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Vibro-Acoustic Analysis of a

Distribution Power Transformer


Using the Finite Element Method

N. Vieira1, P. J. Antunes2, C. Martins3, G.R. Dias2, A.T.


Coelho3.

1 PIEP- Centre of Innovation in Polymers Enginnering,


Guimarães, Portugal
2 Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho,

Guimarães, Portugal
3 ACC – Amorim Cork Composites, Santa Marta de Corroios,

Portugal

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INDEX

1. Introduction

 Project Description
 Power Transformer’s noise and vibration
 No-load noise and magnetostriction
 Damping and energy dissipation

2. FEM model description

 Main components and PT’s assembled structure


 Loads and Boundary Conditions

3. Dynamic analysis and simulation

 Natural shapes and frequencies analysis


 Dynamic simulation

4. FEA Results

 Description of relevant output signals both in time and


frequency domains
 Conclusions

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Introduction – Project description

 Study and development of products and materials for noise and


vibration control in Distribution Power Transformers (PT’s);

 Developed at PIEP - Innovation in Polymers, at Guimarães,


Portugal - in collaboration with ACC – Amorim Cork Composites;

 Making use of numerical methods and FEM/FEA tools for the


simulation of PT´s dynamic behavior and mechanical response of
several material formulations and design solutions;

 Enabling the vibro-acoustics characterization of PT’s and the study


of particular phenomena involved (damping mechanisms,
transmission paths, etc.).

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Introduction – Noise and vibrations of PT’s

 Environment quality is an actual concern, which demands for


controlled and lower sound emission, namely by means of more tight
standards and legislation.

 Noise levels generated by PT’s impose restrictions to their installation


wich may conflict with the electric power needs;

 The main source (or the most difficult to eliminate) of noise and
vibration is due to the magnetostrictive behavior of the core;

 These “source” vibrations are transmitted to PT’s surroundings either


through mechanical connections and acoustic medium originating a
complex vibro-acoustic response;

 Many improvements (materials, design and technologies) were already


achieved, but the vibrations of the core can’t be totally eliminated,
wich demands for damping and isolation solutions;

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Introduction – Noise and vibrations of PT’s

 Noise Reduction can be achieved by :

 Reduction of the magnetostrictive and magnetic exciting forces;

 Avoiding ressonance frequencies;

 Use of damping and isolation solutions;

 Due to the complexity of the phenomena, common noise levels


calculations are based in empirical/semi-empirical formulae defined
for specific models or PT’s types.

 Also damping and isolation requires a study and characterization of


each case for the design of specific solutions.

 Numerical methods are today an alternative for this studies, offering


tolls for the characterization and prediction of particular phenomena
and helping to find solutions when significant noise level reduction is
required.

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No-load Noise and Magnetostriction

 Core’s motion and periodic mechanical deformation due to


magnetostriction are identified as the primary font of noise and
vibrations;

 Magnetostrictive strain depends on the instantaneous magnitude of


the magnetic flux and on the mechanical properties and orientation
of the crystal oriented steel core laminations;

Magnetic induction vs. Magnetostictive strain:


 Magnetostrictive strain
has the direction of the
magnetic flux but is not
dependent on its signal;

 It is characterized by a
fundamental frequency
double of the input
alternating current
frequency (50 or 60
Hz), and its harmonics
(normally, 1st and 3st
dominate);

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No-load Noise and Magnetostriction

 The behavior of a 3-phase 3-legged core is determined by the


combination of the magnetic fluxes, induced by the alternating current
with diferent phase angles at it’s 3 windings.

Reference Flux Instantaneous Flux Flux Vectors Phasor:


Vectors: Amplitude: (t=0)
(t=0)

in: Krondl, M. and Kronauer, E. (1963) – Contributions à l’étude du probléme du bruit des
transformateurs, Bulletin Oerlikon

 Inertia and core’s stiffness govern the dynamic stresses and strains
originated by the magnetostrictive “loads”, defining different
deformed configurations over time.

 For typical magnetic induction levels, the dimensional change per


unit length is in the range of 1e-7 to 1e-5 (mm/mm);

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Damping and energy dissipation

 Damping is an energy dissipation phenomena, specifically, conversion


of mechanical energy into thermal energy;

 Every real structure has natural damping mechanisms:


 at the connections between parts and at its surroundings
(structural damping) ;
 dissipation intrinsic to it’s materials (material damping);

 Material damping is the most common form of damping intentionally


employed to reduce noise and vibrations through the use of passive-
based materials;

 it’s numerical calculation of Time response for diferent critical


damping effects is limited to damping ratios
models available usually through
the definition of critical damping
ratios based on empirical
knowledge;

 Modal damping ratios can be


calculated as fractions of
critical damping or using a
Rayleigh formulation.

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Damping and energy dissipation

 This work intends to study vibration damping solutions, nominally


through the inclusion of cork-rubber composite pads between the
core´s assembled structure and the inner base of the tank;

 The nonlinear elastic behavior of the cork-rubber material was


modeled by a hyperelastic model (based on a strain energy
function);

 Damping was introduced through the definition of critical damping


coefficients calculated from results of DMA - Dynamic Mechanical
Analysis;

Behavior of a purely elastic material: Behavior of a viscoelastic material:

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FEM model description - Parts

3D non-linear FEM model of a generic (630 KVA) 3 phase PT, considering


the following parts:

 Tank’s cover

 Core’s superior
clamping

 Magnetic core

 3 windings and it’s


supports

 Core’s inferior
clamping

 Vibration-control
pads

 Tank with cooling


fins

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FEM model description - Materials

 Materials Properties Definition:

Density Elastic
Poisson’s
Material x103 Modulus Component
Ratio
(kg/m3) x103 (MPa)

Core,
Steel 7.869 210 0.29 Clamping,
Hhf Tank , Cover

Steel Bolts
DIN-ISO 898 7.869 340 0.29 (clamping +
Hhf cl. 4.8 support)

“Equivalent
isotropic 1.870 160 0.29 Windings
Hf
definition”

Hhf Windings
Nylon 66 1.140 1.50 0.35
supports

Cork Rubber . Vibration -


0.850 - 0.50
VC2100 control pads

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FEM model description - Weights and elements

 Distribution of mass is very important in a dynamic system due to


inertia effect:

Weight -
Kg % Total
Part
(full weight
model)

Core 870 58%

Sup. and
Inf. 50 3%
clamping

Windings 3 x 80 16%

Cover 40 3%

SubTotal
(Main 1200 82%
body)

Tank 280 28%

Total 1480 100%

 The half symetric model represented here has


186.000 elements in a total of 380.000 degrees
of freedom.

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FEM model description – Loads and boundary
conditions
 Our FEM considers a single solid part core model and the periodic
positive strain variations are introduced by means of a directional
thermal expansion coefficient.

 A maximum strain amplitude of 3e-06 mm/mm was considered


corresponding to a typical induction level of 1,5 Tesla.

Core’s deformed configurations in Periodic strain variation


time: at
the center of each core
leg:

 The tank was fixed to ground with encastre boundary conditions at its
base beams.

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Natural mode shapes and frequencies

 A modal (eigenvalue) analysis was performed for individual


components and full assembled PT model enabling the study of the
influence of many design parameters on the structure response;

 We verify that the most important modes (with greater energy


participation) correspond to the principal rigid body motion shapes of
the main body;

 This are low frequency modes (5


to 40 Hz);

 Modes depend mainly on the


stiffness of the tank and how the
main body is settled (with or
without vibration-control pads);

 Pads affects mainly the mode


shapes developed in vertical
translaction (or rotation about the
horizontal axis)

 With the pads, this modes


concentrate their natural
frequencies around 30 Hz reducing
their original natural frequencies.

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Dynamic analysis

 To minimize the calculation effort, simetry boundary conditions


were used;

 Dynamic (time based) implicit analyses of half symetric full


assembled model were performed for the first 50 magnetostriction
cycles.

 The results presented correspond to a damping ratio ξ of 9% at the


lowest most significant vibration modes (from 12 to 14 Hz) calculated
using the Rayleigh model.

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FEA Results

 Relevant output signals (Reactions Forces and


Accelerations) were monitored for solutions with and
without vibration-control pads.
 These are described for specific points:

 Reaction forces :  Vertical aceleration:


D and E - B - Base of core’s inferior
Encastre points: support;
C - Projection of B at tank’s
supporting beam.

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FEA Results

 Reaction forces at D encastre point (time domain):

 Solution with pads presents:


 Larger initial amplitudes (enabled by pads deformability)
quickly damped indicating a faster amplitude decay;

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FEA Results

 Relevant output signals (Reactions Forces and


Accelerations) were monitored for solutions with and
without vibration-control pads.
 These are described for specific points:

 Reaction forces :  Vertical aceleration:


D and E - B - Base of core’s inferior
Encastre points: support;
C - Projection of B at tank’s
supporting beam.

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FEA Results

 Reaction forces at D encastre point (time domain):

 Solution with pads presents:


 Larger initial amplitudes (enabled by pads deformability)
quickly damped indicating a faster amplitude decay;

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FEA Results

 Reaction forces at D and E encastre points(time domain):

 Solution with pads presents:


 Almost coincident evolution with time for both encastre
points;
 Smother response with more clear periodic cycles;
 More stable structure motion .

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FEA Results

 Reaction forces at D encastre point (frequency domain):

 Solution with pads presents:


 Reduction in the number of frequencies with significant
contribution;
 Shift to the left, lowering all frequency components;
 Most significant component at the lowest frequency
achieved (around 30 Hz);

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FEA Results

 Vertical aceleration at B (core’s inferior support ) and C (tank’s


supporting beam):

 Solution with pads presents:


 Reduction of the acelleration amplitude at both points B
and C.

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FEA Results

 Vertical acelleration at point B (frequency domain):

 Solution with pads presents:


 An increase of the lowest frequency participation (also
shifted to the left), diminishing the amplitude of the 100 Hz
component.

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Conclusions and future work

 The numerical study of such complex vibro-acoustic behavior


requires a step-by-step approach with intermediate validations.

 The main concerns in this initial step involved:


 The study of principal phenomena involved;
 Definition of an analysis methodology and corresponding
procedures;
 Characterization of the structural dynamic performance of a
typical PT using the Finite Element Method;

 This preliminary results indicate that the overall structural


response is affected by the inclusion of the vibration-control
materials, namelly:
 shifting the principal frequency components towards lowers
frequencies;
 decreasing the acelleration amplitudes;
 More stable structure motion.
 Like any numeric model for the simulation and prediction of real
physical phenomena, also for this model and it’s future
developments it is foreseen experimental validation.

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Vibro-Acoustic Analysis of a
Distribution Power Transformer
Using the Finite Element Method

N. Vieira1, P. J. Antunes2, C. Martins3, G.R. Dias2, A.T.


Coelho3.

1 PIEP- Centre of Innovation in Polymers Enginnering,


Guimarães, Portugal
2 Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho,

Guimarães, Portugal
3 ACC – Amorim Cork Composites, Santa Marta de Corroios,

Portugal

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Composites
VC 2100 Stress / Strain curve

 Thickness = 10 mm;

 Density = 850 kg/m3;

 Poisson’s Ratio = 0.5

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