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IS 19.

GLOBAL POLITICS - Emphasis on cooperative and long-


term relationships (sometimes called
Chapter 4: The Economy in a Global Age Collective Capitalism)
Capitalism - Firms provide the social core in state
- A system of generalized commodity capitalism
production in which wealth is owned - Stresses on teamwork and building
privately and economic life is on a collective identity
organized according to market - Merits to the laborers, in return for
principles their hard work and effort, they are
*Industrialization expanded the productive given merits (lifetime employment,
capacity of capitalism pensions, social protection, etc.)
- Strength lies in pragmatism and
Types of Capitalist Systems: flexibility
- Disadvantage: Failure to respond to
Enterprise Capitalism
Social Capitalism the changing pressures of the global
State Capitalism economy
Neoliberalism
Enterprise Capitalism - Economy works when left alone by
- USA the government, reflecting a belief in
- Market is self-regulating free market economics
Economic Globalization
- Minimum public ownership
- Weak trade unions, strong labor - All national economies have been
unions are an obstacle to profit absorbed into an interlocking global
maximization economy
- Productive wealth is owned by How globalized is economic life?
financial institutions International Trade
- Disadvantage: Tendency towards - Grew at double the rate of
material inequalities and social international production
fragmentation Transnational Production
Social Capitalism - Linked to the growing importance of
- Rooted in central and Western TNCs
Europe (Germany) - Global sourcing
- Social Market = marrying market Global Division of Labor
competition with the need for social - Specialization in what states in
cohesion and solidarity, long-term certain parts of the world can offer
investment, not short-term (both developed and developing
profitability states)
- Trade unions enjoy representation Globalized Financial System
- Disadvantage: Since it draws on - Allowed money and capital to flow
consultation and negotiation, it leads both within and between national
to inflexibility and makes it difficult for economies with great ease
businesses to adapt to market
Chapter 5: The State and Foreign Policy in a
conditions
- Relatively high expenditures are Global Age
needed to sustain high-quality
welfare provision State (Montevideo Convention)
State Capitalism - Defined territory
- China is the standard bearer of State - Permanent population
Capitalism - Effective government
- Capitalist economies in which the - Capacity to enter into relations with
state plays a crucial directive role other states
- *the political existence of the state is *Political globalization opens up
not dependent on international opportunities for the state. Working through
recognition international organzitions and regimes may
*Underlying character of the state is expand the capacities of the state allowing
Sovereignty them to continue to extend their influence
- Principle of absolute and unlimited
power, the absence of a higher authority in either Welfare State
domestic or external affairs - Takes prime responsibility for the
*The need for sovereignty arose from the social welfare of its citizens
self-seeking and power-interested nature of man discharged through a range of social
Internal Sovereignty development endeavors
- Power within the state Competition State
- Crucial to the development of state - Pursues strategies to ensure long-
structures and systems of rule term competitiveness in the
External Sovereignty globalized economy
- Absolute and unlimited authority of - Strengthens education and training
the state as an actor on the world to guarantee success
stage Failed State
- Defines a state’s relationship to other - Unable to perform its key role of
states and other international actors ensuring domestic order by
- Guarantees that the territorial monopolizing the use of force within
integrity and political independence its territory
of states is inviolable - This failure primarily stems from
The state and globalization colonialism
- the rise of globalization is inevitably Return of the State
marked by the decline of the state as 1. Unique capacity to maintain
a meaningful actor domestic order and protect its
citizens has been underlined by new
- Globalization has brought about security challenges that have
qualitative changes in the role and emerged in the 21st century. The
significance of the state state exists to master violence. It
Supraterritoriality is a war-making institution.
- Social life transcends territory 2. Reasserted itself as an agent of
through the growth of transborder modernization. Improved aspects of
and transglobal communications social life to boost productivity and
*Globalization has also become associated provided support for key industries.
with the trend towards regionalization 3. Promoting development.
Emphasized state building as a key
Economic Sovereignty aspect of the larger process of
- Absolute authority which the state peace-building.
exercises over economic life State Building
conducted within its borders - Construction of a functioning state
- It is difficult to see how this can be through establishment of legitimate
reconciled in a globalized economy institutions for the formulation and
Political Globalization implementation of policy
- Reflects the growing importance of REALIST
international organizations Sovereignty
- These are organizations that are Unitary actor is state – coercive power
transnational in that they exert
influence not within a state but within LIBERALIST
an international area Diminishing sovereignty because of
many actors
Sovereignty is relational, not absolute - Allows flexibility and the expression
of divergent views
Governance Bureaucratic Organization Models
- Various ways through which social - Came from organizational models
life is coordinated that highlights impact of decisions on
- Broader term than government the values and patterns of behavior
within an organization
FOREIGN POLICY: End of Foreign Policy? - Came from bureaucratic models that
The making of foreign policy has been highlights the impact of bargaining
traditionally regarded as one of the key between personnel and agencies
features of international politics and is often each pursuing different interests
seen as ‘high politics’. Cognitive Processes and Belief
Systems Models
Foreign policy making is a worthwhile activity - Emphasizes how behavior is
because: structured by perception
1. The world is still more separated into - What people see and understand is
distinctive communities what their concepts and values allow
2. Foreign policy highlights the crucial them to see and understand
interplay between structure and
agency. Foreign policy underlines Chapter 6: Society in a Global Age
the crucial significance of a sphere of
decision, choice and intentionality SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS: THICK TO THIN?
within global politics Society also has an international
Decision-making process: dimension in that shared norms and values
Individual level – personal priorities, and regular patterns of interaction among
psychological and cognitive dispositions states have created “international society”
Nation-state level – nature of the Industrialization changed the
government and state structure of society, with the emergence of a
Systemic level – power balances within social class as the central organizing
the international system, web of principle of society
interdependence, dynamics of capitalism
Gemeinschaft – or community, typically found in
Theories of political decision-making traditional societies characterized by natural
Rational Actor Model affection and mutual respect
- Human rationality as the foundation Gesellschaft – association, the looser, artificial
of economic models and contractual bonds typically found in urban
- Based on the self-interested pursuit and industrial societies
of material satisfaction\
- Objectives are met by man in a Post-industrial societies
rational and consistent manner
- Societies based on service
- Disadvantage: Rational calculation
may not seem appealing because
industries, rather than
decisions are made on the basis of manufacturing industries
inadequate and inaccurate - Key feature is the process of de-
information industrialization, reflected in the
Incremental Models decline of labor-intensive industries
- Principal alternative rational
- Solidaristic culture rooted in clear
decision-making
- Policy makers adjust their positions
political loyalties and strong union
in the light of feedback in the form of organization
feedback about the impact of the
previous decisions made
- Characterized by growing atomism, o As more things influence
or the strong capacities of more things, these
individuals to sustain themselves consequences become
New technology and information society more difficult to predict
Technological change has always been - Modern society is replete with
closely linked to social change manufactured risks and instabilities
3 modern information revolutions: of various kinds
1. Development of telegraph, o Chemical pollution, ozone
telephone and radio depletion, acid rain and
2. Television, early generation climate change
computers and satellites - Economic globalization also meant
3. New media, mobile phones, cable that economic conditions and
and satellite television, powerful livelihoods in one part of the world
computers, internet can be more easily affected by
Technological derteminism events in other parts of the world
- Tech development is assumed to be - Levels of personal security have been
the principal motor of social, undermined by the vast spread of
economic and political change weapons of mass destruction and
- Globalization became inevitable the growth in global terrorism
once such technologies became
widely available Social and cultural implications of globalization
Network Cultural globalization has been seen to
- Means of coordinating social life become significant. The essence of
through loose and informal globalization is the process whereby cultural
relationships between people or differences between nations and regions are
organizations for the purpose of tending to be flattened out – cultural
knowledge dissemination or homogenization
exchange - Chief factors that fueled cultural
Risk, uncertainty and insecurity globalization have been the growth
People are exposed as never before to of TNCs, especially global media
influence beyond the parameters of their face- corporations
to-face interactions *Cultural globalization amounts to cultural
imperialism
Hardware based modernity to liquid software - Cultural flows are between unequal
modernity partners and are used as a means through
- Liquid society is characterized by the which powerful cultures exert domination over
new remoteness and unreachabilty weaker cultures
of global processes coupled with the
fluid state of people’s lives Main ingredients of Cultural Globalization
- Led to a substantial increase in the Spread of consumerism
levels of uncertainty and insecurity Growth of individualism
in society
- Chaos Theory Consumerism goes global
Coca Colonization
- Refers to the emergence of global were encourage to think for themselves and
goods and global brands about their own interests. This gave rise to
- Captures the psychological and economic individualism
emotional power these brands hold - Individuals are entitled to autonomy
over consumers through marketing in matters of economic decision-
and advertising making
Commodity Fetishism Individualism is said to have weakened
- Commodities are invested with community and our sense of social belonging
symbolic and social significance, and lead to the growth of Gesellschaft
allowing them to sway human relationships
beings
McWorld But liberalist view individualism as social
- Tied together by technology, progress since it forwards enlightened thinking
ecology, communications and
commerce Global Civil Society
McDonaldization - Autonomous groups and
- Global commodities and commercial associations that operate
and marketing practices associated independently of the government
with the fast food industry have - Highlights a realm in which
come to dominate more and more transnational non-governmental
economic sectors groups and associations interact
The westernization model of cultural Development of this can be cited to the
globalization derives from the fact that the theory of Countervailing Power
West is the home of consumer capitalism and - Concentration of power tend to be
industrial society temporary because they stimulate
Americanization model – goods and oppositional forces on the
images that dominate modern commerce and emergence of rival centers of power
media derive from the US Global civil society is a reaction to the
perceived domination of corporate interests
Critiques of Cultural Globalization: within the globalization process.
1. Seen to serve the interests of The rise of Global Civil Society is a
economic or political domination backlash against the triumph of neoliberalism
2. Cultural homogenization has been *The Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 is seen as the
seen as an assault on local, regional first ever global civil society
and national distinctiveness
3. Consumerism and materialism have Transnational social movements and NGOs
been condemned as a form of Transnational social movements
captivity, manipulation and distorts attracted the young and the educated. Tended
values and denies happiness to be concerned with quality of life issues and
cultural change
Rise of individualism New Politics – stresses decentralization
This is widely seen as a consequence of and participatory decision-making and
the establishment of industrial capitalism as the embracing a more innovative and theatrical form
dominant mode of social organization. People of protest politics
NGOs are viewed as key actors within global Migration has been part of human experience
civil society because they are institutionalized throughout history, but the development of
and professional insiders. substantial villages did not stop migration,
however
Chapter 7: The Nation in a Global Age
Nationalism and World Politics Cause of migration
Nationalism – the nation is or should be the Migration was usually a consequence of
most basic principle of political organization conquest and invasion, followed by settlement
Nations are cultural entities, collections and colonization
of people bound together by shared values and But some migrants travelled by choice
traditions for economic reasons
*A nation is different from an Another reason is religious or political
ethnic group persecution
- Possess a communal identity and a
sense of cultural pride but lacks Why and how has migratory patterns changed
collective political aspirations in recent years?
Primordialism 1. There has been an acceleration in
- National identity is historically the rate of migration in the 1970s
embedded and peaked in early 1990s
Modernism 2. International migration has come to
- National identity is forged in be more closely associated with
response to changing social and economic factors and developments
historical circumstances 3. Onset of globalization has
Classical nationalism has been strongly intensified pressures for
associated with liberal ideas and values. Based international migration
on the fundamental assumption that
humankind is naturally divided into a collection Transnational communities and diaspora
of nations each possessed of a separate Emergence of transnational
identity. Central theme is national self- communities is one of the chief features of the
determination. modern globalized world. These communities
are bound together by familial ties and economic
*Nation-states are inherently imperfect as none flows.
is ethnically and culturally pure
Hybridity and multiculturalism
Nationalism, war and conflict The most significant implication of
Nationalism is also expressed through increased international migration – social and
the politics of aggression, militarism and war. cultural diversity has reached such a level that
the idea of a return to the monoculturalism of the
*Some argue that nationalism has been infected traditional nation-state has become
by chauvinism impracticable
- belief in the superiority of one’s own Multiculturalism
group or people - Recognizes the fact of cultural
diversity and holds that such
A world on the move
differences should be respected and Cultural nationalism
publicly affirmed - Places primary emphasis on the
The advance of multiculturalism has gone hand regeneration of the nation as a
in hand with the campaigns for minority rights. distinctive civilization rather than on
self-determination
Why multiculturalism is good? Resurfacing of nationalism in the 20th century
- Cultures can thus learn from and 1. Uneven distribution of ethno-
enrich each other, widening cultural history – the underprivileged or
opportunities and strengthening relatively deprived communities
intercultural understanding have been drawn to emulate more
Liberal multiculturalists powerful nations who are able to
- Stress the importance of unity, celebrate their identity without
arguing that diversity can and should fear
be confined to the private sphere, 2. Ability of nationalism to call on the
leaving the public sphere as a realm deep resources of religious belief to
of integration legitimize rule and mobilize
Conservatists populations
- Nationalism and multiculturalism 3. The idea of an ancestral homeland
are fundamentally incompatible has remained and will continue to
- Human beings are limited and remain a potent symbol
dependent creatures who are
naturally drawn to others similar to
them
- *multiculturalist societies are
inherently fractured and conflict-
ridden
Nationalism revived
Increasing cross-border cultural,
economic and population flows appeared to
render the sovereign nation-state redundant.
But, nationalism has shown remarkable
resilience. With the overwhelming mass of
people, they accept that they belong to a nation
and nationality continues to retain and
unrivalled position as the basis for political
allegiance.

*Nationalism cannot be a dying doctrine because


ethnic communities have not and cannot die out

Rise of cultural and ethnic nationalism


Globalization has strengthened cultural
and ethnic forms of nationalism