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CHAPTER 1

The problem and its background

Introduction

Shoulder pain is an unavoidable and can affect people's activities, many would say that

it is just a minor illness. But people are more likely to work harder when it does not respond

immediately.

Dr. CH Linaker and Dr. K Walker-Bone, (2015) Shoulder pain is very common and

causes substantial morbidity. Standard is classification systems based upon presumed patho-

anatomical origins have proved poorly reproducible and hampered epidemiological research.

Despite this, there is evidence that exposure to combinations of physical workplace strains such

as overhead working, heavy lifting and forceful work as well as working in an awkward posture

increase the risk of shoulder disorders. Psychosocial risk factors are also associated. There is

currently little evidence to suggest that either primary prevention or treatment strategies in the

workplace are very effective and more research is required, particularly around the cost-

effectiveness of different strategies.

Pansit-pansitam it is an effective topical treatment against in inflammation such as joint

pain, shoulder pain, abdominal pain etc. Other medical breakthroughs in conventional medicine

include new treatments for body pain like arthritis, new medications for serious illnesses once

thought to be incurable. This ointment is also known as complementary medicine—procedures

and medications aimed at assisting conventional medicine, especially in post-treatment and

recovery, does relieve patients from other pains and stresses. Complementary medicine is

especially encouraged in palliative care. This herbal plant is powerful in treating arthritis and gout.
The folklore also believes that it can be a medicine for eye inflammation, high blood pressure and

kidney problems. It’s usually taken as part of a meal or in a salad.

Pansit-pansitan (family: Piperaceae) is an herbal medicine also known as Ulasiman-bato,

olasiman-ihalas & tangon-tangon in the Philippines. English name: peperomia. It is a small herb

that grows from 1 to 1 1/2 feet. Pansit-pansitan can be found wild on lightly shaded and damp

areas such as nooks, walls, yards and even roofs. Pansit-pansitan has heart shaped leaves, succulent

stems with tiny flowers on a spike. When matured, the small fruits bear one seed which fall of the

ground and propagate.

Nowadays, pansit-pansitan is being known as a shoulder pain relieve because of its effect

to the people who sank and used it.

Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia lynn), is a soft and slippery herb, and it’s recommended

ointment for illnesses such as shoulder pain, arthritis, treated with a local application of moist heat

or ice. Local corticosteroid injections are often helpful for Arthritis of the shoulder. For both neck

and shoulder pain movement, exercises may help. For cases in which nerve roots or the spinal cord

are involved, surgical procedures may be necessary. (Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian , 2019).

Edmond T. Tissa US Patent 2,142,537, 1939 This invention relates to an anesthetic ointment

without initial irritation. It is highly desirable in severe cases of sunburn, pruritus, eczemas,

hemorrhoids, etc. to use an anesthetic ointment to relieve the pain and itching. The ointment should

also have antiseptic value to prevent infection.

Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Pansit-pansitan

leaves to relieve shoulder pain easily. Specifically, it answers the following questions:Can the

Pansit-pansitan leaves be an effective treatment to shoulder pain?


1. What will be the advantages of using pansit-pansitan compared to other treatments in terms

of treating pain?

2. How may the pansit-pansitan ointment is effective capasenios feel shoulder pain?

3. How may the pansit-pansitan ointment is effective capasenios feel shoulder pain

Conceptual framework
1. Can the Pansit-pansitan leaves

be an effective treatment to

shoulder pain?

2. What will be the advantages of


Separate the
using pansit-pansitan compared to The efficacy of
Pansit-pansitan using pansit
other treatments in terms of pansitan ointment
and its extract for shoulder pain
treating pain?

3. How may the pansit-pansitan

ointment is effective capasenios

feel shoulder pain?


Significance of the study

This study a conducted to avoid shoulder pain using the pansit-pansit ointment. The

beneficiaries of this study are the following.

Learners. This study will help the learners to find out where body pain or shoulder pain really

begins and how to prevent it.

Teachers. This study will help the teachers who may often experience it which is where they

doing there works.

Future Researchers. This will help future researchers to make their research and they will get

information easier. And will give them idea how to use it and if it is effective.

Parents: It can help parents who are always do their household chores and aware them to

prevent shoulder pain.

Scope and Delimitation

Our research is all about shoulder pain. Shoulder pain happens through carrying heavy

things and wrong move. Nowadays there are cases of shoulder pain that many people experience

injury, such as muscles sprains, strains and bruises and also shoulder pain. It was assumed that

the research has been done by researchers with integrity. It was also assumed that the literature

reviewed would clearly identify the prevalence and seriousness of shoulder pain feels. Possible
limitations of the study were the topic of shoulder pain is relatively new and therefore a lot of the

research overlapping by reciting the same studies.

Definition of Term

Ointment a thick, oily substance, usually contain medicine, that is put on skin where you feel

sore or on an injury.

Shoulder pain may arise from the shoulder joint itself or from any of the many surrounding

muscles, ligaments or tendons. Shoulder pain that comes from the joint usually worsens with

activities or movement of your arm or shoulder. Shoulder pain that arises from another structure

is called referred pain.

Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia pellucida Linn) is a common fleshy shallow rooted herb that

grows to about 15 to 45 cm in height in damp and lightly shaded areas.

Inflammation: Localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened,

swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.

Treatment the manner in which someone behaves toward or deals with someone or something.

Herbal Medicine is the use of plants for medicinal purposes. the study or practice of the

medicinal and therapeutic use of plants; herbalism.


CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

Related Literature

A. Foreign

Peperomia pellucida is an annual, shallow-rooted herb that belongs to the family

Piperaceae (Ghani, 1998). It is commonly known shiny bush. It is found in various shaded,

damp habitats all over Asia and America, growing in clumps, thriving in loose, humid soils,

tropical and subtropical climate. It usually grows to a height of about 15 to 45 cm and is

characterized by succulent stems, shiny, heart shaped, fleshy leaves and tiny, dot-like seeds

attached to several fruiting spikes (Egwuche, 2011 as cited Dos-Santos, 2001).

As ethno-medicinal uses of this plant Peperomia pellucida has been applied for

treating abdominal pain, abscesses, acne, boils, colic, fatigue, gout, headache, renal

disorders and rheumatic joint pain (Majumder, 2011). The roots are used to treat fevers and

the aerial parts are used as dressing for wounds (Muñoz, 2000). The plants have been used
as a hypocholesteremic agent (Bayma, 2000). It is a popular cough suppressant, emollient

and diuretic as well as effective in the treatment of proteinuria (Theresa, 2012 as cited by

Blank , 2002). The decoction of the plant is used in the Philippines to decrease uric acid

levels and to treat renal problems. It is also used topically for skin disorders such as acne

and boils (Egwuche, 2011). The plant is described to passify vitiated cough, pitta,

constipation, kidney diseases, urinary retention, dysuria, urinary tract infections,

emaciation, edema and general weakness. Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems of

fresh plant are eaten as salad for the treatment of gout and arthritis (Cao, 2012). According

to ethno-botanical studies, the whole plant has been in medicinal use since long. It is

crushed and mixed with water to form a mixture, heated and administered orally to cure

hemorrhage (Egwuche, 2011; Majumder, 2011; Theresa, 2012). Literature of many

researchers prove that the plant contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins and cardenolides

(Khan, 2010) flavonoids, essential oils and carotol (Khan, 2002)

Literature of many researcher prove that the plant contain alkaloids, saponins,

tannins and cardenolides (Khan ,2010) flavoids, essential oils and carotol (khan, 2002)

B. Local

Pansit-pansitan, scientifically known as Pepromia pellucida, is a medicinal plant

valued for its anti-gout properties which helps lower uric acid in the blood. It was one of the ten

clinically tested medicinal plants endorsed by the Department of Health. It was reported that

pansit-pansitan contained high amount of toxic metal like lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) surpassing

the limits allowed by the WHO [World Health Organization]. To regulate the uptake of nutrient

element in pansit-pansitan, the use of hydroponic culture through non-aerated Hoagland's solution

was studied. Metal analysis showed that pansit-pansitan grown and collected from various
locations showed that none of the plant samples passed the WHO standard of Cd and Pb. On the

other hand, plants grown in the UPLB greenhouse and geneback had Cd and Pb within the WHO

limit. Pansit-pansitan plants grown hydroponically had lower Pb and Cd content than those grown

in soil. Results of further studies indicated that a decrease in the strength and yield of the

Hoagland's solution decreased the shoot length, number of branches, fresh weight and dry weight

of the plant. Root length was not affected. Decreasing the volume of full-strength Hoagland's

solution reduced the values of all the above parameters. This means that one must replenish the

medium with a fresh solution to encourage and maintain normal growth of pansit-pansitan. A

single pansit-pansitan plant can be maintained in a 500 ml full-strength Hoa (de guzman C. C)

Review of Related Study

A. Foreign

The study of Wang (2011) showed that Artemisia annua L. extract and C12 have

obvious pro-coagulant effect in-vitro. C12 is the part of 20% methanol fraction after column

chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The crude

extract of Artemisia annua L. has the hemostatic activity, and the R-value is 19.85%, while the

R-value of positive control is 8.54%. Since the ethyl acetate extract is not completely dissolved

and there is granular which can accelerate the solidification of the plasma in the physic liquor,

the R-value of ethyl acetate extract is a little high than the n-butanol extract. And the result

showed that the R-value of n-butanol extract is higher. There was significant effect of the crude

extract and n-butanol extract on PRT.


According to the study of Rajasekaran (2010), the significant reduction in bleeding

time suggest that the Eupatorium ayapana leaf extract and fresh juice have positive effect on

hemostatic phase of wound healing and may possibly act on the integrity of blood vessel or

involvement of platelets forming the hemostatic plug. Platelets are the blood cells involved in

coagulation or it may inhibit the formation of prostaglandin by the vessel walls during injury.

Prostaglandin released during injury is responsible for vessel relaxation, which leads to increase

in bleeding of blood during injury.

Goker (2008) worked on the hemostatic actions of the folkloric medicinal plant

extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper. It was observed that the addition of ABS to normal plasma and

serum resulted in the very rapid (< 1s) formation of a protein network. ABS- induced protein

network was capable of regulating further coagulation and hemostatic reactions. Routine

hemostatic and biochemical tests have revealed that the ABS-induced network formation depended

upon interactions between ABS and blood proteins, mainly fibrinogen and other proteins possibly

via agglutination of these molecules. The ABS-induced network formation isrelated to the

functions of blood proteins and red blood cells.

B. Local

The abundance of natural resources in the Philippines help Filipinos to be more ingenious about
dealing with various phenomena. Through this, they become innovative in utilizing these things
not just on providing themselves their needs but also in treating and preventing different ailments.
In connection to this, even though there are new discoveries about modern drugs, there are still
1large portions of Filipinos who patronize herbal plants as an alternative tool in curing illnesses or
diseases. According to (Agyare, Koffour, et.al, 2012), in the Philippines and other developing
countries people rely on medicinal plants as the main source of remedies in treating open wounds.
70 to 80% of them rely on traditional healers and herbal practitioners for their health needs. As the
use of the accustomed topical treatments is progressive, microorganisms continue to evolve more
clever ways of resisting to these treatments. Because of this, and the fact that the number of
scientists that explore new antibacterial agents has
diminished throughout the years, the need for alternative sources for treatment is imperative
(Agyare, Koffour, et.al, 2012).Even though there are numerous drugs available in the market, still,
alternative sources for treatment like Lantana camara (Nayak, Raju, et.al., 2008), Jasminum
grandiflorum (Arum,Satish, et al., 2015) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Mondal, Gosh, et al., 2016)
are widely used for diseases and wound healing. All of these are effective and scientifically proven.
In line with that, plenty of medicinal plants that have the potential for healing wounds are not yet
discovered, and one of these is the Peperomia Pellucida (P.Pellucida).P. Pellucida is a small herb
that grows to a height of about 15 to 45 centimeters which can be found on lightly shaded and
damp areas such as nooks, walls, yards and even roofs (Philippine Herbal Medicine, 2005-17).
The plant grows in clumps, thriving in loose humid soilsand tropical to subtropical climate and
usually found in damp habitats all over Asia and America. It belongs to the family Piperaceae and
is locally known as Pansit-Pansitan, Ulasiman-bato, Olasiman-ihalas and tangon-tangon in the
Philippines. When the plant matures it forms small fruits that bear one seed. The leaves of the plant
are eaten and taken as a salad which relieves rheumatic pains and gout (Philippine Herbal
Medicine, 2005-17).The researchers gathered 300 grams of P. Pellucida, which were then washed,
and then air-dried for two weeks. The leaves and the stems of the plant are then powdered using
mortar and pestle. 80% of ethanol is then added to the powdered reagent and then distilled to get
the pure extract of the plant. The researchers cultured their bacteria on three petri dishes. The
resulting mixture was then dropped, expecting a halo to be formed on the area. Halos formed will
mean that the mixture is potential
-bacterial agent. Through this study the researchers expect a significant anti-bacterial effect on the
bacteria used. The antimicrobial and no inhibition activities of theP.Pellucida can contribute for a
new approach of the herbal leaves as a promise for treatment of cutaneous wounds and a normal
substitute for synthetic aids.

CHAPTER 3
Methodology

Research Design

This chapter presents the procedure that used to attain the valid and relevant result of the

study. Experimental research design will be used in this study. Specifically, this research utilized

two group design to determine the effectiveness of using Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia lynn)

ointment for shoulder pain reliever. In control group don’t apply pansit-pansitan ointment and the

experimental group apply the pansit-pansitan ointment the frequency and T-test is used to

determine the effectiveness of the raw materials.

The Materials

In this study the materials will be used are coconut oil (10ml), 1 bar of Beeswax,

peppermint . Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia lynn). The 1 kilo leaves of pansit-pansitan were

colleceted from Sto.Domingos 1st Capas, Tarlac.

Apparatus

This research used pots, blender, small bottle of coconut oil, spatula, ointment container.

The Procedure

Pansit-pansitan will be 1 kilo of wieght. The leaves are washable and will refined using

the blender. After the pansit-pansitan was refined, mix the coconut oil and beeswax then put the

the refined pansit-pansitan using the spatula.

The Gathering Data Technique

The data gathering techniques on the ifficacy of using pansit-pansitan (Peperomia lynn)

ointment is through observation such as taking a videos while testing the ointment.
Biotastical Treatment

Researchers use the arithmetic mean to determine the effectiveness of ointment. Alternative to

interpret the gathered data.

𝑋̅1 − 𝑋̅2
𝑡=
𝑆𝐷 2 𝑆𝐷 2
√ 1 + 1
𝑁1 𝑁2

Where:

t = t-value

𝑋̅1 = Mean of Butter daisies

𝑋̅2 = Mean of Kamantigue plants

𝑆𝐷12 = Variance of Butter daisies


The Efficacy of using Pansit-pansitan (peperomia lynn) Ointment for Shoulder Pain

____________________

A Research Study Presented to

Capas High School

__________________________

In the Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the

Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM)

________________________

By:

Juanta, Angelica L.

Lugue, Wendelle R.

Mangacu, Diana Rose G.