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Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries


University of Chittagong

Post Harvest Technology


MS: 211

Prepared by:
Sanjit Chandra Debnath
26/06/12
Session:2009-10

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Content

A Hand note on Post-Harvest Technology


By

CONTENTS
Chapter Topic Page

1 Microbiology of fish spoilage …03

2 Assessment and control of Fish and Shellfish quality … 10

3 Wet fish and Shellfish handling and preparation … 14

4 Fish and Shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling,


Freezing, Salting, Drying, Smoking, Canning … 19

5 Modern packing methods … 33

6 Application of HACCP in Fish Processing technology…37

Sanjit Chandra Debnath


ID: 10207037
Session: 2009-10
Institute of Marine Sciences & Fisheries
University of Chittagong

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

Spoilage: [2007,09,11]
Spoilage may be defined as any undesirable changes of food from its
normal status.
Spoilage of fish is the result of complicated changes brought in the dead
tissue by its own enzymatic, bacterial and chemical action. In fact, it
regards with any changes in flavor, texture, aroma or appearance of food
that renders it undesirable or unpalatable of human consumption.

How does fish spoilage occur: [2009,10]


When a sea food fails to show the desired standard of palatability, then it
is considered as spoilage.
 It is mainly due to the action of the micro-organisms.
 Most food stuff serve as good media for the growth of different
micro-organisms and they spoil the sea food gradually through a
number of physical and biochemical changes.

The process may be occurred as like as follows –


Proteolytic micro-organisms
Protein Amino acid + Amines + NH3 + H2S

Carbohydrate fermenting
Carbohydrate Acids + Alchohol + gases
micro-organisms

Lipo-lytic micro-oganisms
Fat fatty acid + glycerol

Causes of spoilage:
 Enzymatic action
 Microbial action
 Mechanical action
 Accidental action
Here, first two are natural and others are man made causes.

Types of spoilage:
1. Extrinsic quality defects: Man made or accidative.
2. Intrinsic quality defects: Microbial, non-microbial.

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

Main symptoms of rotten fish:


Physical (In market): [2011]
♣ Body loses firmness and retains finger indentation.
♣ Eyes become dull and sunken.
♣ Gills become pale pink, brownish or grey and covered with
mucus.
♣ Anus wet, swollen and red.
♣ Flash very soft and flabby.

Chemical (In lab): [2011]


 Reaction of flash (Litmas test): Alkaline reaction shows the fish is
not able for consumption that means rotten.
 Presence of free NH3 and H2S.
 Presence of indole content: Presence of indole content of 32-40
mg/5g fish (30-40 %) indicates the fish is unfit for consumption.
 Presence of TMA (Tri Methyl Amine): Presence of TMA in marine
fishes 0.2-3.0 mg/100g flesh indicates the fish is unfit for consume.
 Presence of the content of volatile bases (30-36 mg/L of volatile
nitrogenous bases show spoilage for fish).

Different stages of fish spoilage: [2011]


The flash and internal organs of an alive fish are sterite. But when fish
dies, its normal body defense is loosen and protein, fat and carbohydrates
undergo various bio-chemical and physical changes. Thus the spoilage
occurs gradually.
The causes responsible for the spoilage of fish can be described by the
following steps –
 Release of mucus to the surface
 Rigor mortis
 Autolysis
 Bacterial decomposition

1. Release of mucus to the surface:


♣ After the dead of the fish, mucus is released from the mucus gland of
the surface due to the unfitness of fish.
♣ The mucus may cover the whole body with a thick layer of slime
amounting 2.0-2.5% of its total body weight.
♣ The slime is consisting of gluco-protein mucin which is very
favourable media for bacterial penetration inside the body.

Secretion
Fish mucus gland Mucus (gluco-protein)

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

2. Rigor mortis: [2010]


♣ After the dead of the fish, the first obvious change is stiffing of the fish
muscles, as a result of complex bio-chemical changes is called rigor
mortis.
♣ When a fish dies, the organic compounds initially glycogen in its
muscles are broken down into lactic acid due to the enzymes and
reduce the pH.
Tissue enzyme
Glycogen Lactic acid

♣ Reducing pH stimulates the enzymes that hydrolyze the creatine


phosphate into creatine and phosphoric acid. Later an ATP breaks
down into ADP and H3PO4.
Enzyme
Creatine phosphate Creatine + H3PO4
Low pH
♣ Due to the break down of ATP, the disassociated muscle proteins are
bounded into complex actinomysin.
♣ The occurrence and duration of rigor mortis generally depends on the
following factors -
 Variation of species
 Killing manner
 Storage condition
 Fish landing

3. Autolysis:
♣ The enzymatic break down of organic substances in fish is known as
autolysis. In this process protein and fat breakdown due to the action of
proteases and lipases.
♣ Firstly, protein breakdown gradually to form proteoses which is turn
breakdown to form peptones and polypeptides and finally amino acid.

Protein Proteoses Peptones Polypeptide Amino


acids
♣ Again, fats re hydrological to form glycerol and fatty acid.
Hydrolyzed
Fats fatty acid + glycerol
Lypases

♣ Autolysis produces profound structural changes which after the


consistency of the flesh that becomes soft, fall into layers along the

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

myosepta and separates from the bones. It is also creates a favourable


breeding ground of bacteria, which leading to spoilage.

4. Bacterial decomposition:
♣ Bacterial decomposition occurs particularly if proper processing is
delay. Due to the release of mucus to the body surface, bacteria
penetrate inside the fish body.
♣ Besides, by the process of autolysis, protein and fats breakdown into
amino acids and ammonia and fatty acid and glycerol respectively. All
these hydrolytic productions serve as an excellent breeding ground for
bacteria and thus bacteria decomposition occur.
♣ Here, it is mentionable that, all the species of bacteria are not
responsible for spoilage. Only some few. For example –
 Pseudomonas
 Flavobactorium
 Flexibacter
 Aeromonas
 Achromobactoe

How does fish spoilage can be controlled by different


preservation method:
Micro-organisms produce both desirable and undesirable changes in food.
Any changes in flavour, texture, appearance, constancy of flesh or
nutritive value of a raw or processed food that renders it undesirable or
unpalatable, may be defined as spoilage of food.
Proper handling and processing from the deck of fishing vessel to the
house of consumer can control any sort of spoilage. Spoilage can be
controlled by preserving food in different methods and taking care in the
following processing chain –
 Proper pre-storage treatment
 Chilling for short time storage
 Preservation
 Good cold storage

Proper pre-storage treatment:


Bacteria can not grow and multiply in a lean and hygienic condition. So,
by proper pre-storage treatment, we can easily stop the initial activities of
bacteria. It can be done through the following ways -
☺ Avoiding damage:
Since bacteria are capable of entering the fish thoroughly the damage, so
it is wise to plan a short time catch with available facilities of mechanical
handling to avoid the possible damage of the first catch.

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

☺ Washing:
The deck of fish vessels should be washed after each harvesting.
Otherwise, the blood, mucus, dust etc may contaminate the next harvest
during dumping. The washing of whole catch reduces blood, mucus and
spoilage organisms upto 70-80%.

☺ Gutting:
Because of the gut of the fish is heavily contaminated with micro-
organisms. So removing the gut as early as possible.

☺ Heading:
In case of some fish such as shrimp, heading is done due to avoid
contamination from gill inhabiting bacteria.

☺ Sorting:
Different types of fishes have different rate of spoilage. So fishes should
from
be sorted out the rapidly spoilage fishes from
to the slowly spoilage fishes.
So that, bacteria can not contaminated the slowly spoilage fishes from the
rapidly spoilage fishes.

☺ Dressing:
Scattered fishes may be contaminated easily which can be protected by
dressing them.

Chilling for short time storage:


Generally bacteria can not grow at chilling condition (0-4)oC. So by
chilling, we can prevent bacteria action as a temporary measure during
fishing time and homeward journey. Ice is given here at a ratio of 2:1
(Ice: Fish).

Preservation:
Preservation may be done by the following three points of view –
 Prevention of contamination
 Inhabitation of microbial growth
 Removal or destruction of bacteria
Bacteria generally die if the product is under taken through the following
process –
☺ Heat treatment:
All most all forms of microbial lives can be destroyed by treating at high
temperatures more than tolerance level. Generally canning is applied for
this purpose where contaminating organisms are destroyed less than 15 lb
pressure and 121o C temperature while kept within in autoclave.

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Microbiology of fish spoilage

☺ Cold treatment:
Bacteria can not survive in cold environment due to lack of water and
thus micro-organisms can not active on food. Generally chilling and
freezing are referred for this purpose.

☺ Dehydration:
Availability of water is a common factor for bacterial growth. So y
dehydration, we can naturally prevent the bacterial activity.

☺ High osmotic pressure:


By using 25% salt or 62-70% sugar, we can raise the considerable
osmotic concentration to stop spoilage.

☺ Preservatives:
Preservatives create an unfavourable condition where no microbial life is
possible. Following organic and inorganic chemical are used for this
purpose.
Organic: Ascorbic acid, Benzoic acid etc.
Inorganic: HNO3, Boric acid, Alcohol etc.

☺ Antibiotic:
Antibiotic are capable of destroying microbes and make them inactive.
Chlorotetracycline(CTC), Oxytetracycline(OTC), Niasin etc are
commonly used.
☺ Radiation:
It is the latest preservation method which may cause the death of
microbes. Generally α, β, γ and ultraviolet rays are used for this.

Good cold storage:


Re-contamination of the products may overcome by keeping them in a
cold storage at about -18o C until they become ready for distribution.

Conclusion:
Spoilage is mainly a microbiological problem. Although there is some
other physical and chemical factors helping the growth and multiplication
of microbes. So to overcome this problem, we need to regulate a number
of products which have been described here in details.

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Chapter 1
Microbiology of fish spoilage

Write down the name of some bacteria which are responsible for
spoilage:
Some bacteria which are responsible for the spoilage are given below –
☺ Non-pathogenic:
 Pseudomonas
 Achromobactor
 Flavobactor etc.

 Pathogenic:
 Anaerobic and spore forming rods Clostridium
 Escherichia coli
 Salmonella etc.

 Parasite:
 Slaphylococci
 Stereptococci

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Chapter 2
Assessment and control of Fish and Shellfish quality

Quality: [2008,11]
Simply quality means the sale ability of a product. The totality of features
and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to
satisfy a given need, degree or grade of excellence or grade of goodness
is termed as quality.
According to the modern concept, quality of a product greatly
depends on the quality of raw materials.

Quality control: [2008]


Quality control can be defined as maintenance of quality at a level which
satisfies the customer and the health authorities and which is economical
to the producer and seller. Quality control techniques are applied to the
complete manufacturing and marketing enterprise to obtain operations as
efficient as possible. Effective quality control minimizes customer
complaints that lead to loss of business.
Effective quality control of a product should address four major
generic issues –
 Design of product specification.
 Inspection of raw material and final product.
 Process control.
 Training of personnel involved in quality control and quality
assurance.

Factors responsible for quality of a product: [2008]


The factors those are responsible for quality a product is as follows –
☺ Time:
After catching the fish, they should be preserved by ice as fast as possible
to control spoilage and to ensure quality of fish.
☺ Temperature:
Temperature is the most important factor to control spoilage. Bacteria
can’t work between (0-4)o C. temperature. So, fish should be preserved at
this temperature to prevent fish from bacteria deterioration to control
quality.

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Chapter 2
Assessment and control of Fish and Shellfish quality

Describe the quality problem: [2010,11]


The common quality problems are described below –
 Bruising
 Gaping
 Mushy flesh
 Scale loss
 Enzymatic deterioration
 Bacterial spoilage

 Bruising:
Bruising occurs when fish are handled roughly such as – throwing fish,
stepping on them and banging them into hard object.

 Gaping:
It may be caused by lifting fish by tail physically tearing the muscle
tissue. But most gaping is due to rigor mortis.
Solution:
Getting fish cold as rapidly as possible to prevent gap.

 Mushy texture:
Bruised, crushed or gaped fish deteriorates more rapidly; resulting in
mushy texture early on set of rancidity and reduced shell life. That means
less value for consumer.
Solution:
Taking steps to avoid gaping and bruising to avoid mushy texture.

 Scale loss:
Some scale loss is predictable but too much losses decrease the value of
fish.

 Enzymatic deterioration:
Enzymes are chemical that are valid to the fish when they are alive. After
the dead of fish, enzymes began to breakdown protein of its flesh.

 Bacterial spoilage:
The flesh of live fish is sterile, but the extension is not. Bacteria enter any
exposed flesh after a fish’s death.

Solution:
Temperature of fish reduce in (0-4)o C, because in this temperature
bacteria become inactive.

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Chapter 2
Assessment and control of Fish and Shellfish quality

Control of quality problem:


 Chilling:
To quality assurance step can take to –
 Retard spoilage
 Extend shelf life
 Preserve value
 Boxing & loading:
Don’t lose the quality while getting ready to ship. Have to take good care
of fish.
 Handle fish gentle
 Don’t lift by the tail & don’t throw.
 Be sure that the fish are clean before packing.
 Packing of fish carefully.
 Clean up and sanitizing:
 Keep processing area clean.
 Perform full clean up & sanitizing.
 Washing down:
 Detergent should be DEC approved unscented (neutral) type
suitable for food application.
 Pressure washers are a good idea.
 Never use phenol detergents like Lysol or pinesol.

Quality assurance: [2011]


Quality assurance is a composite programme that consists of quality
standards, quality control, quality evaluation, auditing & inspection & it
applies to ensure that every one in a processing chain from the catcher to
the retailer is working to achieve a high quality end product.
Quality assurance of products i.e. consumer safety & product
quality are major factors that any food processor should consider. The
principle, concepts & application of GM & HACCP provide the tools
through which this aim could be achieved. Quality assurance serves three
major purposes –
☺ Maintenance of quality.
 Gathering of information.
 Meeting regulatory requirement.

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Chapter 2
Assessment and control of Fish and Shellfish quality

Quality control system of a product: [2007,08,10,11]


Process of quality control:
The quality of fish can be changed in any step. For this reason, we have
to know what is the duty and responsibility of us to do this work.
Also we have to know about what are the causes of our
carelessness and quality damage of fish. We should take step to control
the quality of fish by flow chart –
The level of Definite Duty/Carefulness
quality damage person/Institute

Fishing boat Fisherman & ☯ To keep the clearity.


Transformer ☯ Rapidly icing &
transforming.
☯ Keep out the chemical
material.
☯ After catching fish
clearing as much as ice.

☯ Quality full landing area.


Landing area Fisherman & ☯ Not to use the pollutant
Transformer water.
☯ To make ice from the
fresh water.
☯ To use clean tools.
☯ Take care by healthy
way.
☯ Use the sufficient ice for
freezing.

☯ Transport must not be


Transport Leaborell overloaded.
& transport ☯ To carry the fish by soft
businessme hand.
n
☯ To built the factory by
direction of HACCP.
☯ Greeding, shorting,
Industry Owner, washing & plating by
Manager, healthy way.
Supervis ☯ To use the pure water &
or ice.
☯ To take care the
maintains body of
worker.
☯ To control the own
quality.

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Chapter 3
Wet fish and shellfish handling and preparation

Handling:
Fish is one of the most peristable food items in nature. Fish spoilage is a
one way process. Fish loses its quality after death and eventually becomes
unfit for consumption. The process by which it is possible to control and
slowdown spoilage of fish that is reaches to the consumer fresh is called
handling.
Due to delicate nature and rapid deterioration of fish muscle, that
occurs if treated badly, it is extremely important to handle the fish very
carefully during all stages of transportation, retail distribution,
processing, preservation and marketing.

Why we have to care to handle the fish:


We have to care to handle the fish –
 To prevent the quality deterioration.
Quality deterioration is two types. They are –

1). Extrinsic: Man made.

2). Intrinsic:

Intrinsic

Microbial Non-
microbial

Bacteria Parasite Enzymatic Oxidation Haemorr-


hage

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Chapter 3
Wet fish and shellfish handling and preparation

Important of good handling:


♣ To increase good quality.
♣ To deliver the fish in alive condition.
♣ To deliver the fish in fresh condition.
♣ To permit longer period.
♣ To increase the consumer acceptation.
♣ To provide proper nutritive value.
Good handling of fish brings about tremendous benefits to fishermen,
processor and retailers because consumers are always demanding and
willing o pay for premium quality fish.

Benefits to fishermen:
☺ Increased landed weights.
☺ Premium price.
☺ Reasonable pay back period.
☺ Increased efficiency.

Benefits to processors:
 Faster offloading.
 Long shelf life.
 Higher output.
 Increased yield.

Handling processes:
Or, Describe handling technique of raw fish on board.
Or, Write down the handling process during transportation and
marketing.

The total process can divided into five steps. They are –
 Handling on boat
 Handling on the shore
 Handling in a processing plant
 Handling during transportation
 Handling in market

Handling on boat:
There are so many steps.
 Handling on deck:
Proper care should be taken before depositing the hold.
Problem: Darts and other materials may contaminate the deck.
Solution: Deck should be clean with clean sea water.

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Chapter 3
Wet fish and shellfish handling and preparation

After depositing the hold –


Problem 1: Sea weeds, debris and other materials which come along with
catch by contaminated.
Solution: Immediately remove.

Problem 2: Cluster of different species and size cause hamper to the each
other.
Solution: Shorting in accordance with species and size.

Problem 3: Mud, clay, dust on fish body enhance deterioration.


Solution: Cleaning by washing clean water.

Problem 4: Prolong expose or deck may spoil the fish.


Solution: The above mentioned actions should be done by within shortest
possible time.

 Handling during deheading:


Problem 1: Rotting of shrimp head may spoil the total catch by
contamination.
Solution: Shrimps are deheaded immediately after deposing, wash and
chill.
Problem 2: Head with shrimps make contaminate with headless ones.
Solution: They re stored separately.
Problem 3: Rough deheading may reduce the quality.
Solution: Deheading should be done by expert hand.

 Handling during dressing:


Problem 1: Icing may not be sufficient to chill larger fish.
Solution: They are dressed with clean knives.
Problem 2: blood and others may comment spoilage in dressed fish.
Solution: They are washed with clean sea water and chilled.

 Handling in fish held:


Problem 1: Dirty fish held may cause spoilage.
Solution: Fish held should be clean before storage.
Problem 2: Pelayed chilling may cause deterioration.
Solution: Chilling with creased ice at a ratio of 1:1 as early as possible
with utregerated sea water.
Problem 3: Improper icing may result insufficient cooling or chilling.
Solution: Ice and fish in placed with a tab in such manner each fish is
completely surrounded by ice. No fish touch the bottom walls of the tube.
They prevent warming up and melting of ice in fish hold entrance of heat
from out side in prevented. This method is done by three ways –

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Wet fish and shellfish handling and preparation

☺ Insulation of fish hold.


 Ice lining in fish hold.
 Refrigerated jacket around fish room.

Handling on the shore:


There are two works should be done. They are –
1. It should be transfer to a processing plant.
2. Transfer to the market direct.

Handling on a processing plant or units:


 Chlorinated water is used at all times for washing.
 Raw materials should be washed thoroughly with pressurized
chlorinated water.
 Poor quality shrimp or fish should be rejected.
 Pelled of broken, rotten, dehydrated and spotted are separated
during final grading.
 Before final grading, product should be washed twice with
chilled pressurized chlorinated water.
 If shrimp supply exceeds production capacity, excess shrimps are
temporarily store in stainless steel container mixes well with ice
in chilling chamber.
 Individual shrimps should be washed with chlorinated water
during processing.
 Glazing is done often freezing with 10-15 ppm chlorinated water.
 Storage temperature should be below – 2.2o C.

Handling during transport:


 Transport of fish with greater care so promptly.
 Refrigerated van is the best for transportation.
 Have to use ice box with appropriate icing.
 Bamboo basket should not be used directly in fish transportation.
Bamboo basket modified into low cost ice box can be used.
 Plastic container used in shrimp processing plant can be modified
for ice box and used in fish transportation.
 For short transportation of iced fish, metal container covered with
lid and installed with a stoppered discharge pipe at the bottom
can be used.
 Cheap and renewable insulated wooden box may be used for
transportation.
 Large quantities of live fish are transported by specia borges.
 Have to use always quicker transportation.

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Chapter 3
Wet fish and shellfish handling and preparation

Handling in market:
Problem 1: Strong sun light may cause deterioration.
Solution: Selling trays should be protected from the direct sunlight and
artificial sunlight.
Problem 2: Dirty water from ice melting may accumulate spoilage.
Solution: Selling trays may have slope to drain this water.
Problem 3: Surface dessications may cause physical destruction.
Solution: Fish is kept with clear chilled water by periodical spraying.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning

Chilling
Chilling:
Fish began to spoil as soon as they are dead and they go off five times
faster at 10o C than they do at 0o C. However spoilage can be refereed by
reducing the temperature of the fish by either chilling or freezing as soon
as possible after capture.
The main aim is to cool the fish quickly to a temperature close to 0o C
without freezing it.
Using ice is the simple and effective method. Beside this air blast chilling
can also used.

Air blast chilling:


Cooling fish or fish products to a temperature just above and as close to
0o C by forced circulation of cold air over the fish can be termed as air
blast chilling.

Super chilling:
Super-chilling means reducing the temperature of fish uniformly to a
point slightly below that obtained in melting ice, where some of the water
in the food or fish product is frozen out.
So storage of fish at the temperature between -2o C and -4o C is called
super chilling/ deep chilling.

Freezing
Freezing:
Fish freezing is a process of preservation in which the temperature of fish
and fishery products is lowered at -40o C or below most of the water
inside of fish tissue turning into ice. If fish are properly frozen and stored
at current temperature it is possible to provides a product which closely
resembles fresh fish.

Principle of freezing:
Principle of freezing:

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Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
☺ To stop the spoilage of fish and fishery products by controlling the
microbial and bio-chemical activities.
☺ To stop all kinds of enzymatic activities.
☺ To lower the temperature about -16 o C to -20 o C and maximum -
40o C.

Different types of freezing:


Slow freezing:
This is the process of gradual lowering temperature of fish upto freezing.
The temperature is usually -25 o C or lower, but may vary from -15 o C to -
29 o C and freezing may take 3 to 72 hours.

Quick freezing:
This is process of sudden decrease in the temperature of fish upto
freezing. The temperature usually -40 o C and freezing time is 30 minute o
1 hour. Quick freezing of fish is generally practiced lowering the
temperature from -1 o C to -5 o C around 30 minute and further reducing
the temperature a the end of freezing period to the recommended storage
temperature of -40 o C. this has two important parameters –
 Fast passage through the arrest period.
 Reduction of low temperature.
Deep freezing:
Deep freezing is defined as a process whereby the average temperature of
a product is reduced to 0 o F(-17.8 o C) and then kept at 0 o F or lower. This
definition does not take into account the rate of freezing and a product
that has been deep frozen may not necessarily have been quick frozen.

Double freezing:
Double freezing means freezing product, thawing or partly thawing it and
then re-freezing it. This is often used when making frozen fish products
from raw material which has previously been bulk frozen. The whole
frozen fish are defrosted and filtered, the filets are then refrozen into
blocks into uniform pieces for fish stick manufacture.

Frosting:
During the freezing process, there is loss of water from the surface of the
fish, mainly in the early stages of freezing. The moisture is deposited and
frozen on to the freezing coils of the evaporator called frosting. If the ice
is allowed to build up, it with restrict the air flow, so defrosting of the
evaporator will be necessary. If ice collects on the evaporator coils, the
heat transfer will be slow and the air will be less effectively cooled. If the

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
evaporator becomes fully iced up, there will be very little refrigeration
effect.
Describe the freezing method of shrimp: [2011]
Shrimp freezing is the most vital of all freezing plants operating for
processing of seafood. General freezing steps and methods are described
below –

Pre-freezing for freezing-


☯ Inspection for quality:
The shrimps are inspected for freshness visually. There should not be any
black spot formed. If any black spots are seen, it should be discarded.

☯ Icing:
The shrimps are iced immediately after capture and re-iced after coming
to the factory. At no stage should the temperature of shrimp be above 5o
C to maintain top quality of the final product.

☯ Grading:
Grading is done as per the size of shrimp.

☯ Weighing:
The desired quality is weighed in bulk for processing.

☯ Icing:
The graded and weighed shrimp is iced again to maintain the temperature
around 0oC.

☯ Chill store:
The iced shrimp is kept in a chilled room maintained at an operational
temperature of 4oC ± 2 oC until further processing for freezing.

All these types of pre-processed shrimps are frozen either as block or


individual quick frozen (IQF) product depending on foreign buyer’s
requirements. [2007,11]

Process Temperature (oC)


Chilling 0.6 to -2.2
Icing 0 ± 1.0
Super chilling -2.0 to -5.0
Refrigeration 4.0 ± 1.0
Freezing -8.0 to -40.0
Sharp freezing -22.0 to -28.0(slow freezing)

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Air blast freezing -40.0
Contact freezing & IQF (spiral -40.0 (quick freezing)
air blast freezing)
Immersion freezing (ordinary) < -20.0
Immersion freezing (shashimi) -50.0 to -60.0
Frozen storage -20.0 to -25.0

Method of icing fish in ice box: [2006,09]


♠ Use ice block prepared from clean and contamination free water.
♠ Use clean pound box and pestle to crush block ice, crush ice into
small pieces.
♠ If necessary, gut larger fish and wash all fish with sufficient clean
water.
♠ Put a later of ice at the bottom of the box before filling, put ice
layers on other side and a layer on the top of the fish.
♠ Stow fish at even and alternate fish and ice layer.
♠ Keep sufficient ice around the fish.
♠ Follow a fish to ice ratio of 1:2 in hotter months and 1:1 in
December-February.
♠ Change ice during transportation, as and when necessary, but at
least once in every 24 hours.

Freezing processes of fish (Processing of fish):


There are three steps of processing of fish. They are –
☺ Pre-freezing
 Freezing
 Post-freezing

☺ Pre-freezing:
 Collection of shrimp/fish:
For better quality production fish should be collected from natural and
culture source.

Washing:
After collection shrimp/fish are washed thoroughly with chlorinated (50-
60ppm) water to minimize bacteria or fungal parasite.

Grading and weighing:


After washing a primary grading is done and shrimp or fish of each grade
is weighed separately.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Temporary storage: (If the collection is so much)
If the quantity of collected shrimps excludes the capacity of the factory
then the excess shrimps or fish are temporary store in the chilling room.
This are mixed well with crustered ice and kept in stainless steel cover.

Chilling:
Before dressing the shrimps/fish are chilled by dipping them in chilled
water treated in chlorinated water.

Dressing, deheading and peeling:


If shrimps are collected with head, these are deheaded with customer
interest.

 Re-washing:
After dressing shrimps/fish are thoroughly re-washed with chilled water.

 Final grading:
Shrimp/fish are then graded finally.

 Final weighing:
Finally graded shrimp/fish are then weighed for panning.

 Panning or block making:


Finally weighed shrimp are then arranged in a manner. So that this form a
block of shrimp.

 Freezing:
This is the actual stage of preservation. Here are two types of freezer.
Air blast freezer: Cold air spree over the raw materials.
Contact plate freezer: Mostly used in processing plant.

 Post-freezing:
 Glazing:
Proving an ice protecting layer over the frozen product for protection
from dehydration. So it is done specially chilled water.

Packing:
Raped or locked in carton and they are then washed I master carton and
siled.

Storage:
We have to store all products.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning

# 1 kg of fish at 25o C needs to be frozen to -30 o C (From


Clucas and Ward,1996):
Specific heat of ice = 2.1 j/g, Specific heat of water = 4.2 j/kg, Latent heat
of water = 334.7 J. [2010]

1st step:
The temperature or 1000 g of fish will be lowered from 25 o C t o -1 o C.
= {25-(-1)} o C
= (25 + 1) o C
= 26 o C
Heat is 26 o C
Energy required = 1000g× 26 o C × 4.2 J/g
= 109200 J
= 109.2 kJ ……….. (1)

2nd step:
1 g latent heat of water = 334.7 J
1000 g latent heat of water = (1000 × 334.7) J
= 334.7 kJ ………. (2)
rd
3 step:
The temperature of 1000g fish will be lowered from -1 o C to -30 o C that
is 29 o C.
The energy required will be = (1000× 29 × 2.1) J
= 60900 J
= 60.9 kJ ………… (3)
Heat should be removed (1) + (2) + (3)
= (109.2 + 334.7 + 60.9) kJ
= 504.8 kJ
Therefore to freeze 1 kg of fish from 25 o C to -30 o C requires the
removal of 504.8 kJ of heat.

Salting
Salting:
Salting of fish is a traditional processing method in most countries of the
world. Very often salting is used in combination with drying and
smoking. The presence of sufficient quantities of common salt (NaCl) in
fish can prevent or drastically reduce bacterial action.
When fish are place in a strong solution of salt (Brine); water is removed
and salt passes into the flesh of osmosis. A concentration of between 6

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
and 10 percent salt in tissue will prevent, the activity of most spoilage
bacteria, the removal of some water from the tissue during the salting
process will also reduce the activity of the spoilage bacteria.
Commercially salt can be classified into three main groups –
☺ Solar salt
 Brine evaporated salts
 Rock salt
Salt is applied to fish by the following basic methods –

Brine salting:
The fish are immersed in a solution of salt in water. A saturated brine
solution is used.

Dry salting:
Granular salt is rubbed into the surface of the fish.
Kench salting:
The liquid granular salt is used between each layer of fish.
Pickle salting:
Fish are covered with salt and the packed in water tight containers in
layers with salt sprinkled between each layer.
The quality of salt used depends upon the type of cure required, the type
of fish and the method used. For a strongly cured product, approximately
30kg of salt per 100 kg of fish is required.

Importance of salting in Bangladesh:


 Salting is a simple and low cost fish preservation technique.
 It does not require any equipment or machinery, it can be done
everywhere.
 Salt is easily available and salting can be done throughout the
year, especially during monsoon when other low-cost
preservation like sun-drying is not possible.
 It keeps the eatable for long days compare to other preservation
methods.
 Salted fish is easily storable, transportable and marketable.
 Characteristic texture, flavour and color of the product are
relished by many people.
 Some of the salted-dehydrated fish are exported to other
countries.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning

Drying
Drying: [2007,09]
Drying is the removal of water from fish. Normally the term ‘drying’
implies the removal of water by evaporation but water can be removed by
other methods. For example, the action of salt and the application of
pressure will remove water from fish.
During drying, considerable shrinkage takes place, as well as other
irreversible changes and dried fish will not reconstitute to other original
condition.
During water drying, water ids removed from the surface of the fish and
water moves from the deeper layers to the surface. Drying takes places in
two distinct phases: -
a) Constant rate drying (velocity, relative humidity, temperature).
b) Falling drying rate.

Drying methods are following types: -


 Natural drying (The energy of sun and/ or the wind).
 Mechanical drying (Powder used, fan-driven, air stream)
 Freeze drying (High energy inputs).
 Solar drying.

Principle of sun drying: [2008,11]


Traditional sun drying is carried out in the open air using the energy of
sun to evaporate the water and air currents to carry away the vapor (Fig:
1). Low humidity facilities evaporation. However, during initial stages of
drying, evaporated vapour makes the surrounding environment humid.
Therefore, strong air flow is needed to carry away the vapour rapidly.

Humidity

Fish

Wind action Moisture Sunlight

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Theoretically, moisture content of the final product should be reduced to
less than 15-16% where most of the microbiological and enzymatic
activities are slowed own or stopped. In practice, however water content
is not reducing to this theoretical 15-16%. In commercial processing
water content is often higher when storage times are short, where salt is
used in the processing and where consumes perform an intermediate
moisture product. Local consumers generally perform unsalted products.

Important of sun drying in Bangladesh: [2009,11]


 The method of sun drying is simple and versatile.
 It does not require huge money or highly skilled man power.
 Almost all species of fish can be sun dried.
 Huge sun shine and air flow are available throughout the year.
 It can be performed everywhere, from the deck of the fishing boat
of the roof of the house.
 Nutritional quality remains intact, sometimes retains higher
quality standards compared to fish.
 The product is easy transportable, marketable and storable.
 It has good market in the country or abroad.
 Special flavour is higher relished by different ethnic (cultural)
people.

Difference between dried fish prepared from fresh fish and spoiled
fish:

Feature Dried fish prepared from Dried fish prepared from


fresh fish spoiled fish

Colour Whitish in colour. Grayish in colour.

Skin Skin is shining and glassy. Original skin is lost or distorted,


rough surface.

Flavour Fresh fishy and dried-fish Pungent-spoil flavour.


flavour.

Taste Slightly salty-sweet in taste. Bitter in taste.

Size Substantial shrinkage in the Fish becomes longer than the


after muscle occurs. Dried fish original one after drying. This
drying become shorter in size than happens due to the enlargement

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
that of the original fresh of vertical column.
fish.
Difference between dried fish prepared with pesticide and without
pesticide: [2009,11]

Feature Dried fish treated with Dried fish treated without


pesticide pesticide
1. Skin Skin smooth and shinny. Skin of fresh product shinny
and smooth but not as much as
that treated with pesticides; skin
of old products not smooth as
signs of insect bites frequently
observed.
2.Flavour Devoid of characteristic Characteristic dried fish flavour
dried fish flavour. persists all around.
3. Taste Bitter in taste at the tip of Mostly blunt or slight salty in
the tongue. taste.
4. Little or no live flies or Blow flies flying all around the
insects around; little or no products; adult pupae or casts
beetle inside the basket or of pupae are found in the
container. bucket.

Difference between dried fish prepared from added salt and without
added salt:

Feature Dried fish added with salt Dried fish added without salt
1.Surface Surface of the product No such reabsorption happens,
moist and cold due to surface dried and smooth.
reabsorption of moisture
from their air.
2.Texture Texture soft, sign of finger Texture hard and elastic.
press recognizable.
3.Taste Salty in taste. Mostly blunt taste,
occasionally mild salty.
4.Weight Heavy in weight. Light in weight.
5.Skin Skin dull or blackish. Skin shinny.
colour

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning

Traditional sun-drying of fish:


Fresh fish

Size
Sort Thickness
Spoiled or torn-belly

Dress/gut/gill Bigger species

Clean seawater
Washing Salted (2-3%) tube well water

Salting
10-12% clean salt, 10-12 hours with ice

Washing
Soaking in fresh water for 2 min

Adding calcium 0.2-0.3% (2-3 gm in 1 kg fish)


propionate 3-5% with dry salt in salted fish

Hang on covered
tunnel/box/tarpon Covered by mosquito net
rank

Check spoiled /
Damaged product

Pack on the
tunnel/rack

Trim, cut and


Airtight polythene pouch
final package

Store in clean
/cool place

Fig: Sheme for the preparation improved quality plain dried fish.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Smoking
How does a wood smoke preserve fish:
Smoking is a method of preservation that combines six important effects
in fish/shrimps muscles (Horner, 1992):
 Drying: Fires producing smoke can generate heat and dry the
fish and thus reduce the water activity so that micro-organisms
can not survive.
 Cooking: Hot smoking cooks the flesh and thus destroys
enzymes and kills bacteria.
 Preservation: Wood-smoke contains compound like phenol that
can kill bacteria.
 Anti-oxidation: Wood-smoke contains compound that acts as
antioxidant, such as phenol.
 Colour: Smoking imparts on the products highly acceptable
bright brown or reddish colour.
 Flavour: Wood smoking imparts effects of highly relished
characteristic smoke flavour.

Cold smoking:
In cold smoking the temperature of the smoke is maintained at 30 to 40 o
C. It never rises to high level where fish is cooked. Some of the cold-
smoked products are produced at a temperature of 8 to 10oC. Cold
smoking is mainly done in cold countries.

Warm smoking:
If cold smoking technique is adopted in tropical fish, comparatively
higher temperature of 55 to 60oC is applied, because proteins of tropical
species are denatured at higher temperature. The process can be called
warm smoking.

Hot smoking:
In hot smoking the fish is generally cooked at 80 to 90oC. Traditional
smoking of fish in many tropical countries is of this type where fish are
sun-dried and heavily smoked with both wood smoke and fire.
There are following methods for smoking: -

Simple smoking:
Fish are suspended above a slowly burning fire.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Natural convection smoking:
The heat from the fire causes a warm column of smoky air to rise, the fish
are hung or laid on openwork trays above the fire.

Mechanical smoking:
Electric fans or blowers are used to circulate the smoke. The flow of
smoke is horizontal.

Comparison between the cold smoking and hot smoking: [2007]

Cold smoking Hot smoking


1. Desired temperature is around 1. Desired temperature is around 80
30to 40oC during smoking. to 90oC.
Sometimes more lower temperature
is used.
2. Chemicals received from smoke 2. Fish is cooked and dried at high
play a major role in preserving fish temperature. Chemical of the
and keeping quality. smoke plays lesser role.
3. Flameless smoke is more 3. Both flame and smoke are
effective for this type of products. equally necessary.
Flame is not desirable.
4. Slow burning of wood produces 4. Rapid burning of wood produces
much smoke. only flame. Adequately designed
kiln can produce both flame and
smoke.
5. Saw dust is the best since it does 5. Clean dry wood is the best.
not burn but smoke.
6. Products are marketed at 6. Products can be preserved and
refrigeration temperature (2 to marketed at room temperature for a
5oC). short while.

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Chapter 4
Fish and shellfish preservation techniques: Chilling, Freezing, Salting, Drying,
Smoking, Canning
Canning
Canning:
Canning is successful method for preserving seafood for long periods at
high temperature. Here initial sterilization is achieved at temperature
121oC and 1516 pressure/inch2 while kept with in an autoclave, than the
product is immediately sealed in sterile.
Flow chart
Sample collection

Washing

Balancing

Filling or coring

Filling and adjusting

Sealing

Cooling

Storage
☺ Canned fish is famous for the way it is packed so tightly within
the container, leaving very little space for additional liquids.
☺ The fish are subjected to high temperatures to kill bacteria and
inactive enzymes, by being hermetically sealed within the can.
The inside of the can must be resistant to its contents and the
outside resistant to ambient conditions.
☺ Common processing temperatures are 115.5oC and 121oC.
☺ The pressure and hence the retart temperature is controlled by an
automatic steam pressure control value.
☺ Heat temperature through the fish is by condition and therefore
very slow at a processing temperature 121oC. It would take 6
hours to raise the center temperature.

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Chapter 5
Modern Packing Methods

Modified Atmospheric Packing (MAP):


Modified atmospheric packing, MAP means replacing the air in a peak of
fish with a different mixture of gases, typically some combination of
CO2, nitrogen and oxygen.
The proportion of each component gas is fixed when the mixture is
introduced but no further controlled is exercised during storage.

Controlled Atmospheric packing (CAP):


CAP or controlled atmospheric packing means packing in an atmosphere
whose composition is controlled throughout the storage.
Such control is possible in large storage units but not in small packs.

Advantages of MAP:
 Chilled product life can be extended.
 Remain or infact the colour and odor test.
 The attractive appearance of pack influence/ attract the buyer.
 Easy to level.
 Convenient to handle.
 They are lack proof and robust.
 Transparent packing shows the product.
 It retards the bacterial spoilage of fish.

Disadvantages of MAP:
 Modified atmospheric packing is relatively expensive twice the
cost of vacuum packing.
 Packing machinery and thermoformable film are need for
continuous production which is expensive.
 MAP is two or three times bulker, so these are costlier to carry
and store.
 The walls of pack may collapse (Fall down).
 CO2 use in MAP is highly soluble in fish tissue.
 Due to the collapse of pack on the product, sometimes the
product can be squashed (Dense).
 Unsightly drip may form inside the pack.
 Without additional safeguard during storage, the MAP product
may be deteriorate after a certain period.

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Chapter 5
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Quality of the fish that packed:


Only the highest quality fish should be used for modified atmospheric
packs,
in order to gain the most benefit from any extension of storage life,
packing fish in a modified atmosphere is not a means of marketing
medium quality or poor quality fish.
 White fish should be of a quality equivalent to 1-4 days in ice
and should be free from blemishes and visible parasites.
 Fatty fish (Herring, Mackerel) should be of a quality equivalent
to 1-3 days in ice and should contain at least 8 percent fat.
 Salmon and trout should be of a quality equivalent to 1-3 days
in ice.

Factors are responsible for storage life:


Storage life will depend on –
☺ The species of fish used.
☺ Its initial quality and fat content.
☺ The nature of the finished product.
☺ Temperature of storage.
☺ Gas mixture of MAP.

How can we maintain proper sanitation:


For maintaining proper sanitation in post harvest handling, preservation
and handling –
☯ Acquire good knowledge on sanitation and contamination.
☯ Wash everything with clean/ chlorinated water.
☯ Use clean place and container to keep fish.
☯ Prepare ice from clean water.
☯ Avoid contamination from guts and rotten fish.
☯ Keep small fish apart from large fish.
☯ Keep separate catch caught different times separately.
☯ Remove guts and wash out traces of guts in body cavity.
☯ Wash fish hold, deck and ice chamber of boat thoroughly.
☯ Do not push on the ground.

Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP):


GMP refers to all measures implemented to ensure product quality, safety
and fitness for human consumption from raw material quality and fish
plant construction to personnel hygiene and hygienic operating practices.
All processors need to process fish and fish products either for export or
domestic consumption, under the GMPs.

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Chapter 5
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Glazing:
This is a process by which fish once frozen are coated with a film of ice
by spraying with water or by brushing or dipping in water. Glazing has
two major functions: -

 Prevention of freezer burn:


This phenomenon results in fish wrinkled dry appearance with a tough
texture and is due to water loss from the surface of the fish. In a cold
store water in the air is condensed on the freezer coils as ‘‘Frost’’ thus
maintaining reduced water vapor pressure within the store atmosphere.
Any fish which is exposed to the cold store air will therefore lose water,
i.e – the tissue ice sublimes leaving partly dried flesh behind.

 It helps to prevent oxidation:


This process still occurs at sub-zero temperatures and the oily fish such as
Herring and Mackerel which have a high concentration of labile
polyunsaturated fats are particularly prone to oxidation and concomitant
development of rancidity. This ice layer formed during glazing acts as
barrier, therefore in helping to prevent both freezer burn and oxidation.

Post harvest technology:


Post harvest technology comprises the activities that take place from the
time of the harvested productions is landed or harvested until it is
consumed.
Post harvest fisheries technology refers to technology regarding the
handling and transportation of fish or shellfish, including cooling,
packing, the packing temperature and handing control and facilities.

Utility: it serves to make fishery products available at the place at the


time and in the form required.

Important of post harvest technology:


Reduce waste:
It reduces the waste and enhances the value of the fish/ shell fish being
caught.

Improve efficiency:
By improving the efficiency of post harvest handling, processing and
marketing of fish can significantly improve the livelihood of primary
productions and petty fish traders.

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Chapter 5
Modern Packing Methods

Consumer benefit:
Consumers also benefit through the availability of better quality fish and
fish products.

Thawing:
Thawing is the process in which frozen fishes are processing for cooking
or for sale as wet fish. Super chilled fish can be thawed by blowing
warmer air for some hours quite rapidly by immersing the contents in
water at about 18.5oC.
Methods of thawing can be divided into two main groups, those in which
heat is conducted into flesh from the surface and those in which heat is
generated uniformly throughout the flesh.
There are many types of thawing method which are given below –
 Thawing in still air
 Air blast thawing
 Thawing in water
 Vacuum thawing
 Dielectric thawing
 Electrical resistance thawing
 Microwave thawing
 Tempering.
Thawing time depends on the thawing methods. Thawing in warm water
can be a cheap and easy way of thawing. Thawing of fish can be either in
batches or continuously. Thawing time depends on the size of the
individual fish and the density of the block.
 A typical block of sea frozen whole cod 100mm thick take about 20
hours to thaw in still air at about 15oC and single fish 100mm thick
take 8-10 hours to thaw, depending upon air temperature.
 Whole thawing in blocks 50 mm thick requires about 2 hours thawing
in vacuum thawing.

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

Describe the pre-requisite condition for HACCP


program:
HACCP is essentially a pre-requisite program involving a number of
steps or procedures that control the operational conditions of food
industries. Some of the well defined pre-requisite programmes include –

☯ Premises:
 Outside property
 Building
 Hygienic condition
 Working space and facilities
 Water quality
 Toilet etc.

☯ Equipments:
 Design of equipment
 Safetyness
 Performance
 Maintenance etc.

☯ Hygienic:
 Sanitation programmed for whole establishment
 Pests control
 Hygienic of staff and equipment used.

☯ Safety recalls:
 Product identification programmes.
 Coding.
 Product recall system.

☯ Labeling:
 Should comply with the market or impoter.

The HACCP system consists of a ‘plans’ in a written document that


describe and defines the procedure followed by a manufacturer assuring
safety of the product as well as process.

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

Contents of HACCP plan/ Principle of HACCP plan:


[2010,09]
HACCP plan:
Every processor shall have and implement a written HACCP plan
whenever a hazard analysis reveals one or more food safety hazards that
are reasonably likely to occur.
A HACCP plan shall be specific to –
1. Each location where fish and fishery products are preserved by that
processor, and
2. Each kind of fish and fishery product processed by the processor.

The contents of HACCP plan:


 List the food safety hazards that reasonably likely to occur, are –
 Natural toxin.
 Microbiological contamination.
 Chemical contamination.
 Pesticides.
 Drug residues.
 Decomposition of scembroid toxin forming species or in any
other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with
decomposition.
 Parasites.
 Unapproved use of the direct or indirect food or color activities.
 Physical hazard.

List of the critical control points for each of the identified food safety
hazards, including as appropriate:
 Critical control points designed to control food safety hazards
that could be introduced in the processing plant environment.
 Critical control points designed to control food safety hazards
introduced outside the processing plant environment, including
food safety hazards that occur before, during and after harvest.

List the critical limits that must be met at each of the critical control
points.
List of procedures and frequency there of, that will be used to monitor
each of the critical control points to ensure compliance with the
critical limits.

Include any corrective action plans that have been developed in


accordance with the HACCP plan accepted by processors.

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

Processors may develop written corrective action plans which


become part of their HACCP plans by which they predetermine the
corrective actions that they will take whenever there is a deviation
from a critical limit. A corrective action plan that is appropriate for a
particular deviation is one that describe the steps to be taken and
assigns responsibility for taking those steps to ensure that –
 No product enters commerce that is either injurious to health or is
otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation.
 The cause of the deviation is corrected.

List the verification procedures and frequency thereof, that the


processor will use.
Verification shall include at a minimum:
 Reassessment of the HACCP plan.
 Ongoing verification activities.
 Records review.

 Provide for a record keeping system that documents the monitoring of


the critical control points. The records shall contain the actual values
and observations obtained monitoring.

The main elements of HACCP system: [2011,08]


The HACCP is the system which offers a rational and logical approach to
control (microbiological) food hazards and avoid the many weakness
inherent in the inspectional approach.
The application of hazards and the identification of control points are
therefore key elements in HACCP. The system is based on the
reorganization that microbiological hazards exist at various points but
measure can be taken to control these hazards.
The main elements of HACCP systems are –
 Identify potential hazards. Asses the risk of occurrence.
 Determine the critical control point and steps.
 Establish the criteria that must be met to ensure that critical
control point is under control.
 Established a monitoring system.
 Establish the corrective action when critical control point is not
under control.
 Establish procedure for verification.
 Establish documentation and record keeping.

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

Hazard:
Hazards may be defined (ICMSF 1988) as the unacceptable
contamination, growth or survival of bacteria in food that may affect
safety or quality or the unacceptable production or persistence in foods of
substances such a toxins, enzymes or products of microbial metabolism.
The US national Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria
for foods (NACMCF, 1992) have defined hazard as a biological,
chemical or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for
consumption.

Food safety hazard:


Food safety hazard means any biological, chemical or physical property
that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.

Hazard analysis:
A hazard analysis is to determine whether there are food safety hazards
that are reasonably likely to occur for each kind of fish or fishery product
processed by that processor and to identify the preventive measures that
the processor can apply to control those hazards.

Certification number:
Certification number means a unique combination of letters and numbers
assigned by a shellfish control authority to a molluscan shellfish
processor.

Critical limit:
Critical limit means the maximum or minimum value to which a physical,
biological or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control
point to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence
of the identified food safety hazard.

Preventive measure:
Preventive measure means physical, chemical or other factors that can be
used to control an identified food safety hazard.

Process-monitoring instrument:
Process-monitoring instrument means an instrument or device used to
indicate conditions during processing at a critical control point.
Processor:
Processor means any person engaged in commercial, custom or
institutional processing of fish or fishery products, either in hi native

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

country or in a foreign country. A processor includes any person engaged


in the production of foods that are to be used in market or consumer tests.

Processing:
Processing means with respect t fish or fishery products; handling,
storing, preparing, heading, eviscerating, shucking, freezing, changing
into different market forms, manufacturing, preserving, packing, labeling,
dockside unloading or holding.
The regulations in this part do not apply to –
☺ Harvesting or transporting fish or fishery products, without
otherwise engaging in processing.
☺ Practices such as heading, eviscerating or freezing intended solely
to prepare a fish for holding on board a harvest vessel.
☺ The operation of a retail establishment.

Critical control point:


Critical control point is a point, step or procedure at which control can be
applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced
to an acceptable levels.

Determinations of Critical Control Point:


According to ICMSF, a CCP may be a location, procedure or processing
step at which hazards can be controlled.
Two types of CCP may be identified:
CCP 1: That will ensure full control of a hazard.
CCP 2: That will minimize but not assure full control.
With in the content of HACCP the meaning of ‘control’ at a CCP means
to minimize or prevent the risk of one or more hazards by taking specific
preventative measures (PM).
According to the currently accepted definition by the US national
advisory committee on Microbiological criteria for foods (NACMCF,
1992) a CCP is a point, step or procedure at which control can be applied
and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an
acceptable level. Thus for every step location or procedure identified as a
CCP, a detailed description of the preventative measures to be taken t that
point must be provided. If there are no preventative measures to be taken
at a certain point, it is not a CCP.
Thus CCPs should be carefully chosen on the basis of the risk and
severity of hazard to be controlled and the control points should be truly
critical. In any operation many control points could be necessary but not
critical due to low risk or low severity of the hard involved. Some of
these control points are there as a result of company rules for good

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Chapter 6
Application of HACCP in Fish Processing Technique

manufacturing practice, product reputation, company policy or aesthetics.


Such distinction between control points and critical control points is one
of the unique aspects of the HACCP concept, which set priorities on risks
and emphasizes while further control may be nice.
It is not always easy to determine a certain processing step in a CCP. A
‘decision’ based on the ideas of Mayes (1992) and NACMCF (1992) may
help to simplify this task. If an identified hazard has no preventive
measure (PM) at a certain step, then no CCP exists at that step and the
question can be repeated at the next processing step. However, if PMs
exist at the step if may or may not be a CCP depending on the step being
specifically designed to eliminate the hazard under study.
Examples of CCPs are: A specified heat process, chilling, specific
sanitation procedures, prevention of cross-contamination, adjustment of
food to a given pH or NaCl content.

Scombroid toxin-forming species:


Scombroid toxin-forming species means tuna, bluefish, mahi mahi and
other species, whether or not in the family Scombridae, in which
significant levels of histamine may be produced in the fish flesh by
decarboxylation of free histidine as a result of exposure of the fish after
capture to temperatures that permit the growth of mesophilic bacteria.

ISO (International standard Organization):


ISO is the International Organization for standardization of a product. It
is a world wide federation of national standard bodies (like BSTI in
Bangladesh).

ISO develops the standards for the quality management systems for
product manufacturing that are required by the markets.
ISO Technical committee is responsible for developing and maintaining
the ISO 9000 family of standards.
The European committee (EC) has adopted the ISO standards as the
European Norm (EN) 29000 series.
American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and American Society
for Quality Control (ASQC) have assembled there standards into ANSI/
ASQC Q 9000series.
ISO 9000, 9002 and 9003 presents the models for quality assurance in
design/ development production and installation and final inspection and
test respectively.
Companies are required to register their quality management system to
only ISO 9001, 9002 and 9003.

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