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Mezclas de gases ideales y

Psicrometria
Resultados de aprendizaje
►Describir la composición de una mezcla de gases
ideales en términos de fracciones de masa o
molares.
►Usar el modelo de Dalton para relacionar
presión, volumen, y temperatura y para calcular
cambios en U, H, y S para mezclas de gases
ideales.
►Aplicar balances de masa, energía, y entropía a
sistemas que involucran mezclas de gases
ideales, incluyendo procesos de mezclado.
Resultados de aprendizaje, cont.
►Demostrar entendimiento y Usar terminología de
psicrometría, incluyendo, relación de humedad,
humedad relativa, entalpía de mezcla, y
temperatura de punto de rocío.
►Usar la carta psicrométrica para representar
procesos comunes de acondicionamiento de aire.
►Aplicar balances de masa, energía, y entropía
para analizar procesos de acondicionamiento de
aire y torres de enfriamiento.
Engineering Applications of Ideal Gas
Mixtures
►We encounter ideal gas mixtures in many
important areas of application. Two of these are:
1. Systems involving chemical reactions and, in
particular, combustion. For these applications we
typically work on a molar basis. Combustion
systems are considered in Chapter 13.
2. Systems for air-conditioning and other
applications requiring close control of water vapor in
gas mixtures. For these applications we typically
work on a mass basis. Systems of this type are
considered in the second part of Chapter 12.
Psychrometric Applications
►The remainder of the section centers on systems
involving moist air. A condensed water phase may
also be present in such systems.
►The term moist air refers to a mixture of dry air
and water vapor in which the dry air is treated as a
pure component.
►The Dalton model applies to moist air.
►By identifying gas 1 with dry air and gas 2
with water vapor, Table 12.2 gives moist air
property relations on a mass basis.
►The study of systems involving moist air is known
as psychrometrics.
Evaluating U, H, and S for Ideal Gas Mixtures
(Mass Basis)
►When working on a mass basis the expressions for U, H, S,
and specific heats of a mixture consisting of two components
– a binary mixture – are:
Moist Air (1 of 4)
►Consider a closed system
consisting of moist air occupying
a volume V at mixture pressure p
and mixture temperature T.
►In moist air the amount of
water vapor present is much
less than the amount of dry air:
mv << ma nv << na.
►The Dalton model applies to the mixture of dry air
and water vapor:
Moist Air (2 of 4)
1. The overall mixture and each component, dry air
and water vapor, obey the ideal gas equation of state.
2. Dry air and water vapor within the mixture are
considered as if they each exist alone in volume V at
the mixture temperature T while each exerts part of
the mixture pressure.
3. The partial pressures pa and pv of dry air and
water vapor are, respectively
pa = ya p pv = yv p (Eq. 12.41b)
where ya and yv are the mole fractions of the dry air and
water vapor, respectively. These moist air expressions
conform to Eqs. (c) of Table 12.2.
Moist Air (3 of 4)
4. The mixture pressure is the sum of the partial
pressures of the dry air and the water vapor:

p = pa + pv
Mixture pressure, p
5. A typical state of water
vapor in moist air is fixed
,
using partial pressure pv T

and the mixture Typical state of


temperature T. the water vapor
in moist air

The water vapor is


superheated at this state.
Moist Air (4 of 4)
Mixture pressure, p
6. When pv corresponds
to pg at temperature T,
the mixture is said to be T
,

saturated.
7. The ratio of pv and pg
is called the relative
humidity, φ:
p 
φ= v  (Eq. 12.44) (De φ = mv/msat= pvV/RvT / pgV/RvT
pg 
T , p para gas ideal)
Relative humidity is usually expressed as a percent and
ranges as dry air only
0 ≤ φ ≤ 100% saturated air
(pv = 0) (pv = pg)
Humidity Ratio (aka specific humidity)
►The humidity ratio ω of a moist air sample is the
ratio of the mass of the water vapor to the mass of
the dry air. mv
ω= (Eq. 12.42)
ma
Since mv << ma, the value of ω is typically << 1.
►Using the ideal gas equation of state and the
relationship pa = p – pv 18.02/28.97 = 0.622

mv M v p vV / R T M v p v  M v  p v 
ω= = = =   
ma M a p aV / R T 
M a pa  M a  p − p v 

pv
ω = 0.622 (Eq. 12.43)
p − pv
Dew Point Temperature (1 of 4)
►When moist air is cooled, partial condensation of the water
vapor initially present can occur. This is observed in
condensation of vapor on window panes, pipes carrying cold
water, and formation of dew on grass.
►An important special case is cooling of moist air at constant
mixture pressure, p.
►The figure shows a sample of moist air, initially at State 1,
where the water vapor is superheated. The accompanying T-v
diagram locates
states of water.
►Let’s study this
system as it is
cooled in stages
from its initial
temperature.
Dew Point Temperature (2 of 4)
►In the first part of the cooling process, the mixture pressure
and water vapor mole fraction remain constant.
►Since pv = yv p, the partial pressure of the water vapor
remains constant.
►Accordingly, the water vapor cools at constant pv from
state 1 to state d, called the dew point.
►The temperature at state d is called the dew point
temperature.
►As the system cools
below the dew point
temperature, some of
the water vapor initially
present condenses.
The rest remains a
vapor.
Dew Point Temperature (3 of 4)
►At the final temperature, the system consists of the dry air
initially present plus saturated water vapor and saturated liquid.
►Since some of the water vapor initially present has
condensed, the partial pressure of the water vapor at the final
state, pg2, is less than the partial pressure initially, pv1.
►The amount of water that condenses, mw, equals the
difference in the initial and final amounts of water vapor:
mw = mv1 – mv2
Dew Point Temperature (4 of 4)
►Using mv = ωma and the fact that the amount of dry
air remains constant, the amount of water condensed
per unit mass of dry air is
mw
= ω1 − ω 2
ma
where

 p v1   pg2 
ω1 = 0.622 
 ω 2 = 0.622 
p − p  p − pg2 
 v1   

and p denotes the mixture pressure, which remains


constant while cooling occurs.
The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of the actual humidity
ratio to the humidity ratio of a saturated mixture at the same
temperature and total pressure. This refers to the maximum amount
of water that can be contained in moist air, which is seen from the
absolute humidity in eqn 12. 43

Since the partial pressure for air Pa = P − Pv and Pv = φPg


from Eq. 12. 44, we can write:

ω = 0.622 φPg / (P − φPg) ≤ ωmax = 0.622 Pg /(P − Pg)

The maximum humidity ratio corresponds to a relative


humidity of 100% and is a function of the total pressure
(usually atmospheric) and the temperature due to Pg.
This relation is also illustrated below as a function of
temperature, and the function has an asymptote
at a temperature where Pg = P, which is 100 C for

atmospheric pressure. The shaded regions are states not


permissible, as the water vapor pressure would be larger
than the saturation pressure.

T–s diagram to show the cooling of a gas–vapor mixture at a


constant pressure.
In a cooling process at constant total pressure, the partial
pressure of the vapor remains constant until the dew point
is reached at state 2; this is also on the maximum humidity
ratio curve.

Further cooling lowers the maximum possible humidity


ratio, and some of the vapor condenses. The vapor that
remains in the mixture is always saturated, and the liquid or
solid is in equilibrium with it. For example, when the
temperature is reduced to T3, the vapor in the mixture is at
state 3, and its partial pressure is Pg at T3and the liquid is
at state 5 in equilibrium with the vapor.
Ejemplo:

Consider 100 m3 of an air–water vapor mixture at 0.1 MPa,


35⁰C, and 70% relative humidity. Calculate the humidity
ratio, dew point, mass of air, and mass of vapor.

Control mass: Mixture


State: P, T, φ known; state fixed.
Ejemplo (otro)

Calculate the amount of water vapor condensed if


the mixture of previous example is cooled to 5⁰C in
a constant-pressure process.

Control mass: Mixture.


Initial state: Known (Ejemplo anterior).
Final state:T known.
Process: Constant pressure.
Mixture Enthalpy
►Values for U, H, and S for moist air can be found by
adding contributions of each component.
►For example, the enthalpy H is
H = H a + H v = ma ha + mv hv (Eq. 12.45)
which conforms to Eq. (d) in Table 12.2.
►Dividing by ma and introducing ω, the mixture enthalpy
per unit mass of dry air is
H mv
= ha + hv = ha + ωhv
(Eq. 12.46) ma ma

►For moist air, the enthalpy hv is very closely given by the


saturated vapor value corresponding to the given
temperature. h ≈h T
v g ( ) (Eq. 12.47)
Heating Moist Air in a Duct (1 of 5)
Example: Moist air enters a duct at 10oC, 80%
relative humidity, is heated as it flows through the
duct, and exits at 30oC. No moisture is added or
removed and the mixture pressure remains constant
at 1 bar. For steady-state operation and ignoring
kinetic and potential energy changes, determine
(a) the humidity ratio, ω2, and
(b) the rate of heat transfer, in kJ per kg of dry air.
Heating Moist Air in a Duct (2 of 5)
Solution:
(a) At steady state, mass rate balances for the dry air
and water vapor read:
m a1 = m a2 (dry air)
m v1 = m v2 (water vapor)
Since the mass flow rates of the dry air and water
vapor do not change from inlet to exit, they are
denoted for simplicity as m∙ a and m∙ v. Moreover, since
no moisture is added or removed, the humidity ratio
does not change from inlet to exit: ω1 = ω2. The
common humidity ratio is denoted by ω. m
v
ω=
m a
Heating Moist Air in a Duct (3 of 5)
The humidity ratio is evaluated using data at the
inlet:
•The partial pressure of the water vapor at the inlet,
pv1, can be evaluated from the given inlet relative
humidity φ1 and the saturated pressure pg1 at 10oC
from Table A-2:

pv1 = φ1pg1 = 0.8(0.01228 bar) = 0.0098 bar


•The humidity ratio can be found from:
pv  0.0098  kg (vapor)
ω = 0.622 = 0.622  = 0.00616
p − pv  1 − 0.0098  kg (dry air)
Heating Moist Air in a Duct (4 of 5)
(b) The steady-state form of the energy rate balance
reduces to:
0
0 = Q cv − W cv + (m a ha1 + m v hv1 ) − (m a ha2 + m v hv2 )


•Solving for Qcv

Q cv = m a (ha2 − ha1 ) + m v (hv2 − hv1 )

•Noting that m∙ v = ωm∙ a, we get

Q cv
= (ha2 − ha1 ) + ω (hv2 − hv1 )
m a
Heating Moist Air in a Duct (5 of 5)
Q cv
= (ha2 − ha1 ) + ω (hv2 − hv1 )
m a

For the dry air, ha1 and ha2 For the water vapor, hv1 and hv2 are
are obtained from ideal gas obtained from steam table Table A-2
table Table A-22 at 10oC and at 10oC and 30oC, respectively, using
30oC, respectively. hv ≈ hg

Q cv kJ
= (303.2 − 283.1) + The
m a kg (dry air) contribution of
the water vapor
 kg (vapor)  kJ
 0.00616 (2556.3 − 2519.8) to the heat
 kg (dry air)  kg (vapor) transfer
magnitude is
Q cv kJ kJ relatively
= (20.1 + 0.22) = 20.32 minor.
m a kg (dry air) kg (dry air)
Dry-bulb Temperature and
Wet-bulb Temperature (1 of 3)
►In engineering applications involving moist air, two
readily-measured temperatures are commonly used:
the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.
►The dry-bulb temperature, Tdb, is simply the
temperature measured by an ordinary
thermometer placed in contact with the moist air.
►The wet-bulb temperature, Twb, is the
temperature measured by a thermometer whose
bulb is enclosed by a wick moistened with water.
Dry-bulb Temperature and
Wet-bulb Temperature (2 of 3)
►The figure shows wet-bulb and dry-bulb
thermometers mounted on an instrument called a
psychrometer. Flow of moist air over the two
thermometers is induced by a battery-operated fan.
►Owing to evaporation
from the wet wick to the
moist air, the wet-bulb
temperature reading is
Moist
Air in

less than the dry-bulb


temperature: Twb < Tdb.
►Each temperature is
easily read from its
respective thermometer.
Dry-bulb Temperature and
Wet-bulb Temperature (3 of 3)
►For moist air mixtures in the T y P ranges of
psycrometric applications the adiabatic saturation
temperature is closely approximated by the wet-bulb
temperature.
► As a result, in equation 11.30 the humidity ratio of
the mixture can be calculated using the wet-bulb
temperature in place of T2 (the adiabatic saturation
temperature). Close agreement between these two
temperatures is not generally found for moist air
departing from normal pychrometric conditions
Psychrometric Chart (1 of 10)
►Graphical representations of moist-air data are provided by
psychrometric charts.
►Psychrometric charts in SI and English units are given in
Figs. A-9 and A-9E, respectively. These charts are constructed
for a moist air mixture pressure of 1 atm.
►Several important features of the psychrometric chart are
discussed in Sec. 12.7, including
Psychrometric Chart (2 of 10)
►Dry-bulb temperature, Tdb.

Moist air
state

Tdb
Psychrometric Chart (3 of 10)
►Humidity ratio, ω.

Moist air
state
ω
Psychrometric Chart (4 of 10)
►Dew point temperature, Tdp.
►Since the dew point is the state where moist air
becomes saturated when cooled at constant pressure, the
dew point for a given state is determined from the chart by
following a line of constant ω (constant pv) to the
saturation line where φ = 100%.

Moist air
state

Tdp
Psychrometric Chart (5 of 10)
►Relative humidity, φ.

Moist air
state
Psychrometric Chart (6 of 10)
►Mixture enthalpy per unit mass of dry air, (ha + ωhv).
The value of (ha + ωhv) is calculated using
ha = cpaT
Fig. 12.9: T in oC, cpa = 1.005 kJ/kg-K
Fig. 12.9E: T in oF, cpa = 0.24 Btu/lb-R

(ha + ωhv)

Moist air
state
Psychrometric Chart (7 of 10)
►Wet-bulb temperature, Twb.
►Lines of constant wet-bulb temperature are
approximately lines of constant mixture enthalpy.

Twb
Moist air
state
Psychrometric Chart (8 of 10)
►Volume per unit mass of dry air, V/ma.
►Lines giving V/ma can be interpreted as the volume of
dry air or of water vapor (each per unit mass of dry air)
because in keeping with the Dalton model each
component is considered to fill the entire volume.

Moist air
state

V/ma
Psychrometric Chart (9 of 10)
Example: Using Fig. A-9, determine relative humidity,
humidity ratio, and mixture enthalpy, in kJ/kg (dry air)
corresponding to dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of 30oC
and 25oC, respectively.
Psychrometric Chart (10 of 10)
Solution:

(ha + ωhv) = 76 kJ/kg dry air

φ = 67%
25oC
ω = 0.0181 kg water/kg dry air
49
Reprinted by permission of the Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Ga; used with permission.
Analyzing Air-Conditioning Systems

►The next series of slides demonstrates the


application of mass and energy rate balances
together with property data to typical air-conditioning
systems using the psychrometric principles
introduced thus far.
►Featured applications include
►Dehumidification
►Humidification
►Mixing of two moist air streams
►Application of psychrometric principles to
evaporative cooling and to cooling towers are also
considered.
Human Comfort Zone
Dehumidification (1 of 6)
►The aim of a dehumidifier is to remove some of
the water vapor in the moist air passing through
the unit.
►This is achieved by allowing the moist air to
flow across a cooling coil carrying a refrigerant at
a temperature low enough that some water vapor
condenses.
Dehumidification (2 of 6)
►The figure shows a control volume enclosing a
dehumidifier operating at steady state.
►Moist air enters at state 1.
►As the moist air flows
2
over the cooling coil, some 1

water vapor condenses. m∙ , T , ω


φ = 100%,
2
a 1 1 T <T ,
►Saturated moist air exits
2 1
ω <ω 2 1

at state 2 (T2 < T1).


3
►Condensate exits as
m∙
saturated liquid at state 3. w

Here, we take T3 = T2. T =T 3 2


Dehumidification (3 of 6)
►For the control volume, let us evaluate
►The amount of
condensate exiting per unit
mass of dry air: m∙ w/m∙ a and 1 2
►The rate of heat transfer
between the moist air and m∙ , T , ω
a 1 1
φ2 = 100%,
T2 < T1 ,

cooling coil, per unit mass ω2 < ω1


∙ ∙
of dry air: Qcv/ma. 3

m∙ w

T3 = T2
Dehumidification (4 of 6)
►Mass rate balances. At steady state, mass rate balances
for the dry air and water are, respectively
m a1 = m a 2 (dry air)
m v1 = m w + m v 2 (water) 1 2

Solving for the mass flow rate of m∙ a, T1, ω1


φ2 = 100%,
T2 < T1 ,
the condensate ω2 < ω1
m w = m v1 − m v 2

Then, with m∙ v1 = ω1m∙a and m∙ v2 = ω2m∙ a, where 3

m∙ a denotes the common mass flow rate of m∙ w

the dry air, we get the following expression T3 = T2


for the amount of water condensed per unit
mass of dry air m w
= ω1 − ω 2 (1)
ma

Dehumidification (5 of 6)
►Energy rate balance. With W∙ cv = 0 and no significant
kinetic and potential energy changes, the energy rate
balance for the control volume reduces at steady state to

0 = Q cv + (m a ha1 + m v1hv1 ) − m w hw − (m a ha2 + m v 2 hv2 ) (2)

With m∙ v1 = ω1m∙ a, m∙ v2 = ω2m∙ a, and Eq. (1), Eq. (2) becomes

Q cv
= (ha + ωhv ) 2 − (ha + ωhv )1 + (ω1 − ω 2 )hw (3)
m a

Since heat transfer occurs from the moist air to the cooling

coil, Qcv/m∙ a will be negative in value.
Dehumidification (6 of 6)
Q cv
= (ha + ωhv ) 2 − (ha + ωhv )1 + (ω1 − ω 2 )hw (3)
m a
►For the condensate, hw = hf (T2), where hf is obtained from
Table A-2.
►Options for evaluating the underlined terms of Eq. (3) include
►ω1 and ω2 are known. Since T1 and
T2 are also known, ha1 and ha2 can be
obtained from ideal gas table Table
A-22, while hv1 and hv2 can be (ha + ωhv)1

obtained from steam table Table A-2


using hv = hg. (ha + ωhv)2

►Alternatively, using the respective


temperature and humidity ratio
values to fix the states, (ha + ωhv) at
states 1 and 2 can be read from a T2 T1
psychrometric chart.
Ejemplo Deshumificación:

Moist air at 30C and 50% relative humidity enters a


dehumidifier operating at steady state with a volumetric
flow rate of 280 m3/min. The moist air passes over a
cooling coil and water vapor condenses. Condensate exits
the dehumidifier saturated at 10C. Saturated moist air exits
in a separate stream at the same temperature. There is no
significant loss of energy by heat transfer to the
surroundings and pressure remains constant at 1.013 bar.
Determine (a) the mass flow rate of the dry air, in
kg/min, (b) the rate at which water is condensed, in kg per
kg of dry air flowing through the control volume, and (c) the
required refrigerating capacity, in tons.
Flujo másico de aire seco se puede obtener usando va1 de la
Carta y usando
Humidification (1 of 8)
►The aim of a humidifier is to increase the
amount of water vapor in the moist air passing
through the unit.
►This is achieved by injecting steam or liquid
water.
Humidification (2 of 8)
►The figure shows a control volume enclosing a
humidifier operating at steady state.
►Moist air enters at state 1.
►Steam or liquid water is injected.
►Moist air exits at state 2 with greater humidity
ratio, ω2 > ω1.

W∙ cv = 0, Q∙ cv = 0


ma1

h3, m∙ 3
Humidification (3 of 8)
►For adiabatic operation, the accompanying
psychrometric charts show states 1 and 2 for each
case.
►With relatively high-temperature steam injection, the
temperature of the moist air increases.
►With liquid injection the temperature of the moist air may
decrease because the liquid is vaporized by the moist air
into which it is injected.
W∙ cv = 0, Q∙ cv = 0


ma1

h3, m∙ 3
Humidification (4 of 8)
►For the control volume, let us evaluate
►The humidity ratio, ω2, and
►The temperature, T2.

W∙ cv = 0, Q∙ cv = 0


ma1

h3, m∙ 3
Humidification (5 of 8)
►Mass rate balances. At steady state, mass rate balances
for the dry air and water are, respectively
m a1 = m a 2 (dry air)
m v1 + m 3 = m v 2 (water)

Then, since m∙ v1 = ω1m∙ a and m∙ v2 = ω2m∙ a, where m∙ a denotes


the common mass flow rate of the dry air, we get
m 3 W∙ cv = 0, Q∙ cv = 0
ω 2 = ω1 + (1)
m a

Since ω1, m∙ a, and m∙ 3 are ∙


ma1

specified, the humidity ratio ω2 3

can be calculated from Eq. (1) h3, m∙ 3


Humidification (6 of 8)
►Energy rate balance. With no significant kinetic and
potential energy changes, the energy rate balance for the
control volume reduces to
0 = Q − W + (m h + m h ) + m h − (m h + m h )
cv cv a a1 v1 v1 3 3 a a2 v 2 v2

Since W∙ cv and Q∙ cv are each zero in this case


0 = (m a ha1 + m v1hv1 ) + m 3 h3 − (m a ha2 + m v2 hv2 ) (2)

With m∙ v1 = ω1m∙ a and m∙ v2 = ω2m∙ a, Eq. (2) becomes


m 3
0 = (ha1 + ω1hv1 ) + ( )h3 − (ha2 + ω 2 hv2 ) (3)
m a
Solving Eq. (3)
m 3
(ha2 + ω 2 hv2 ) = (ha1 + ω1hv1 ) + ( )h3 (4)
m a
Humidification (7 of 8)
m 3
(ha2 + ω 2 hv2 ) = (ha1 + ω1hv1 ) + ( )h3 (4)
m a

►Options for determining T2 from Eq. (4) include


►Use the psychrometric chart:
•The first term on the right side
of Eq. (4) can be read from the ω
chart using T1 and ω1 to fix the (ha2 + ω2hv2)

state.
(ha1 + ω1hv1)
•Since the second term on the 2
ω2
right is known, the value of
(ha2 + ω2hv2) can be calculated.
ω1
•This value together with ω2 fixes 1

the exit state, which allows T2 to


be determined by inspection. T1 T2
Humidification (8 of 8)
m 3
(ha2 + ω 2 hv2 ) = (ha1 + ω1hv1 ) + ( )h3 (4)
m a

►Options for determining T2 from Eq. (4) include


►An iterative solution using data from Table A-22: ha(T) for the
dry air and Table A-2: hv = hg(T) for the water vapor:
• The value of the right side of Eq. (4) is known because the data are
either known or can be obtained from the indicated tables using T1.
• On the left side of Eq. (4), ω2 is known from the mass rate balance.
• Accordingly, the only unknown is T2, which can be found iteratively:
For each assumed value of T2, Table A-22 gives ha2 and
Table A-2 gives hv2.
This allows the left side to be calculated.
Iteration with T2 continues until the calculated value on the left
agrees with the known value on the right.
Example 14-7

For the air-conditioning system shown below in which


atmospheric air is first heated and then humidified with a steam
spray, determine the required heat transfer rate in the heating
section and the required steam temperature in the
humidification section when the steam pressure is 1 MPa.

72
The psychrometric diagram is
Psychrometric Diagram
0.050

0.045 Pressure = 101.3 [kPa]


0.040

0.035
0.8
Humidity Ratio

0.030 30 C

0.025 0.6

0.020 h3 =48 kJ/kga


20 C 0.4
0.015 h2 =37 kJ/kga
3
0.010 h1 =17 kJ/kga1 10 C
0.2
ω 3 =0.0091kgv/kga
0.005 0C
ω 1 =ω 2 =0.0049 kgv/kga
2
0.000
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
v1 =0.793 m^3/kga T [C]

Apply conservation of mass and conservation of energy for


steady-flow to process 1-2.
Conservation of mass for the steady-flow control volume is
∑ m = ∑ m
inlets
i
exits
e 73
For the dry air
m a1 = m a 2 = m a
For the water vapor (no water added/condensed during simple
heating)  mv1 = mv 2

Thus,
ω 2 = ω1
Neglecting the kinetic and potential energies and noting that the
work is zero, and letting the enthalpy of the mixture per unit
mass of air h be defined as h = ha + ωhv
we obtain
E in = E out
Q + m h = m h
in a 1 a 2

Q in = m a (h2 − h1 )

74
Now to find the m a and h's using the psychrometric chart.
At T1 = 50C, φ1 = 90%, and T2 = 24oC:

The mass flow rate of dry air is given by


V1
m a =
v1
75
m3
60
min kga 1 min kga
m a = 3
= 75.66 = 1261
.
m min 60s s
0.793
kga
The required heat transfer rate for the heating section is
 kga kJ 1kWs
.
Qin = 1261 (37 − 17)
s kga kJ
= 25.22 kW

This is the required heat transfer to the atmospheric air. List


some ways in which this amount of heat can be supplied.
At the exit, state 3, T3 = 25oC and φ3 = 45%. The psychrometric
chart gives

76
Apply conservation of mass and conservation of energy to
process 2-3. Conservation of mass for the steady-flow control
volume is
∑ m = ∑ m
inlets
i
exits
e

For the dry air


m a 2 = m a 3 = m a
For the water vapor (water is added during humidification process)
m v 2 + m s = m v 3
m s = m v 3 − m v 2
m s = m a (ω 3 − ω 2 )
kga kgv
.
= 1261 (0.0089 − 0.0049)
s kga
kgv
= 0.00504
s 77
Neglecting the kinetic and potential energies and noting that the
heat transfer and work are zero, the conservation of energy
yields
E in = E out
m a h2 + m s hs = m a h3
m s hs = m a (h3 − h2 )
Solving for the enthalpy of the steam,

m a (ω 3 − ω 2 )hs = m a (h3 − h2 )
h3 − h2
hs =
ω3 −ω2

78
kJ
(48 − 37)
kg a
hs =
kg v
(0.0089 − 0.0049)
kg a
kJ
= 2750
kg v

At Ps = 1 MPa and hs = 2750 kJ/kgv, Ts = 179.88oC and the


quality xs = 0.985.

79
EVAPORATIVE COOLING

Cooling in hot, relatively dry climates can be


accomplished by evaporative cooling. This involves
either spraying liquid water into air or forcing air through a
soaked pad that is kept replenished with water, as shown
in Fig. 12.13.
EVAPORATIVE COOLING

Owing to the low humidity of the moist air entering at


state 1, part of the injected water evaporates. The energy
for evaporation is provided by the air stream, which is
reduced in temperature and exits at state 2 with a lower
temperature than the entering stream. Because the
incoming air is relatively dry, the additional moisture
carried by the exiting moist air stream is normally
beneficial.
For negligible heat transfer with the surroundings, no
work , and no significant changes in kinetic and potential
energy, the steady-state forms of the mass and energy
rate balances reduce for the control volume of Fig.
12.13a to

where hf denotes the specific enthalpy of the liquid stream


entering the control volume. All the injected water is
assumed to evaporate into the moist air stream.
The underlined term accounts for the energy carried in
with the injected liquid water. This term is normally much
smaller in magnitude than either of the two moist air
enthalpy terms. Accordingly, the enthalpy of the moist air
varies only slightly, as illustrated on the psychrometric
chart of Fig. 12.13b.

Recalling that lines of constant mixture enthalpy are


closely lines of constant wet-bulb temperature, it follows
that evaporative cooling takes place at a nearly constant
wet-bulb temperature.
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (1 of 7)

►In air-conditioning systems, a frequent


component is one that mixes moist air streams as
shown in the figure:

►For the case of adiabatic mixing, let us consider


how the following quantities at the exit of the control

volume, ma3, ω3, and T3, can be evaluated knowing
the respective quantities at the inlets.
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (2 of 7)
►Mass rate balances. At steady state, mass rate balances
for the dry air and water vapor are, respectively
m a1 + m a 2 = m a 3 (dry air)
m v1 + m v 2 = m v3 (water vapor)

With m∙ v = ωm∙ a, these equations combine to give


ω1m a1 + ω 2 m a2 = ω3 (m a1 + m a2 )

Alternatively
m a1 ω3 − ω 2
= (1)
m a2 ω1 − ω3

These equations can be solved for ω3 using known values of


ω1, ω2, m∙ a1, and m∙ a2.
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (3 of 7)
►Energy rate balance. Ignoring the effects of kinetic and
potential energy, the energy rate balance for the control
volume reduces at steady state to
0 = Q cv − W cv + (m a1ha1 + m v1hv1 ) + (m a2 ha2 + m v 2 hv2 ) − (m a3ha3 + m v3 hv3 )
Since W∙ and Q∙ are each zero in this case
cv cv

m a1 (ha1 + ω1hv1 ) + m a2 (ha2 + ω 2 hv2 ) = m a3 (ha3 + ω3 hv3 ) (Eq. 12.56c)


The enthalpies of the water vapor are evaluated using hv = hg.
With m∙ a3 = m∙ a1 + m∙ a2, Eq. 12.56c can be solved to give an
expression with the same form as Eq. (1)
m a1 (ha3 + ω3 hg3 ) − (ha2 + ω 2 hg2 )
= (2)
ma2 (ha1 + ω1hg1 ) − (ha3 + ω3 hg3 )

Using known data, this equation can be solved for (ha + ωhg)3,
from which T3 can be evaluated.
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (4 of 7)
►From study of Eqs. (1) and (2) we conclude that on
a psychrometric chart state 3 lies on a straight line
connecting states 1 and 2, as shown in the figure

m a1 ω3 − ω 2
= (1)
m a2 ω1 − ω3

m a1 (ha3 + ω3 hg3 ) − (ha2 + ω 2 hg2 )


= (2)
ma2 (ha1 + ω1hg1 ) − (ha3 + ω3 hg3 )

Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (5 of 7)
Example: For adiabatic mixing of two moist air
streams with the data provided in the table below,
use the psychrometric chart to determine
(a) ω3, in kg (vapor)/kg (dry air), and
(b) T3 in oC.

State T ω m∙ (ha + ωhg)*


a
(oC) (kg (dry air)/kg (vapor)) (kg (dry air)/min) (kJ/kg (dry air))
1 24 0.0094 497 48
2 5 0.002 180 10
*Thevalues of (ha + ωhg) are read from Fig. A-9 using the respective
temperature and humidity ratio values.
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (6 of 7)
Solution:
(a) Inserting known values in Eq. (1),
497 ω3 − 0.002
=
180 0.0094 − ω3

we get ω3 = 0.0074 kg (vapor)/kg (dry air).


(b) Then from Fig. A-9

T3 = 19oC
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Moist Air Streams (7 of 7)
Solution:
(a) Inserting known values in Eq. (1),
497 ω3 − 0.002
=
180 0.0094 − ω3

we get ω3 = 0.0074 kg (vapor)/kg (dry air).


(b) Then from Fig. A-9
Alternatively, Eq. (2) can
be used to determine
(ha + ωhg)3 = 38 kJ/kg (dry air).
Then, from Fig. A-9

T3 = 19oC
TORRES DE ENFRIAMIENTO
• En las centrales térmicas, y en las industrias de gran
consumo energético que no estén localizadas a orillas
de un gran cuerpo de agua, el agua de enfriamiento (si
la carga térmica es grande siempre se tiene que usar un
circuito de enfriamiento por agua) resulta cara y debe
reciclarse, siendo necesario transmitir el calor del agua
al aire atmosférico.
• Como la utilización de intercambiadores de calor sería
muy ineficiente por los pequeños saltos térmicos y la
baja conductividad del aire, hay que recurrir al
enfriamiento del agua por evaporación en contacto
directo con el aire en una torre húmeda (Figura 9.14a) o
en un pequeño estanque artificial (Figura 9.14b) sobre
el que se dispersa el agua
En el caso de la Figura 9.14b, el agua del estanque estará a una temperatura
cercana a la de saturación adiabática del aire ambiente. En cualquiera de estos
casos es necesario reponer el agua que se pierde por evaporación, que será una
pequeña fracción respecto a la que se necesitaría en circuito abierto.
Aunque el impacto ecológico de estos sistemas es menor, hay que prever la
posibilidad de aparición de grandes nieblas en días húmedos, así como la
formación de hielo en el caso de la Figura 9.14b.
En las torres de enfriamiento la circulación del aire puede ser por
tiro natural (con alto costo de instalación, porque se necesitan
alturas de hasta 100 m en las grandes centrales) o por tiro forzado
con un ventilador tiro forzado o tiro inducido (son las más
compactas, y para pequeñas cargas puede incluso ponerse en las
terrazas en ambientes urbanos).

La eficiencia depende principalmente de la matriz sólida de


relleno, que debe tener gran área superficial y a la vez causar
poca pérdida de presión. También puede aumentarse disponiendo
un cambiador de calor seco agua/aire antes de la entrada del aire
en la torre, con lo que se logra además reducir la producción de
nieblas.
La eficiencia se mide como el enfriamiento de agua real con el
que se podría haber obtenido si el aire y el agua salieran en
equilibrio (aire saturado de humedad, agua y aire a la misma
temperatura).
En una torre real, al aire pasa del estado (1) al (2), y el agua del
(3) al (4) (los puntos (3) y (4) son en realidad del aire saturado
de humedad que estaría en equilibrio con el agua; el agua no se
puede representar en este diagrama, que es de aire húmedo).
En la torre ideal, la salida de los dos fluidos sería el punto (e).
Cooling Towers (1 of 3)

►Moist air principles also play a


role in the analysis of cooling
towers such as shown in the
figure.
►Major events occurring within
the control volume enclosing the
tower include the following:
►The warm water to be cooled
enters at 1 and is sprayed from the
top of the tower.
►Atmospheric air enters at 3 and flows counter to the
falling water.
Cooling Towers (2 of 3)
►As the liquid water and moist air
interact within the tower, a fraction
of the liquid evaporates, resulting in
• Liquid water that exits the
tower at 2 with a lower
temperature than the water
entering at 1, which is the
objective.
• Moist air that exits the tower at
4 with a greater humidity ratio
than the air entering at 3.
►Since some of the incoming water has evaporated, an
equivalent amount of makeup water is added at 5 so that
the return mass flow rate equals the mass flow rate entering
at 1.
Cooling Towers (3 of 3)
►Mass rate balances. To evaluate the mass flow rate of
the makeup water, apply mass rate balances to the control
volume at steady state to get
m a 3 = m a 4 (dry air)
m w1 + m 5 + m v3 = m w2 + m v 4 (water)
m 5 = m v 4 − m v3

With m∙ v3 = ω3m∙ a and m∙ v4 = ω4m∙a, where m∙ a is the common


mass flow rate of the dry air, this becomes
m 5 = m a (ω 4 − ω3 )

►Energy rate balance. Application of the energy rate


balance to such a cooling tower is demonstrated in
Example 12.15.