the grants were oddly amusing. Now they are
convicted murderer, also a teenager, represents a very small percentage, simply scary.
had applied for a special grant to pay less than one-half of one per cent of Something has to change. Since it is
for college courses. the total. Those who complete their not possible to imprison every
(1) college education and those who go miscreant for life, the logical
On the other side was the convict, on to graduate programs — also alternative is to stop warehousing
a person who had murdered a with a government grant — have a prisoners and teach them to do
teenage boy for no reason, at least zero recidivism rate, I am told. If something of value — a trade, a
not one that I remember being true, and I have no information to profession, an appreciation of art
mentioned. The prisoner did not prove otherwise, that's significant. and music, a new way of life.
claim his incarceration was unjust: But dispassionate logic wins few (5)
he actually seemed remorseful. inflamed arguments. We cannot have it both ways. The
(2) (4) best way to control crime is to
His points made sense. Indeed, no Why should some rapist get a degree eliminate criminals, and one way to
one was handing him a degree. He in psychology? Why should some do that is by helping people to
had to study and prove his academic drug-using armed robber get a law become productive, thoughtful
fitness. He had no money: without degree? The truth is, many people do members of society. Grants for
the grant he was applying for, there not prisoners to study may not be a
would be no courses. And the actual believe that convicted felons should popular approach, but it is a
amount was hardly dramatic. It receive three meals a day, the successful one.
could be called a modest investment opportunity to exercise or the right
for the future.
3. a. Read the base text and the paragraphs that have been removed and try to decide
where they fit. Look for reference words, link words and any other lexical items in
the base text that point to a missing section. Clues in the first two paragraphs have
been italicised to help you.
b. Check your answers by reading the whole article in sequence. Does it make sense?

A Now enters a new voice, a politician who is D Prisons are hot topics these days. People are understandably

furious. "Do you know how many boys and resentful when confronted with what is claimed to be a
luxury holiday camp for felons. Penal institutions shouldn't
girls will be unable to attend college because
be luxurious. On the other hand, correctional institutions
their families haven't got the money to send
shouldn't be medieval dungeons. There can be a middle
them, but who don't qualify as poor enough to

43
get such a grant? They will lose out and ground. The dilemma in finding it is that we can't quite get

prisoners will take their place," he warned. past the desire for revenge. We want people to be punished,
then reformed. Mostly, though, we want them to suffer for
Everyone will sympathise with this reaction making others suffer.
B E Nothing will ever ease the pain left by a murdered
from a bereaved parent, but this is hardly a
sound basis for a change in a long-established child or a slain parent. And some future success for a
and proven policy. The current prison felon, made possible through a tax-supported
population is aware of society's conflicting scholarship in prison, will be difficult to swallow, i But
attitude to the way they are treated, but it is necessary for society's survival. We talk about the
recognises the potential dangers of leaving need for people to repay their debt to society, then we
prison with no up-to-date job skills. object to giving them the means to do so.

F If he could do it over again, he said, he would give up


It was, he said, a travesty of justice. His son
C his life instead. The reality was that he couldn't
lost out on college and on life, yet his taxes
were going to make possible a college exchange places, and that at some point he will
education for his son's killer. It was impossible complete his prison term. If he doesn't use his time in
not to empathize with him. Where was the prison to educate himself, he said, how will he ever be
fairness, the justice? able to be a contributing member of society?
4.
a. Briefly note down the arguments presented in the article:
 in favour of harsh treatment of criminals in prison.
 in favour of providing prisoners with education and training.
What view of punishment is behind the different approaches?

b. Has your opinion about prisons and punishment changed after reading the
article?

Speaking 2
1. Read the extracts below about the role of prisons and discuss these questions with a
partner.
1 Which of the opinions expressed do you most agree with and why? Can you think of
any advantages or disadvantages to the solutions described?
2 What, in your opinion, is the purpose of prisons?
A Language Bank
I don't believe prison is the answer for Acknowledging opposing ideas ...
most crimes, except really serious ones like Certainly, it can be argued that...
murder. But if we do have to put offenders While I agree/accept that...
in prison, then surely losing their freedom ... and countering them
is enough of a punishment. We don't need However, / Nevertheless, / On the other hand, ...
to punish them twice for what they've done ... research has shown that...
by making them live in bad conditions. In fact, ... / The truth is... / The fact of the matter
Some people claim that prisons are like is...
holiday camps, but that's just not true. It's It follows that... / Therefore, ... / As a result, ...
our fault if people become criminals, so we Asking for/giving clarification
should give them a second chance. We've I don't (quite) follow you. Do you mean...?
got to offer them an opportunity to study or What exactly do you mean by ...?
train so they can do something useful when Well, you see ...
they get out again. To put it another way ... / In other words,...
Summarising, concluding
Everything points to the conclusion that... To sum
up, I (firmly) believe ...
There is no alternative but to ...
44
B
It’s currently fashionable to blame
unemployment and poverty for
criminal acts. But there is no denying
the fact that each individual has a
choice. Despite difficult circumstances,
many people do not turn to crime.
Those who do and are caught often re-
offend. It’s clear from this that attempts
to reform criminals are a waste of time.
For these reasons, I believe that prisons
should be centres of punishment, not
leisure centres or university campuses,
and the only way to deter crime is to
introduce tougher, longer sentences.

2. Summarise your conclusions for the class. Did you agree or did you have different
opinions?
/From Fast Track to CAE. Alan Stanton, Susan Morris/

Writing 1 Essay ‘For and Against’


1. Work with your partner and sum up the advantages and disadvantages of imprisonment
as a form of punishment.

2. Read the composition on the advantages and disadvantages of imprisonment as a form of


punishment. Fill in each gap with one of the following words or phrases.

Firstly / First of all


Secondly / Thirdly / In addition / Moreover / Furthermore
Consequently / So / As a result / Therefore
However / In contrast / On the one hand / On the other hand
In conclusion / To conclude / To sum up / On the whole

For centuries imprisonment has been one of the main means of punishing a criminal in different
countries. (1)____________, there is growing evidence that prison is not always the best solution
to the problems of crime that people face. Several scientific studies have shown that prison is not
nearly as beneficial to society as it might be imagined. (2)_____________, alongside advantages
there are disadvantages to imprisonment as a form of punishment.

There are some positive sides of imprisonment as a form of punishment. (3)_____________,


prison is a social defence against anti-social people. In short, it keeps people safe. (4)_________,
prison punishes wrongdoers through their loss of freedom. (5)_____________, it teaches
convicts the error of their ways, so that when they are released, they can enter back into daily life
as law-abiding citizens.

(6)___________, there are certain drawbacks to sending people to prison. (7)______________,


the terrible conditions in most prisons mean that imprisoned criminals rarely receive a positive
education. Rather, they spend their time inside with other prisoners who can teach them the tricks

45
of their trade. (8)_____________, when they are released, it is very difficult for them to find a
job, so they often feel that they have no choice but to reoffend. It is the only thing they know.
(9)___________ the truth is that they are more likely to commit crimes again when they are
released than if they had not been sent to prison in the first place.
(10)______________, it can be seen that as a form of punishment imprisonment has both
positive and negative sides. (11)______________, it isolates criminals from society and punishes
them by depriving them of freedom. (12)____________, it converts inmates into productive
members of society. (13)_____________, prison tends to provide criminals with a negative
education and does not offer the opportunities to start a new life.
/Adapted from Use of English: Skills for First Certificate. Malcolm Mann, Steve Taylore-Knowles/

3. Give each of the paragraphs one of the following headings: Conclusion, Introduction,
Advantages, Disadvantages.

4. Work with your partner and compare the arguments in the essay with those you put
forward before you read.

5. Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of providing prisoners with
education and training.

Reading 2
1. Pre-reading task
1. First look at the photograph, and discuss these
questions: What are the people doing? Where are
they? What do their signs mean?

2. Discuss the following questions in small groups.


a) Capital punishment means taking the life of
someone who has committed a
crime. In the United States, capital punishment
is allowed in some states. Do you know of any
other societies in which capital punishment is
allowed?
b) Why do some people believe that capital punishment is fair? Why do others
think that it is unfair?

2. Reading
1. A newspaper editorial gives the writer's opinion about a topic. As with any news article,
an editorial begins with a headline or title.
Divide into two groups.

Group A Look at the following editorial headline. On a separate piece of paper, write
any ideas that you expect to find in the editorial. Then read it and check.
Headline 1—Life in Prison Is Still Life: Why Should a Killer Live?
Group B Look at the following editorial headline. On a separate piece of paper, write
any ideas that you expect to find in the editorial. Then read it and check.
Headline 2—Why Do We Kill People to Show That Killing People Is Wrong?

Work with other students in your group and check whether you can find the same ideas in
the editorial as you predicted.

46
Text A

Life in Prison Is Still Life: Why Should a Killer Live?

Murder is totally unfair; the victims of murder prison is not always harsh and cruel; many

are gone forever. Their hopes and plans have prisoners have the opportunity to continue their

ended permanently, and the pleasures they educations, play sports, enjoy movies, and

enjoyed in life have been destroyed. They will receive visits from their loved ones.

never see their friends again and will never There is no reason why a killer, a

hear the voices of parents, brothers, and sisters destroyer of life, should live. Justice requires

who cry, "How could this have happened?" But that each person respect the rights and freedoms

the murderer is still alive. Without capital pun- of every other person, or be punished for not

ishment, murderers are allowed to participate doing so. The people who commit murder give

in and enjoy life. up their rights to citizenship and life itself. Why

Today there are murderers in prisons all over should the tax money of citizens—including the

the world. Most of them would rather spend victim's family—keep the killer alive? The only

their lives in prison than die. This is not fair punishment is execution. Execution puts

surprising since the desire to live is normal and the killer away from society forever, stops him

natural. In prison there are many small from killing again, and sends a strong message

pleasures that one can enjoy every day: the to others who might kill: Killers will not be

feeling of warm sunshine, the taste of a hot allowed to live.

meal, the comfort of sleep. The lifestyle in Let sunshine fall on those who respect life—

not on those who destroy it.

47
Text B

Why Do We Kill People to Show That Killing People Is Wrong?

There are times when murder is not committed The U.S. government once followed the
because of cruelty. People may kill for other example of Germany, Britain, France, and
reasons such as anger, misunderstanding, and other nations that no longer execute their
fear. Everyone has made mistakes because of citizens—however, since 1977, our society has
such feelings. For society, it is a serious been allowing capital punishment again, at a
mistake to take the life of someone who has high cost. We cannot imagine the pain of
killed because it teaches everyone that family members who have been waiting for
forgiveness is unnecessary. years for the government's decision to execute
The government has the difficult job of or not execute their loved ones. It also costs the
deciding who is innocent and who is guilty, taxpayer millions of dollars more to execute a
and this job can never be done perfectly. If criminal than to imprison that criminal for life.
capital punishment is allowed, there always Prison is a better form of punishment because
exists the possibility that an innocent person it protects society and punishes criminals by
will be executed by mistake. When that taking away their freedom.
happens, an even worse crime has been People can change, even people who have
committed—the killing of an innocent person made terrible mistakes. Life in prison gives
by the government. Then there is the fact that people the chance to change. Caryl Chessman
the poor and minorities get the death penalty is an example of someone who became a better
more often than whites do. Furthermore, the person in prison. He taught other prisoners
idea that capital punishment stops criminals how to read, and he wrote several books.
from committing murder is doubtful; studies Before his execution, he wrote that he had
have been unable to show that the fear of finally learned not to hate.
capital punishment stops someone from Chessman learned this important lesson in
committing murder more than other prison. But a dead man learns nothing, and an
punishments. And let us not forget that executed person will never change. When a
murdering the murderer is a violent act in government kills, it is murdering hope.
itself; it is revenge.

48
3. Comprehension check

1. The two editorials express different opinions about capital punishment.

Opinion A: Execution is a better form of punishment than life in prison.


Opinion B: Life in prison is a better form of punishment than execution.

Look at the main ideas below. Tick those which were used to support the opinion you read
about in your editorial. Look at the text again to make sure that your answers are based on
information from the reading.
_______ 1. Execution may cause an innocent person to die.
_______ 2. Prisoners are able to enjoy life, and this is not fair.
_______ 3. Not all people who kill are cruel.
_______ 4. Capital punishment is revenge.
_______ 5. A prisoner is no longer free.
_______ 6. People naturally want to live.
_______ 7. Racial prejudice affects capital punishment.
_______ 8. Prison can sometimes improve a person.
_______ 9. Execution may teach other people not to commit crimes.
_______ 10. Execution is more expensive than life imprisonment.

2. Match the main ideas you ticked in the previous exercise with the details below. Write
the number of the main idea next to the detail.

___3___ a. Some murders are mistakes, caused by anger or fear.


_______ b. The government spends millions of tax dollars on execution decisions.
_______ c. Most people would rather go to prison than be executed.
_______ d. Caryl Chessman learned not to hate while in prison.
_______ e. The message of execution is that murderers will not be allowed to live.
_______ f. The government can make mistakes when it decides if a person is
guilty or not.
_______ g. Prisoners have the basic pleasures of eating and sleeping.
_______ h. Executing the murderer is a violent act.

3. Look back at the ideas you listed in the pre-reading task. Which ideas did you predict
correctly? Discuss your predictions with your group.

4. When you have finished, find a partner from the other group and swap information
about the opinions presented in the two editorials.

5. What kind of person wrote "Life in Prison Is Still Life: Why Should a Killer Live?"
Look at the following list of qualities, and circle two or three you think best describe this
person.

 believes in forgiveness
 cares about prisoners
 believes in fairness
 cares about victims
 hopes to change people

49
 wants to protect society

6. What kind of person wrote "Why Do We Kill People to Show That Killing People Is
Wrong?" Look at the following list of qualities, and circle two or three you think best
describe this person.

 cares about prison workers


 believes freedom is important
 cares about prisoners' families
 wants other countries to follow the United States
 believes mistakes are unusual
 hopes that people will change
/From North Star: reading and writing. Second edition. Laurie Barton, Carolyn Dupaquier Sardinas/

Writing 2

Look at the survey ‘Capital punishment in the USA’ conducted by Harris. Write a survey
report describing some of the information it contains, and giving some possible explanation
for the data.

The Harris Poll. Dec. 10-16, 2003. N=993 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3
“Do you believe in capital punishment, that is, the death penalty, or are you opposed to it?”
Believe in it Opposed to it Not sure
12/03 69 22 9
7/01 67 26 7
2000 64 25 11
1999 71 21 8
1997 75 22 3
1983 68 27 5
1976 67 25 8
1973 59 31 10
1970 47 42 11
1969 48 38 14
1965 38 47 15

“Do you feel that executing people who commit murder deters others from committing
murder, or do you think such executions don’t have much effect?”
Deters others Not much effect Not sure
12/03 41 53 6
7/01 42 52 7
2000 44 50 7
1999 47 49 4
1997 49 49 2
1983 63 32 5
1976 59 34 7

“In general, would you like to see an increase or decrease in the number of convicted
criminals who are executed, or no change?”
Increase Decrease No change Not sure
12/03 36 21 33 11
7/01 35 26 30 8
50
2000 36 22 31 11
1999 43 21 28 7
1997 53 14 27 6

“Do you think that innocent people are sometimes convicted of murder, or that this never
happens?”
Sometimes Never Not sure
12/03 95 4 2
7/01 94 3 3
2000 94 5 1
1999 95 3 1
/http://www.pollingreport.com/crime.htm/

Listening 3 Arguments Against the Death Penalty


1. Pre-listening task
1. Look at the graph below. It shows the number of prisoners executed (put to death) in the
United States between 1930 and 2000.

2. Discuss the following questions with a partner.

1 What does the graph show about the death penalty in the United States?
2 What is your reaction to the information in the graph?

3. The following items contain important vocabulary from the tape. Work with a partner.
Using the context and your knowledge of related words, choose the best synonym for the
words in bold by circling the correct letters. Check your answers in a dictionary, if
necessary.
1. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment was unconstitutional.
a illegal b immoral c impossible
2. But later, the Court reinstated it.
a continued to discuss it b put it back in place c repeated its argument
3. Executions are usually carried out by lethal injection or electrocution.
a cruel b deadly c painless
4. States with the most executions are also the states with the highest homicide rates.
a assault b fraud c murder
5. I have another major objection to capital punishment.
a interest in b criticism of c opinion about
6. They were released because they were improperly convicted.

51
a immediately b angrily c incorrectly
7. There were 26 people on death row, and 13 of them were released.
a waiting to go to court b waiting to be freed c waiting for execution
8. That should not be in the domain of the state.
a interest b world c power

2. Listening
1. RECORDING NUMERICAL INFORMATION
You can often hear numerical information when people refer to research studies and other
examples that support their ideas. It is important to listen to the context of the numerical
information so that you understand what the number represents. Here are some examples of what
numbers can represent:
 a year (examples: 1983, 1832)
 a percentage (examples: twenty percent, forty-four percent)
 a fraction (examples: one-eighth, three-quarters)

Read the following descriptions. Each of them refers to numerical information that you will
hear on the tape.

__________ 1. The date the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that capital punishment was
unconstitutional
__________ 2. The date when capital punishment was reinstated
__________ 3. The number of executions that have been carried out since capital punishment
was reinstated
__________ 4. The percentage of people in the United States who say they favour the death
penalty in cases of murder
__________ 5. The people in the United States who say they favour the death penalty in cases of
murder, expressed as a fraction
__________ 6. The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in the United States
__________ 7. The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in Japan
__________ 8. The number of murders per 100,000 people per year in France

2. Now listen and write the correct numbers in the blanks. Then compare your answers
with a partner.

3. You will hear and take notes on a lecture given by Jonathan Stack, a filmmaker who has
made several documentaries on prisons. Mr. Stack frequently lectures on criminal justice.
The title of this lecture is The Death Penalty.

4. Using your notes, complete the following summary of the lecture. You will need to use
more than one word in most of the blanks.

The Death Penalty


Mr. Jonathan Stack
Mr. Stack said that the death penalty is the most ______________________ issue in criminal
justice. He does not believe in capital punishment. His first argument was that capital
52
punishment does not ______________________ crime. Some states that practice this form of
punishment also have high rates of ______________________. Secondly, he argued that capital
punishment is not fair. The majority of people sentenced to death are _____________________.
Furthermore, a higher percentage of ______________________ are likely to be executed than
whites. Finally, he pointed out that because we are human, we sometimes
______________________. He gave an example from the state of Illinois, where
______________________. He concluded by arguing that killing someone is
______________________.

5. Compare your summary with a partner. Remember that the ideas should be similar, but
the words you use do not have to be exactly the same.

6. Continue the table below with the following words and expressions describing polar
views. The first few are done for you.
FOR AGAINST
proponent opponent
to argue in favour of smth to argue against smth

 con  to confirm smth


 objection to smth  to consent to smth
 defender  to contradict to smth
 pro  to deny smth
 supporter  to disagree with smth
 to accept smth  to object to smth
 to admit smth  to oppose smth
 to agree to/with smth  to reject smth

Speaking 3
1. Consider everything you read and heard about capital punishment. Discuss the pros and
cons in small groups. List them on the chart below. Then form different small groups, and
compare your charts.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
Pro Con

53
/Adapted from Academic listening encounters: life in society. Student’s Book. Kim Sanabria/
2. Work in small groups and discuss these questions:
1. Which punishment do you prefer for people convicted of murder: the death penalty or
life in prison with no chance of parole?
2. Do you agree or disagree with the statements below? Give reasons.
a. The death penalty is fair because it prevents killers from killing again.
b. The death penalty is unfair because sometimes an innocent person is executed.
c. The death penalty is unfair because it's applied differently from county to county and
state to state.
d. The death penalty is fair because it gives satisfaction and closure to the families of
murder victims.
e. The death penalty is fair because it's an eye for an eye -- the killer is killed.
f. The death penalty is unfair because it's applied unequally to blacks compared to whites.
3. Do you think the moratorium on state executions in Russia should be lifted?

Writing 3
Write an essay discussing the arguments for and against capital punishment.

Reading 3
You are going to read two texts about the court systems of the USA and the UK.

1. Pre-reading task
Work in small groups and discuss the questions on the left in the K-W-L chart.
Fill out the first and the second column of the chart.

know want to know learnt


UK

1. What is
the highest
court in the
country?
USA
UK

2. What are
its
functions?
USA
UK

3. What
types of
courts can
USA

you name?
UK

4. Which
cases fall
within the

54
USA
jurisdiction
of each
type?

UK
5. Who
appoints the
judges?

USA
UK
6. How long
do they
serve?
USA
UK

7. What are
their
functions?
USA

2. Jigsaw Reading
Decide which text you want to read and divide into two groups.
Group A Read about the court system of the USA.
Group B Read about the court system of the UK.
Work with other students in your group. Check if your answers to the questions above were
correct and fill out the third column of the chart about your text.
Find a partner from the other group and swap information about the two court systems
following the questions above. Fill out the third column in the chart about your partner’s
text.

Text A
The Court System of the USA
(1) The Constitution, written in 1787, established a separate judicial branch of government
which operates independently alongside the executive and legislative branches. Within the
judicial branch, authority is divided between state and federal (national) courts. At the head of
the judicial branch is the Supreme Court, the final interpreter of the Constitution.
(2) The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and authorities beyond the
power of the federal government. States have the power to establish their own systems of
criminal and civil laws, with the result that each state has its own laws, prisons, police force, and
state court. Within each state, there are also county and city courts. Generally, state laws are quite
similar, but in some areas there is great diversity. The minimum age for marriage and the
sentences for murder vary from state to state. The minimum legal age for the purchase of alcohol
is 21 in most states.
(3) The separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts, handles
cases which arise under the U.S. Constitution or under any law or treaty, as well as any

55
controversy to which the federal government is itself a party. Federal courts also hear disputes
involving governments or citizens of different states.
(4) All federal judges are appointed for life. A case which falls within federal jurisdiction is
heard first before a federal district judge. An appeal may be made to the Circuit Court of
Appeals, and, possibly, in the last resort, to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court.
(5) The Supreme Court hears cases in which someone claims that a lower court ruling is
unjust or in which someone claims that Constitutional law has been violated. Its decisions are
final and become legally binding. Although the Supreme Court does not have the power to make
laws, it does have the power to examine actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative
institutions of the government and decide whether they are constitutional. It is in this function
that the Supreme Court has the potential to influence decisively the political, social, and
economic life of the country.
(6) In the past, Supreme Court rulings have given new protection and freedom to blacks and
other minorities. The Supreme Court has nullified certain laws of Congress and has even
declared actions of American presidents unconstitutional. The U.S. government is so designed
that, ideally, the authority of the judicial branch is independent from the other branches of
government. Each of the nine Supreme Court justices (judges) is appointed by the president and
examined by the Senate to determine whether he or she is qualified. Once approved, a justice
remains on the Supreme Court for life. The Supreme Court justices have no obligation to follow
the political policies of the president or Congress. Their sole obligation is to uphold the laws of
the Constitution.
(7) Nevertheless, politics play a role in a president's selection of a Supreme Court justice. On
average, a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme Court justices during one term of
office. Presidents are likely to appoint justices whose views are similar to their own, with the
hope that they can extend some of their power through the judicial branch.
/Adapted from America in Close-up. Eckhard Fielder, Reimer Jansen, Mil Norman-Risch/
Text B
The Court System of the UK
(1) The initial decision to bring a criminal charge normally lies with the police, but since
1986 a Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) has examined the evidence on which the police have
charged a suspect to decide whether the case should go to court. Generally it brings to court only
those cases which it believes will be successful, a measure to avoid the expense and waste of
time in bringing unsound cases to court. However, the collapse of several major cases and the
failure to prosecute in other cases have both led to strong criticism of the CPS.
(2) There are two main types of court for criminal cases: Magistrates' Courts (or 'courts of
first instance'), which deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases, and Crown Courts for more

56
serious offences. All criminal cases above the level of Magistrates' Courts are held before a jury.
Civil law covers matters related to family, property, contracts and torts (wrongful acts suffered
by one person at the hands of another). These are usually dealt with in County Courts, but
specialised work is concentrated in certain designated courts. The High Court deals with more
complicated cases and is divided into three: the Family Division, which deals with family law,
divorce and adoption; Chancery, which deals with corporate and personal insolvency,
interpretation of trusts and wills; and the Queen's Bench, which deals with contract and tort
cases, maritime and commercial law.
(3) There are about 400 Magistrates' Courts in England and Wales, served by approximately
30,000 unpaid or 'lay' magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs), who have been dealing with
minor crimes for over 600 years. JPs are ordinary citizens chosen from the community. They are
appointed by the Lord Chancellor, but on the recommendation of advisory committees of local
people. These committees sometimes advertise for applicants. They are required not only to
interview, but to make their selection not only on suitability but also ensuring that composition

of 'the Bench' broadly reflects the community it serves. In recent years women and members of
ethnic minority communities have been recruited to moderate the once overwhelmingly white,
male, character of the JP cadre.
(4) A court normally consists of three lay magistrates who are advised on points of law by a
legally qualified clerk. They may not impose a sentence of more than six months imprisonment
or a fine of more than £5,000, and may refer cases requiring a heavier penalty to the Crown
Court.
(5) A Crown Court is presided over by a judge, but the verdict is reached by a jury of 12
citizens, randomly selected from the local electoral rolls. The judge must make sure that the trial
is properly conducted, that the 'counsels' (barristers) for the prosecution and defence comply with
the rules regarding the evidence that they produce and the examination of witnesses, and that the
jury are helped to reach their decision by the judge's summary of the evidence in a way which
57
indicates the relevant points of law and the critical issues on which they must decide in order to
reach a verdict. Underlying the whole process lies the assumption that the person charged with
an offence is presumed to be innocent unless the prosecution can prove guilt 'beyond all
reasonable doubt'. Recent complex cases involving financial fraud have opened a debate as to
whether certain kinds of case should be tried by a panel of experts capable of understanding fully
what a case involves.
Types of court (6) A person convicted in a Magistrates'
Civil Criminal
Court may appeal against its decision to the
House of Lords House of Lords
Court of Appeal Court of Appeal Crown Court. If unsuccessful, the appeal may
(Civil Division) (Criminal Division)
be taken to the Court of Appeal (Criminal
High Court:
Chancery Division), but seldom obtains a reversal. The
Family
Court of Appeal dislikes overturning a Crown
Queen's Bench
County Court Crown Court Court decision unless the evidence is
Magistrates' Court overwhelming or there has been some error of
(Juvenile Court)
legal procedure. The highest court in the land is
the House of Lords, which will consider a case referred from the Court of Appeal where a point
of general public importance seems to be at stake. In practice the Lords are represented by five
or more of the nine Law Lords.
/Adapted from Britain in Close-up. David McDowall/

3. Focus on Language
1. Building vocabulary: Using Context Clues
Although there may be many words in a text that you do not know, you do not want to
continually stop and look up words in the dictionary. It is often possible to get a general idea of
the meaning of the word or phrase by looking at its context. This means looking at the words and
sentences that come before and after the word or phrase.
Find words in the text that match the definitions below.
1 variety (text A, par.2)
2 the act of buying (text A, par.2)
3 an argument (text A, par.3)
4 an official decision (text A, par.5)
5 make something lose its legal force (text A, par.6)
6 do not have to (text A, par.6)
7 officially charge somebody with a crime in court (text B, par.1)
8 without professional qualifications (text B, par.3)
Compare your answers in a small group. Discuss which clues helped you.

2. In the texts such words as ‘case’ and ‘sentence’ were used. Work with your English-
English dictionary and check what some of the most useful collocations are.

4. Speaking 4
1. Make the mindmaps about the court systems of the USA and the UK. Work in pairs and
describe the two systems.

58
2. Compare either of the courts with that of your country.
Reading 4 The legal profession

1. Pre-reading task Using the SQR3 system

You were introduced to the SQR3 approach to reading in Unit 1. Remember that SQR3 stands
for Survey (S), Question (Q), Read, Recite, Review (R3). It is a useful system for academic
reading that helps you to become an active reader and to understand and remember what you
have read.

In this pre-reading activity we will look at the first three steps in the SQR3 system: survey,
question and read.
1 Survey
• Survey this text before reading it closely.
• Look at the title and pictures.
• Skim through the text, reading the beginnings and ends of paragraphs.
• Report back to the class on what you looked at and discovered.

2 Question
• Before you read this text, think of questions that you expect the text will
answer.
• Write your questions in the margins.
• Compare your questions with a small group.

3 Read
• As you read, think about the questions you wrote in the margins.
• See if you can answer your questions.

There are two distinct kinds of lawyer in Britain. One of


these is a solicitor. Everybody who needs a lawyer has to go to one
of these. They handle most legal matters for their clients, including
the drawing up of documents (such as wills, divorce papers and
contracts), communicating with other parties, and presenting their
clients' cases in magistrates' courts. However, only since 1994 have
solicitors been allowed to present cases in higher courts. If the trial
is to be heard in one of these, the solicitor normally hires the
services of the other kind of lawyer - a barrister. The only function
of barristers is to present cases in court.
The training of the two kinds of lawyer is very different. All
solicitors have to pass the Law Society exam. They study for this exam while 'articled' to
established firms of solicitors where they do much of the everyday junior work until they are
qualified.
Barristers have to attend one of the four Inns of Court in London. These ancient
institutions are modelled somewhat on Oxbridge colleges. For example, although there are some
59
lectures, the only attendance requirement is to eat dinner there on a certain number of evenings
each term. After four years, the trainee barristers then sit exams. If they pass, they are 'called to
the bar' and are recognized as barristers. However, they are still not allowed to present a case in a
crown court. They can only do this after several more years of association with a senior barrister,
after which the most able of them apply to 'take silk'. Those whose applications are accepted can
put the letters QC (Queen's Counsel) after their names.
Neither kind of lawyer needs a university qualification. The vast majority of barristers
and most solicitors do in fact go to university, but they do not necessarily study law there. This
arrangement is typically British.
The different styles of training reflect the different worlds that the two kinds of lawyer
live in, and also the different skills that they develop. Solicitors have to deal with the realities of
the everyday world and its problems. Most of their work is done away from the courts. They
often become experts in the details of particular areas of the law. Barristers, on the other hand,
live a more rarefied existence. For one thing, they tend to come from the upper strata of society.
Furthermore, their protection from everyday realities is increased by certain legal rules. For
example, they are not supposed to talk to any of their clients, or to their client's witnesses, except
in the presence of the solicitor who has hired them. They are experts on general principles of the
law rather than on details, and they acquire the special skill of eloquence in public speaking.
When they present a case in court, they, like judges, put on the archaic gown and wig which, it is
supposed, emphasize the impersonal majesty of the law.
It is exclusively from the ranks of barristers that judges are appointed. Once they have
been appointed, it is almost impossible for them to be dismissed. The only way that this can be
done is by a resolution of both Houses of Parliament, and this is something that has never
happened. Moreover, their retiring age is later than in most other occupations. They also get very
high salaries. These things are considered necessary in order to ensure their independence from
interference, by the state or any other party. However, the result of their background and their
absolute security in their jobs is that, although they are often people of great learning and
intelligence, some judges appear to have difficulty understanding the problems and
circumstances of ordinary people, and to be out of step with general public opinion. The
judgements and opinions that they give in court sometimes make the headlines because they are
so spectacularly out of date. (The inability of some of them to comprehend the meaning of racial
equality is one example. A senior Old Bailey judge in the 1980s once referred to black people as
'nig-nogs' and to some Asians involved in a case as 'murderous Sikhs'.)
/Adapted from Britain. James O’Driscoll/

60
After you read
1. USING THE SQR3 SYSTEM
The SQR3 system continues after reading a text. The fourth step is to recite, or say aloud
from memory, and the last step is to review.
1 Recite
When you recite, you say aloud from memory what you have read about. You can do this
while reading, stopping after each paragraph and asking yourself: Now what did I just
read? Do I understand the main ideas? Did the text answer my question?
Choose a paragraph from the text. Re-read it and then tell a partner what your paragraph
was about. Listen to your partner tell you about a different paragraph.

2 Review
 Go back and skim the text, placing a check (v) next to the parts of the text that you
are sure that you understand and a question mark (?) next to those parts that are
still unclear to you and that you need to study further.
 Return to the sections of the text where you placed a question mark. Underline
any difficult words in those sections. Try to figure out the meaning of the words
from the surrounding context. Then check the dictionary.
 Discuss with a small group any parts that you still do not understand.
2. Language focus

a. Explain or paraphrase the collocations in bold.


1. They study for this exam while 'articled' to established firms of solicitors…
2. If they pass, they are 'called to the bar' and are recognized as barristers.
3. They can only do this after several more years of association with a senior barrister,
after which the most able of them apply to 'take silk'.

b. Find words or word combinations in the text that have the same or a similar meaning to
the words given in italics.
a. Solicitors deal with legal matters for their clients, including the writing of documents.
b. While working in established firms of solicitors, they do much of the everyday junior work
until they pass all exams.
c. They can only do this after several more years of working together with a senior barrister.
d. For one thing, they tend to come from the upper class of society.
e. They can express their opinion well in public.
f. These things are necessary to protect judges from outside interference.
g. Judges sometimes seem to have different ideas from the majority of people.
h. Their opinions are sometimes very important items in newspapers or on TV.

3. Speaking 5
Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.
1. What is the main difference between the legal profession in Great Britain and the USA?
There is some additional information which may be of help.

The United States does not draw a distinction between barristers and solicitors; all lawyers who
pass the bar examination may argue in the courts of the state in which they are admitted,
although some state appellate courts require attorneys to obtain a separate certificate of
admission to plead and practice in the appellate court. Federal courts require specific admission
to that court's bar in order to practice before it. At the State appellate level and in Federal courts,
there is no separate examination process, and admission is usually granted as a matter of course
to any licensed attorney.
/from America in Close-up. Eckhard Fielder, Reimer Jansen, Mil Norman-Risch/

61
2. Do you think that a relatively small legal profession, as in Britain, is desirable? Give your
reasons.
3. What are the main differences between the legal system in your country and that in Britain?
4. Are there any unpaid 'amateur' legal officers similar to Justices of the Peace?
5. What kind of training do lawyers undergo in your country?

Speaking 6 Role-play “In Court”

1. Imagine you are in court. The following case is being heard.

On the June 22-23 night 2002 a man's body was found at 19/2 Bradley Drive, Olean, NYS, USA.
The murdered - James Vane, 42 y.o., was the owner of three "James"' fast-food restaurants. His wife,
Eleanor Vane, returned home from her friend's party at 2 a.m. and found her husband's body.
James Vane was lying on the first floor of his house. He was killed with a small heavy iron statue of
Adonis between 9 and 11 p.m. The murderer smashed James Vane's head with the statue. Vane's
neighbour, Mrs. Smith, saw James entering the house at 7:50 p.m. Some of Mrs. Vane's jewelry,
worth about 2'000$ were missing. One of the jewels was found by Alfred Offenbach, Mrs. Vane's
good friend, on the loan near the Vanes' house.
James Vane possessed 33.3% of "James' Ltd." shares. His two companions, Henry Wotton and
Oscar Fleming, had equal amounts of shares - 33.3% each. Mr. Vane also had 1,322,473$ on his
bank accounts and about 200,000$ in bonds. After James Vane's death his companions inherited
16.6% of "James' Ltd." shares each; his wife inherited аll the money on the bank accounts and all the
bonds.
The evening before the murder James Vane spent with his companions, Henry Wotton and Oscar
Fleming. They were playing pool and drinking beer in the "Amazon" club from 4 until 7:25 p.m. The
three waitresses, one 'dancer and a dozen of customers saw them there. At 7:40 Henry Wotton gave
James Vane a ride home. At 8:00 Mr. Wotton was home, but nobody can confirm that. His wife
Victoria returned home at 10:15 p.m. and his daughter Julia was sleeping and didn't hear her father
entering the house. Oscar Fleming spent another 45 minutes in the club and went home to
Jamestown, PA, which is 35 miles away from Olean. He lives alone in the forest in a logged cabin with
his cat and dog.
The police accused Mrs. Vane of murdering her husband.

2. Choose from the list which character you would like to adopt at the trial.

John Marshall - the judge


Ellis Page - the defender
Ronny Riethmiller - the prosecutor
Eleanor Vane - the defendant, James Vane's widow
Henry Wotton - James Vane's friend and companion
Oscar Fleming - James Vane's friend and companion
Victoria Wotton - Henry Wotton's wife
Alfred Offenbach - Eleanor Vane's friend
Laura Patrone - Eleanor Vane's close friend
Kate Wild - a dancer in the nightclub

62
Candice Rostan - a police officer
Julie Osborn - Alfred Offenbach's former lover
Lee Hubbard - the owner of the antique shop

Your teacher will give you a card with your task.

3. Work together and act out the session.

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Unit 4 ‘Controlling Crime’
Listening
1. Pre-listening task
1. Read the following passage.
Violent crime has dropped in the United States in recent years, but
the overall crime rate is still alarmingly high. Crime control is one of the
most difficult and controversial subjects in sociology. People have very
different beliefs about the best way to lower the crime rate.
Many people believe that the best way to control crime is to stop it
from happening in the first place. This might mean developing educational
and social programmes to discourage young people from becoming
involved in criminal activity, or having more police officers on the streets.
Other people think that the best way to control crime is to have tougher
punishments. This might include having stricter laws, more arrests, and longer prison terms.

2. Answer the following questions according to the information in the passage.


 What are two different approaches to controlling crime?
 How could educational and social programmes help lower the crime rate?

3. Read these questions and share your answers with a partner. Then discuss as a class
which opinions were the most controversial.
 Which of the two different approaches to controlling crime do you think is more
effective? Why?
 Do you think your community has a high crime rate or a low crime rate? Explain.
 What is your opinion about controlling crime? Write A (agree) or D (disagree) next to the
following opinions.
________ 1 Criminals should be punished. If people break the law, they deserve to pay
the price, no matter why they did it.
________ 2 Having tough punishments can stop people from committing crimes. If we
have severe punishments, people will think twice before they break the law.
________ 3 People need a second chance. If we try to reform criminals, by education,
psychological treatment, or other methods, we can turn them away from a life of crime.
________ 4 We need to provide a sense of security in society. Putting people who
break the law in prison is the only way to do that.
________ 5 The most important thing we can do is try to prevent crime before it
happens. Prevention is always better than punishment.

2. Listening 1 INTERVIEW WITH DAVID: Preventing juvenile crime


Here are some words and phrases from the interview with David printed in bold and given in the
context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.
I think the media exacerbates the problem: makes worse
We have thousands of security guards in the schools and metal detectors, too:
machines that can detect guns, knives, and other weapons made of metal
And the kids get searched as they go into school: physically examined to see if they have
weapons or illegal drugs
They are more likely to lash out and become violent: express anger
Put them on a one-to-one basis and they're usually very friendly: with one other person
The problem is that social support systems have really fallen apart: government and private
organizations that give people help and encouragement / become worse due to lack of money
The funding for programs like these has been cut: money
But we also need harsher punishments: stronger, more serious

64
1. Read the following questions before you listen to the interview with
David, a young man who works with high school students before they
go to college.
 What does David think causes young people to commit crimes?
 How do kids feel about school? Why?
 Does David believe that violent kids are products of their social
environment, or that they have natural, biological tendencies to be
that way?
 What kinds of programmes does David think schools should
organize?
 Does David believe in harsh punishments?

2. Now listen to the interview. Take notes about the answers to the questions in Step 1.

Note-taking: using symbols and abbreviations


When you are taking notes while listening, you have to write down a lot of information very
quickly. Instead of writing out each word separately, you should develop the habit of using
symbols and abbreviations.
You may want to change some of the symbols and abbreviations below to ones that are easier for
you to remember and use. You will probably also want to invent some of your own, depending
on the content of the listening text. When you invent symbols and abbreviations, it is important
to review your notes as soon as possible after the listening while their meanings are still fresh in
your mind.

Symbols
Here are some symbols that are commonly used in English. Many of them come from the field of
mathematics.
& (and) ... (and so on, etc.)
@ (at) + (plus, in addition to)
# (number) $ (dollars)
= (is the same as) ≠ (is different from, doesn’t mean)
‹ (is less than) › (is more than)
″ (ditto, as said before, similarly) → (causes, leads to, results in)
% (percent)
♂ (boy, man, male)
♀ (girl, woman, female)

Abbreviations
In addition to using symbols, good note-takers abbreviate long words or words that are
frequently used. Here are a few standard abbreviations that are commonly used in English.
Notice that some are based on Latin words.
Ex. or e.g. (for example; “e.g.” is from the Latin exempli gratia)
w/ (with)
etc. (and other similar things, from the Latin etcetera)
a.m. (before noon, from the Latin ante meridiem)
p.m. (after noon, from the Latin post meridiem)
gov’t (government)
ed. (education)
Prof. (Professor)
Dr. (Doctor)
usu. (usually)

65
pro (for, a Latin prefix meaning “in favour of”)
con (against, an abbreviation of the Latin contra)
ben(s) (benefit(s))
opps (opportunities)
diff (different)

3. Work with a partner. Take turns telling each other your answers. (You can review your
notes first, but don't look at them while you are speaking.) Then share your answers as a
class.

3. Listening 2 INTERVIEW WITH AMY: The prison experience


Here are some words and phrases from the interview with Amy printed in bold and given in the
context in which you will hear them. They are followed by definitions.

what really works - not for hardened criminals, but for first-time offenders: people who commit
a crime for the first time
The first step is deterrence: stopping people from committing crime
Criminals are not being rehabilitated: taught how to have a socially acceptable way of life
You end up having a lot of people in prisons who are not the kingpins of drug deals: most
important people
There need to be programs that have a psychological and an educational component: part
We need to make prison a less repressive experience: cruel and severe
We need bridge programs: programs that help released prisoners adjust to society
Most criminals are recidivists: repeat criminals
so that society doesn't look at released prisoners in such a disdainful way: disrespectful, critical
so that no stigma is attached: shame

1. Amy does not believe that the current prison system is very effective. She
describes the experience of a person before being convicted of a crime,
while in prison, and after being released. Listen to the interview with Amy
and fill in the chart with the main ideas that she discusses.

What Amy thinks should The present situation


happen
Before a person is convicted There should be more The economy and the
of a crime and sent to prison jobs and more social social structure don’t
support systems. help prevent crime.
While a convicted criminal is
in prison
After a person is released from
prison
2. Compare your answers with a partner.

4. AFTER THE INTERVIEWS


1. Following is a paraphrase of the interviews with David and Amy. Fill in the blanks using
your own words. In some cases, you will need to write more than one word.

David says that the ______________________ and the ______________________


exacerbate the problem of juvenile crime. He believes that kids are essentially
______________________. He thinks they need more ______________________ systems and

66
after-school activities. He also thinks they need good role models. However, he believes that if
someone does commit a crime, the punishment should be ______________________, but
______________________.
Amy says that to deter people from committing crime, you have to talk about social
factors such as whether there are enough ______________________ for everyone and enough
social support systems. But if convicted criminals are sent to jail, we need programs to
______________________ them, such as drug treatment programs and
______________________ programs. Unfortunately, many of the programs that she thinks are
needed have been ______________________.
Amy believes that one reason there are so many recidivists is because criminals have a
bad experience in jail. When prisoners are released, Amy thinks they need
______________________ to help them go back into society.

2. Compare your answers with a partner. Remember that your answers will probably not
be exactly the same.

Speaking 1 Supporting your opinion

1. In the interviews, both David and Amy support their viewpoints. Look at the summaries
of their arguments below. For each summary, underline the main idea, circle each piece of
supporting information, and highlight linking words.

1. David believes that in order to control juvenile crime, we should try to prevent it from
happening. He says that to begin with, we should have more structured after-school
activities for young people. We should also have Big Brother/Big Sister programs.
Additionally, we need better social support systems. And, finally, we should have harsher
punishments for crimes because these would act as deterrents.
2. Amy believes that it is important to try to deter potential criminals from committing
crimes. But her main point is that we should have rehabilitation procedures for criminals.
First of all, there should be more programs to rehabilitate convicted criminals when they
are in prison. Furthermore, these programs should have a psychological as well as an
educational component. Last but not least, there should be bridge programs to help
released criminals enter productive, crime-free lives.

2. Read the statements below. Then choose one with which you either agree or disagree.
Support your ideas with explanations and examples.
 Some people are born with more aggressive tendencies than others.
 White-collar crime is more serious than blue-collar crime.
 Men are more likely to commit crime than women.
 Violence on TV leads to violence in society.
 The main reason for juvenile crime today is the decline of the traditional family.
 Crime is the most serious problem in society today.

3. Explain your opinion to a small group, using transitional phrases to link your supporting
information. Be prepared to answer questions about what you have said.

4. As a class, discuss the ideas and make a master list of the supporting details you gathered
for each argument.
/Adapted from Academic listening encounters: life in society. Student’s Book. Kim Sanabria/

67
Reading ‘The War on Drugs’
1. Pre-reading task
1. The expressions below are used in the text. Discuss with a partner what they mean.
Underline the ones you do not understand and ask other students or use a dictionary for
help.
the war on drugs drug overdose
the drug problem drug education programs
drug dealing drug treatment
drug addicts drug abuse
drug related homicides legalization of drugs
2. Compare your answers with the class.

3. PREDICTING
Trying to predict what information will be in a text before you read it is a good habit. It
motivates you to read the text, and encourages you to pay attention to what you read to find out if
your predictions were correct.
In this text you will read about the debate on whether or not to make some drugs legal.
Work in a group. Use your own knowledge of the topic to predict what will be said in the
text. Use the following questions as a guide.
1 What drugs do you think will be discussed?
2 What arguments for legalizing drugs do you think will be presented?
3 What arguments against legalization do you think will be presented?

2. Reading The War on Drugs

(1) Over the last few decades, the drug problem in the United States (and in many other
industrialized countries) has become considerably worse. In 1981, there were about 3 million
drug addicts in the United States; today there are around 6 million. The number of drug overdose
deaths and drug-related homicides has also increased. This is in spite of the fact that the
government has spent more and more money in trying to solve the drug problem. The fight
against drugs is often referred to as a "war" or "battle," and most experts now believe the battle
against drugs has been a failure. They say it has failed because the government has focused on
controlling the problem through laws and punishments, rather than through drug education and
treatment.
(2) The failure of the law-enforcement approach has led to calls for other approaches to
solving the problem, including the decriminalization and the legalization of drugs. Advocates of
decriminalization think that drug users should no longer be labelled as serious criminals and that
the punishments for drug use should be significantly reduced. Advocates of legalization believe

68
there should be no restriction on drug use at all, and that individuals should be able to buy drugs
the same way they buy cigarettes and alcohol today.
(3) Those who are in favour of legalization argue that the current drug laws do more harm
than good. They argue that the current laws waste police time because while police officers are
busy arresting people for smoking marijuana, they are not doing the work of arresting robbers
and murderers. Further, they argue that the high cost of illegal drugs and the enormous amounts
of money to be made from drug dealing encourage more serious crimes. For example, many drug
users turn to stealing to support their habit and police can sometimes be bribed to "look the other
way." Finally, those who support legalization believe that if drugs were legalized, the huge
amounts of money currently spent on law enforcement could be used for drug treatment and
education, which would drastically reduce drug use.
(4) Those who oppose legalization respond that, if drugs are legalized, drug use and
addiction will skyrocket. They point to the experience with Prohibition
the period (1920-1933) when the
alcohol, which was prohibited in the United States in the sale and consumption of alcohol
was illegal in the United States.
1920s. At the end of this period, called Prohibition, the
consumption of alcohol apparently soared by 350 percent (Bennet 1989).
Others feel that the use of drugs is a stepping stone to other crimes - that,
for example, the use of marijuana leads to the use of heroin or cocaine,
and on to more serious crime. If drug use is stopped, this trend will be
prevented.
(5) Another aspect of the debate on whether or not drugs should be
legalized involves the question of individual rights. Some people call for

After alcohol was


legalization because they feel they have the right to take drugs - that it is
decriminalized in the none of the governments business. They think that laws governing this
U.S., its consumption
increased. Would behavior are an invasion of individual rights. On the other hand, others
decriminalizing drugs
lead to an increase in argue that the government should try to protect us from harming
drug use?
ourselves.
(6) Finally, there are those who believe that the problem of widespread drug abuse and crime
can only be solved when the government attacks the root causes of the problem: poverty, racism
and inequality (Currie 1993). They propose that the government should deal with the factors that
cause the problem by providing employment for all, increasing the minimum wage, improving
health care for the poor, offering paid family leave, and providing affordable housing.

69
3. After you read
1. Re-read the text to find and highlight the arguments for and against the legalization of
drugs.

2. Make a chart with two columns. Write For at the head of one column and Against at the
head of the other. In note format, put the arguments you found in step 1 in the appropriate
column.

3. Work with your partner and compare the arguments with the predictions you made
before you read.

4. Focus on the Language


1. Look back at the text and find the verbs listed below. Notice how the writer has used
different words to provide variety.
• Verbs used to express an opinion
think believe say feel argue
• Verbs used to take a position on an issue
be in favor of call for propose oppose
• Verbs used to discuss causes and consequences
cause encourage lead to

2. Fill in the blanks in the text below with one of the verbs given above, in the
appropriate form. Vary the verbs you use. Then compare your answers with a partner.

Many drug experts now (1) __________________ the legalization of drugs. They (2)
__________________ that making drug use illegal only (3) __________________ other
social problems. They (4) __________________ that it can, for example, (5)
__________________ police corruption, and (6) __________________ more crime. Some
people also (7) __________________ that the money spent on fighting drug use would be better
spent on fighting other crimes. Others (8) __________________ that drug use is a question of
individual rights. However, some people (9) __________________ tough drug laws
because they (10) __________________ that drug use is morally wrong or because they (11)
__________________ drug use will (12) __________________ people to commit other crimes.
Others (13) __________________ fighting the underlying factors of poverty and
unemployment, which (14) __________________ the problem of drug use.

3. BUILDING VOCABULARY: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE


Sometimes a writer uses figurative language - language that causes a picture to come to your
mind. If you imagine this picture, it will help you understand the meaning of the expression that
the writer is using.
Find a figurative expression in the text (paragraph indicated) to match the illustrations
below. Write the expression next to the illustration.
1 (par. 1)
the battle against drugs
___________________
___________________

70
2
(par.3)
___________________
___________________
___________________

3
(par.4)
___________________
___________________
___________________

(par.4)
___________________
___________________
___________________

5
(par.6)
___________________
___________________
___________________

Work with a partner. Explain what each expression


means.
/From Academic encounters: reading, study skills, and writing. Kristine Brown, Susan Hood/

71
5. Work in small groups and discuss these questions:
1. Do you favour or oppose the legalization of drugs?
2. Do you think people arrested for possession of small amounts of marijuana should be
put in jail, or just have to pay a fine but without serving any time in jail?
3. Which factors determine whether a teenager tries illegal drugs or not?
4. How would you describe the problem of drug abuse across Russia? Would you say it is
a crisis, a serious problem, a minor problem, or not a problem at all?
5. What actions could the government take to control the use of drugs?

Writing
Write an essay discussing the arguments for and against legalizing drugs.

72
Unit 1
Grammar Spot Verb patterns
1. Basic verb patterns
Match a line in A with a line in B.
A B
a I enjoy waiting in queues. It really annoys me.
b I look forward to buy anything. I'm broke.
c You need to do tonight?
d I finished doing tonight?
e My dad promised to see you again soon.
f I hope to seeing you again soon.
g Anna chose do the washing-up.
h What do you feel like to wear her black suede skirt for the party.
i I can't afford cooking. I find it very creative.
j I can't stand painting the bathroom last night.
k Beth helped me to buy me a stereo if I passed my exams.
l What would you like to book if you want to eat at Guido's.

2. Using a dictionary
1) Look at the dictionary extract. It shows which verb patterns are possible. Some of the
verb patterns in the sentences are right, and some are wrong. Tick () those that are right,
and correct those that are wrong.
a  They were completely lost so they stopped asking
stop /stop/ v (-pp-) 1 to put an end to the movement, for directions.
progress, operation, etc of a person or thing: stop a
b  I stopped working when I had a baby.
taxi ◦ Can you stop the machine? ◦ I had to stop
somebody in the street to ask the way. 2 to end or c  I stopped play tennis when I twisted my ankle.
finish an activity: stop work ◦ He never stops d  The rain was so heavy that there was nothing we
talking. ◦ She’s stopped smoking. ◦ Has it stopped could do to stop the kitchen against flooding.
raining yet? 3 ~ sb/sth (from) doing sth to prevent
sb from doing sth or sth from happening: I’m sure
e  The policeman stopped me from asking why I
he’ll go, there’s nothing to stop him. ◦ You can’t was driving at over 100 miles an hour.
stop our going / us (from) going if we want to. ◦ We f  We went home when the sun stopped to shine.
bandaged his wound but couldn’t stop it bleeding. 4 g  You can't stop me telling everyone what I know
(a) to finish moving, happening or operating: Does
about you.
this train stop at Oxford? (b) to end an activity
temporarily; to pause: We stopped for a while to h  He couldn't stop his son from go to the all-night
admire the scenery. She never stopped to consider party.
that others might object.

2) Use your dictionary to decide if the -ing form or infinitive is used correctly in these
sentences. If there is a mistake, correct it.
Example
stealing
[X] They denied to steal the money.
a □ I avoid to travel in the rush-hour if I can.
b □ Have you considered to work abroad?
c □ We expected him arriving yesterday.
d □ We agreed to meet outside the cinema.
e □ I've arranged collecting Kate from school at four o’clock.
f □ Karen decided not to go to the party. She was too tired.
g □ I can't help to love him, even though he is selfish and inconsiderate.
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h □ I offered give David a lift but he said he'd rather walk.
i □ I can't get used to seeing my daughter driving a car.
j □ He admitted attempting to smuggle diamonds into the country.
k □ I suggest to go to a restaurant tonight.
l □ I want that you come home early.

3. More complex verb patterns


1) Make sentences from the words in the columns. The sentences must make sense!
My brother wants me to be late.
Our hosts would hate you to do well in my exams.
My aunt would love us do the exercise again.
The doctor warned my son do what we wanted.
My parents expect our friends to fix his bike.
The guide advised the tourists to take over my business.
The policeman told the driver to stay close.
We invited all her class to come to a party.
The teacher made his patient to slow down.
My grandparents let not to work so hard.
I'd like to visit her more often.

2) Rewrite the sentences so that they have a similar meaning. Use the prompts, include an
infinitive or an -ing form.
Example
I couldn't go to the party last night. (allowed)
I wasn't allowed to go to the party last night.

a I was surprised to see Ben at the party. (expect) …………………………………


b We're having dinner at the Greens' on Saturday. (invited) ………………………..
c I should have a hair-cut. (need) …………………………………………………..
d I can’t wait to see you in June. (looking forward) ………………………………..
e What shall I have for dessert? (can’t decide) ……………………………………..
f The teacher said we could go home early. (let) …………………………………..
g But she said we had to do extra homework. (made) ……………………………...
h Can you wait for a minute? (mind) ……………………………………………….
i I'd prefer to have tea. (rather) …………………………………………………….
j Let's wait before we make a decision. (suggest) …………………………………
k 'I'll lend you some money,' she said to me. (offered) …………………………….
l Please don't make a noise,' he said to me. (asked) ……………………………….
m ‘I’m sorry I woke you up,’ I said to my neighbours. (apologized) ……………...

4. -ing or infinitive?
Put the verb in brackets in either the -ing form or the infinitive.

a I used ________ (think) that life ended at 40, but now


I'm 41 I know it's not true.

It's five in the morning. I'm not used to ________ (get) up


this early.

b Remember ________ (lock) the door when you leave the house.
I remember ________ (fall) out of my pram when I was a baby.

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c Stop ________ (make) such a terrible noise.
Carol stopped ________ (make) herself a cup of tea.
d I mustn't forget ________ (buy) Jane a birthday card.
I'll never forget ________ (meet) my husband for the first time.
e I've always tried ________ (do) my best.
If you can't do this exercise, try ________ (ask) a friend for help.
f I started ________ (play) golf last year.
Oh, look! It's starting ________ (rain).
g I need ________ (speak) to you.
The house needs ________ (painting).
h Do you like ________ (cook)?
I like ________ (cook) something special when guests come.
I like ________ (pay) bills on time.

Revision of infinitives and –ing forms


5. The house that Jack built
Put the correct verb into each gap. Use either the infinitive or the -ing form.
pay repay listen leave celebrate build be
live make do (x 2) give work (x2) lend

Jack Baines is a self-made millionaire, but his beginnings were very


lowly. He was the youngest of eight children. His father had a job in the
cotton mills of Blackburn, Lancashire in the 1920s, but he was often
unable (a) ________ due to poor health. The family couldn't afford
(b)________ the rent or bills, and the children often went hungry. After
(c)________ school at the age of 14, Jack was wondering what
(d)________ when Mr Walker, his old teacher, offered (e)
________ him £100 to start his own business.
It was just after the war. Raw materials were
scarce, and Jack (without (f) ________ to his
parents' advice) saw a future in scrap metal. He
bought bits of metal and stored them in an old garage. When he had built
up a sizeable amount, he sold it to local industries for a vast profit.
Jack enjoyed (g) ________ hard and was encouraged (h) ________ the
most of his potential by Mr Walker. After one year he had succeeded in
(i)________ the £100 loan and he also managed (j) ________ Mr Walker
£100 interest to thank him for his generosity.
By the time Jack was 30 years old he had made his first million, and he wanted (k) ________
this achievement by (l) ________ something
'grand'. With all his money it was now possible
(m) ________ a beautiful home for himself and
his parents . In 1959 'Baines Castle' was built in
the heart of the Lancashire countryside. It was
one of the finest buildings in the county.
Jack has recently sold 'Barnes Steel' for a
staggering £500 million, but Jack still can't get used to (n) ________ the good life. He can often
be found at the local pub drinking pints with the locals.
'I remember (o) ________ very poor as a child but never unhappy,' says Jack, 'and I never forget
where I come from and who I am.'
Lancashire people are proud of their local hero, and if a visitor asks the origins of the 'grand'
castle on the hill the locals say 'Why, it's the house that Jack built'.
/from New Headway English Course. Upper-Intermediate Workbook. Liz and John Soars/

75
See someone do/doing
6. Verbs of perception
1 Certain verbs express perception, for example, see, hear, watch, feel, smell, sense,
observe, notice, spot. They can be used with both the infinitive (without to) and the –ing form.
I could hear her crying all night long.
I didn't hear you come in last night.
2 The use of the -ing form suggests the activity has duration. It is in progress at the time it
is perceived, and it continues afterwards.
We heard him playing the piano.
I can smell something burning.
3 The use of the infinitive suggests the whole, completed action is perceived.
I saw the girl fall off her horse.
I saw her walk across the room and take a gun out of the desk drawer.

A Complete the sentences with either the infinitive without to or the -ing form of the verb
in brackets.
a When I woke up, I could hear the birds __________ (sing).
b But then I heard my brother __________ (slam) the bathroom door.
c Soon I could smell bacon __________ (cook).
d From our hotel window we could see people __________ (play) and
__________ (sunbathe) on the beach.
e I saw her __________ (pick) up the letter from the mat and __________ (rip) open the
envelope.
f When I got to the cinema, I spotted my friend __________ (wait) for me.
g Over the years I watched the new airport __________ (build).
h I knew the guests had arrived because I could hear them __________ (laugh)
downstairs.
i I've never seen anyone __________ (eat) as much as you do.
j I noticed a girl __________ (shoplift). I saw her __________ (take) a bottle of perfume
from a shelf and __________ (put) it in her bag.

B Underline the correct form of the verb.


1. I noticed the man drop/dropping/to drop his ticket so I picked it up for him.
2. I heard the horses come/coming/ to come down the lane so I waited for them to pass before
driving on.
3. The old man said he would love have/having/to have the chance to fly in the airplane again.
4. Don’t make the children come/coming/to come with us if they don’t want to.
5. I saw the boy jump/jumping/to jump into the lake before anyone could stop him.

C Complete the sentences by using a suitable word.


1. He heard the phone __________ but it stopped before he could answer it.
2. When I entered his room I saw him __________ his homework.
3. Then I saw him __________ the house, __________ into his car and __________ away.
4. As they were walking past the house, they saw it __________ into flames.
5. I saw Freddie Ljunberg __________ the winning goal for Arsenal in the FA Cup Final.
/adapted from Developing Grammar in Context. Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins/

Vocabulary Law
1. Look at the expressions in the box below. Which means...
a) suspected of having committed a crime?
b) she doesn't follow rules?
c) we are all equal in the eyes of the law?

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d) take revenge without using the legal system?
e) bossing people about?
f) What I say must be respected?
g) illegal?
h) obeying and respecting the law?
i) legally?

a law unto herself laying down the law against the law
take the law into my own hands no-one is above the law by law
in trouble with the law law-abiding my word is law

2. Complete these sentences with the expressions in 1.


a) After years as a __________ citizen, John decided to rob a bank and flee the country.
b) Policeman: You were doing 160 kilometres per hour.
Prince: Yes, but do you know who I am?
Policeman: Yes, but __________.
c) There was a constable here earlier. I think Mark's __________ again!
d) I was tempted to __________ and wring his neck.
e) 'Do this! Do that! Be back by 10!' My father was always __________.
f) You can never tell what Ruth's going to do. She's __________.
g) I'm the boss and __________.
h) Most Europeans are required __________ to carry ID cards.
i) In some countries it's __________ to chew gum.
/Inside Out. Advanced. Student’s Book. Ceri Jones, Tania Bastow, Sue Kay and Vaughan Jones/

3. Read the information in the box and fill in the gaps with the suitable word.

LAW – what a country says that a person may or may not do; all the laws of a country: the law
Is there a law against begging? Stealing is against the law.
RULE – an official statement that tells you what you can or cannot do, say, etc, in an institution,
a sport
 Smoking in the rooms is against the school rules. the rules of football
REGULATION – a law or rule that controls how sth is done
 fire/safety regulations

1. Without unwritten _______________ civilized life would be impossible.


2. If they entered the building they would be breaking the _________________.
3. This explains the _______________ under which the library operates.
4. In Sweden it is against the __________________ to hit a child.
5. British schools are now required by ______________ to publish their exam results.
6. Under the new _________________ spending on office equipment will be strictly controlled.
7. The reforms have recently become __________________.
8. Do not think you are above the ________________?
9. It is a _________________ of the sea to help another boat in distress.
10. There are strict __________________ governing the sale of weapons.
11. The golden _______________ in tennis is to keep your eye on the ball.
/adapted from Oxford Adavanced Learner’s Dictionary/

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Unit 2
Grammar Spot Reported statements and questions

Direct Speech is the exact words someone Reported Speech is the exact meaning of
said. We use inverted commas in Direct what someone said but not the exact words.
Speech. We do not use inverted commas in Reported
Speech.
“I won’t be back before 7.00,” he said. He said he wouldn’t be back before 7.00.
Say – Tell – Ask
 Say is used in Direct Speech. It is also used in Reported Speech when say is not
followed by the person the words were spoken to.
(Direct Speech) “I can fix it,” he said. (Reported Speech) He said he could fix it.
 Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words were
spoken to.
(Direct Speech) “I can do it,” he said to me. (Reported Speech) He told me
he could do it.
 Ask is used in reported questions and commands. Ask is also used in direct
questions.
He said to me, “Please, don’t go!” He asked me not to go.
He asked, “Are you OK?” He asked me if I was OK.
 We can use say + to-infinitive but never “say about”. We use tell sb, speak/talk
about, instead.
The boss said to work harder. He spoke/talked about his trips. He told us about his trips.

Expressions with say say good morning/evening etc, say something, say one’s
prayers, say a few words, say so, say no more, say for certain
etc

Expressions with tell tell the truth, tell a lie, tell (sb) the time, tell sb one’s name,
tell a story, tell a secret, tell sb the way, tell one from
another, tell sb’s fortune, tell sb so, tell the difference etc

Expressions with ask ask a favour, ask the time, ask a question, ask the price etc

1. Fill in: say, tell or ask in the correct form.


First the headmaster 1) said good morning. Then he 2)__________us that the police had been
3)________ questions about hooliganism at school. The police 4)_________ that some pupils
had been breaking windows. Several boys were 5)________ if they knew anything, but of course
they 6)_________nothing. They were probably 7)_________ lies. The headmaster 8)________
us all for information. He 9)_________we must 10)__________ him the names of those
involved. Well, I know who they were. But I can’t 11) _________ him the secret. 12)________
the truth is not always easy, is it?

2. Underline the correct item.

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1. I can only help you if you say / tell me the 5. Tom told / said he would be late home.
problem. 6. The teacher said / told us to do the exercise.
2. My mother said/told to turn the oven on at 6 7. I like listening to him when he says / talks
o'clock. about his youth.
3. The doctor said / told, "You'd better stay in 8. He won't be punished if he says / tells what
bed for two days." happened.
4. My dentist told / said me to eat less
chocolate.

Direct Speech Reported Speech


"I work hard," he said. He said (that) he worked hard.
"I am working hard," he said. He said (that) he was working hard.
"I have worked hard," he said. He said (that) he had worked hard.
"I worked hard," he said. He said (that) he had worked hard.
"I will work hard," he said. He said (that) he would work hard.
"I have been working hard," he said. He said (that) he had been working hard.
“I am going to work harder," he said. He said (that) he was going to work harder.
"I can work harder," he said. He said (that) he could work harder.
"I may work harder," he said. He said (that) he might work harder.
"I must work harder," he said. He said (that) he had to/must work harder.
"I should work harder," he said. He said (that) he should work harder.
"I ought to work harder," he said. He said (that) he ought to work harder.
"Do you work hard enough?" she said to him. She asked him if he worked hard enough.
"Work harder!" she said to him. She told him to work harder.

Changing from Direct into Reported Speech (Statements)


 Inverted commas are omitted in Reported Speech.
"I'm going out," he said. He said (that) he was going out.
 When the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the past, all the following verbs
usually change into a past form too. "I enjoy dancing," she said. She said
she enjoyed dancing.
However, the tenses do not change in Reported Speech when:
a) the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect
tense.
"The station is far from here," he says. He says the station is far from here.
b) the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states and conditions.
"Water turns into ice," he said. He said water turns into ice. (permanent
truth)
c) the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up to date).
"I will call you back," he said. He said he will call me back. (immediate
reporting - up to date)
"I will call you back," he said. He said he would call me back, (later
reporting - out of date)
 If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true, the tenses
may change or remain unchanged. If something untrue is expressed, then the
tenses definitely change.
"She likes strawberries very much," he said, (true) He said she likes/liked
strawberries very much.
"Canada is a poor country," he said, (untrue) He said Canada was a poor
country.
 The Past Perfect and the Past Continuous usually remain the same in
Reported Speech. “I was watching TV while Ann was reading a book." He
said he was watching TV while Ann was reading a book.
 If the reported sentence deals with unreal past, conditionals type 2/type 3 or

79
wishes, the tenses remain the same. "It's time we went," he said. He said it
was time they went. "If I were you, I would apologise," he said. He said that
if he were me, he would apologise.
 Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the
context.
“I will show you my new dress," she said. She said she would show me her
new dress.
 Certain words change as follows depending on the context.
Direct Speech: this/these here "Put that box down over here," she said.
Reported Speech: that/those there She told me to put that box down over there.
 Time words and tenses can change or remain the same depending on the
time reference. If the reported sentence is out of date, the tenses change. If the
reported sentence is up to date, the tenses can remain the same.
"They are leaving next week," he said. He said they were leaving the
following week. (speech reported after they had left -out of date) "They are
leaving next week," he said. He said they are leaving next week. (speech
reported before they have left - up to date)

Direct Speech Reported Speech


tonight, today, this week/month/year that night, that day, that week /
month / year
now then, at that time, at once
now that immediately
yesterday, last night/week/month/year since the day before, the previous
night/week/ month/year
tomorrow, next week/month/year the following day/the day after, the
following/next week/month/year
two days/months/years etc ago two days/months/years etc before

3. Jim met Ann while she was on holiday. Read Ann’s words then report what she said.

1 Ann said (that) the weather was hot. 6 ……………………………...


2 7 ……………………………...
3 8 ……………………………...
4 9 ……………………………...
5 10 …………………………….

4. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.


1. "A lot of English words are borrowed from other languages," the teacher said to us.

80
The teacher told us that a lot of English words are borrowed from other languages.
2. "China is a densely populated country," she said. ……………………………………………
3. "It's time they moved to a new house," Ann said. ……………………………………………
4. "Water freezes below 0°C," he said. …………………………………………………………
5. "I was reading the children a story last night when the lights went out," she said.
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. "I'll help you to repair your car tomorrow," he said to me. (out-of-date reporting)
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. "I didn't understand the meaning of the film," he said. ………………………………………
8. "You can come to me if you have any problems," she said to him. (out-of-date reporting)
9. "I saw the film you recommended last night," he said to her. ……………………………….
10. "I'm going to Spain next week," he said. (out-of-date reporting) …………………………..
11. "She doesn't understand," he said. (up-to-date reporting) ………………………………….
12. "I would invite more people if I had a bigger flat," he said. ……………………………….
13. "I will not repeat this again," he said to us. (out-of-date reporting) ……………………….
14. "I've applied for several jobs this week," he said. (out-of-date reporting) …………………
15. "I'm afraid I can't come," he said to me. (up-to-date reporting) …………………………...
16. "If I finish it this evening; we'll go out", he said to her. (out-of-date reporting) …………..
17. "I saw him yesterday but he didn't recognise me," she said. ………………………………

Reported Questions / Indirect Questions

 In reported questions we use the affirmative word order and the question mark
becomes a full stop. To report a question we use: a) ask + wh- word (who, where etc)
when the direct question begins with a wh- word, b) ask + if/whether when the direct
question begins with an auxiliary verb (do, have, can etc). Pronouns, possessive adjectives,
tenses, time expressions etc change as in statements.
He said, "What are you doing?" He asked what I was doing.
He said, "Did you enjoy the party?" He asked if/whether I enjoyed/had enjoyed
the party.
 We use Indirect questions to ask for information/advice and Reported questions to
report someone else's questions, suggestions, offers or requests. Indirect questions are
introduced with: Could you tell me...?, Do you know...?, I wonder..., I want to know..., I
doubt..., etc and their verb is in the affirmative. If the Indirect question starts with I
wonder ..., I want to know ... or I doubt..., then the question mark is omitted. Question
words (what, who, where etc) or whether can be followed by an infinitive in the reported
sentence.

Direct questions Reported questions Indirect questions


He asked me, "Shall I phone He asked me whether he I wonder whether to phone
her?" should phone her. her. / whether I should phone
her.
He asked me, "What time is He asked me what time it was. Do you know what time it is?
it?" He asked me where he could Do you know where he can
He asked me, "Where can I put it. or He asked me where put it? or Do you know where
put it?" to put it. to put it?

5. Flora went for an interview last weekend. First read, then report Mr Roberts' questions.

81
1 ……Mr Roberts asked Fiona why she wanted to work for Portman Plastics. ………………
2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
4 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
5 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
6 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
7 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
9 …………………………………………………………………………………………………
10 ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Turn the following into indirect questions. Omit question marks where necessary.
1. Where's the post office? (Do you know …) ….Do you know where the post office is?.........
2. What have you told her? (I wonder ...) ………………………………………………………
3. Are we going out tonight? (I want to know ...) ……………………………………………...
4. Is this correct? (I doubt ...) …………………………………………………………………..
5. Whose car is this? (I wonder ...) …………………………………………………………….
6. Does this train stop at Leeds? (Could you tell me ...)………………………………………..
/adapted from Round-up 6. Virginia Evans/

Vocabulary 1 Crime
The law
If you do something illegal/against the law (= wrong), you have committed a crime. Most
people commit a crime at some time in their lives, e.g. driving above the speed limit or parking
illegally, etc. If you break the law (= do something wrong/illegal) and commit a crime, you
could get into trouble (= be in a bad situation) with the police.

Crimes
crime criminal (= person) verb
theft (= general word for stealing) thief steal (also take)
robbery (= steal from people or places, robber rob
e.g. banks)
burglary (= break into a shop/house burglar break in
and steal things)
shoplifting (= steal from shops when shoplifter shoplift
they're open)
murder (= kill someone by intention) murderer murder
manslaughter (= kill someone but - -
without intention)
Scene of the crime

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Two men robbed a jeweller's in west London early this morning. They broke in (= forced their
way into the building, e.g. they broke a window) around 7 am and took/stole rings and necklaces
valued at over £10,000. Several witnesses (= people who see a crime) saw them leave the shop
and get away/escape (= go away from a dangerous situation) in a blue car. The police believe
both men are armed (= have guns) and extremely dangerous.

Crime prevention
What can governments do to prevent crime (= stop crime happening) or reduce it (= make it
less)? These things happen in some countries.
The police carry guns. (= have guns)
The police are allowed to (= are permitted to/can) stop anyone in the street and ask them
questions.
Criminals receive tough (= hard) punishments, e.g. go to prison for long periods.
There is capital punishment (= death, e.g. by injection or electric chair) for some crimes.
What can people do to protect themselves (= keep themselves safe) and their property (=
home and land)? They can do these things.
Avoid (= keep away from) dark streets late at night (e.g. midnight).
Avoid wearing (= try not to wear) expensive rings or watches. [Note the -ing form after
‘avoid’]
Have a burglar alarm.
Put money and valuables (= things worth a lot of money) in a safe.
Leave lights on at home when they go out.
Lock doors and windows when they go out.
/adapted from English Vocabulary in Use. Pre-intermediate and Intermediate. Second edition. Stuart Redman/

1. Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the right.
1) an arsonist a) attacks and robs people, often in the street
2) a shop-lifter b) sets fire to property illegally
3) a mugger c) is anyone who breaks the law
4) an offender d) breaks into houses and other buildings to steal
5) a vandal e) steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer
6) a burglar f) kills someone
7) a murderer g) pretends or claims to be what he is not
8) a kidnapper h) deliberately causes damage to property
9) a pickpocket i) steals things from people’s pockets in crowded places
10) an accomplice j) gets secret information from another country
11) a drug dealer k) buys and sells drugs illegally
12) a spy l) takes away people by force and demands money for their return
13) a terrorist m) helps a criminal in a criminal act
14) an assassin n) steals from his own company
15) a hooligan o) uses violence for political reasons
16) a stowaway p) causes damage or disturbance in public places
17) a poacher q) hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey
18) a thief r) takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change
19) a hijacker course
20) a forger s) murders for political reasons or a reward
21) a robber t) is someone who steals
22) a smuggler u) makes money by dishonest business methods, e.g. by selling
23) a traitor worthless goods
24) a gangster v) makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures
25) a deserter w) is a member of a criminal group
26) a bigamist x) steals money, etc. by force from people or places
27) a drug smuggler y) marries illegally, being married already

83
28) an embezzler z) is a soldier who runs away from the army
29) a fraud or con man aa) brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax
30) a racketeer bb) illegally carries drugs into another country
cc) betrays his or her country to another state
dd) hunts illegally on somebody else’s land

2. Continue the following table with the words from Task 1 where possible. The first few
are done for you. Consult the dictionary when necessary.
Crime Criminal Criminal Act
treason traitor to betray
theft thief to steal
murder murderer to murder

/from Just English, Ю.Л. Гуманова, В.А. Королева-МакАри, М.Л. Свешникова, Е.В. Тихомирова/

3. Match the crimes in the box below to the descriptions (1 -10).


arson burglary forgery hijacking mugging pickpocketing
robbery shoplifting smuggling vandalism
1. I caught him just as he was taking my wallet from my back pocket. ……………..
2. The gang was arrested while trying to get diamonds and drugs into the country illegally.
……………..
3. Terrorists ordered the pilot to fly the plane to another country. ……………
4. The teenagers smashed windows and sprayed graffiti on the walls of the youth centre.
……………..
5. The thieves held the bank manager at gun-point while they took the cash. ……………..
6. When he broke the back window to get in, our alarm went off. ……………..
7. He was found guilty of copying classic paintings and trying to sell them as
originals. ……………..
8. The gang of youths was arrested for attacking the woman and taking her handbag. ……..
9. Two young girls were found guilty of taking the item from the supermarket
without paying for it. ……………..
10. He had set fire to the forest just for fun. ……………..
/from First Certificate: Reading. Patrick McGavigan and John Reeves/

4. Respond to these statements or questions confirming the crime in each one.


1 A: He broke into the house, didn't he?
B: Yes, he's been charged with ....burglary…. .
2 A: He killed his wife?
B: Yes, he's been charged with ……………
3 A: She stole clothes from that department store, didn't she?
B: Yes, and she's been charged …………
4 A: The man on the motorbike didn't mean to kill the boy.
B: No, but he's been …………..
5 A: He took the money from her bag?
B: Yes, but they caught him and he's ……………….

5. Find the best noun on the right to follow each verb on the left.
1 lock a a gun
2 commit b a house
3 go c the door
4 carry d a crime
5 break into e the law
6 break f to prison

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6. Fill the gaps in these questions with a suitable word. What's your opinion?
1 Do you think the police should ………… guns?
2 Do you think the police should be …………… to stop people without a reason?
3 Do you agree with capital …………….. for certain crimes such as murder?
4 Do you think tougher punishments will help to ………………… crime?
/English Vocabulary in Use. Pre-intermediate and Intermediate. Second edition. Stuart Redman/

7. If you commit a crime, you may be:


accused
arrested
charged
convicted
interrogated
paroled
sent to prison
suspected
tried
Put these actions in the correct order.

8. Put each of the following words and phrases into its correct place in the passage below.

bigamy civil classes community


countries crimes criminal law felony
fine forgery laws life imprisonment
misdemeanour offences penalty person
prison state term treason

CRIME
Crime violates the laws of a community, (1)_______________ or nation. It is punishable in
accordance with these (2)_____________ . The definition of crime varies according to time and
place, but the laws of most (3)_____________ consider as crimes such (4)______________ as
arson, (5)_____________ , burglary, (6)________________ , murder, and (7)______________ .
Not all offences against the law are (8)______________ . The laws that set down the
punishments for crimes form the (9)________________ . This law defines as crimes those
offences considered most harmful to the (10)_______________ . On the other hand, a
(11)_____________ may wrong someone else in some other way that offends the
(12)_____________ law.
The common law recognizes three (13)______________ of crime: treason, (14)_____________,
and misdemeanour . Death or (15)______________ is the usual (16)_______________ for
treason. Laws in the United States, for example, define a felony as a crime that is punishable by a
(17)____________ of one year or more in a state or federal (18)______________ . A person who
commits a (19)______________ may be punished by a (20)______________ or a jail term of
less than one year.
/ Tests in English: thematic vocabulary. Mariusz Misztal /
9. Gun culture. The transcript below is from National Public Radio®. Complete the gaps
with the words given.

shoot commit carry probation stab homicide shootings law


enforcement criminals

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PACKING A PIECE
Presenter The popular image of urban (1)……………. is one of urban gang
battles and drive-by (2)…………… . But half the people who kill each
other also know one another. Many are members of the same family.
Jerry Gliden is director of the Chicago Crime Commission, a non-
profit organization that monitors why people (3) …………. violent
crimes.
Jerry Gliden
They have a lot of pressure on them, put on them by various agencies -
whether it's (4) …………. or social work or the landlord or the police
or whoever. And if the wife goes out and does something, or if the
husband goes out and gets drunk and there's a big argument, and then
sometimes one of them will wait till the other one goes to sleep and
shoot them or (5) ……………. them. The gangs - it's over street turf
or to show just how tough they are. Sometimes they'll (6)
……………….. a group on the corner just to see if - see how the gun
works. Makes no sense at all. The availability of a gun often makes a
big difference between a mere argument and a shooting. And the
deadlier the weapon, the more likely it is that someone will die.

Presenter Gwen Fitzgerald, of Handgun Control, says (7) ……………… know


this and they're looking for the most powerful guns they can find.

Gwen Fitzgerald One veteran (8) …………….. officer said, you know, 20 years ago
when he started, all criminals were not armed. And then, you know, in
the 60s and 70's, yeah, they were armed with the Saturday Night
Special handguns - very small, easily concealable handguns, usually a
few rounds, maybe six or eight rounds. Now not only all the criminals
(9) ………………. guns, but they've got semi-automatic technology.
/adapted from Key Words in the Media. Bill Mascull/

10. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a
word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Kleptomania, which means a mania for stealing things, is a mental (0)


abnormality which afflicts both young and old. It is different from abnormal
(1)_________, as the culprit is often quite capable of paying for the things he rob
or she takes. Some kleptomaniacs steal things and then have no memory of
the (2) _________ afterwards. Having a (3) _________ for stealing things thieve; convict
can cause terrible damage to a person's future and also cause (4) _________ embarrass
to their family and friends. Sometimes psychiatric (5) _________ cures it, treat
but in general there are no permanent (6) _________ to the problem. Most solve
victims complete therapy in the (7) _________ that they will probably feel know
the urge to steal things again. Those who succeed in defeating the illness
completely are in a (8) _________ . minor
/from First Certificate: Reading. Patrick McGavigan and John Reeves/

86
Vocabulary 2 Writing survey reports
1. You are going to write the text for a radio news report on crime. Here are some of the
figures you have researched.

Look at the figures and complete these sentences.


a) _________ % of men who go to prison for 12 months re-offend within 12 months.
b) _________ % of women who go to prison for 12 months re-offend within 12 months.
c) The commonest crime for re-offenders is _________ .
d) _________________ account for 18% of crimes by re-offenders.
e) Prisoners often re-offend because they cannot get a _________.
f) Amongst prisoners who go on job training programmes, _________ % do not find work when
they are released.
g) Amongst prisoners who find _________, 80% do not re-offend.

2. Look at the results of the survey below and fill in the gaps in the first box with the
following words or phrases which express facts: per cent, a small/significant number,
substantial, a minority, a large proportion. Then, match the facts from the first box with the
generalizations from the second box to make up part of a survey report about transport.

CAR BUS TRAIN BICYCLE WALK


AGE
18 – 25 9% 20% 28% 33% 10%
MEN 26 – 50 32% 18% 40% 8% 2%
51+ 43% 15% 33% 1% 8%

18 – 25 3% 36% 27% 21% 13%


WOMEN 26 - 50 21% 13% 49% 3% 14%
51+ 36% 18% 44% - 2%

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FACTS GENERALISATIONS
1. __________ of men over the age of 51 a. This indicates that the train is a very popular
travel to work by car. means of transport.
2. __________ of men and women aged 18-25 b. This shows that younger men and women do
drive to work. not earn enough to own a car.
3. Only two __________ of men aged 26 - 50 c. This shows that men of the older generation
walk to work. prefer a more comfortable way of traveling to
4. __________ of 25- 50 year olds travel to work.
work by train. d. This suggests that many older men can
5. A __________ number of young men cycle afford to commute by car.
to work. e. This demonstrates that young men cannot
6. __________ of men aged 51 and over travel afford to commute by car.
to work by bicycle. f. This implies that men in the second age
group prefer a faster and more convenient way
of traveling to work.

3. Make the style of the following sentences more formal using the word given as in the
example.
Example: The staff of the local pool teaches kids to swim. (instruction)
The staff at the local swimming pool provides instruction for children.

1. I carried out this survey to... (conducted)


________________________________________________________________
2. I wrote this report to look into the results of... (analyse)
________________________________________________________________
3. My results show that... (indicate)
________________________________________________________________
4. The airport mini-bus will bring tourists to the hotel. (transported)
________________________________________________________________
5. I think the food at the new restaurant is excellent. (recommended)
________________________________________________________________
6. I think that you should make reservations before going to the restaurant. (suggested)
________________________________________________________________
7. The information centre gives you a map of the city. (obtained)
________________________________________________________________
8. You can buy tickets at the bох office. (purchased)
________________________________________________________________
/adapted from Inside Out. Advanced. Workbook. Ceri Jones with Russel Stannard/

88
Unit 3
Grammar Spot Reported Commands / Requests /
Suggestions
To report commands, requests, suggestions etc, we use an introductory verb (advise, ask,
beg, offer, order, suggest, tell etc) followed by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that-clause
according to the introductory verb.
"Touch your toes," he said to us. He told us to touch our toes. (command)
"Don't lie down," he said to us. He told us not to lie down. (command)
"Can I go out?" he said. He asked to go out. (request)
"Please, stay with us tonight," he said to her. He asked her to stay with them that
night. (request)
"Let's play football," he said. He suggested playing football. (suggestion)
"You'd better visit her," he said. He suggested that I visit her. (suggestion)

1. First read then report what the flight attendant told the passengers before takeoff.

1 ……She told them not to smoke in no-smoking areas or in the toilets. …………...
2 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
3 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
4 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
5 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
6 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
7 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
8 ……………………………………………………………………………………...
9 ……………………………………………………………………………………...

2. Change the following from Direct into Reported Speech.


1. "Where have you been?" he said to me. …He asked me where I had been. ….........................
2. "Close your eyes and open the parcel," she said to me. ………………………............................
3. "I'm writing my autobiography," said Paul. (up-to-date reporting) ……………..........................
4. They said to her, "We hope you will lend us your car." (out-of-date reporting) .........................
5. "Please sir, can I have some more food?" said Oliver. ………………………………………….
6. "Go to your room and stay there!" said his father . …………………………………………….
7. "Don't walk on the grass," the park attendant said to us. …………………………......................
8. "Did you pay the electricity bill?" he said to his wife. ………………………….........................
9. "I'll phone you at seven o'clock tonight," she said to him. (out-of-date reporting)……………..
10. "What size shoes do you take?" the shop assistant said to him. (out-of-date reporting)………
11. "He's never written to me before,” said Maria. (up-to-date reporting) ……………………….
12. "Let's paint the walls blue!" said my little brother. ……………………………………………
13. "Will Liza be safe on her own?" her father wondered. (out-of-date reporting)……………….
14. My mother said to me, "Don't stay up reading too late!" ……………………………………..

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15. "I own two cars, a yacht and a private plane," said Roy. (untrue) …………........................

Modals in Reported Speech


 The forms of some modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is
out of date. Will/Shall would, can could/would be able to, may might/could,
shall should (asking for advice) or would (asking for information) / offer (expressing
offers), must must/had to (obligation) (must remains the same when it expresses
possibility or deduction), needn’t didn’t need to/didn’t have to/wouldn’t have to.
 Would, could, used to, mustn’t, should, might, ought to and had better remain the same.

Direct Speech Reported Speech


He said, "I’ll see you later". He said (that) he would see me later.
He said, "I can lift weights". He said (that) he could lift weights.
He said, "I can do it tomorrow". He said (that) he would be able to do it the
next day.
He said, "I may see John". He said (that) he might see John.
He said, "How shall I repair the tap?" He asked how he should repair/to repair the
tap. (advice)
He said, "When shall we arrive?" He asked when they would arrive.
(information)
He said, "Shall I clean it?" He offered to clean it. (expressing offers)
He said, "You must return it soon". He said (that) I must/had to return it soon.
(obligation)
He said, "She must be clever". He said (that) she must be clever. (deduction)
He said, "You should work more". He said (that) I should work more.
He said, "You had better help me". He said (that) I had better help him.
He said, "You needn’t do it now". He said (that) I didn’t need to/didn’t have to
do it then.
He said, "You needn’t come tomorrow". He said (that) I wouldn’t have to go the next
day.

Reporting a dialogue or a conversation


In conversations or dialogues we use a mixture of statements, commands and questions.
When we report dialogues or conversations, we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added
that, explaining that, because, but, since, so, and then he/she went on to say, while, then etc
or the introductory verb in the present participle form. Exclamations such as: Oh!, Oh
dear!, Well! etc are omitted in Reported Speech.

Direct Speech Reported Speech


“Oh, that is a very nice sweater!” she said. She remarked/exclaimed that it was a
“Where did you buy it?” very nice sweater and she asked where
I had bought it. (“Oh” is omitted)
“It is too difficult for you,” she said. “Shall I help She said it was too difficult for me,
you?” offering to help.
“Why don’t you come over for dinner on Friday?” She invited me to dinner on Friday,
she said. “We could discuss it then.” suggesting that we could discuss it then.

3. Rewrite the following conversations in Reported Speech.


A “How can I lose weight?” Alan said.
“You mustn’t eat sweets or oily food. You can eat potatoes, though. You should also get plenty of
exercise," said the doctor.
90
"Shall I join a gym?" said Alan
"You needn't join a gym. You can go jogging every day”, said the doctor.
…Alan asked the doctor how he could lose weight……………………………………...

B “How can I get a job?” Jane said.


“You can look through the newspapers at the job advertisements. You can also go to the Job
Centre. I’m sure they could find you a job," said Julie.
"Shall I go to a private employment agency?' said Jane.
"You could, but it will cost you a lot of money and you don’t have much,” said Julie.
…Jane asked Julie how she could get a job. …………………………………………….

Exclamations  Yes/No short answers  Question tags


 Exclamations are introduced in Reported Speech with exclaim, thank, wish,
say, cry out in pain, give an exclamation of surprise / horror / disgust / delight etc.
The exclamation mark becomes a full stop. Exclamatory words such as Oh!, Eee!,
Wow! etc are omitted in the reported sentence.
"Ow!" she said as she hit her head on the door. She cried out in pain as she hit her
head on the door.
 Yes/No short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with a subject +
appropriate auxiliary verb or subject + appropriate introductory verb.
"Can you help me?" he said. "No," she said. He asked her if she could help him and
she said she couldn't. or He asked her if she could help him, but she refused.
 Question tags are omitted in Reported Speech. We can use an appropriate
introductory verb to retain their effect.
"He isn't lying, is he?" she said. She wondered if he was lying.

4. Turn the following into Reported Speech.


1. "You did steal the money, didn't you?" he said. …He insisted that I had stolen the money.
………………………………………………………………………………………
2. "Will you leave the keys?" she asked. "Of course!" he said. ……………………………
3. "Wonderful!" he said, when the bank manager agreed to lend him the money. ………...
4. "Ouch!" he said, as the nurse gave him the injection. …………………………………...
5. "Would you like to come out with me?" he asked. "Not really," she replied. …………..
6. "I don't suppose you could lend me any money, could you?" he asked me. ……………
7. "Wow!" he said when he first saw the Pyramids. ……………………………………….
8. "Would you like another piece of cake?" she asked. "Yes, please," he replied. ………...
9. "You'll try not to be late, won't you?" he said to her. …………………………………...
10. “Ugh!" she said, as she stepped into the muddy puddle. ………………………………

5. Rewrite the following conversation in Reported Speech.


"Oh, Roger! What a surprise!" Lisa said at the sight of her
husband.
"Hello, Lisa. Happy Birthday!" Roger said, giving her some
flowers.
"Wow - they're lovely!" Lisa said. "Thank you."
"Would you like me to put them in water for you?" Roger
asked.
"Yes, please," Lisa said.
"Let's go out tonight, shall we?" Roger said. "I've found a
new restaurant which I think you'll like."
…Lisa gave an exclamation of surprise at the sight of her husband. ……………………………..

91
6. Rewrite the following conversations in Reported Speech.
A "Sally, would you like to go out tonight for a change?" Daniel asked.
"What a lovely idea! Why don't we go for a meal?" Sally said.
"Well ...mm... possibly, but I've already bought two tickets for the opera," Daniel said.
"Even better. But I'll walk out if you fall asleep like the last time!" Sally threatened.
"Not at all! I only had my eyes closed to enjoy the music," Daniel explained.
"All right then, I'll go, but you should keep your mouth closed if you're going to snore," Sally
said.
…Daniel asked Sally if she would like to…………………………………………………...
B "John's late," said Mr Brown.
"He must have got stuck in traffic,"" said Sandra. "Shall I phone him?"
"No, you needn't phone him, but you'd better tell his secretary to check today's diary. He may
have an appointment this morning," said Mr Brown.
…Mr Brown said that John was late.…………………………………………………..

When we report a speaker’s words we don’t just apply rules mechanically, we interpret
what we hear or read, so we use appropriate reporting verbs (introductory verbs) like the
following:

Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech


agree + to-inf “Yes, I’ll do it again.” He agreed to do it again.
demand “Tell me the truth!” He demanded to be told the
truth.
offer “Would you like me to drive He offered to drive me home.
you home?"
promise “I will pay you on Friday.” He promised to pay me on
Friday.
refuse “No, I won’t tell you her He refused to tell me her
secret.” secret.
threaten + to-inf / that “Keep quiet or I’ll punish He threatened to punish me
you." if I didn’t keep quiet.
claim “I witnessed the crime.” He claimed to have witnessed
the crime.
advise + sb + to-inf “You should talk about your He advised me to talk about
problem." my problem.
allow "You can use my phone." He allowed me to use his
phone.
ask “Please, close the door.” He asked me to close the door.
He begged me not to hit the
beg "Please, please don't hit the dog.
dog." He commanded me to move
command “Move to your right” to my right.
He encouraged me to say
encourage “Go ahead, say what you what I thought.
think.” He forbade us to come home
forbid “You mustn't come home after after eleven.
eleven.” He instructed me to mix the
instruct “Mix the eggs with the flour." eggs with the flour.
He invited me (to go) to his
invite sb “I’d like you to come to my party.
party." He ordered me not to leave
order “Don't leave your room my room again.

92
again." He permitted/allowed me to
permit "You may speak to the judge." speak to the judge.
He reminded me to turn the
remind "Don't forget to turn the lights lights off.
off." He urged me to try to have
urge "Try to have sympathy for the sympathy for the family.
family." He warned me not to touch
warn “Don't touch the wire with the wire with wet hands.
wet hands." He wanted me to be kind.
want "I'd like you to be kind." He accused me of acting as if
accuse sb of + -ing form “You acted as if you were I were guilty.
guilty." He apologised for hurting
apologise for “I’m sorry I hurt you.” me.
He admitted (to) being
admit (to) “Yes, I was wrong.” wrong.
He boasted about being the
boast about “I’m the fastest runner of all.” fastest runner of all.
He complained to me about
complain to sb about “You always argue.” my arguing.
He denied eating/having
deny “No, I didn’t eat your cake.” eaten my cake.
He insisted on me/my
insist on “You must wear that blouse.” wearing that blouse.
He suggested ordering a
suggest “Let’s order a pizza.” pizza.
He agreed that she was very
agree + that-clause “Yes, she’s very kind.” kind.
He claimed that he had seen
claim “I saw the accident.” the accident.
He complained that I never
complain “You never ask my opinion.” ask his opinion.
He denied that he had ever
deny “I have never met her!” met her.
He exclaimed that it was a
exclaim “It’s a tragedy!” tragedy.
He explained that it was a
explain “It’s a complicated problem.” complicated problem.
He informed me that my
inform sb “Your request is being request was being reviewed.
reviewed.” He promised that he wouldn't
promise “I won’t be late.” be late.
He suggested that I give her a
suggest “You ought to give her a call.” call.
“That’s how I succeeded.” He explained to me how he
explain to sb + how had succeeded.
He asked himself, "How old is He wondered how old she
wonder where/what/ she?'' was.
why/how + clause (when the He asked himself, "Where are He wondered where his keys
subject of the introductory my keys?" were.
verb is not the same as the He asked himself, "Why is she He wondered why she was so
subject in the indirect so cold?" cold.
question) He asked himself, 'What is the He wondered what the right

93
right answer?" answer was.
He asked himself, "Shall I He wondered whether to
wonder + whether + invite them?" invite them.
to-inf or clause He wondered whether he
should invite them.
He asked himself, "Where He wondered where to go.
wonder where/what/ how + shall I go?" He wondered what to read
to-inf (when the subject of the He asked himself, "What shall first.
infinitive is the same as the I read first?"
subject of the verb) He asked himself, "How shall He wondered how to tell her.
I tell her?"
/adapted from Round-up 6. Virginia Evans/

7. Verb patterns in reported speech


Report the following direct speech, using the verbs given.
'Why don't you accept the offer?' I said to her.
a. I suggested ________________________________
b. I advised __________________________________
c. I recommended _____________________________
'You really must settle your debts,' he said to me.
d. He insisted ________________________________
e. He told ___________________________________
f. He ordered ________________________________
g. He made __________________________________
h. He urged __________________________________
'I'll pay you back tomorrow,' she said to me.
i. She said ____________________________________
j. She told ____________________________________
k. She explained _______________________________
1. She promised _______________________________
m. She insisted __________________________________
'Please, please let me come with you,' she said to her father.
n. She begged __________________________________
o. She pleaded __________________________________
/from Headway English Course. Advanced Workbook/

8. Report the following using an appropriate introductory verb from the list below.
promise, apologise, remind, complain, deny, inform, order, allow, encourage, forbid
1. "The exam papers are still being marked, Jane," the teacher said.
…The teacher informed Jane that the exam papers were still being marked. ……………..
2. "Don't forget to thank your mother," he said to Linda. ………………………………….
3. "You mustn't come here again," she said to the tramp. ………………………………….
4. "I didn't hit him," Sarah said. …………………………………………………………….
5. "I'll tidy up when I return home, Mum," Tim said. ………………………………………
6. "I'm sorry I forgot to do the homework," she said to the teacher. ………………………..
7. "You may see her for a few minutes," the nurse said to me. …………………………….
8. "Get off the grass immediately!" he said to the kids. ……………………………………
9. "You're always forgetting to shut the fridge door," she said to her husband . …………..
10. "Come on! Try it again," he said to me. ………………………………………………..

9. First write an appropriate introductory verb, then report the following situations.

94
1. "You should go to a doctor." advise He advised me to go to a doctor.
2. "The bread is stale."
3. "I will buy you a present."
4. "You ought to tell her the news."
5. "I'm sorry I insulted you."
6. "Shall I help you?"
7. "Give me a statement or I'll detain you."
8. "Don't go near the fire!"
9. "That's why I didn't go."
10. "I didn't steal the money."
11. "Let's go out tonight."
12. "You must spend Christmas with us."
13. "Please, please give me some money!"
14. "Don't forget to tell Ann!"
15. "Yes, she's a good person."
16. "Shall I call her?" he asked himself.
17. “Can you pass me the salt, please?"
18. "Yes, I'll help you."
19. “Would you like a cup of tea?”
20. "I'll never forget your birthday again."
21. "No, I won't get out of bed."
22. "Tell me where he is."
23. "You ought to stop smoking."
24. "You mustn't be back later than ten.”
25. "She's such a funny person!"
26. "Everybody be quiet!"
27. "You may see Mr Rogers."
28. "Go on, do as you want."
29. "Yes, I lied about my age."
30. "You made Sophie cry."
31. "I saw the murderer."
32. "I'm the fastest swimmer of all."
33. "That's how you can do it."
34. "What shall I do?"

10. Report the following conversation.


"Oh, I'm sorry to be early, Susan," said Jane. "Am I the first to arrive?"
"Yes, you are," Susan replied, "but it really doesn't matter."
"No, I am terribly sorry. The babysitter arrived early," said Jane.
"Well, why don't you help me in the kitchen?" said Susan. "Of
course. What would you like me to do?" replied Jane. "Oh, no! I
can smell the sausages burning," Susan cried, "I'd forgotten all
about them. I hope they're not burnt." "You must let me see to
them," Jane said. "Go ahead and greet your guests. I think I can
hear the first ones arriving."
...Jane apologised to Susan for being early..................................

95
Punctuation in Direct Speech
 We capitalize the first word of the quoted sentence. The full stop, the question
mark, the exclamation mark and the comma come inside the inverted commas.
The comma comes outside the inverted commas only when "he said/asked"
precedes the quoted sentence.
"She is on holiday," he said. He said, "She is on holiday." "She," he said, "is on
holiday." We do not use a comma after the question mark. "Shall we go out?" he
asked, but: He asked, "Shall we go out?"
 The subject pronoun comes before the reporting verb (said, asked etc) whereas
the noun subject often comes after "said", "asked" etc at the end or in the middle of
the quoted sentence.
"She failed the test," he said. "She failed the test," said Tom. "She," said Tom, "failed the
test."but: He/Tom said, "She failed the test." (not: Said Tom, "She failed the test.")
 Each time the speaker changes we normally start a new paragraph.

11. Punctuate the following making any other necessary changes.


1. Shall we play tennis on Saturday she asked 5. Red is my favourite colour Tom said
2. Colin his mother said is not here 6. Danny said I play the piano
3. He said stop it 7. Do you prefer basketball or football Peter asked
4. Why are you late the teacher asked 8. Barbara said I wasn't even there

12. Turn the following into a conversation. Mind the puctuation.


The policeman ordered the driver to step out of his car. The driver agreed, but he wondered what
the matter was. The policeman inquired if the driver had been speeding, but the driver denied it.
The policeman explained that it was illegal to drive at more than 50 km an hour on this stretch of
road. The driver protested that he hadn’t been speeding but the policeman insisted that he had.
The policeman explained that he was obliged to give the driver a ticket for speeding. ………..
“Step out of your car!” said the policeman…

Subjunctive
The bare infinitive form of the subjunctive is used after certain verbs and expressions to
give emphasis. These are: advise, ask, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request,
suggest, it is essential, it is imperative, it is important, it is necessary, it is vital followed by
(that) + subject.
In British English we use should + simple form instead of the bare infinitive form of the
subjunctive.
He insists (that) we be here on time. (less usual) He insists (that) we should be here on time.
(more usual)

13. Give the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some of the verbs are passive.
1. It is vital that the new measures …… should bring/bring …… (bring) hooliganism under
control.
2. We demanded that he ………………………….. (change) the date of the meeting.
3. He asked that we………………………... (be) sure to include everything in the list.
4. She insisted that his identity ……………………………… (reveal) to the press.
5. We suggested she ……………………………………………(consult) her lawyer.
6. It is important that he …………………………………. (remain) unseen for a while.
7. We requested that our luggage ………………………………(deliver) to our hotel.
8. It is essential that no one else ………………………... (get) involved in this affair.
9. The specialist recommended that she ………………… (take) some time off work.
10. It is necessary that negotiations …………………… (continue) on both sides.
14. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.
1 He reminded me to post the letter.

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told He …… told me not to forget …………………………… to post the letter.
2 "Let's try that new Thai restaurant," she said.
trying She ……………………………………………………… new Thai restaurant.
3 "Yes, I gave away your secret," she said.
giving She …………………………………………………………….. my secret.
4 "I'm sorry I lost the book you lent me," he said.
apologised He ……………………………………… the book I had lent him.
5 "Don't go too near the edge of the cliff," they said to us.
warned They ……………………………………….too near the edge of the cliff.
6 "No, I didn't steal the company's money," the manager said.
havingThe manager ……………………………………… the company's money.
7 "What shall I do?" she said.
wondered She …………………………………………………………………..do.
8 "You've caused a lot of pain to my family," she said to him.
of She ……………………………………………… …..a lot of pain to her family.
9 He told the manager he was dissatisfied with the service.
about He ………………………………………………………………….. the service.
10 "You must apply for the teaching post," he said to me.
on He …………………………………………………………….. the teaching post.
11 "I'd like you to come to Paris with me," he said to her.
go He ……………………………………………………………. to Paris with him.
12 "Please, please don't give us any homework," they said to the teacher.
not They ……………………………………………….give them any homework.
13 "That's how I managed to escape," he said to me.
how He ………………………………………………… he had managed to escape.
14 "I'll never forget our anniversary again," he said.
would He ……………………………………………………... their anniversary again.
15 "You should try to find another job," he said to me.
me He …………………………………………………………... to find another job.
16 "Yes, it was a very dull lecture," she said.
that She ………………………………………………………….. a very dull lecture.
17 "No, I won't tell you where I was last night," he said to her.
her He ……………………….. ………………where he had been the night before.
/ from Round-up 6. Virginia Evans/

15. Find the mistake and correct it.


1. They suggested to see the film. ……..They suggested seeing the film........................
2. She asked me where was I going. ……………………………………………………
3. Can you tell me what time is it? ……………………………………………………..
4. He told me to not touch the parcel. ………………………………………………….
5. I wonder why did he lie to me……………………………………………………….
6. The suspect denied to murder the young woman. …………………………………..
7. They accused him to have committed the crime. ……………………………………
8. She asked me, "Where the bank is?" ………………………………………………
/Grammar for First Certificate. Louise Hashemi and Barbara Thomas/

16. Turn the following into a conversation. Mind the punctuation.


Christine complained that their house was too small. She suggested looking for somewhere
bigger. Wayne asked her why she wanted to move. He pointed out they had only moved in a year
before. She reminded him that he had said it would only be temporary. He agreed, but told her
that his business hadn't been very successful so they couldn't afford to move yet. Christine asked
if they would be able to move the following year. She said that the baby was growing up fast and
that he needed his own room. Wayne admitted that she was right, but asked her to be patient. He
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promised that they would move as soon as they could afford it.
…….. "Our house is too small," said Christine………………………………………..

17. Rewrite the following sentences in Reported Speech.


1. "Can you make dinner tonight, Tom?" she said. "I'm working late." ...She asked Tom to make
dinner that night, explaining that she was working late. ………………...
2. "Don't play near the road," their mother said. "It's too dangerous." ………………………..
3. "Can you take the dog for a walk?" he said to her. "I'm busy." ………………………….
4. "Don't ask Simon how to use the computer," she said to me. "He doesn't know a thing about
them." ……………………………………………………………………..................................
5. "Can I borrow your pen, please?" he said to her. "I need to write something." …………….
6. "Please don't talk!" said the teacher. "This is a test." ……………………………………….
7. "Why don't you turn off the TV?" she said to him. "You aren't watching it." ……………..
8. "Come to our house tonight, Mary," he said. "Jim wants to see you." …………………….
9. "Have you read your newspaper?" he asked her." "I want to look at it." ………………….
10. "The baby should be asleep," she said. "It's ten o'clock." ………………………………..
11. "Why are you listening to this music?" he asked her. "It's awful." ………………...........
12. "Do you want to go to the cinema?" he asked her. "There's a good film on." …………..
13. "I don't want any more cake," she said. "I've had enough." ………………………..
14. "I'm learning French," she said. "I'm going to Paris on holiday." ………………….
15. "I like Susan," he said. "She's very friendly."………………………………………
16. "Tom is a good businessman," she said. "He works hard." ………………………...
17. "I like learning English," she said. "It isn't too difficult." ………………………….
18. "I'm teaching Jane's class," she said. "She's on holiday this week." ……………….
19. "You should open up your own restaurant," he said to Bill. "You are a very good cook." ……
20. "Sarah would like to own the house," he said. "She's lived here a long time." …….
21. "You could become famous, June," he said. "You're a very good singer." ………...
22. "Are you going to take the job?" he asked Jane "or will you wait for a better one?" ………….
23. "I need to buy some more oil," she said. "There is no more left." …………………
24. "Can you phone Julie?" she asked me. "I heard she has had a fight with Mark." ……………..
25. "Do you know when May will be back?" she asked. "She's been away all week." ……………
26. "Do you think we should try this new restaurant tonight?" he asked his wife. "I heard it's very
good." …………………………………………………………………...
27. "If anyone phones," she said to me, "tell them I won't be here until tomorrow." ……………..
28. "If I can't come to the wedding," said John to Mary, "I'll let you know tomorrow." ………….
29. "Shall I tell Tom about the trip?" he said to her, "or do you want to tell him yourself?" ……...
30. "Sofia shouldn't have said that to the boss," said Julian. "He's very angry." ………
31. "I'd love to go to Venice," she said. "I've never been abroad.” …………………….
32. "I must go now," said Samantha, "or I might miss the bus." ……………………….
/ from Round-up 6. Virginia Evans/

18. Correct any mistakes in the learners' sentences below.


Examples: She said us that she felt tired.
asked me if I was
My boss said was I going to work late.

1 She said last night that she isn't going to come to the party, but look, she's over there.
2 They said me they had been waiting for a long time.
3 He told that he had had a wonderful holiday.
4 I asked him what did he do.
5 Miguel was telling that you're thinking of changing your job.
6 I missed the lecture, so I asked Sheena what had they done.
7 I asked him was he free on Friday night but he said he was busy unfortunately.
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8 He asked me when did the film start.
/from Developing Grammar in Context. Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins/

Vocabulary Law and Order

The police
When someone commits a crime (= breaks the law and does something illegal/against the
law/wrong), the police do a number of things.
They investigate the crime. (= try to find out what happened and who is responsible)
If they catch (= find) the person they believe is responsible for the crime, they will arrest them.
(= take them to the police station because they think the person has committed the
crime)
At the police station, they question them. (= ask them questions)
If they are sure that the person committed the crime, the person is charged with the crime.
(= the police make an official statement that they believe the person committed the crime)
For a serious crime (e.g. murder), the person must then go to court for trial. [see the next
section]

In court

In court, the defendant must try to prove (= provide facts to show something is true) that they
did not commit the crime. In other words, they must try to prove that they are innocent (opp
guilty). Twelve members of the public (called the jury) listen to the evidence (= information
about the crime, for and against) and then make their decision. People who see a crime are
witnesses, and they usually give evidence at a trial.

Punishment (= what a person must suffer if they do something wrong)


If someone is guilty of a crime, the judge will give the sentence (= the punishment). If a person
is guilty of murder, the sentence may be 10-20 years in prison or the judge may sentence
him/her to life imprisonment. If a person pleads guilty, the punishment may be more lenient
(less harsh). Then the person is convicted and becomes a prisoner.
When the prisoner has served/done the sentence, he is released (=made free).
For crimes that are not serious (called minor offences, e.g. illegal parking), the punishment is
usually a fine. (= money you have to pay)
Prosecution (the process of being officially charged with a crime in court) for a first minor
offence rarely leads to imprisonment.
If someone is found not guilty of a crime, they are acquitted.

1. Put this story in the correct order. The first event has been given.
a they found both men guilty.

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b and charged them with the robbery.
c £10,000 was stolen from a bank in the High Street. 1
d After the jury had listened to all the evidence
e The judge gave the men a prison sentence of five years.
f The trial took place two months later.
g and they finally arrested two men.
h They questioned them at the police station
i The police interviewed a number of witnesses about the crime

2. Answer the questions.


1. Who investigate(s) crimes? …police…
2. Who sentence(s) people? ………….
3. Who live(s) in prison? ………….
4. Who decide(s) if someone is innocent or guilty? ………….
5. Who defend(s) people and present(s) evidence? ………….
6. Who commit(s) crimes? ………….

3. Fill the gaps with the correct word.


1 A: Have you ever …………. the law?
B: No, never.
2 A: Does anyone know why she …………. the crime?
B: I think she needed the money.
3 A: Is it legal to ride a motorbike without a licence?
B: No, it's …………. the law.
4 In Britain it is …………. to drive a car without insurance.
5 If you drive through a red light, you will have to pay a ………….
6 The defendant must try to …………. he or she is innocent.
7 The jury must decide if the defendant is innocent or ………….
8 Before they reach a decision, the jury must look at the …………. carefully.
9 If someone is guilty of murder, the …………. will be at least ten years in prison.
10 He has been in trouble before, but it was only a minor ………….

4. Read the text, then write your answers to the questions below, based on your knowledge
of the law in your own country. If possible, discuss your answers with someone else.

Two 15-year-old boys broke into a house when the owner was out, and took money and
jewellery worth about £900. The owner reported the crime when she got home at 6pm.

1. Will the police investigate this crime?


2. How will they investigate? What will they do?
3. Do you think the police will catch the two boys?
4. If they do, what crime will they be charged with?
5. Can boys of this age go to prison?
6. What do you think the sentence would be? Do you think this is the correct sentence?
/from English Vocabulary in Use, Pre-Intermediate – Intermediate, Stuart Redman/

5. Match each punishment with its description.


1. capital punishment a) a period of time in jail
2. corporal punishment b) being made to do specially hard work while in prison
3. eviction c) death
4. a heavy fine d) a punishment imposed only if you commit a further crime
5. internment e) a large sum of money to pay
6. penal servitude f) whipping or beating

100
7. a prison sentence g) regular meetings with a social worker
8. probation h) removing (a person) from a house or land by law
9. solitary confinement i) limiting the freedom of movement esp. for political reasons
10. a suspended sentence j) being imprisoned completely alone
/Tests in English: thematic vocabulary. Mariusz Misztal/

6. The words and phrases in the box are all connected to the theme of law. Put the words
under one of the headings below.
crimes punishments people legal processes

sue libel suspended sentence jury


the accused contempt of court judge counsel
arson award damages community service manslaughter
weigh up the evidence fraud speeding witness
return a verdict cross examine solitary confinement
Add another word or phrase to each category.

7. Use words and phrases from 6 to complete these sentences.


a) What's the difference between the two? Well, slander is when you say something about
someone which isn't true. __________ is when you publish it, and that's when people
generally take action.
b) If a person is on trial for murder the press can't refer to them as 'the murderer'. They have
to say '__________'.
c) You're guilty of __________ when you didn't kill the victim deliberately.
d) You __________ someone if you want to claim money from them because they have
harmed you in some way.
e) The jury has to listen to the case, __________ and then __________.
f) A __________ means that you don't actually have to go to prison unless you commit
another crime.
g) '__________' is a more formal term for a legal adviser.
h) __________ can be anything from teaching kids to play football to cutting the grass.
Obviously, it's not paid.
/from Inside Out. Advanced. Workbook. Ceri Jones with Russel Stannard/

8. Complete each sentence (a-j) with a suitable ending (1-10). Use each ending once.
a) I decided to buy a burglar alarm after someone broke _______________
b) When Alan was stopped outside the supermarket he ended _____________
c) As it was Sheila’s first offence she was let _____________
d) After climbing over the prison wall, Peter managed to get _______________
e) The old couple who live opposite were taken _______________
f) At the end of the trial Hilary was found ________________
g) My neighbours admitted denting my car but got away _______________
h) The bank at the end of the street was held _______________
i) Nobody saw Jack cheating and he got away with _______________
j) The hijackers took fifteen people _______________

1 in by a salesman who cheated them out of their money.


2 away by stealing a car parked nearby.
3 up at the police station, charged with shoplifting.
4 it, although everyone suspected what had happened.
5 into my house and stole my stereo.
6 off with only a warning.
7 with paying only £100 damages.
8 hostage and demanded £ 1,000,000 from the authorities.
101
9 guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.
10 up by two masked men last week.
9. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Use each word once only.

accused evidence guilty lawyer statement charged fine


jury sentence suspect

a) The customs officers arrested Bob and ______________ him with smuggling.
b) The police spent all morning searching the house for _________________ .
c) Jean left her car in a no-parking area and had to pay a/an ______________ .
d) Unfortunately at the end of the trial my brother was found ______________ .
e) The trial took a long time as the _______________ couldn’t reach a verdict.
f) George won his case because he had a very good defence ______________ .
g) The police visited Dawn and asked her to make a/an _________________ .
h) Because of his past criminal record, Brian was the main _____________ .
i) Pauline decided to sue the police because she had been wrongly ______________ .
j) The murderer of the children received a life _________________ .

10. Rewrite each sentence so that the meaning stays the same.
a) They said that John had stolen the money.
They accused ______________________________________________________________
b) Ian said that he hadn’t punched anybody.
Ian denied _________________________________________________________________
c) ‘OK, Andy, you can go now,’ said the detective.
The detective gave Andy _____________________________________________________
d) ‘James Frogget, you will go to prison for ten years,’ said the judge.
The judge sentenced ________________________________________________________
e) ‘I forged the signature,’ said Mary.
Mary admitted _____________________________________________________________
f) Harry stole £ 60,000 and was arrested.
Harry was arrested __________________________________________________________
g) ‘We saw the accused break into the car,’ said the witnesses.
The witnesses stated ________________________________________________________
h) Graham said that he wouldn’t go to the police station.
Graham refused ___________________________________________________________
i) ‘It’s true,’ said Norman, ‘I murdered Alan.’
Norman confessed to _______________________________________________________
j) ‘Can you come with me, please,’ the detective said to Helen.
The detective asked ________________________________________________________
/from First Certificate Language Practice. English grammar and vocabulary. Michael Vince with Paul Emmerson/

11. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.
The young man had lived in a slum area of the city all his life and it was just a matter of time
before he was in (1)_____ with the law. At school, which he hardly ever attended, not only did
he (2)_____ the school property but he was also a bully, frightening and beating up other
children. When he was fifteen, he was (3)_____ for breaking into a local shop. At the age of
sixteen, he was (4)_____ with assault. He got off with two years' (5)_____ for this and was set
free. Within six months, he was back in (6)_____ after he had been arrested for stealing cars.
This time, he was (7)_____ to two years in prison. After his release, he again turned to crime.
This time it was bank robbery. At his trial he pleaded (8)_____, despite the fact he had been
caught red-handed. He was found (9)_____ and the judge sentenced him to ten years (10)_____.
Sociologists blame his background, while others say he was just bad.

102
1. A problems B defence C trouble D court
2. A mug B vandalise C thieve D rob
3. A accused B charged C sentenced D arrested
4. A charged B accused C released D suspected
5. A punishment B bail C probation D fine
6. A court B probation C jail D trial
7. A punished B accused C committed D sentenced
8. A guilty B suspicion C innocent D free
9. A suspicious B guilty C illegal D against
10. A prison B probation C offence D imprisonment
/from First Certificate: Reading. Patrick McGavigan and John Reeves/

12. Terms of acquittal. These words have been left out of the BBC report below. Say where
they go. Each word is used once. Not all the numbered gaps in the report indicate a missing
word.

a acquittal c allegations e charges g not guilty


b acquitted d charges f found h trial

Imelda Marcos acquitted


A court in New York has ……………..(1) Mrs Imelda Marcos – the widow of former President
Marcos of the Philippines - …………….. (2) of fraud and racketeering. The ………….. (3)
related …………….. (4) to ……………… (5) that Mrs Marcos stole more than $200 million
from the Philippines treasury and ……………… (6) used some of it to buy four buildings in
New York, as well as jewellery and works of art.
The Saudi arms dealer and businessman, Mr Adnan Khashoggi, was ……………… (7) on
………………… (8) of helping her by obstructing justice. In Manila, President Aquino
expressed disappointment ……………… (9) at the ………………. (10) of Mrs Marcos, and said
the ban on her return to the country would remain in effect. However, she added that
…………… (11) at the appropriate time, Mrs Marcos would have to stand …………….. (12) in
a Philippines court.
/adapted from Key Words in the Media. Bill Mascull/

13. Put each of the following words and phrases into its correct place in the passage below.
Sometimes you need to change the form of the word given.

accused acquit civil suits counsel


court cross-examinations fault guilty
judge jurors jury legal disputes
legislature list money officer
panel sentence swear testimony
trial witnesses

Trial by Jury
A jury is a selected group of laymen that hears the (1)_______________ in (2)______________
and decides the facts. A courtroom trial in which a (3)_______________ decides the facts is
called a (4)____________ by jury.
Before each (5)______________ term, a jury commissioner or another public (6)_____________
prepares a panel, or large initial (7)______________ of qualified jurors. For each trial,
(8)____________ are selected by lot from this (9)______________ . Before the trial begins, the
jurors (10)_____________ to decide the facts fairly. They hear the (11)______________ given
by witnesses for both sides, including (12)______________ . Then (13)_____________ for each

103
side sum up, or summarize the case and the (14)____________ explains the applicable law in his
instructions to the jury.
In (15)____________ for financial damages, the jury must decide who is at (16)_____________
and must determine the amount of (17)______________ to be paid. In criminal cases, the jury
must decide whether or not the (18)_______________ is guilty “beyond a reasonable doubt”,
and then either return a verdict of guilty, or (19)______________ the defendant by a verdict of
not guilty. If the verdict is (20)______________, the judge imposes the (21)_____________ , or
punishment, within limits that have been fixed by the (22)_______________ .
/Tests in English: thematic vocabulary. Mariusz Misztal/

14. Use the word on the right to form a new word to fill each gap in this passage.

Does prison work?

There are several generally accepted (1)______________ about prison. BELIEVE


Firstly, that prison is a social (2)_____________ against anti-social people. DEFEND
In short, it keeps us (3)_______________. Secondly, that prison punishes SAVE
wrongdoers through their (4)________________ of freedom. Thirdly, that it LOSE
teaches convicts the error of their ways, so that when they are released, they
can enter back into (5)________________ life as law-abiding citizens. DAY
However, there is growing (6)______________ that prison is not always the EVIDENT
best (7)_______________ to the problems of crime that we face. Several SOLVE
(8)______________ studies have shown that prison is not nearly as SCIENCE
(9)______________ to society as we might imagine. There are several BENEFIT
(10)_____________ for this. EXPLAIN
The (11)____________ conditions in most prisons mean that TERROR
(12)_____________ criminals rarely receive a positive education. Rather, PRISON
they spend their time inside with other (13)______________ who teach them PRISON
the tricks of their trade. Also, when they are released, it’s very difficult for
them to find a job, so they often feel that they have no (14)_____________ CHOOSE
but to reoffend. It’s the only thing they know. So the (15)______________ is TRUE
that they are more likely to commit crimes again when they are released than
if they hadn’t been sent to prison in the first place.
As a society, we have to pay (16)_____________ to the results of these ATTEND
findings. In (17)______________, we may be a lot PRACTISE
(18)______________ if we give criminals the SAVE
(19)_______________ to gain the practical skills they need to get a job and ABLE
live (20)_____________, productive lives, rather than just locking them SUCCEED
away. There is little (21)______________ that prison works. Perhaps now is PROVE
the time for us to take important (22)_____________ regarding our system DECIDE
of punishment. At the very least, we need to give it more (23)____________. THINK
It could be a matter of life and (24)_________. DIE
/from Skills for First Certificate: Use of English. Malcolm Mann, Steve Taylore-Knowles/

15. Debating the death penalty. This report about a vote in the British House of Commons
on restoring or reintroducing the death penalty (in Britain traditionally by hanging) comes
from the BBC. Complete the gaps with the words from the box.

support deprive miscarriage of justice bring back


sentence cut down on supporters evidence hangman deterrent

HANGING VOTE
The last judicial hanging in Britain was back in 1964. But every two years or so, (1) ……………

104
of capital punishment make an attempt to persuade the Commons to (2) ……………… the death
penalty. The latest, on Monday, saw the most emphatic rejection yet of the arguments for
bringing back the (3) …………….. . The Commons voted by a ratio of two to one that courts
should not be able to (4) ……………. convicted murderers to death. Such a decisive vote will
settle the matter for some years.
But inevitably, sooner or later the hanging lobby will make another attempt to amend the law.
For while MPs have turned their backs on the biblical doctrine of 'an eye for an eye and a tooth
for a tooth', among the general public there's strong (5) …………… for the death penalty. This
was one of the main arguments used by supporters of the death penalty during the Commons
debate. Not only would the return of the rope reflect public opinion, it was argued, it would also
act as a (6) …………… to criminals and (7) ……………… the number of murders.
The anti-hanging lobby argues on practical grounds - that there's no (8) ………………… that the
death penalty functions as a deterrent - and on moral grounds, that the state has no right to (9)
………… its citizens of the right to live.
The arguments have been well rehearsed over the years. But the most compelling argument, and
the one which most contributed to the enormous majority against hanging in Monday's vote, is
the possibility of a (10) ……………. . The 'Guildford Four' — jailed in the mid-seventies for
IRA bombings it later transpired they did not commit - might well have been hanged if the death
penalty had still been in force.

16. Does the sentence fit the crime? This article from The Times discusses typical sentences
for three types of crimes in different places. Complete the table with details of crimes 2 and
3, including details of sentencing in places not mentioned in connection with the first crime.

Lawyers uncover big divide in nations’ jail terms


Big disparities in sentencing of criminals between years.
different countries, even within Europe, are In a case or burglary of a stately home, goods worth
revealed in a survey to be published at the biennial £90,000 were taken and later recovered from a man
conference of the International Bar Conference in with a substantial record of theft. Canada said it
Cannes later this month. The survey team put a would impose a jail sentence of five to seven years,
series of hypothetical cases to legal authorities in Kenya three years plus hard labour, Denmark one
more than 20 countries and found penalties in to two years and the Cook Islands probation of
Europe varied by more than 10 years for crimes three months. Texas suggested ten years' jail and
such as rape and by more than 40 years when England suggested from three to seven years.
countries from different continents are compared. Likely sentences for a domestic assault case, where
In one question, a 19-year old man had been found the husband broke his wife's nose, where there was
guilty of raiding a bank with four other people, a long history of disputes and previous charges of
masked and armed with a machinegun. He was assault, ranged from between six and eighteen
unemployed, the youngest member of the gang, and months in Canada to 30 or 40 days in Denmark,
the £800,000 had been recovered. The defendant possibly suspended. Six months' imprisonment was
had several convictions for petty theft. Canada likely in Kenya, a fine in Scotland and ten days' jail
suggested a likely sentence of three to five years. in Texas. The likely sentence in England is six
Norway two to three years and Denmark six years. months, suspended for two years.
Spain said four years, two months and a day, and Peter Michael Muller, an attorney in Munich and
Ireland five to six years for a not guilty plea. chairman of the association's criminal law
England said ten to 14 years, or five years in a committee which conducted the survey said the
young offenders' institution, and Texas ten findings would help practitioners in transnational
criminal law and could lead to sentencing reforms.

Crime no. 1: Crime no. 2: Crime no. 3:


Bank robbery ______________ ______________

105
Canada 3-5 years

Denmark 6 years

England 10-14 years (or 5


years in a young
offenders' institution)
Ireland 5-6 years

Norway 2-3 years

Spain 4 years, 2 months, l


day

Texas 10 years

17. Reading A glamorous profession?


Put together this article from Today by rearranging the sections. (The first section is a.)
Where legals dare
a In the TV series LA Law, courtroom drama is all in a day's work. The reality in
England is slightly different. Barristers spend many hours in court, but few cases are
action-packed. And a solicitor's day is more likely to be spent reading out a will than
solving a juicy murder.
b But spokesman for the Bar Council Graham McMillan believes a life in law can be
very glamorous. 'In higher courts you can get a lot of courtroom drama, and barristers
have to be very quick on their feet.'...
c Both careers take the same initial route - and only the cream of students need apply.
d It's a fact lost on scores of people who, seduced by LA Law's exciting plots, write into
The Law Society's careers officer Jenny Goddard. 'Things are very different here,'...
says Jenny. 'A lot of people, though, do see the Crown Court as very exciting. It's hard
to generalise because there are so many different branches of the profession, from
personal legal advice to selling your house.'
e Solicitors do, however, present cases in magistrate's courts. Getting into the profession
is not easy. There are only 70,000 solicitors in Britain, and 7,000 barristers - just over
1,000 of whom are women. …
f The main difference between British and American lawyers is that the US legal eagles
are all-rounders who both prepare and present cases. Here, solicitors do the litigation
(prepare the case) and barristers do the advocacy (present the case) in Crown Court and
upwards.
/adapted from Key Words in the Media. Bill Mascull/

106
Unit 4
1. Fill in the gaps with suitable words.
The British public is getting worried, because crimes (1)___________ theft and burglary and
violent crimes are on the increase. As a result, the government has decided to take (2)_________
measures on all types of crime, including relatively petty (3)___________, and has created
legislation which gives more power to the (4)_____________.
The effect of the new (5)______________ was seen recently when a young man gave his
girlfriend a pair of earrings for her birthday. He had bought the items from a street trader without
knowing where they had come from. They had been stolen. Due to his ignorance, he (6)_______
for handling stolen goods and was put in a (7)___________.
In the eyes of the law in Britain, there's no difference between what the young man did and what
the average thief or burglar does with their loot. The young man was (8)__________ of handling
goods which (9)_______________ and so he was (10)_______________ the law.
In court, the judge said he would use the case to (11)______________ others and consequently,
the youth is now serving a nine-month (12)_____________. 'Anybody who deals in anything that
has been stolen is (13)_______________ an offence,' said the judge. 'Legally, there is no
difference between stealing something yourself or having it in your possession. Possession of
stolen goods can result in the individual being charged and (14)_________________.'
From the above case, it is clear that the government has decided to crack down on all forms of
crime and has instructed judges not to show (15)_____________ to those breaking the law.
'Criminals must know that if they get caught, juries are likely to be harsh and therefore (16)____
terms will be long,' said a government spokesperson.

2. Fill in the gaps with suitable words.


There are many (1)_________ for crime. Social scientists suggest that (2)__________ behaviour
is due to social issues like unemployment, poor housing and lack of education. Therefore, they
suggest that we can only (3)____________ crime by turning our attention to such issues and as a
result help to improve society in general.
Others believe that people should take responsibility for their actions and that crime cannot be
excused because of poverty or lack of education. Such people argue that strong (4)___________
should be taken against the smallest of offences, so that the (5)_____________ do not move on
from petty to more (6)_____________ crime.
One thing that all people agree on is that the fear of crime has a detrimental effect on society and
consequently communities should be helped to understand the real (7)___________ of crime in
their area. The old saying 'Prevention is better than cure" is still valid, with a lot of local
authorities setting up Crime Prevention Programmes for schools, businesses and homeowners. In
many cases, these help to (8)______________ fear and also the incidence of crime, because of
the clear information and practical suggestions they provide.
/adapted from First Certificate: Reading. Patrick McGavigan and John Reeves/

3. Read the text below, use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word
that fits in the space in the same line.
Video Cameras in the Street

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The British are without doubt the most (1)_____________ watched people in THOROUGH
the world. Although there are video cameras on nearly every street corner, the
public seem (2)______________ of their existence. Video cameras record AWARE
drivers who do not stop for a red traffic light, (3)_______________ between COLLIDE
vehicles, reckless driving and (4)________________ of the speed limit on VIOLATE
motorways. One (5)________________ as to why these cameras are not EXPLAIN
considered an invasion of (6)______________ is that both men and women PRIVATE
feel safer knowing cameras can provide a form of (7)______________ . PROTECT
Citizens know that help is always available because guards are (8)__________ CONSTANT
watching the cameras. Cameras have also contributed to the combating of
(9)_____________ at football matches and sports events, as the fans know HOOLIGAN
they are under (10)_____________ and their behaviour is much better than it SURVEY
used to be. Video cameras and (11)______________ systems can keep the rise SECURE
in the crime rate under control.
/First Certificate: Use of English. Judy Copage with Tests by Jain Cook/

4. Put each of the following words and phrases into its correct place in the sentences below.

possessing addiction addict drug dealing


drug dealers drug abuse drug-taking coming off
drug use take deprived of drug trafficking
drug habit

1. He does not smoke or _____________ drugs.


2. She was a drug ______________ (= could not stop using drugs).
3. He was charged with ___________.
4. Local people banded together to fight the _________________ .
5. Children need to be educated on the dangers of ___________ .
6. For drug addicts, the need to feed the ______________ takes priority over everything else.
7. They held an international forum on _____________ in New York.
8. The travel company is just a front for _________________.
9. Many of them had been initiated into ________________ at an early age.
10. She denies _______________ the drug with intent to supply.
11. Some addicts suffer violent mood swings if they are _______________ the drug.
12. ______________ the drug was a long and painful process for him.
13. He turned to crime to support his _________________ .
/adapted from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary/

108
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