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Contents

Asignment Question 2

Introduction

Science Definition 3

Science Process Skills 4 - 13

Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan 1 14 - 17

Lesson Plan 2 18 - 21

Lesson Plan 3 22 - 24

Lesson Plan 4 25 - 27

Lesson Plan 5 28 - 31

Lesson Plan 6 32 - 34

Conclusion 35

References 36

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Asignment Question

Explain science and manipulative skills.

As a teacger how do you intergrate science process skills in the teaching of

scienece in pimary schools.

Desribe at less 5 science lesson to help you in your essay.

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Introduction

Science Definition

How do we define science? According to Webster's New Collegiate

Dictionary, the definition of science is "knowledge attained through study or

practice," or "knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general

laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned

with the physical world."

What does that really mean? Science refers to a system of acquiring

knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and

explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body

of knowledge people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word

science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained

from it.

What is the purpose of science? Perhaps the most general description is

that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality. Most scientific

investigations use some form of the scientific method. You can find out more

about the scientific method here.

Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to

differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to

human needs. Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

- Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and

- Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

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Science Process Skills

The science process skills in the following chart were developed originally by

the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in the 1960’s. For

more than four decades they have been widely accepted throughout education, often

described as the building blocks of inquiry and investigation. While elementary school

children are expected to demonstrate competencies in the processes, they also serve

as goals and standards for teachers and schools. The process skills identify what

teachers are to teach and children are to learn.

The competency indicators spell out what children should be able to do to

achieve mastery of the processes. For example, students practicing inferring might be

given by the teacher a mystery box containing an unknown or mystery object.

Students might shake the box, listen to sounds, feel the weight, smell the box, and

otherwise observe the unseen object. Then, based upon their observed evidence,

they provide reasonable, plausible explanations for what the mystery object could be.

Their explanations are inferences or explanations for observations. Or students might

demonstrate competency with experimenting by conducting simple experiments, e.g.

investigating the favorite food of ants, testing the absorption of different brands of

paper towels, or experimenting with the variables that affect the flight distances of

paper airplanes.

While the process skills are viewed as central to elementary school science

education and important enough to be taught in their own right, they are often

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combined with science content, enabling children to learn both science processes and

content at the same time—in a seamless learning experience. For instance, children

may practice the skill of observation while identifying the properties of rocks. Or they

may communicate the growth of bean plants by developing a chart and graph. Or they

may measure temperature of different soil samples exposed to sunlight. And while

the processes skills are ascribed to science, it is obvious that many are taught and

reinforced in other school subjects; for example, classifying and measuring in

mathematics, inferring and communicating in language arts, and defining operationally

and interpreting data in social studies. It is little wonder, then, that many educators

view the processes as fundamental and essential to both school and lifelong learning.

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A RECOMMENDED SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS COMPETENCY

CONTINUUM FOR GRADES K-8 PROCESSES OF SCIENCE:

COMPETENCY INDICATOR:

Each indicator is one of many behavioral examples which may be used to assess

student competency. Others may be used to fit students' needs. The student will :

1. OBSERVING

a. observe objects or events in a variety of ways using one or more of the

senses.

b. identify properties of an object, i.e., shape, color, size, and texture.

c. use indirect methods, i.e., hand lenses, microscopes, thermometers, to

observe objects and events.

d. observe objects or events by counting, comparing, estimating, and measuring.

2. CLASSIFYING

a. identify properties useful for classifying objects

b. group objects by their properties or similarities and differences.

c. construct and use classification systems.

3. INFERRING

a. suggest explanations for events based on observations.

b. distinguish between an observation and an inference.

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4. PREDICTING

a. forecast a future event based on prior experience, i.e., observations,

inferences, or experiments.

5. MEASURING

a. compare and order objects by length, area, weight, volume, etc.

b. measure properties of objects or events by using standardized units of

measure.

c. measure volume, mass, weight, temperature, area, length, and time, using

appropriate units and appropriate measuring instruments.

6. COMMUNICATING

a. construct and use written reports, diagrams, graphs, or charts to transmit

information learned from science experiences.

b. verbally ask questions about , discuss, explain, or report observations.

c. after an investigation, report the question tested, the experimental design

used, results, and conclusions drawn, using tables and graphs where

appropriate.

7. USING SPACE/TIME RELATIONS

a. describe an object's position i.e., above, below, beside, etc., in relation to other

objects.

b. describe the motion, direction, spatial arrangement, symmetry, and shape of

an object compared to another object.

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8. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY

a. state definitions of objects or events in terms of what the object is doing or

what is occurring in the event.

b. state definitions of objects or events based on observable characteristics.

9. FORMULATING HYPOTHESES

a. identify questions or statements which can and cannot be tested.

b. design statements, i.e., questions, inferences, predictions, which can be tested

by an experiment.

10. EXPERIMENTING

a. design an investigation to test a hypothesis.

b. conduct simple experiments.

c. recognize limitations of methods and tools used in experiments, i.e.

experimental error.

d. utilize safe procedures while conducting investigations.

11. RECOGNIZING VARIABLES

a. identify the manipulated (independent) variable, responding (dependent)

variable, and variables-held-constant in an experiment.

b. control the variable in an investigation.

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12. INTERPRETING DATA

a. organize and state in his/her own words information derived from a science

investigation.

b. revise interpretations of data based on new information or revised data.

13. FORMULATING MODELS

a. create a mental, physical, or mental verbal representation of an idea, object, or

event.

b. use models to describe and explain interrelationships of ideas, objects, or

events.

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This chart, which was revised in 1994, is based on, and used with the permission

of the authors of the following source: Mechling, K., Bires, N., Kepler, L., Oliver,

D., and Smith, B. (1985) A Recommended Science Competency Continuum for

Grades K-6 for Pennsylvania Schools . Harrisburg, PA. Pennsylvania

Department of Education

Science Process Skills


Process of
Competency Indicators
Science
• observe objects or events in a variety of ways using one or

more of the senses

• identify properties of an object, i.e. shape, color, size, and

texture.
Observing
• use indirect methods, i.e. hand lenses, microscopes,

thermometers, to observe objects and events.

• observe objects or events by counting, comparing, estimating

and measuring.
• identify properties useful for classifying objects

• group objects by their properties or similarities and differences


Classifying

• construct and use classification systems


• suggest explanations for events based on observations
Inferring
• distinguish between an observation and an inference
• forecast a future event based on prior experience, i.e.
Predicting
observations, inferences or experiments.
Measuring • compare and order objects by length, area, weight, volume, etc.

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• measure properties of objects or events by using standardized

units of measure.

• measure volume, mass, weight, temperature, area, length, and

time using appropriate units and appropriate measuring

instruments.
• construct and use written reports, drawings, diagrams, graphs,

or charts to transmit information learned from science

experiments

• verbally ask questions about, discuss, explain, or report


Communicating
observations.

• after an investigation, report the question tested, the

experimental design used, results, and conclusions drawn,

using tables and graphs where appropriate.


• describe an object's position, i.e., above, below, beside, etc. in
Using
relation to other objects
Space/Time
• describe the motion, direction, spatial arrangement, symmetry,
Relations
and shape of an object compared to another object.
• state definitions of objects or events in terms of what the object

is doing or what is occurring in the event


Defining

Operationally
• state definitions of objects or events based on observable

characteristics
Formulating • identify questions or statements which can and cannot be

Hypotheses

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tested

• design statements, i.e., questions, inferences, predictions,

which can be tested by an experiment.


• design an investigation to test a hypothesis

• conduct simple experiments

• recognize limitations of methods and tools used in experiments,


Experimenting
i.e., experimental error

• utilize safe procedures while conducting investigations.


• identify the manipulated (independent) variable, responding

(dependent) variable, and variables-held-constant in an


Recognizing
experiment.
Variables
• control the variables in an investigation

• organize and state in his/her own words information derived

from a science investigation.


Interpreting

Data
• revise interpretations of data based on new information or

revised data.
• create a mental, physical, or mental verbal representation of an
Formulating
idea, object or event.
Models
• interrelationships of ideas, objects, or events

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Teaching Plan 1 LESSON 38

Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part B Investigating Materials

 Unit 1 : States of Matter

Learning Outcomes

 By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

Classify objects and material; into three states of matter.

Learning Objective

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 Pupils should be able to understand that matter exist form of solid,

liquid or gas.

Concept / produced

 Matter can be in the form of solid, liquid or gas,

Science Process Skills covered

 Observing , classifying , communicating, comparing, grouping and

classifying and making generalizations.

Value Incorporated

 Having an interest and curiously towards the environment.

 Realizing that science

 Thinking nationally

Material needed

 Eraser, cup of lot chocolate ,some cooking oil , a chalk a balloon. Some

shampoo , some water and a sponge.

Teaching Strategies

Step Strategies Science Process Skill


Set Induction Allow pupil s watch the animation Observing

Teacher guides the student do the Communicating

suggested activity in class.

Encourage pupils to discuss and answer

the question posed..


Step 1 Encourage pupils to fill in the table given.. Classifying

Encourage pupils to give more descriptions Commucating

for the eraser cooking oil and steam.

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Encourage pupils to describe other objects

around them.
Step 2 Encourage pupils to take part in the drag

and drop activity.

Conclude that the objects can be group Gruoping and

according to their similarities. classifying

Teacher allow pupils find out more about

the similarities of each objects group.

Teacher concludes that objects and

substances can be classified as solid. liquid

or gas.

Encourage pupils to list other solid, liquid or

gas
Step 3 Teacher guide pupils to do activity and take Observing

pupils to walk around the school. Communicating

Encourage pupils to discuss while doing Making generalization

the activity.

Teacher allocates time for pupils to present

their findings to the class,


Step 4 Teacher give question and guide pupils to

complete sheet before going through the

question with them.


Step 5 Encourage pupils discuss and exchange Communicating

information. Comparing

Teacher may allocate time for pupils to Making generalization

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present their findings to the class,
Conclusion Teacher allow pupils to take notes. Comparing

Guide pupils to understand that matter exist

in the form of solid, liquid or gas.

Example Activity

Name : _________________ Class : _______________ Date : ______________

This is a lot some things around us.

Identify the state of matter of each object.

Write your answer in the table

Object States of Matter


Cork
Air
Glass
Honey
Wooden ruler
Hot Chocolate
Oxygen
Cough mixture

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Teaching Plan 2 LESSON 10

Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part A Investigating Living Things

 Unit 2 : Survival of the species

Learning Outcomes

 By the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

- State various ways plants disperse their seeds and fruit,

- Explain why plants needs to disperse seeds or fruits..

Learning Objective

 Pupils should be able to understand that different plants have their own

ways to ensure the survival of their species,.

Concept / produced

 The various ways plants disperse their seeds and fruits,

Skill covered

 Observing , classifying , making inferences, interpreting data and

relating.

Value Incorporated

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 Having an interest and curiously towards the environment

Material needed

 Old white socks, light objects such as buttons pen covers, staples, paper, plastic

sheets cotton and measuring tape.

Teaching Strategies

Step Strategies Science Process Skill


Set Induction Teacher ask pupils to discuss why do

plants have seeds..


Step 1 Encourage pupils to discuss the question Observation

posed. Classifying

Prompt pupils to see the seed that are far Making inferences

from the parent plan might grow well and

plant provide seeds to ensure the survival

on their species..
Step 2 Encourage pupils to discuss how a fruit or Interpreting data and

seed is dispersed based on its Relating

characteristics.

Prompt pupils to see that fruit or seed are

disperser based on its charactistics.


Step 3 Teacher asks pupils to wear white socks Observing

and to walk around their school. Making Inferences

Pupils discuss how the seed stuck to their

socks are dispersed.

Guide pupils to carry out the activity.

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Teacher shout allocate time for pupils to

present their work to the class.

Step 4 Teacher ask pupils assume that every Makking Inferences

days objects are seeds. Interpreting data and

Pupils are to design the objects using Relating

paper, plastic and cotton so that to can be

dispersed by wind.

Guide pupils to carry out the activity.

Teacher should allocate time for pupils

carry out the activity..


Step 5 Teacher ask some question Plants need Interpreting data and

to disperse their seeds and fruits to Relating

ensure the survival of their species.


Step 6 Encourage pupils discuss the question Communicating

posed.
Conclusion Teacher concludes the lesson by playing

this competent to further reinforce

understanding of the lesson.

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Example Activity

Name : _________________ Class : ________________ Date : ___________

Match the characteristics to the of dispersal by completing the table

- In a pod

- Have hooks

- Light and able to trap air

- Have wing like structure

Seeds dispersed Seeds dispersed Seeds dispersed Seeds dispersed

by water by wind by animals by explosive mechanism

Teaching Plan 3 LESSON 22

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Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part B Investigating Force and energy

 Unit 2 : Electricity

Learning Outcomes

 Bu the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

Identify the difference in the arrangement of bulbs in series and parallel

circuits

Build a series circuit and build a parallel circuit..

Learning Objective

 Pupils should be able to understand a series circuit and parallel circuit.

Concept / produced

 Identifying the differences in the arrangement of bulbs in series and

parallel circuits.

 Building a series circuit and build a parallel circuit,

Skill covered

 Observing , classifying , making inferences and interpreting data

Value Incorporated

 Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data

 Being diligent and persevering

Material needed

 Battery , bulb , wire

Teaching Strategies

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Step Strategies Science Process Skill
Set Induction Teacher ask pupils whether there an Observing

another way to arrange the bulbs to

build another complete circuit.


Step 1 Encourage pupils to discuss what is Observing

the difference in the arrangement of Classifying

the bulbs in the two circuit.

Prompt pupils to see that the 2 bulbs

that are arranged in a loop, one after

another is a series circuit and the 2

bulbs that are on separate branches

on the circuits is a parallel circuit.


Step 2 Teacher divide the class into groups.

Teacher guide pupils carrying out

the activity.
Step 3 Allow pupils to complete the activity

sheet before going though the

question with them.


Step 4 Encourage pupils to discuss the Observing

question posed.

Prompt pupils to see that the circuit

is a combination of a series had a

parallel circuit and when the circuit

to complete all 4 bubs will light up


Conclusion Teacher concludes the lesson Making Inferences

Guide pupils to : Interpreting Data

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 Identify the difference in thee

arrangement or bulbs in

series and parallel circuits.

 Build a series circuit.

 Bud a parallel circuit,

Teaching Plan 4 LESSON 50

Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part C Investigating The Earth and the universe

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 Unit 1 : Constellations

Learning Outcomes

 Bu the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

-state what constellation is

-identify constellation

-state the importance of constellations.

Learning Objective

 Pupils should understand the constellation

Concept / produced

 Using certain constellation as maps,

Skill covered

 Observing , making inferences, attributing , visualizing

Value Incorporated

 Having an interest and curiously towards the environment

 Being diligent and persevering

Material needed

 Shoebox , with its lid, torch , manila card, sticky tape, needle,

mahjong paper

Teaching Strategies

Step Strategies Science Process Skill


Set Induction Allow pupils to answer the question posed.
Step 1 Encourage pupils to discuss the Making Inferences

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characteristic of constellations.

Reinforce pupils understanding that certain

Constellations can be used as maps and

certain constellations appear during seasons.


Step 2 Teacher guide pupils in carrying out the

activity
Step 3 Allow pupils to complete the activity sheet

before going through the questions with

them.
Step 4 Encourage pupils to discuss on the topic. Observing

Guides pupils to select their constellation,

Encourage pupils to find more information

about their constellation.


Conclusion Teacher concludes the lesson by playing this Attributing

component to further rain force visualizing

understanding of the lesson.

Guide pupils to understand the different

charactistics of the constellation.

Further enforce students understanding that

there are many constellations in the universe

and that each one can have a certain story to

it.

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Teaching Plan 5 LESSON 58

Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part E Investigating Technology

 Unit 1 : Strength and stability

Learning Outcomes

 Bu the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

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- design a model that is strong and stabile.

Learning Objective

 Pupils should be able to understanding the strength of a structure.

Concept / produced

 We need to make a design and build a model before constructing a

structure.

Skill covered

 Observing, classifying, attributing, comparing and contrasting. Defining

operationally. inventing

Value Incorporated

 Having an interest and curiously/towards the environment

 Realizing that science is a means to understand nature

Material needed

 Recycled material like shoe boxes, milk cartons and paper towel rolls,

modeling clay, colored papers, straw, cardboards, ice-cream stick, glue,

scissors, masking tape. Toothpicks, strings, cans, marble. notebooks,

paper clips, rubbers or erasers

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Teaching Strategies

Step Strategies Science Process Skill


Set Induction Allow pupils to answer the question posted; Observing

Encourage pupils to give more than one Classifying

answers.
Step 1 Teacher is advised to help pupils prepare the comparing

materials needed.

Guide pupils to discuss why we need to make

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a design before making the model of a

structure.

Teacher divides the class into groups.

Guide pupils to carry out the activities,


Step 2 Allow pupils top complete the activity sheet

before going through the questions with them.


Step 3 Allow pupils to discuss the activity or take

notes.

Guide pupils in carrying out the activity.


Conclusion Teacher concludes the lesson by playing the Comparing

component to farther reinforce understanding Defining operationally

of the lesson. Guide pupils to discuss the

reasons we need to make a design and

model before making a structure.

Example Activity:

Name: _________________ Class: _______________ Date: ______________

Building a made of the structure is not easy.

What is the first thing that you should do before building the model?

Tick (/) on the correct answer

Design a model

Measure the height of the model.

List the shapes used in the model.

Objects with a bigger base area will tipple over easily

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Teaching Plan 6 LESSON 30

Syllabus Correlation

 Science Year 5

 Part A Investigating Force and Energy

 Unit 3 : Light

Learning Outcomes

 Bu the end of the lesson pupils should be able to :

- state that light can be reflected

- draw ray diagrams to show reflection of light.

Learning Objective

 Pupils should be able to understand that light can be reflected...

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Concept / produced

 Light can be reflected

 When light is reflected it changes direction.

Skill covered

 Observing, classifying, attributing, comparing and contrasting.

analyzing, making inference, and relating.

Value Incorporated

 Having an interest and curiously/towards the environment

 Realizing that science is a means to understand nature

Material needed

 Mirror, torch, paper, drawing paper, pencil. mounting tape, ruler ,

cardboard tubes, sticky tape, rectangle mirror

Teaching Strategies

Step Strategies Science Process Skill


Set Induction Encourage pupils to discuss the answer to

the question posed.


Step 1 Teacher is advised to prepare the materials Observing

needed;

Prompt pupils to see that light can be

reflected and that when light is reflected, it

change direction.
Step 2 Teacher can divide the class into groups.

Allow pupils to discuss the activity or takes

notes,
Step 3 Allow pupils to complete the activity sheet Classifying

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before going through the question with them.
Step 4 Encourage the pupils to discuss.
Conclusion Teacher concludes the lesson. Comparing

Guide pupils to understand that :: Making Inferences

 Light can be reflected Relating

 When light is reflected it

changes direction.

 When light bounces off an

object it is called reflection

Example Activity

Name: _____________ Class: ____________ Date: ___________

Which of these objects reflects light the most?

Tick (/) on correct answer

BIL MATERIAL ANSWER


1 PAPER
2 MIRROR
3 WOOD
4 CLOTH
5 LEAF
6 PLASTIC

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Conclusion

Process skills in science are very important in the formal presentation of

science to children. There is a strong belief that children who are properly

introduced to science through Process skills will find the skills useful throughout

life. While it is possible to easily forget science content learnt, process skills tend

to remain with many individuals for a relatively longer period.

The purpose of this lesson is to present FIVE out of the many science

process skills to children. The five process skills are observing, grouping,

measuring, communicating and reading.

Science educators are of the opinion that learning science process skills

means ‘learning how to learn’. Children learn through critical thinking and by

using information creatively. They discover the learning method when making

wise observations, organizing and analyzing facts and concepts, and assessing

the experiment results as well as by making inferences based on proof obtained.

Children also learn to predict what would happen of the situation governing a

natural phenomenon changes.

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References

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (2004 ) , Syllabus Science Year 5 , Ministry


Education of Malaysia (KPM)

Pusat Perkembagan Kurikulum (2001) , Modul 1 Kemahiran Proses Sains ,


Kememterian Pelajaran Malaysia (KPM )

Dewan Bahasa Pustaka (DBP) 2004 , Text Book KBSR Year 5, Ministry of
Education Malysia

Sasbadi Sdn Bhd , Easy Step to Science KBSR, Year 4, 5 and 6 by Faujan bin
Ahmad and Husin bin Hj Fatah Din

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum (2007 ) , Ministry of Education Malaysia


Teacher Guide

Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum ( 2007 ), Ministry of Education Malaysia


Teacher Manuall

www.maisk-6scienceinquiry.org/continuum.doc

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www.scribd.com/doc/5567816/Science-Process-Skills

www.wisegeek.com/what-are-science-process-skills.htm

Mechling, K., Bires, N., Kepler, L., Oliver, D., and Smith, B. (1985) A
Recommended Science Competency Continuum for Grades K-6 for
Pennsylvania Schools . Harrisburg, PA. Pennsylvania Department of Education

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