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Unit 1

I Missed The Class Due To Traffic Jams

 Pronunciation Center

A . Homophones

Homophones are words that have exactly thec same sound (pronunciation) but different
meanings and (usually) spelling. For example,the following two words havew the same sound,but
different meaning and spelling :

Hour our

The next examples are the there words having the same sound and spelling,but different meanings:

Tip =a piece of advice

Tip =a small sum of money given to someone for performing a service

Tip =the end of a pointed of projecting object

The following list of 70groups of homephonesd contains only the most commons
homephones,using relatively well-known words

B . /r/sound

When we have words with’WOR…’THE ‘O’ is not pronounced as an ‘O’.

Don’t round your lips. Don’t say ‘world’(read:worolt).Just image ‘WR’,ELIMINATE THE ‘O’
Completely.’Wrld’(you read: wr+rolled)



In the world

Don’t’ worry about it

Let’s word

 Essential grammar 1
Connectors showing cause and effect
Connectors or linkers are words or groups of words that help us connect words,pharase or
sentence.because of them,we can express relationships between ideas and improve our
expression by making longer,more complex sentence.for example,take these two

Our teacher was ill: we had to put off the exam.

Sentence 1 sentence 2

The first sentence is the cause of the second and the second is the the result of the
first sentence.the idea would be understood more easly if we could express the relation
between both sentence.thus we could say ;

 Our teacher was ill,therefore we had to put off the exam.

 We had to nput off the exam because our teacher was ii.
As you can see,the two examples above sound better than the previous two
sentence,thanks to the use of the connectors therefore and because.
Connectors can beused to show contrast, purpose, sequence,etc. but, today wewill be
concentrating on the lunkig words that show casuse or result.

A . Conjunctions followed by a complete sentence:

1 . Because

This conjuncton usually follows the main claus.

2 .As and since

They are very similar,but as is less formal than since. They are used when the reason
is well known. The clauses that start with these words are often at the beginning of the sentence

3 . For
For suggest that the reason is given as an after hought. For-clauses never come at the
beginning of the sentence. This conjuction is very formal because it is meanly used in literary

 Essential Grammar 2

Connectors followed by a noun, a noun phrase, a pronoun or a gerund:

1. Because of
This conjuctions is different from the conjuction because. Because of is not followed
by a sentence.
2. Due to and owing to
They are considered by many speakers as exact equivaients, but this is not so, because
due to is adjectival ( it follow a noun or pronoun) where as owing to is adverbial ( it
complements a verb)
3. On account of
This conjuction has a similar mean to due to, becaue of, and owing to.
4. Thanks to
It suggests that there is some cause for gratitude, though it car be used sarcastically.

Because vs. because of

You write a complete sentence or an independent clause after because, but you only
write a noun or phrase ( a”dependent clause”) after because of ( or due to)
Unit 2
Writing Report

 Pronounciation center

Flap T:’d’sound
In American English pronounciation, flap T is a D sound. The ‘t’ is in the middle
of words, in between two vowel sound. The quick ‘d’ sound will be heard when the ‘t’
comes between two vowel sounds whether with him a word or in between the word.
However, it is not the same as a ‘d’ sound in, for example, ‘day’. Flap ‘t’, or ‘t’ between
vowels, is the same as the ‘d’ between vowels. So, basically the ‘d’ between vowels is not
the same sound as the ‘d’ in other cases, though they both use the same IPA symbol.

 Essential grammar 1
Structure of report
1.Title or title page
The title page generally has four main pieces of information
a) title of the report
b) name of person or organization receiving the report
c) name of person organization who authored the report
d) date report was submitted
2.table of contents
Table of content is a table of the information located in the report. Each item in the
contents should have a corresponden page number that shows where the section begins
3.abstract or excecutive summary
The summary contains a summarized version of the entire report, including any
conclusion or recommendation. The excecutive summary may be omitted in a short
report. For vocational students the excecutive summary of a short report may contain
only one or two lines.
a) Introduction of background
The introduction provides a context, so that the reader understand what is in the
b) Main body of report ( discussion)
The major part of the report is called “the body”.
c) Conclussion and recommendations
The conclusions are the logical outcomes of the information presented in the report.
d) References
The references section is a list of books, journals, and other sources of information
that were used to compile the report.
e) Appendices
The appendices include all supplementary material related to the repot.

 Essential grammar 2
1. Past tense
When you are writing a report or an run-down, since it has already happened,
the action words ought to be in the past tense.
2. Present tense
Clearly, any coments that relate to regular activitis ought to be in the present .
3. Mixed-tenses
Not to complicate matters, but sometimes, within one sentence, you may need
to us past, present, and future tenss.
Unit 3
How should I present my report?

Interclude 1
Making strong introduction
If you like to attrach people’s attention to your presentation,her are techniques you
might use for your introduction.
A . problem and solution
Establish a problem that your audience have and then establish your solution to that
B . interesting facts or surprising statistics
C . short stories
You can engage people by telling a shorts story and connecting it to your
topic.stories are powerful and they add an emotional dimension to your topic if you do
it well.

Interclude 2

presenting reports
1 . signposting
When delivering a presentation,there are keywords used to ‘signpost’ different
stages in the presentation.these words are easy to learn and very important.you need to
memorize them.
2 . presentation
A presentation is divided into three sections,they are ;
A . introduction
B . body
C . conclusion
3 . dealing with problems
Sequence adverbs
 Introduction
1 . describing the new policies
First,ill start by outlining the policies,and then I’ii go on to highlight what they mean for
you and your working habits.finally,I’ll discuss briefly why we feel these new policies are
necessary and beneficial for us all.

2 . form
First,frequently used for an action that happens before any others.next use to describe an
avtion that happens immediately after another action,or as soon as possible.then to describe
an action that happens after another action.finally to show the action thar happenes at the

Interclude 3
Written and spoken language
1 . written language
Written language is the representation of a spoken language by means of a writing
system,such as grammar,punctuation,and dictation.in the presentation,written language
should focus on structure,use,and permanence.
2 . spoken language
Spoken language is language produced in its spontaneous form.in spoken
language,some meanings are determined by the context.
3 . the difference between written and spoken language
Unit 4
My I help you?
Interclude 1
Offering service or help
1 . I’ll ( do something )
This is a really simple ,casual way to offer help to someone.use this pharase when
you’re pretty sureded the other person will be happy to receive your help.
2 . let me (do something )
If you want to be a little more polite,but still very friendly,use ‘let me…’
3 . why don’t I 9 do something )/
Sometimes you’re not quite sure that your help will be welcomed.in that case,”why
don’t I…. ‘might be a better choice than the previous two expressions.
4 . dou you want me to ( do something )/
If you’re less sure about your offer,then you should ask and wait for n answer.the
pharase ‘do you want…?”is a good choice.
5 . woul you like me to ( do something )?
Similar to”do ypu want me to….?”this pharase is a little more formal.
6 . I can (do something )
You can also make polite offer with ‘I can…’
7 . can I do ( do something )?
In formal situation,you can offer help by asking “can I …?” it makes it seem like you’re
really happy to help.
8 . I’d be happy to ( do something ).
This is another formal pharase.you can use it in bussuness and professional situation.
9 . may I offer you ( something )?
This is a very formal way to make an offer.
Interclude 2
 Essential grammar 1
Pronouns ( subject & object )
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.this words class can be used to cover
either living person or things.these are some types of pronoun ;
1 .Personal pronouns
 Subject form
 Object form
2 . possessive adjectives pronoun
 Possessive adjectives
 Possessive pronouns
3 . reflexive pronouns
 Eseential grammar 2

Tenses (simple future & simple past)

A. Simple future
Simple future tenses is a form of tenses used to make future predictions or promises.

The precise moment of the action is unknown or not defined yet.This tense is often used
with the following time expressions :

B. Simple past
Simple past tense is a form of tense used to explain things that have already

Or happened a while ago.The precise moment of the action is known and has passed. The
time of the moment must be known. If you cannot indicate when the moment happened,use
present perfect tense instead. This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
Until 5

Applications Letters

Interclude 1

Application Letters

a. Standard, conservative style

This is ideal for sectors such as bussines, law, accountary, and retail.

b. Standard, speculative letter

This may vary according to the nature of the organization and the industry you’re
applying to.

Note about application letter outline

1. Salutation
2. Opening paragraph
3. Body or content
4. Clossing paragraph
5. Enclosure

Interclude 2
A resume is a written compilation of your education,work experience, credentials, and
accomplishments which is used to apply for jobs.

1. Chronological Resume
A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent
positions lised first.
2. Functional Resume
A functional resume focuses on your skills and experience. It is typically used by job
seekers who are changing careers or who gaps in their employment history.
Unit 6

Job Interview

Interview Do’s and Don’ts

Interviews can be one of the most stressful situasion. From the moment, we enter
the potential employer’s building to the time we are back outside, we are on show, and
preparing to give a good performance. Here are some tips when you are in the job interview.


 Prepare a complete, attractive resume that stresses your qualifications in a positive ,manner
 Get permissions from people you plan to use as references.

 Do not present a resume that was hastily put together or has typographical errors and
 Do not use a general, all-purpose resume.

Sentence structure

A sentence is a group off words that come together to mean something. It containts ideas and
information to express complete thoughts. The sentence usually has grammatical ruller and
ussages. Here are the ruless of the sentence:

1. A new sentence begin with a capital latter

2. A sentence ends with punctuation ( a periode , a question mark, or an exclamation point)
3. A sentence contain a subject that is only given once
4. A sentence contain a verb or a verb pharase
5. Asentence follow subject+verb+object word order
6. A sentence must have a complete idea that stand alone

Grammtica rule and usage

1. Independent clause
2. Coordinating conjuction
3. Subordinate clause
4. Subordinating conjuctions
5. independent clause

kind of sentence

1. simple sentence
2. compound sentence
3. complex sentence
4. compound complex sentence

1. singular-plural nouns
2. adverb of manner
3. participles
unit 7
you must take your passport

using “ have to”,”supposed to”,and “ought to”

1. have to
when you are using “have to/has to” its power resembles” must”, which means you
don’t have a choise and you must follow /do what you are told
2. supposed to
“supposed to”, may mean on obligation
3. ought to
“ought to” means suggestion.

Some expressions you can use to ask other opinion :

1. should i……?
2. do I have to….?

Some expressions can use to answer someones questions about there choices


unit 8

what ahocking news!

Common ‘ch’spellings

Mny words in the ewnglish language use ‘ch’ spelling.in order to speak well,you need to
understand how to pronounce them correctly.

 Essential grammar

The first thing you need to do when you read something is skim the text.skimming is an activity
of looking quickly through the text to find the main idea.remember! skimming means you don’t
need to read the whole text.you only need to know and distinguish important points and the main

News item

Text which contains news is categorized as news item text.this text supplies you with rhe
up-to-date information on the hottesty issdue of the day,since media like news papers are

Generic structure

The generic structure of a news item consists of ;

1 . newsworthy event

2 . background event

3 . source of information.
Unit 9

If you want to enjoye beautiful beach,visit,padar island

1. Tenses for contitionals

There are series of patterns or plural formulae you can use when want to make conditional

2. Imperative sentences

Imperative sentences are sintences that function as a way to tell or command someone to do
something.it is also used when you are making suggestion or giving advice.