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In just a few steps, you'll be up and running with building formulas and functions in Excel, the

world's most powerful spreadsheet app.

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To start the tour, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

Basics: doing math with Excel

Basics: doing math with Excel

You can Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. You just need to use some basic operators: Numbers+, -,to*,use:

/. All formulas

Operation:

start with an equals (=) sign.

Formulas: Answers:

To Add, select cell F3, type =C3+C4, then press Enter. 1 Addition (+) 3

You

To Subtract, can cell

select Add,

F4,Subtract, Multiply,

type =C3-C4, and Enter.

then press Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. 2 Subtraction (-) -1

You just need to use some basic operators: +, -, *, /. All formulas start with an equals (=)

To Multiply, select cell F5, type =C3*C4, then press Enter. Multiplication (*) 2

sign.

To Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter. Division (/) 0.5

Check this out: change the numbers in cells C3 and C4, and watch the formula results automatically change. Power (^) 1

EXTRA CREDIT: 1 You To

canAdd,

raise select

a valuecell

to aF3, typeby=C3+C4,

power using thethen

caratpress Enter.like =A1^A2. Enter it with Shift+6. In cell F7, enter =C3^C4.

(^) symbol,

CHECK THIS OUT EXTRA CREDIT

Dive down for more detail

Change the numbers here, and You can raise a value to a

Next step

2 To cells,

More about formulas, Subtract, select cell F4, type =C3-C4, then press Enter.

and ranges

watch the formula results power by using the carat (^)

symbol, like =C3^C4. Enter

automatically change.

Excel is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000 columns, and you can put formulas

it with in any of them.

Shift+6.

Formulas can

You'll notice 3

that in To

ourMultiply, select

third example cell we

above, F5, used

type the

=C3*C4, then press

SUM function. Enter.is a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way, and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10, and totals them. Excel has over 400 funct

A function

Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses.

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate, and the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at the formula bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see the formula in the cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the result.

Some formula 4explanations

To Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter.

=10*20 is a formula, where 10 and 20 are constants, and the * sign is the operator.

=SUM(A1:A10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, and A1:A10 is the cell range for the function.

=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, and A1:A10,C1:C10 are the cell ranges for the function separated by a comma.

GOOD TO Dive down for more detail Next step

Previous

Next

More information on the web

More about formulas, cells, and ranges

Use Excel as a calculator

Overview Excel

of formulas in Excel

is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows are

Excel functions (by category)

numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000 columns, GOOD TO KNOW

Operator Operator Constants are values that you enter in cells or formulas.

and you

Excel functions can put formulas in any of them.

(alphabetical)

=A1+

While =10*20 might calculate the same as =A1+B1, constants

Free ExcelFormulas can contain cell references, ranges of cell references, operators, and constants.

training online

The following are all examples of formulas: Cel =10*20 aren't a good practice. Why? Because you can't easily see the

constant without selecting the cell and looking for it. That

can make it hard to change later. It's much easier to put your

l Cell

=A1+B1

=10*20 B1 ref

ere

referenc

e

Constant Constant constants in cells, where they can be easily adjusted, and

referenced in your formulas.

=SUM(A1:A10) nce

For example: Select the yellow cell with 12 below. You'll see

You'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is a we used the SUM function with a range of cells. We didn't

pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way, and Function Argument type in "4" or "8" directly into the formula.

returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or ranges you

specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10, and totals them.

Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the Formulas tab. =SUM(A1:A10) Values

4

Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows with its A range of cells has a starting cell, colon, and an

8

arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses. ending cell. When you select a range of cells for a

formula, Excel will automatically add the colon. 12

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate, and

the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at the formula Commas separate multiple

bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see the formula in the arguments

cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the result.

Function Argument Argument

=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10

) A range of cells Another range of cells

More information on the web Opening parenthesis Closing parenthesis. Excel will usually add this

for you when you press Enter.

it takes the cells A1 through A10, and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the Formulas tab.

Introduction to functions

Introduction to functions

Functions give you the ability to do a variety of things, like perform mathematical operations, look up values, or even calculate Fruit dates and times. Let's

Amount

try a fewMeat

ways to add up values withAmount

the SUM function.

Under the Apples 50 Beef 50

Functions

Now let's try AutoSum. give youthe

Select thecell

ability

under tothe

do column

a variety

forofMeat

things,

(celllike

G7),perform

then go mathematical

to Formulas > AutoSum > select SUM.Oranges

You'll see Excel automatically 20

enter the

Chicken

formula for you. Press Enter to30

confirm it. The AutoSum feature has all of the most commo

operations,

Here's a neat keyboardlook up values,

shortcut. Select or

celleven

D15, calculate

then pressdates

Alt =,and

thentimes.

Enter. Let's try a few ways

This automatically to add

enters SUMupfor you. Bananas 60 Pork 10

Dive downvalues with

for more the SUM function.

detail Lemons 40 Fish 50

EXTRA CREDITTry the COUNT function using any of the methods you've already tried. The COUNT function counts the number SUMof > cells in a range that contain

170 numbers.

SUM >

Next step 1 Under the Amount column for Fruit (cell D7), enter =SUM(D3:D6), or type =SUM(,

More about functionsthen select that range with the mouse, and press Enter. This will sum the values in Item Amount Item Amount

Go to the Formulas cells

tabD3,andD4, D5, and

browse D6. Your

through theanswer

Function should be 170.

Library, where functions are listed by category, like Text, BreadDate & Time, etc. Insert 50 FunctionBreadwill let you search for functions

50 by name, and launch a function wizard that can hel

2 Now let's try AutoSum. Select the yellow cell under the column for Meat (cell

If the SUM function could talk, it would say, return the sum of all the values in cells D38 to D41, and all of column H. SUM Donuts

is the function name, D38:D41 100

is the Donuts

first range argument, which is almost

100 always required, and H:H is the second range argument,

The TODAY functionG7), thentoday's

returns go to date.

Formulas

It will > AutoSum >update

automatically selectwhen

SUM.Excel

You'll see Excel

recalculates. Cookies 40 Cookies 40

CHECK THIS OUTSelectautomatically

these cells. enter

Then in thetheformula for you.

lower-right cornerPress Enter

of the Exceltowindow,

confirmlook

it. The AutoSum

for SUM: 170 in the bottom bar.

Cakes

That's called the Status Bar, 50

and it'sCakes

just another way to quickly find 50

a total and other details about a selected cell or range.

IMPORTANT feature has all of the most common functions. Pies 20 Pies 20

More information on the web SUM > COUNT >

All about the3SUM function

Here's a neat keyboard shortcut. Select cell D15, then press Alt =

Use AutoSum to sum then, Enter. This automatically enters SUM for you.

numbers EXTRA CREDIT

All about the COUNT function Try the COUNT function using any of

Free Excel training online the methods you've already tried.

Back to top Dive down for more detail Next step The COUNT function counts the

Next step number of cells in a range that

contain numbers.

Go to the Formulas tab and browse through the Function Library, where functions are listed

by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc. Insert Function will let you search for functions by

name, and launch a function wizard that can help you build your formula.

When you start typing a function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense, which

will list all of the functions starting with the letters you type. When you find the one you want,

press Tab, and Excel will automatically finish the function name and enter the opening

Fruit Amount

parenthesis for you. It will also display the optional and required arguments. CHECK THIS OUT

Apples 50

Oranges 20 Select these cells. Then in the lower-right

Bananas 60 corner of the Excel window, look for this:

Lemons 40

Now let's look at the anatomy of a few functions. The SUM function is structured like this:

SUM > 170

That's called the Status Bar, and it's just

another way to quickly find a total and other

details about a selected cell or range.

The function The first Additional

name. argument. It's arguments,

Item Amount

almost always separated by

Cars 20

required. commas (,).

Trucks 10

Bikes 10

Skates 40

180 100 180

If the SUM function could talk, it would say, "Return the sum of all the values in cells D38

to D41, and all of column H".

Now, let's try one that doesn't require any arguments. IMPORTANT DETAIL

Double-click this cell. You'll notice the 100 toward the end.

The TODAY function returns today's date. It will Although it's possible to put numbers in a formula like this,

automatically update when Excel recalculates. we don't recommend it unless it's absolutely necessary.

This is known as a constant, and it's easy to forget that it's

there. We recommend referring to another cell instead,

like cell F51. That way it's easily seen and not hidden

=TODAY() inside a formula.

All about the SUM function

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To proceed to the next step, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

AVERAGE

function AVERAGE function

Use the AVERAGE function to get the average of numbers in a range of cells. Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Select cellUse

D7,the AVERAGE

then function

use AutoSum to to

addget

anthe averagefunction.

AVERAGE of numbers in a range of cells. Apples 50 Beef 50 CHECK THIS OUT

Now select cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing =AVERAGE(G3:G6). Oranges 20 Chicken 30 Select any range of numbers,

In cell D15, 1you can

Select cell D7, then use AutoSum then look in the Status Bar for an

use either AutoSum, or type to to addanother

enter an AVERAGE

AVERAGEfunction.

function. Bananas 60 Pork 10

instant Average.

CHECK THIS Lemons 40 Fish 50

Activate the previous sheet AVERAGE > AVERAGE >

2

Go to the next sheet

Now select cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing

=AVERAGE(G3:G6).

EXTRA CREDIT Item Amount Item Amount

Links for more information on the web Bread 50 Bread 50

3 In the

Select to learn all about cellAVERAGE

D15, you can use

function on either

the webAutoSum, or type to enter another AVERAGE Donuts 100 Donuts 100

function.

Select to learn all about the MEDIAN function on the web Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Select to learn all about the MODE function on the web Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Select to learn about free Excel training on the web Pies 20 Pies 20

Previous Next AVERAGE >

EXTRA CREDIT

Try using MEDIAN or MODE here.

More information on the web

MEDIAN gives you the value in the

All about the AVERAGE function middle of the data set, while

MODE gives the one that occurs

All about the MEDIAN function the most frequently.

In some of the above tips, we taught you how to use the SUM function. Here are more details about it.

Cells C37 through D41 contain data with two columns: Fruit and Amount.

The formula in cell D42: =SUM(D38:D41).

If the SUM function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.

Here's another way it can be used:

Cells C47 through D48 contain data with two columns: Item and Amount.

All about the SUM function

All about the SUMIF function

Use Excel as your calculator

Free Excel training online

Go back to top by pressing CTRL+HOME. To proceed to the next step, press CTRL+PAGE DOWN.

MIN and MAX functions

MIN and MAX functions

Use the MIN function to get the minumum number in a range of cells. Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Use thecell

Select MAX Use

D7, the MIN

function function

to get to getnumber

the maximum the smallest number

in a range of cells.in a range of cells. Apples 50 Beef 50

then use

Now the

select Use

cell the MAX function to get the largest number in a range of cells. Oranges 20 Chicken 30

G7,cell

In and enter

D15, youa Bananas 60 Pork 10

can use either1

More Select cell D7, then use the AutoSum Wizard to add a MIN function. Lemons 40 Fish 50

information on MIN > MAX >

All aobut the MIN function

2 function

All about the MAX

Now select cell G7, and enter a MAX function by typing =MAX(D3:D6).

Item Amount Item Amount

Free Excel

GOOD TO training online Bread 50 Bread 50

3

KNOW Donuts 100 Donuts 100

In cell D15, you can use either the AutoSum Wizard, or type to enter a MIN or

Cookies 40 Cookies 40

MAX function.

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

Pies 20 Pies 20

MIN or MAX > 10

GOOD TO KNOW

You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple

You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or =MAX(A1:A10,10).

ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of

those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or

More information on the web

All about the MIN function

All about the MIN function

=MAX(A1:A10,B1), where B1 contains a threshold

value, like 10, in which case the formula would

All about the MAX function

All about the MAX function never return a result less than 10.

Use Excel as your calculator

Free Excel training online

Free Excel training online

Date functions

Date functions

Excel can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract Dates.

Excel can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You can

Check out the TODAY function, which gives you Today's date. These are live, or volatile functions, so when you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.

also add and subtract Dates.

Subtract Dates - Enter your next birthday in MM/DD/YY format in cell D7, and watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8.

Add Dates - Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you need to return a library book. You can add days to a date to Datefind out.

functions

In cell D10, enter a random number of days. In cell D11, we added =D6+D10 to calculate the due date from today.

IMPORTANT

1 Check out the TODAY function, which gives you Today's date. These are live, or

GOOD TO KNOWExcel keeps dates and times based on the number of days starting from January 1, 1900. Times are keptToday's in fractional

date: portions of a day based on minutes. So 01/01/2017 12:30 PM is actually stored as 42736.5208. If the Time or Date show up as numbers like that, then you ca

volatile functions, so when you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have

DETAIL Your birthday:

tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.

Time functions Days until your birthday: IMPORTANT DETAIL

Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how many hours an If you don't want

employee Excel

worked to display

each a negative

week, and number,

calculate their pay and overtime.

In cell D28, 2 Subtract Dates - Enter your next birthday in MM/DD/YY format in cell D7, and

Grace period days: because you haven't entered your birthday yet, you can

Add up hours watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8. use an IF function like this: =IF(D7="","",D7-D6), which

Bill due on:

says, "IF D7 equals nothing, then show nothing, otherwise

If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In - Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch Out))*24.

Previous 3 Add Dates - Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you need to show D7 minus D6".

Next return a library book. You can add days to a date to find out. In cell D10, enter a GOOD TO KNOW

More information on random

the web number of days. In cell D11, we added =D6+D10 to calculate the due date Excel keeps dates and times based on the number of days

All about the TODAY from today.

function starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in fractional

All about the NOW function portions of a day based on minutes. So 01/01/2017 12:30

All about the DATE function PM is actually stored as 42736.5208. If the Time or Date

show up as numbers like that, then you can press Ctrl+1 >

Free Excel training online

Time functions Number > select a Date or Time format.

Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can

also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how many

hours an employee worked each week, and calculate their pay and overtime.

1 In cell D28, enter =NOW(), which will give the current time, and will update Time functions

each time Excel calculates. If you need to change the Time format, you can go to Current Time:

Ctrl+1 > Number > Time > Select the format you want.

2 Add up hours between times - In cell D36 we've entered =((D35-D32)-(D34- Daily Hours Worked

D33))*24, which calculates someone's start and end times, then subracts the Time In: 8:00 AM

time they took for lunch. The *24 at the end of the formula converts the Lunch Out: 12:00 PM

fractional portion of the day that Excel sees into hours. You'll need to format Lunch In: 1:00 PM

the cell as a Number though. To do that, go to Home > Format > Cells Time Out: 5:00 PM

(Ctrl+1) > Number > Number > 2 decimals. Total Hours: 8

3 If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from

the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply those by 24 to

convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In - Time Out)-(Lunch In

- Lunch Out))*24.

*24 to convert Excel's

fraction of a day to hours

Time Out Lunch Out

Static Date & Time

Date: 09-27-17

=((D35-D32)-(D34-D33))*24 Time: 8:52 AM

Time In Lunch In

GOOD TO KNOW

You can use keyboard shortcuts to enter Dates and

Times that won't continuously change:

The inner parentheses () make sure Excel calculates those

parts of the formula by themselves. The outer parentheses make sure Date - Ctrl+;

Excel multiplies the final inner result by 24. Time - Ctrl+Shift+:

Previous Next

All about the TODAY function

Joining text from different cells

Joining text from different cells

There are many times in Excel when you want to join text that's in different cells. This example is very common, where youFirst have

Name

first and last names,

Last Name

and want toLast

combine

Name,them

Firstas

Name

first name,

Fulllast

Namename, or full name. Fortunately, Excel lets us do that with the

In cell E3, enter =D3&C3 to join the last and first names. Nancy Smith Smith, Nancy Nancy Smith

SmithNancy There are look

doesn't many times

quite in though.

right Excel when you want

We need to addtoa join

commatextand

that's in different

a space. cells.

To do that This

we'll use quotes to create Andy

a new text string. ThisNorth

time, enter =D3&", "&C3. The &", "& portion lets us join a comma and space with the text in the cells.

example

To create the is very

full name, common,

we'll where

join first and lastyou have

name, butfirst

useand last without

a space names, aand want In

comma. toF3,

combine them"&D3.

enter =C3&" Jan Kotas

Dive downasforfirst

morename,

detaillast name, or full name. Fortunately, Excel lets us do that with the Ampersand Mariya Jones

Next (&) sign, which you can enter with Shift+7. Steven Thorpe

Using text and numbers together Michael Neipper

Now we'll use1 the &Intocell

joinE3,

textenter =D3&C3not

and numbers, to join the and

just text last text

andLook

firstat

names.

cells C28:D29. See how the date and times areRobertin separate cells? YouZare

can join them together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look right, does it? Unf

In cell C36, enter =C28&" "&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY"). MM/DD/YYYY is the US format code for Month/Day/Year, like 09/25/2017. Yvonne McKay

In cell C37, enter =C29&" "&TEXT(D29,"HH:MM AM/PM"). HH:MM AM/PM is the US format code for Hours:Minutes AM or PM, like 1:30 PM.

CHECK THIS OUT2 Formulas,

SmithNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and a

especially big ones, can sometimes be hard to read, but you can break up their parts with spaces like this:=C28 & " " & TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")

space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new text string. This time, enter

WORTH EXPLORINGIf you don't know what format code to use, you can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the format code that's displayed back to your formula.

=D3&", "&C3. The &", "& portion lets us join a comma and space with the text

More information on the web

in the cells.

All about the TEXT function

Combine text and numbers

3 online

Free Excel training

To create the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space without a

comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.

Using text & numbers

Now we'll use the & to join text and numbers, not just text and text Today's date: 11-30-19

Current time: 3:01 PM

Look at cells C28:D29. See how the date and times are in separate cells? You can join them

together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look right, does Joining text & numbers

it? Unfortunately, Excel doesn't know how you want to format the numbers, so it breaks Today's date: 43799

them down to their basest format, which is the the Serial date in this case. We need to Current time: 43799.6257273148

explicity tell Excel how to format the number portion of the formula, so it displays the way CHECK THIS OUT

you want in the resulting text string. You can do that with the TEXT function and a format Formatting text & numbers

Formulas, especially big ones, can sometimes

code. Today's date: 11/30/2019

be hard to read, but you can break up their

Current time: 03:01 PM parts with spaces like this:

1 In cell C36, enter =C28&" "&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY"). MM/DD/YYYY is the

US format code for Month/Day/Year, like 09/25/2017. =C28 & " " & TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")

the US format code for Hours:Minutes AM or PM, like 1:30 PM.

WORTH EXPLORING

If you don't know what format code to use, you can

use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you

Previous Next want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy

the format code that's displayed back to your

formula.

All about the TEXT function

IF statements

IF statements

IF statements allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF statement generally says that if one condition is true do something, otherwise do something else. The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.

In cell D9

Copy D9 to IF statements allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF statement

Try anothergenerally says that if one condition is true do something, otherwise do something else. The

IMPORTANT formulas can return

DETAILTRUE text, are

and FALSE values, orother

unlike evenwords

more in

calculations.

Excel formulas in that they don't need to be in quotes, and Excel will automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be in quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to be in quotes like this: =IF(C3="Apple","Yes","No")

Dive down for more detail

Next IF statements

IF statement1with another

In cell D9 enter =IF(C9="Apple",TRUE,FALSE). The correct answer is TRUE.

function Apple

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate

Orangea cell to see if Sales Tax should be charged, and calculate it if the condition is true.

In cell F33,

Next we've 2 Copy D9 to D10. The answer here should be FALSE, because an orange is not an 50 Less than 100

Next, change apple.

GOOD TO KNOWWhen you create a formula, Excel will automatically place colored borders around any ranges referenced in the formula, and the corresponding ranges in the formula will be the same color. You can see this if you select cell F33 and press F2 to edit the formula.

EXPERT TIP 3 Try another example by looking at the formula in cell D12. We got you started IMPORTANT DETAIL

Previous with =IF(C12<100,"Less than 100","Greater than or equal to 100"). What TRUE and FALSE are unlike other words in Excel formulas in

Next happens if you enter a number greater than or equal to that they don't need to be in quotes, and Excel will

More information on 100theinweb

cell C12? automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be in

All about the IF function quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to be

All about the IFS function in quotes like this:

Advanced IF statementsDive down for more detail Next =IF(C3="Apple","Yes","No")

Free Excel training online

Item Quantity Cost Total

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain condition is Widget 2 $9.76 $19.52

met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sales Tax should be charged, and calculate Doohickey 3 $3.42 $10.26

it if the condition is true.

Sub-Total $13.18 $29.78

1 In cell F33, we've entered =IF(E33="Yes",F31*SalesTax,0), where we set up

SalesTax as a Named Range with a value of 0.0825. Our formula says If cell E33 Sales Tax? Yes $2.46 GOOD TO KNOW

equals Yes, then multiply cell F31 times SalesTax, otherwise return a 0. When you create a formula, Excel will automatically

Shipping? Yes $6.25 place colored borders around any ranges referenced in

the formula, and the corresponding ranges in the

Try changing Yes to No in cell E33 to see the calculation change.

formula will be the same color. You can see this if you

Total $38.48 select cell F33 and press F2 to edit the formula.

2 Next we've added an IF statement to calculate shipping if it's required. In cell F35

you'll see =IF(E35="Yes",SUM(D28:D29)*1.25,0). This says "If cell E35 is Yes,

then take the sum of the Quantity column in the table above, and multiply it by

1.25, otherwise return a 0".

3 Next, change the 1.25 in the formula in cell F35 to "Shipping". As you start EXPERT TIP

typing, Excel's auto-correct, should find it for you. When it does, press Tab to Named Ranges allow you to define terms or values in a

enter it. This is a Named Range, and we entered it from Formulas > Define single place, and then reuse them throughout a

Name. Now, if you ever need to change your shipping cost, you only have to do workbook. You can see all of the named ranges in this

workbook by going to Formulas > Name Manager. Click

it in one place, and you can use the Shipping name anywhere in the workbook.

here to learn more.

All about the IF function

Advanced IF statements

VLOOKUP

VLOOKUP

VLOOKUP is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!). VLOOKUP lets you look up a value in a column on the left, then returns information in another column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

=VLOOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)

What do youVLOOKUP

want to is one

look of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!).

for?

If you findVLOOKUP

it, how manyletscolumns

you look up aright

to the valuedoin a column

you on the

want to get left, then returns information in

a value?

Where do you want to look forthe

another column to it? right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

Do you want an exact, or approximate match?

What do you If you find it, how many

In cell D22,

want to look columns to the right do you

Now try for

for? want to get a value?

EXPERIMENTTry selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll see the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.

Dive down for more detail

Next

VLOOKUP and #N/A =VLOOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to, and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

If you know

If you're not Where do you Do you want Fruit Amount Meat Amount

IMPORTANT DETAILIFERROR is what's known as a want blanket

to error

look handler, anmeaning

exact, orit will suppress any error your formula might

Applesthrow. This can cause problems

50 Beef

if Excel is giving you a notification

50 that your formula has a legitimate error that needs to be fixed.A rule of thumb is

Previous for it? approximate Oranges 20 Chicken 30

Next match? Bananas 60 Pork 10

More information on the web Lemons 40 Fish 50

1

All about the VLOOKUP function

In cell D22, enter =VLOOKUP(C22,C17:D20,2,FALSE). The correct answer for

All about the INDEX/MATCH

Apples isfunctions

50. VLOOKUP looked for Apples, found it, then went over one column Apples Pork

All about the IFERROR to function

the right, and returned the amount.

Use PivotTables to analyze worksheet data

2 online

Free Excel training Now try for yourself in the Meat section, in cell G22. You should end up with EXPERIMENT

=VLOOKUP(F22,F17:G20,2,FALSE). Try selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll see

the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.

VLOOKUP and #N/A If the SUM function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.

Item Amount Item Amount

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to, and it Bread 50 Bread 50

returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply doesn't exist, or it Donuts 100 Donuts 100

can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet. Cookies 40 Cookies 40

Cakes 50 Cakes 50

1 If you know your lookup value exists, but want to hide the error if the lookup cell is

Pies 20 Pies 20

blank, you can use an IF statement. In this case, we'll wrap our existing VLOOKUP

formula like this in cell D43: #N/A Pastry

=IF(C43="","",VLOOKUP(C43,C37:D41,2,FALSE))

This says, "If cell C43 equals nothing (""), then return nothing, otherwise return the IMPORTANT DETAIL

VLOOKUP's results". Note the second closing parenthesis at the end of the IFERROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning it

formula. This closes the IF statement. will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can

cause problems if Excel is giving you a notification that your

2 If you're not sure your lookup value exists, but you still want to suppress the formula has a legitimate error that needs to be fixed.

#N/A error, you can use an error handling function called IFERROR in cell G43:

=IFERROR(VLOOKUP(F43,F37:G41,2,FALSE),""). IFERROR says, "If the A rule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas

VLOOKUP returns a valid result, then display that, otherwise, display nothing until you're absolutely certain they work properly.

("")". We displayed nothing here (""), but you can also use numbers (0,1, 2, etc.),

or text, such as "Formula isn't correct".

All about the VLOOKUP function

Conditional functions - SUMIF

Conditional functions - SUMIF

Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based on a given condition, or criteria Fruit

you specify. Such as,Amount

out of all the fruits in

Fruit

the list, how many

Type are apples? Or, how

Amount

many oranges are the Florida type?

SUMIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in another range, like how many Apples you have. Apples

Select cell D17 and type 50 =SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D14).

Apples SUMIF

Fuji is structured like this:50

Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based

=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4) Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20

on a given condition, or criteria you specify. Such as, out of all the fruits in the list, how

What range do you want to look at? Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

many are apples? Or, how many oranges are the Florida type?

What value (text or number) do you want to look for? Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40

For each match found, what range do you want to sum in? Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

SUMIFS is the 1 sameSUMIF letsbut

as SUMIF, youitsum in one

lets you use range

multiplebased on So

criteria. a specifc criteria you

in this example, youlook for infor Fruit and Type, instead

can look Oranges

of just by Fruit. Select cell

20 H17 and type Oranges

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17).

Navel 20SUMIFS is structured like this:

another range, like how many Apples you have. Select cell D17 and type

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17) Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60

What range do you=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D14).

want to sum? SUMIF is structured like this: Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

This is the first range to look in for matches Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

This is the criteria for the first matchWhat range do you For each match found, what Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

This is the want to look at? range do you want to sum? Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

This is the criteria for the second match Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

EXPERT TIP

=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)

Dive down for more detail Fruit SUMIF Fruit Type SUMIFS

Next step Apples Oranges Florida

Conditional functions - COUNTIF

COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values inWhat a range based

value onora number)

(text criteria you specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only have a criteria range, and criteria. TheyEXPERTdon't evalute

TIP one range, then look in another to summarize.

Select cell D64 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). do COUNTIF

you wantistostructured

look for? like this: Each one of the Fruit and Type cells has a

=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64) drop-down list where you can select

What range do you want to look at? different fruits. Try it, and watch the

What value2(text or number) do you want to look for?

SUMIFS is the same as SUMIF, but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in this formulas automatically update.

example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select cell H17

COUNTIFS is

and type =SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17). SUMIFS is structured like

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

this:

This is the first range to count

This is the criteria for the firstWhat

matchrange This is the This is the

This is the second range to count do you want criteria for the criteria for the

This is criteria for the second tomatch

sum? first match second match

Dive down for more detail

Next

More conditional functions

You've

=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)

Dive down for more detail

Next

SUMIF with a value argument

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater This isthan

the first

(>) to find all values This is the

greater than a given amount:

200 range to look second range

Sum up some values based on this criterion: in for matches to look in for

....Look through these cells... matches

...and if the value is greater than 50, sum it up.

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

More information onDive down for more detail

the web Next

All about the SUMIF function

All about the SUMIFS function

All about the COUNTIF function

All about the COUNTIFS function

Conditional functions - COUNTIF

All about the AVERAGEIF function

All about the AVERAGEIFS function Fruit Amount Fruit Type Amount

All about COUNTIF

the MINIFSandfunction

COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you specify. Apples 50 Apples Fuji 50

All about They're

the MAXIFS

a bitfunction

different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only have a criteria Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20

Create a drop-down list

range, and criteria. They don't evalute one range, then look in another to summarize. Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

Free Excel training online Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40

Back to top Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Next 1 Select cell D64 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). COUNTIF is structured like Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

this: Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60

What range do you Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

want to look at? Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50

Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20

Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60

=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64) Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

Apples 3 Oranges Florida 1

What value (text or number)

do you want to look for?

2 COUNTIFS is the same as SUMIF, but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in this

example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select cell H64

and type =COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64). COUNTIFS is structured like

this:

range to count range to count

Double-click this cell and you'll see that the formula is

different. Specifically, the sum criteria is ">=50" which

This is the criteria This is criteria for means greater than or equal to 50. There are other

for the first match the second match operators you can use like "<=50" which is less than or

equal to 50. And there's "<>50" which is not equals

50.

Fruit Type Amount

You've already seen SUMIF, SUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on your Apples Fuji 50

Oranges Florida 20

own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're all

Bananas Cavendish 60

structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just replace the

Lemons Rough 40

function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need for cell

Apples Honeycrisp 50

E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.

Oranges Navel 20

Bananas Lady Finger 60

SUMIF =SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

Lemons Eureka 40

SUMIFS =SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

Apples Honeycrisp 50

AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)

Oranges Navel 20

AVERAGEIFS =AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)

Bananas Cavendish 60

COUNTIF =COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)

Lemons Eureka 40

COUNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106) Fruit Type Try it

MINIFS =MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106) Lemons Eureka 80

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than ( >) to find all values greater

Item Amount

than a given amount:

Bread 50

Donuts 100

Sum up some ....Look through ...and if the

Cookies 40

values based these cells... value is greater

Cakes 50

on this than 50, sum it

Pies 20

criterion: up.

200

=SUMIF(D118:D122,">=50")

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a

PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

All about the SUMIF function All about the SUMIFS function

All about the COUNTIF function All about the COUNTIFS function

All about the AVERAGEIF function All about the AVERAGEIFS function

All about the MINIFS function All about the MAXIFS function

Let the Function Wizard guide you

Let the Function Wizard guide you

If you know the name of the function you want, but you're not sure how to build it, you can use the Function Wizard to help you out.

Select cell D10,

Next, enterIf the

you know the name of the function you want, but you're not sure how to build it, you Fruit Amount

CHECK THIS can use the Function Wizard to help you out. Apples 50

GOOD TO KNOWYou can type cell and range references, or select them with your mouse. Oranges 20

GOOD TO 1 Select cell D10, then go to Formulas > Insert Function > type VLOOKUP in Bananas 60

Previous the Search for a function box, and press GO. When you see VLOOKUP Lemons 40

Next highlighted, click OK at the bottom. When you select a function in the list,

More information onExcel will display its syntax.

the web Apples 50

Overview of formulas in Excel

Excel functions2 (by category)

Next, enter the function arguments in their respective text boxes. As you enter

each one, Excel will evaluate it, and show you its result, with the final result at

Excel functions (alphabetical) CHECK THIS OUT

the bottom. Press OK when you're done, and Excel will enter the formula for

Free Excel training online You should end up with

you. =VLOOKUP(C10,C5:D8,2,FALSE)

GOOD TO KNOW

You can type cell and range references, or select them

with your mouse.

GOOD TO KNOW

As you enter each argument's section, the argument's

description will be displayed toward the bottom of the form,

above the Formula result.

Overview of formulas in Excel

Fixing formula errors

Fixing formula errors

At some point in time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when something's not working right, but they can be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there

Error checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that will tell you the general cause for your specific Fruit

error. In cell D9, the #N/A

Amount

error is caused because there is no value matching "Apple". You can fix this by using a value tha

If you clickAt some

Help point

on this in time,

Error, you'll

a help topicrun across

specific to athe

formula that haswill

error message anopen.

error,Ifwhich Excel

you click willCalculation

Show display Steps, an Apples

Evaluate Formula dialog will load.

50

with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when something's not

Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an Oranges

error occurs, but it will point20out where. From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went wrong with your formula

EXPERIMENT working

What'sright,

wrong but theyHint:

here? can We're

be challenging

trying to SUM to fix.

up Fortunately,

all the items.there are several options that Bananas 60

GOOD TO can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it. Lemons 40

Previous

Next

1 Error checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that

Apple #N/A

will tell you the general cause for your specific error. In cell D9, the #N/A error is

More information on caused

the webbecause there is no value matching "Apple". You can fix this by using a

Detect errors in formulas

value that does exist, suppress the error with IFERROR, or ignore it and know it

How to avoid broken willformulas

go away when you do use a value that exists.

Evaluate a nested formula one step at a time

Free Excel training online

GOOD TO KNOW

2 If you click Help on this Error, a help topic specific to the error message will

Clicking Options will let you set the

open. If you click Show Calculation Steps, an Evaluate Formula dialog will load. rules for when errors in Excel are

displayed or ignored.

Fruit Amount

Apples 50

Oranges 20

Bananas 60

Lemons 40

Total #NAME?

EXPERIMENT

What's wrong here? Hint: We're trying to SUM

up all the items.

3 Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one section at a

time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it will point out where.

From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went wrong with your formula.

Detect errors in formulas

More questions about Excel?

Press ALT+Q and type what you want to know.

More questions about Excel?

Keep going. There is more to learn with Excel:

LinkedIn Learning: Video courses for all levels—from beginner to advanced. Take at your own pace.

Community: Ask questions and connect with other Excel fans.

What else

Give us feedback on this tour

Click the Tell Me button and type what you want to know.

Video courses for all Ask questions and Office 365 subscribers

levels—from beginner to connect with other get continual updates

advanced. Take at your Excel fans. and new features.

own pace.

Learn more Learn more Learn more

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