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The day view over the night


Gustav Theodor Fechner

Third Edition

printed and published by Breitkopf & Härtel
in 1919

First part. Broad.

I. entrance.
II Historical point of view.
III. Basic points of the two views against each other.
IV development principles of the day view.
V. Positive development moments of the day view to night view of the negations.
1 God.
2 The sensual world of appearances.
3 The soul star question and plants.
4 The Earth in particular.
5 The Hereafter.
6 The evil in the world.

VI. Religious views and prospects.

Second part. Versions.
VIII The Old and the New Day.
IX. The three creeds of the day view.
X. The theology of the day view.
1 Factual.
2 Linguistic.
3 The immutability of the divine essence.

XI. Question to the soul.

XII. The doctrine of the afterlife.
XIII. Through the mediation of higher education and intellectual life with nature.
XIV to teleology.
XV. The world questions of pleasure and pain. Optimism and pessimism.
XVI. The question of freedom.
1 General aspects.
2 Representation of indeterminism.
3 Representation of determinism.
4 The prayer.

XVII. The causal law. The concept of power and the conclusions experience.
XVIII.Prinzip the tendency to stability as a financial principle of the
world. Psychophysical Hypothesis of pleasure and pain.
XIX. What caused and authorized us to accept an external world and how far a
knowledge of their nature is possible.
XX. Mediation the day view of the scientific conception of nature.
XXI. Basic relationship between physical and intellectual principle. Dualism and
XXII. Position of the Day for monadology. Synechologische view of monadic over.
XXIII. Spiritualist.
1 Position of the Day for spiritualism.
2 Position of spiritualism to religion.
3 Personal remarks.

XXIV Additional comments in support of the day view.

XXV. Conclusion.

Part One
I. entrance.
One morning I was sitting on a bench in Leipzig Rosental near the Swiss cottage
and looked through a gap, which left the bushes, before spreading to the beautiful
large lawn to relieve my sick eyes on the same green. The sun shone bright and
warm, and the flowers looked colorful and fun out of the meadow green, butterflies
fluttering about and between them back and forth, birds twittering in the branches
above me, and a morning concert invaded the sounds in my ear. Thus the senses were
engaged and satisfied. But for those accustomed to the satisfaction of thinking not
long enough, and then spun out of the employment of the senses gradually a mind
game out, I will here only spun a little more and play more organized.
Strange delusion, I told myself. Basically, everything is in front of me and around
me night and silence, the sun seems so shiny that I blush to her turn to my eye, in
truth, only a sullen, seeking his way in the dark, ball flowers, Butterflies lie their
colors, violins, flutes their tone. In this general darkness, desolation and silence
surrounds which heaven and earth, hovering only single, internally bright, colorful
and sounding creature, probably even only points emerge from the night, sinking into
it again without some of their light and sound of leave to see each other without
anything between them lights up, talk to each other without anything between them
drowned. So today and it was from the beginning and it will be forever. What I say:
Rather billions of years it was not cold enough, and how long it will take, it will be
too cold for the existence of such beings. Then everything will be back very dark and
silent as before.
But I was in such 'absurd thoughts come? I also did not matter, I was just waiting
that you came out and found it strange that one has come so generally it. Are there
yet the thoughts of the whole thinking world around me. How much and what she
likes to bicker, it is philosophers and physicists, materialists and idealists, Darwinians
and Antidarwinianer, Orthodox and rationalists shake hands. It is not a block, but a
cornerstone of today's world view, that it is so, as I said, that it is; happy that she still
does in some. What we are telling the world about us, listen to my, it's all just our
inner light, an illusion that you can praise it, as I've read it recently, but remains an
illusion. Light and sound in the outer, controlled by mechanical laws and forces, not
yet permeated the consciousness of the world about the organic creatures also are just
blind dumb wave trains that cross the more or less shattered material points from the
ether and the air, and only when they probably do only when they encounter the same
to a certain point, be converted to the protein balls of our brain through the magic of
this spiritualist medium in bright sounding vibrations. About reason being, more
detailed provisions of this spell is arguing; than the fact it is united, and from all the
thinking and theories of cognition, in which philosophy will be exhausted just now
and empty when she wanted to give birth to a philosophy that does not lead to to
smash a doubt the accuracy of this fact, unless to explain the doubts for insoluble, or
speck of dust in the world, only yourself, but do not illuminate the world.
While the natural man resists this wisdom. He believes that he sees the objects
around, because to him it is really bright, the sun begins to shine not only behind his
eye that the flowers, butterflies are as colorful as they appear to him, the flutes,
fiddles her tone give him, not vice versa received from him, in short, that there is a
lights and sounds with the world beyond it and into it from outside. But he lets
himself be taught by science, and now believes to be so intelligent that he has less an
illusion. The illusion remains though, and mocks his knowledge as this defies his
illusion. What has finally right of both? It is certain that the illusion is never soft, is
the knowledge that it is an illusion, probably just as firmly, and it is not themselves a
illusion? You need but the saying that Honest is the best policy, only then to reverse
that what lasts longest, is honest, to believe it. Naturam furca expellas, usque tamen
redibit that will not apply to the natural view of things ?
Yes would not frighten those nocturnal view of himself, when the mirror is held up
to her, all she said was right, she was there even what she sees in them, and have yet
to identify with it any of their trains at some reflection. But they will be able to exist
with such features from the world, when they in turn begins to recollect? Rather, the
world would have shown the whole Unerbaulichkeit this view, all the improbability
of the same, the whole grounds of their weakness has always been as clear as me in
that hour, they could never have become the world view. Now clarity is the last in
these things, but the last one will be the clarity.
In fact, my belief that, as sure as the night the day, on that night view of the world
some day a day view will follow that, rather than stand in contradiction with the
natural view of things, but propping it and in the is reason to find a new
development. Because fades that illusion, which runs the day into night, then
naturally everything upside that goes with it, and it's much, must disappear with, and
the world appear in a new connexion, in a new light, with new positive aspects.
So that the light seen beyond ourselves in the world, the sound will be heard, there
must be a seeing and listening to nature. And you do not have otherwise heard of a
God who is omnipresent and omniscient reigns in the world, for the night view,
however, is its clarity, if it is at all for them yet, on top of things: therefore the world
so dark, silent under him and desolate. For the day view, the world is illuminated by
his vision, by sounds of his hearing, and what we ourselves see the world and hear
only the last branch of his sight and hearing, and and everything he sees more than
we do of the world hear, even higher builds up in him as in us. - After the night view
of God needs no light to see, no sound to hear, conversely, the blind light, the deaf
sound no God, and so it comes easily with the one and the other lost and growing
materialism the ground; however, after the day view both what needs to also
overwhelmed and one holds the other, so that materialism is below the ground. - Thus
the whole position of God changes from day view to night view of the world, and
how it changes the ratio of the most common and therefore the highest spiritual
world, also the ratio of all individual minds to God and the world changes.
One wonders wonder: are you bold enough to want to overthrow the current world
view? Is not that saying that the world but is united in that view with their other cons
disputes in the first, last and highest things that are popular you to call the night view,
proof enough that she's gone it necessarily about the natural view of things ?
It would be if they just do not know would disagree on everything connected with
this view. So I'm looking rather the reason that it is, is that it is united in that
view. Destroy the nodes converge in the threads and stick together, it remains all the
gap between all common, but all fall apart, and when all the world was consistent
with a fundamental miscalculation in the proposition that two and two make five, the
various futile and would be made for changing hand explanatory attempts to bring the
world financial statements in accordance with it. In such experiments we are still
Enters the halls of philosophers, where the Mystery itself abquält with his own
solution. What do you see? As things fight itself, I and non-ego, power and fuel,
simple essence, absolute, term, will, unconscious to the name of what stillness of the
night and the illusion of a glowing world resounding, yes of space and time itself, to
produce in us, and the wisest offer cash for the reason of existence of everything
certificate, submit all bills, yet only those names with provisions that are themselves
abstracted from the world of illusion, and run around with it against each other, and
the religious scholars but rage against them, and are themselves only a few in what is
contrary to the most.
At that hades same world, they have a yet-powerful, all-wise, all-good God, with
absolute freedom could create a world, as he wanted, and he created this world of
darkness, full of creatures that devour one another, full of disease, crop failure, water
- and Feuersnot, evils of all kinds, and they teach us that such a God to such a world
and such a world to such a God would not fit, is only partly a result of our sin, and
partly our fault finding low. For although ubiquitous and allwirksam so that without
him not one hair of our head falls, he is much too high for us, but that we can know
something of him, the stronger but we have to believe in him, and all the
contradictions, so appear to us to tell us through his incomprehensibility.
The naturalist but to laugh, knowing that they are alone, know that something
happy and safe way of getting to know more. In the nerve they have the sure sign and
means of sensation in the brain and the instrument of the mind, beyond which the
world has none, none is. If indeed there is vibrations in air and ether on the nervous
addition, they know that vibrations mean just in phosphorous protein sensation, and
tend to regard psychology as a branch of chemistry of carbon, phosphorus and
oxygen in the protoplasm is the Spirit. - With the protoplasm as a common primary
substance of nervous and polyp, a second creation, the spiritual things begin;
coincided with the knowledge of the protoplasm of the first full beam in the science
of these things, and after the disciples of nature have forgotten God as to worship the
Creator of these things, they worship the golden calf of protoplasm to that. - The eye
seems made for the purpose of seeing the natural scientists know that it will only
needed to be made without any purpose. - When philosophers and Theotogen
freedom and necessity drive as two intertwined circular butterflies tireless interplay
with each other and the natural scientist to know that, like all obey in the world, also
life and sensation, the staunch legal necessity and the world about people and animals
out but dead, numb is because they obey the same necessity. - The Spiritual my
horses that pull the chariot of the matter, the scientist know that they are rather
pushed away from the car of matter.
Is not that literally the deepest and highest and most accurate in spiritual things of
wisdom today, each and every been in dispute with the other. And everything that
falls in those with large gap or hangs so that you can follow it, that together.
Proud of this foolishness we see compassion wisdom fully reduced to the simple
humble folly of negroes and Turks, and think past centuries to be far ahead because
they had some of these follies even less. But we could be more proud of our
Zündhölzchen that are still continue to shine us if all those wisps of night view are
gone and lost.
Ever the world view has changed by and large, they will not be able to change it
again? Although I mean vorblickend, they will not the fact that they earlier negating
picks on new level, but that in the most sublime aspect of today's world view
offsetting the this award given wealth of the former, but this will be one that they pick
up that night view.
Thoughts of this kind, in the volatile context, more and more expanding and
increasing, came over me as I looked at that morning from the bank into the green, of
course, not first time, but with new driving force came about were.
The next day, Looking ahead of the same bank, I remembered to all previous or the
My eye tolerates every relapse of his illness is not a close reading Scripture, not
sunshine of the street, not sun-spots in the room. But to decipher the writing of the
distant large companies, it feels as a salutary exercise, in ever more remote it sets the
look, the more it will be revived, most, so it always turns of the view in the pure sky
from time to time there."What I compare 'mean?" asks' I; Sensual everything can be
grasped but as a symbol of something spiritual. And I said, at the same time most
beautiful and truest interpretation of the image lies in the fact that when the people's
earthly presence and proximity harassed, he needs to direct his gaze into the distance
and height only to find solace, so secure, in each greater width and height judge
him. In Day view, but I found it more than thinking also open our eyes to this view,
however, the night view of the people merely refers to them, it only applies to only
look for the Open Day.
And one idea which was born not only of the desk, and his opportunity I will
remember the introduction to this document. It was in Sassnitz on the sea, that I
wanted to go to the beautiful beech forest, which leads from Sassnitz on the Forest
Hall to Stubbenkammer. You have gone a long life with me was, tired of the corridors
of the past days and years back, and said: "I will not like to go alone thee you could
get lost, oh, and how it will be when I you, maybe not in a long time, must let go all
alone. " "Who knows," said I, "whether you or I thee: but let not remember us." But I
thought, as I walked alone in the woods; thought of endless love and loyalty that has
guided me through so many years. The book aimed skyward, the blue sky arched
over, the sun threw its sparkling notes in, and went forth from the sea, a noise in the
woods. It was like a big chord of heaven, earth and sea, would resonate with the end
in mind and the day view inside. But the thoughts of the heart refused to base, I
thought, may your day view with all its high, wide, clear views of and even your own
heart satisfy at this moment, and then what their views and prospects if they can not,
for no one can, there can never be. Feel one with another heart, which is the
satisfaction of the heart;, that requires absolutely no world view, and this may be in
spite of every world view, as everywhere accommodate two huts together, it may look
like in the world around as it wants. - But soon rose above the voice another
voice. Allowed for the heart in man want his satisfaction alone, he is not merely from
his heart and has the Days view with her gaze into the distance, high and not too light
to give the heart a satisfaction? Not even such that over the next, that it requires for
the moment and missed out last. About the gratification is one to know with another
person's heart has our sufferings and joys to his, floats, not disputing it, but
protective, protectively, the satisfaction is one do with a being that the sufferings and
joys of all his creatures, so also the two mutually faithful hearts, has to his, and that is
not the God of the Day. Two hearts but who are one now, it would always be, and are
you afraid that death is the ties that now make one to the other break, so it is the fear
of the night view; death in Day view bursts rather the ties that now both still separate
from each other.
And we are not even around the world is more and more to the heart of our hearts
when the sun its shine, the sky be blue, the sea with its noise faithfully trusts us, the
beech, the ax before it falls to us to Warm, aiming upwards only to have them to
enjoy light and warmth, as if everything is just lying to us from the world, like the
night view is lying. For truth, the spirit, the heart requires beauty, but there may be a
more beautiful world than beauty itself which is the truth. And they will. Well after
the day view only very God of God, who sees and hears everything, but, to be part of
it so has anyone who sees and hears in his sense
With this in mind, the heart was satisfied, and every heart can be satisfied, which
makes the thought of days to view his.
What follows in this document, only the execution of the previous thoughts, a
shorter according to the main features in this first, another after a few main points in
the second part of Scripture.
II Historical point of view.

Now, however, the night view is even, and you can have it to themselves and others
by disgust, that they clearly understood only in the eye, but only as it applies to
summarize their reasons as well, in order to discard. But the same reasons, at least
realize the reasons, but there must be, there are also, therefore, no justification. What
can they be?
Although, for the present world there is no need that I have yet to ask for the sake
of night view, it is because it has existed for so long. We are like nowadays those
beetle species that lived from time immemorial in the dark caves, whose ancestors
have lived in it, they have no more eyes to the light, it may be added penetrate, they
see nothing of them, and saw them a ticket, he only led astray. The in the dark
caverns of the night view adult world today is the day view such a light, vain all the
reasons that it seems, but if you will listen to reason, that it does not appear, you will
only those listening that follow from the night view only . This in itself is easy
weggefegte chaff, but if you sweep away this chaff, so that one sweeps the floor, who
has worn it and helps again, not going away. I sense the deeper reason for that could
determine the world to opt for such a view, and conclusions with the same to confuse
same reasons.
As it is, the deeper reason is the general and the night view. In order to save God
from the pagan fragmentation in the World details and to rise above their lowliness, it
has theology in opposition namely distilled with spells of their own sources, and ever
anew itself contradictory, of the world, the gods in ministering angels transformed,
and this brought about the stars.And now, not only godless, but of God laid a transfer
of mechanical forces so sinful fallen from him world than caput mortuum for
measurements and experiments of physicists for Lukubrationen of philosophers, and
the invectives of theologians retarded. Thus the divine consciousness has its contents
from below, the sensuous appearance lost its cohesion from above, that is volatilized
to the incomprehensible, this dwindled down to a few residues.
Such a view of things, however, which splits the existence in its midst, the content
of the world pours out his vessels and thus spilled, may not be the last, as it was not
the first, but rather it is after the first half, the second half, in we have come, and the
world is but once all want full, which is not so much in external addition of one by
the other, as in fulfillment of one by the other, a culmination of the other, and as such
offers the Day dar.
In fact, from the outset the pagan view Physical and Intellectual so little to separate
out the people than the people and to distinguish was white, the most natural view of
things. No king so powerful, splendid and beneficent as the sun, a tree, not less, just
different living, growing, dying as a human being. Where now only, as our sages say,
soulless a fireball turns, then drew his golden chariot Helios in silent majesty, a Dryas
living in every tree, and what will never feel the sense of night view felt. If not the
same everywhere developed and embellished mythical, this is the world view, which
we see all the people on their undeveloped state, we can take a look today begin. But
that's only the one, say the lower half of the full view. The natural man does by nature
but always at once only fragments, and summarizes the self-translucent also
independently in the eye, the agreement of all the space and the clarity of her
relationship to all miss him, and that's what the day view as full and has all the pagan
view beyond form and has to accommodate. She takes with non lorenen pieces also
the relationship of the pieces in the eye, and permeates according to dualistic or
monistic version and fulfilled for them the world with a single divine essence or lifts
off completely, and straight into a common unit so on.
The Christian and Islamic doctrine has led beyond the heathen conception, but
instead they continue to uniform top and finish it, they simply discarded. To enrich
one had to pass under all those gods. She has pulled out all lower under a top level
that they held and raised high in the air and thus sunk into the night, the night
view. The day view but it raises again the day that they built under the top level and
then measure the height to the height of the divine whole staircase. And I wanted to
say that it would be a future world view, what I think the day view fated to pick up
the wealth of an earlier world view in the loftiest point of today. It certainly myths
and dogmas will have a fall the other, bringing each to complete the whole, has been
trying to fully satisfy, but without thereby to replace the loss of the other.
A pendulum swings first to one side, weak to lift it, the vibration is gradually
stronger, sweeps everything away with it in its orbit, the momentum in, finally
increased, and the pendulum thinks a movement finally increase, can not be the right
have direction, so it reverses, raises again weak, the movement becomes stronger
again, sweeps everything away with them in their car, paralyzed and finally increased
again, and so the pendulum finally comes to his senses, that both directions have
equal rights; and to which of the two it swing from now, it knows at every moment,
the vibration is only with the performance of both full. Thus the world view has
successively swung in two directions, and the second is close to a halt again, and thus
also the time of the finite reflection approaching.
There will always remain a hypothesis, of which the day view starts here, although
it might take a different output also, that the sensuous appearance extends beyond the
individual creatures out through the world, however, it is not less remains a
hypothesis, where the night view rooted that the world is full of darkness and silence
between the individual creatures.But the first hypothesis is more edifying than the
other per se, did better with the natural view of things, provides more indication and
vulnerabilities to a wide and high development in positive terms, leaving such the
main features just in one way, however, it brought the other only partly to negative,
some more or less contradictory rules and competing views.
That's what I try to show in the following, and that is what will one day provide the
development of the Day victory over the night view, instead of bringing it to a further
development, just more and more in themselves inevitable to maturity worn by work.
Of course, the task is large. When St. Christoph a child that the world was
determined to wear once, for the time being should carry over to the next bank of the
river, it's not complicated the task that the waves anliefen against his foot and
threatened to hinder him, but that the child the longer the path, the harder it was
for. So it is not to durchwatende flood light into the sea of oblivion verrinnender
objections which the more difficult the task of the Day, Egg still want a child bring to
the shore of the future, but that they on their way to through their growing
development his strength threatens to grow, but they will also strengthen its forces,
however, do so.
III. Basic points of the two views against each other.

All negations and contradictions in the night view together and run out of it, much
of the positions in and day view. If both are true, that the sensuous appearance
beyond us not mere illusion, but objectively spread through the world, and that it
closes together in a unified consciousness and culminates, it is also true that
andres. The human mind has yet to sensual appearance and the same concentration in
a single consciousness is not enough; spiritual life rather benching which pushes an
intervening; much less can it have the divine spirit enough, after including the human
self in its width and height; because that is the previous two main truths the third. By
our whole sense of life is overlapped by the general, it is not fallen out of its
connection, and so does our awareness of the general is only exceeded, but not fallen
out of it, so decided our whole conscious life in general with. Any attempt to put it
differently, punctured, broken or entteert to the spirit of the world, but is also the
world of the spirit, in a uniform summary, and rends the thread of natural
observation. As the human body is part of the essence of all externally appearing
material world, the belonging to this body itself internally published, Spirit of the
People of the essence of not less himself appearing spiritual being, which is part of
the universe, and the unity of the human mind only a minor fraction value of the unity
of the divine Spirit.
Also fulfills basically only the beautiful word that those who so use it gladly, but
give no result for momentous truth: that we live in God, and move, and have, and he
in us, and that he at all our thoughts white as ourselves. Can also probably a ghost the
other externally given above?
Even thought it to be with the one God over paganism out, but allowed to the
human spirits exist as small idols beside God, unconcerned that besides an infinite
spirit is no more room for finite minds. Apostate spirits inhabit under God hell,
finally one has even reversed, and instead of the human spirit in the ratio of A and
subordination to think of the divine, you deified human, by making the divine to an
illusion in the human.
Well there was a famous philosopher and theologian who put the essence of
religion in the sense of dependence on God, but God also made us as a being of the
man can not know anything truly, when it agreed infinite, is eternal. But how can an
intimate, warm, sincere, effective feeling of dependence on a being come about
which we know nothing except that it has properties that we do not have, and does
not the bridge of understanding. But how different are designed the feeling of
dependence on God when we recognize ourselves as knowing and acting, but always
his higher knowledge and work of subordinate lasting moments in God and feel. But
so that we know we are in him something, we know something of him, and this
knowledge is else knows how to make.
As essential to changing hand demanding, conditional and enjoying themselves or
as basic points of the Day, which all develop the same has to be based, and which
between them have to talk, I consider hereafter the spread of sensory appearance by
the world of the creatures addition, the context and the same conclusion in a most
conscious unity and mediating between the point that our own consciousness the
whole, that is, divine consciousness and is also a subject.
Against this I consider to be basically just as binding coherent moments of the
night view - only that it is this relationship not easily clear conscious: the night of
sensual appearance on people and animals out, the sufficiency of God, if it is still
believed in God, sensual about the appearing and creaturely world, and the external
juxtaposition of man against God or even arrogance of the people of God as a merely
human idea. With the night of sensual appearance on people and animals out then
hangs together the conceptual transmission, which is to bore into the night, so she
seeks to pierce in order to get at the essence of things, it is a search for the reason of
the mirror image behind the mirror.
The day view is not one of the other views, but is offset by its positive starting
point, content and conclusion as a all who meet on the night view as the common root
of negations and contradictions. Nor is the night view is one among other views, it is
actually neither a uniform nor a positive view, it can only be called by a name, as if it
were a thing, as we speak of a spirit that denies to God, however, it as a unanimous
ends and only God gives the positive. Also meet the above basic points of the night
view, although coherent in nature, nothing less than everywhere together, because
their consequences unerbaulichen raise only by inconsistencies, such as debt without
assets can only pay by debt, growth, instead of decreasing.Without any aspects of the
day view, it is only about the most blatant materialists and Social Democrats.

IV development principles of the day view.

The three fixed base points of the Day, as they themselves are related among
themselves, both recognition and evidence in a coherent and unanimous in to
development. The core and seed, as it were the punctum saliens , this development
offers one between the top and bottom mediating standpoint that our counterpart to
God is not an external, like the part against the part of the stage to the stage, but an
internal, such as the the part to the whole, the level against the stairs. Because
hereafter is God's nature to us not quite incomprehensible, we ourselves are a breath,
a small fraction, a small stage and sample it. Not only of the today, CY but also by
the internal affairs of the divine essence, we so in our own inner conditions
something immediately accessible, and from here are expanding and enhancing
aspects might not, indeed, to exhaust the existence of God, but in the penetrate further
knowledge of its mode of existence and its relationship with us and all creatures and
ascend higher, aspects of generalization, analogy, the relationship, the disassembly
sequence and gradation. With the conclusions of the divine mode of existence but
those are related to our way of being worldly, if our present existence itself is only a
part, a lower level of our whole existence in God, and has decided to seek its
continuation in it. And after the whole world has gone beyond us to the divine souled,
widens the circle and increases the benching individually ensouled beings beyond us
and up.
Of course, as long as the night view of still superimposed on the world, all apply
such considerations and conclusions, the brand new, wide and high light-drenched
world, thereby opening up in place of earlier fantasies, mythological figures and
mysticism, even for those, because the at the bottom Night view offers nothing of it,
with its abstruse passage ways does nothing about it. I have experienced it yet, and is'
still out there. But patience, they will find their time, it's just not yet day.
Those ways, close by us from beyond ourselves, are just the same basically with
which we everywhere from here to there, from today morning again close and thus all
empirical science from the given closes again Not Shared. Who may indeed deny that
taken individually to be uncertain, and the farther out as they move up from the given
result from the Not Shared. So the night view them in accordance with the first steps
fall to only to challenge and are based on nothing, while the daily view, what the
individual lacks in safety, by combining mood all and complete the consent practical
aspects examined to hereby as, where no strict knowledge is possible, the same but as
close as possible to come. As determined in accordance with the day view but that
has to be considered, which is related contradiction with the basic points, including
the points of view of all sides agree, but that is just the most general and important.
Hereafter, the Day will still vary in their expansion and development, but not
zerfahrer can indefinitely if it determines retains its three basic points as fixed
breakpoints just like a while flexible but retained at both ends and in the middle
line. It will be at the bottom of the daily view new questions arise that would not
offer at the bottom of the Night View, and new puzzles, still awaiting the solution, but
only those which may arise from the view, not those which they undermined. There
are then new sects and divisions can form, but not down to the ground and reaching
up to the top Zerspaltungen. The philosophy will come with the outlook in the day
view to a new ground and new conversions start, but sink their differences on the old
ground of the night with this view itself. The science is their previous secure way
leave in investigation of the material world, but also the rising belief in spiritual
things rather than propping put it. The theology will finally find their faith and
principles of belief in the Day view.
Everything most general, highest, last, most distant, finest, deepest ever is its nature
and our faith thing. That gravity ranges through the whole world and has served from
time immemorial, is a matter of faith, that any laws, pursuing through the finite,
ranging into infinity of space and time, matter of faith is, that there are atoms and
undulations of light, is a matter of faith, and the beginning and the goal of history is a
matter of faith, even for the geometry there are matters of faith in the number of
dimensions and the rates for the parallels.Yes, strictly speaking, everything is a matter
of faith, which is not directly experienced, and what it is not logical. Each of the
knowledge of what is, continues in faith and must continue into it and finally finish it,
so that there is a connection, progress and completion of knowledge itself. But can a
belief be even better supported and better than the other. The best belief finally the
one with all the knowledge and all our practical interests is on widerspruchslosesten
in itself, and as such it is also the future for himself by the contradictions between the
various faiths that have since passed, and all around there reconciled rather than
So all conclusions experience do not suffice to justify the day view in its highest
and last sentences ending with the safety of the Pythagorean theorem. What is lacking
in the last security is a matter of faith. Enough but, if that's what still remains a matter
of faith, in that way, the best, what can be know, on the one hand in conclusion, on
the other hand, retains his post.
What little there is absolutely what is really proved or proved even by the most
important, what we have to talk. What is proved by the whole
religion? Nothing. What even the fact that your brother, your neighbor, your dog has
a soul? Nothing. Or that what you see from a tree, a tree corresponds outside that the
sun will rise tomorrow as it is today that Alexander lived? None of this is proven in
the strict sense, nor provable, but we must at all 'and the like believe, we live, we live
in a world all speak of faith, can the next and the previous steps do not completely do
without faith. So principles of faith would be even more important than knowledge, if
not one of the principles of the faith itself, to draw on the knowledge, if it is sufficient
only not to rely solely on it, but is that of the religious principles of Day One. Now,
however, the knowledge goes nowhere so far that we thus sufficient, and so is a
second principle of faith the day view, to believe what we need, what, the third or the
historical principle of faith occurs 1) . On these principles, one has to measure the
teaching of the Day, because it is just a doctrine. But, of course, how can you
measure it then, if you recognize any place principles of faith, as a theologian in the
faith just a gift from above, as a philosopher sees only a principle of uncertainty.
l)This, only briefly touched, three principles are expressed in certain section
IX, performed and conclusions developed in the "three motives and reasons of

Not the philosopher despises in fact basically the belief will replace it with the
knowledge that strives for absolute knowledge. Now all the mountains absolute
knowledge have raised side by side with their peaks far apart, all realized in violent
throes, is just no viable mouse come forth from it. And as a mouse says, however: a
mouse can do absolutely nothing but of himself, knowing that you know nothing but
this is the only certain knowledge. But for now it's just stuck with the mouse.
In fact, however, the day philosopher to know that the people a direct knowledge
only of oneself is possible to make the starting points all acquired knowledge, and
based thereon faith, seeks the night philosophy of knowledge leakage in the faith
partly because to avoid that they all give up this starting point to develop the
knowledge only of absolute points of view that conscience only lead from to itself to
conscience, have been yet performed merely to fight over, partly that it is in this point
quite imprisons himself to only in which to deepen the thing in itself nothing
budding, forms the spirit of man, while the man himself is but a part of the thing in
itself. In this respect they are practically the faith needs, it leaves him only out of
practical considerations in addition to knowledge or as a corrective of its desolation
and emptiness, not as a continuation and completion of knowledge, apply. Such a
figure incapable to come together right in philosophy, belief and knowledge in
theology and science have completely divorced with the result that the one nature of
God, the other God has completely eliminated from nature. The final success of all
'but this is that none of the three, with the other, and the philosophy in itself is the
least satisfied.
I should hereafter contemporary philosophy erect a statue, I would draw it as
Penelope, in two respects. Once in that it always resolves itself woven fabric itself
again, and then, because she has many suitors, of which no man has ever brought
home. They carouse together, driving each other fighting games without making each
other dead, and wait for the day, which killed all together.
And you think you are because of your daily view of a world over for the only wise
God? But how should the day have the strength to overcome the night when he was
too modest to?
But I'll give it award any criticism that here all the wisdom of today's most
common, highest and last things is poured together in a pot the night view to it pour
away into one. Was not previously herauszulesen much good? But how could be
handled through the work of the reading out of the pot as a whole. And what does it
matter, the good is not therefore in that it is thrown away with, but is found by itself
again in the new pot with a.
One more thing. Everywhere the Day met with the question of the relationship
between material and spiritual realm, body and soul, but is, instead of any, even still
in question, solution to the question of cause and nature of this relationship, but of
unquestionable facts of observation and out of ourselves and generalized, expanding,
enhancing also in accordance with the field of view when generalized, extended,
increased, in order to find the little facts are related in greater beyond us. Only this is
to do it, then the larger one may interpret beyond us as the smaller in
ourselves. Whereas the many-headed monster of the night philosophy emanating
from the many thoughts of their heads over the question of reason and essence of that
relationship, and is therefore also not gone about it.
There are two kinds of electricity or just one? If you wanted to get in on this
question, and its decision in the theory of electricity, you would not get far, or rather
come to nothing. In contrast, the theory of electricity has not without question, but
not because of the question nor their decision - rather, the issue is still not decided
today - developed, and is therefore of little pieces of amber, which chaff Papers
attracted to the electrostatic machine, galvanic column, the lightning rod and the
telegraph network, which spans the earth passes. Thus, the Day view of the
question, whether , let spirit and matter, soul and body are only a being or beings
basically two initially undecided, and yet pursue facts that are independent of this
question, by experience and experience conclusion. And so is also this whole book is
the question of whether dualism or monism, then to enter it only in one of the last
sections in some considerations that you may find important or not, neither the basic
points still Implications of the Day will be affected materially.
V. Positive development moments of the day view over the negations.

(God, the sensual world of appearances, the soul question, the earth, the
the evil in the world.)
1 God.
Belief in one God, the human consciousness as presented in width than in height
exceeds dominated in from above the whole day view and is supported by the two
other main points of the same below. The sensuous appearance on people and
animals, it can not hover in the void, it requires a subject of an overarching
consciousness for yes. According to the width of the intellectual substructure of the
spiritual height grows, and so rises above the small mountains or pyramids of human
consciousness, they enclosing the highest peak on all individual costumes of the
creatures a supreme costumes on, and falls to the expansion of day view from above
down with the expansion of the doctrine of God together. The system of the Day is
hereby entirely theocratic.
The night view is indeed so to speak, but the unity and majesty of God's sake
emerged, and the belief is offered in memory of it, nor hold it. In their knowledge
consequences but it leads, as a fallen angel, only, on, and by these consequences have
finally overgrown faith, we have come to where we are today, not knowing how to
keep the faith even as he still to help. In itself, it is the night view of course, instead
of seeing the divine, but in the human, the highest consciousness of consciousness,
what there is. For since it knows no means, a, to include human over-reaching at
length consciousness where you should get the means to a higher close it out, but one
thing is dependent binding with the other together.
And so the philosophy of the unconscious seeks the band of spirits instead of an
overarching general consciousness in an engaging under general unconsciousness,
which she ascribes mystical properties that resemble those of consciousness, just do
not want to be consciousness. The philosophy of the term refers to a spirit of
humanity, history as a gang and was without evidence in reality to not talk about it,
but look for the linking consciousness only in the individual meshes, the philosophy
of monads even only in the atoms of the tape , and for the materialistic emptiness is
the bond of souls in the material between the souls. The day view but argues with
these philosophical trends of the night view too much in all to more particularly to
argue about it.
Let the linking consciousness of our own mind aside so you can of course also a
psychology of beliefs, memories, fantasies, concepts, aspirations, pleasure and pain,
and a dark mother Stock, which puts forth all this without to know anything about it,
assemble, and thus will have a psychology of people equal to the current national
psychology, the idea of which one to, everything verknüpfendes individual
consciousness, consciousness is far away, but also have in today's social psychology
more than anything in such a psychology of people. It is Uhland dead horse with all
tendons, veins, nerves of the most beautiful horse, but bleibts a dead horse, and so
very much appreciate an anatomy of the same, but one has the anatomierte not to be
confused with the living.
Between individuals, there are more general and higher relationships in the same
church, state, science, art, etc.. Mediated by vision, hearing, speech, writing, etc.
According to the daily view is now not only the man has a knowledge of these
relationships, but a more general and the higher mind about him, as he grasped the
whole web of mediations of these relationships directly and in context. But by
keeping the night philosopher only an illusion in himself, that it is ever a seeing and
hearing in the world beyond it - light and sound between people are to him so merely
dead vibrations of material points, and he himself, it is only sees and hears - apply it
lightly all by mediated relationships as illusions in himself, he looks inside only in
the world, the adoption of a god but for the most of all by the human consciousness
from total connexion of things, he only has to look outside itself and beyond itself.
One says: but church, state, science, art, etc., in short all the fittings for the express
higher spiritual relationships in the world, but caused only by the people, and so man
as the creator reserves and the center of all the highest importance over all. - And of
course, could all those facilities without the people, but caused neither solely by the
people, and a true community between people thereby produce, it requires the
individual also still a being that summarizes the relationships between them
uniform. If people do not by the ground beneath their feet, the sea of their ships, the
air through which the words and the light by which the eyes back and go back
together hung, not apart from their mutual relations common effects of nature to be
received and the stars above him, so neither church nor state, nor science, etc. have
created, would be able to still exist today. The sky, the sun, the moon, the lightning,
the thunder, which instilled the people were the first religion, rather than the people
there to be a language before and could form by the people, things and relations of
things had to be there the same calling on the name. The truth is: a before existence
of all human beings with divine spirit filled world created the people, without thereby
removing him from their associations, had continued making these their offspring and
part into it, and he reacts to it, it is a coherent self-interacting gear from the top down,
from the bottom up and from all sides, thus affecting the world under the influence of
a general spirit of everything captured in context and receives.
Now, you may constituting at least among all parts of, but not the whole earthly
world, where ever settle a distinctive consciousness, people attach the highest
importance, but not greater than the whole, the part being they both for spiritual and
material side are, as you can see the highest part of the building in the tips of a
building, but only if they are lifted by the altitude of the substructure in the air and
remain deep in the meaning of the whole building. But of course, after the
Copernican system does not let us believe that the sun revolves around the earth, it
still thinks that the earth revolves around the sun along with the people.
Also the nodes in the networks my well, they are the main thing in the nets, but the
entire network is to say, more than any of its nodes. Unfold the nodes, as they are
themselves small networks, and the whole network in the world is just a folded-out
When the night philosopher of deep heartfelt ground that can know nothing of God,
but finds that he needs it, so do not want to drop it, he declares it to be a practical
postulate of the but theoretically everything is deducted again, which in practical
interest is to testify of it. One can speak so well of love, kindness, wisdom of God to
ever speak of him and to be comfortable so that the common understanding, but one
must always remain aware of the philosophical inadequacy of it: for love, kindness,
wisdom, etc. are indeed human characteristics, and God is exalted above all human
qualities, or at least all human knowledge of its properties.
After the day view it is of course also, but not because and insofar as he is over it,
but because he does both and has the highest and best human and creaturely
properties, and terminating in an unreachable for us height. The Bible characterizes
the people one: love God above all and your neighbor as yourself, the day view but
also the reversal of which leads him to heart: the love of God above all else and he
loves them all as himself, because he are just part of being his loves being in
it. Closer to him but they can not be, and can not be closer to God and our fellow man
we can not be, as if we all share part of himself to us, he and all of us adds to the
whole. To know and feel is godliness; every thought and feeling, however, that
removes it somewhat depends of godlessness.
2 The sensual world of appearances.
Resist aim it to you to think of God in terms of sunk Day in the world? But
summarize only the day view themselves only unlike the owl's eyes the night
view. Rather, you have to think then the world lifted up in God by thinking God lifted
in the whole sensuous appearance of the world, and ask for nothing more behind it,
because probably gives also a Behind? It is God's foot, what do you think for a
footstool under his feet, yes even including wegziehst yet because he does not need
him. You even speak today of a ubiquitous in the world, all-knowing and all-effective
God and then again from a completely transcendent God, and even do not stop to
contradict thyself, and mayest finally the contradiction so that from that God is in
some sense one and the other. The same also writes the daily view, except that they
said it in a clearer way. So that God besides light and sound in the world is not
omnipresent and omniscient, but the light it is, to see everything in the world that is
visible to listen to all that is heard, God is not in the sensuality of lost world, but rises
high above all the divine thought on. Imagine a man who had only eyes to see or ears
to hear only, as poor, low would be the thoughts of the way deaf or blind. But God's
thoughts are based not only on the seeing and hearing of all the people, but also the
sight and hearing of all that is beyond. Relationships on relationships between pile up
in him higher and higher in order to complete the highest level, and as a king's
minister, and these have their officers, and these their servants to execute his
commands, not all of course they run right out, such attacks in the opposite direction
of God's will by means of the supreme will and shoots his higher and lower creatures
of the world gear, however, he always keeps up the reins in his hand, it's just
everything internally in him which externally there.
To dampen the momentum of contemplation, the physiologist occurs - and has not
the physiologist the right to have a voice on seeing and hearing - the question near,: if
there should be about people and animals beyond still a sight and hearing and over
even a thought what you imagine a seeing, hearing, thinking God, where are about
people and animals, the eyes and ears and brain to do so. If it were not like that and
what would be the sense organs and brains of creatures and the creatures themselves
there? Why all the effort of art in their facility? It does not just go without. But if it is
not it is not, it will not be without.
Well, the sea is big and simple, countless multiform cup and bucket scoop directly
and indirectly therefrom, but the water does not make it, but it just scoop it up to let it
flow back into it again for manifold use. So the sense organs of the creatures and the
creatures themselves are not there to make seeing and hearing only, but to acquire
from the general source of seeing, hearing in a special way and use it in a particular
way and to exploit.
But what a comparison. Rather than dismiss the physiologist so, we follow him on
his field, and just be careful not to confuse the world with barriers barriers. Extend to
the actual completion of faith is indeed the principle of the day view. So what the
physiologist is itself a fact in vision?
From every point outside a cone of rays falls into your eye and closes through the
power of your eye back to a point on your retina together with its neighboring points
to give a picture of the outside things. Were it not so, as you saw instead a clear
picture only interlocking slurred notes. But not bleibts at the bright points on the
retina, each sends a beam from there into your brain and continued through the brain,
so as to continue to meet with the rays of the other pages and senses ago, and so the
sensation and reminder to let itself enter into your intuition and your thinking. Is it
not so, or you know dirs to think differently? But always bleibts the appearance of a
point, even for the latest memory, if only the starting point of the radiation on the
retina as well as the point out of uniform, he reflects, was.
Now why should God, one eye like you and yours need to obtain uniform beam
spots beyond you, because he has the shining points of the outside world to
himself. Instead of your retina, or rather behind her retinas and all the creatures at all,
he has a retina, the surface of the things themselves, which is the most common and
most basic, there is. And after the rays have crossed from there before your eyes and
your brain with radiation from all other sides and are therefore entered into the
general relations, the all-seeing nature only provide your eyes with your brain
additional equipment with new starting points and then new implications for the
development of special relationships dar.
Now, of course, can not agree with everything in God seeing our seeing, for it is
quite certain that, so it would be just only a human seeing, but what's wrong with it,
seeing the divine is also seeing before our advance, and about the same.
Each point of our retina sends only a simple beam in our brain, and each of these
beams is then by a special nerve tubes, so as not to mix with the rays of the
neighboring points of view, not to flow away with it. Afterwards how much he likes
scatter and divide in the brain, we do not know. However radiates every possible
point of the outside world on all sides, because he has not only to one eye and the
brain, but by thousands and thousands and beyond to radiate all over the world to
thousands and thousands of so and so broken images of themselves in creatures to
give and to let the world exist for beings beyond the unbroken appearance of
himself. It remains each of these rays, although it goes without cover, so simple
mixes and reflows as little forth with the rays of the neighboring points, as if he went
through a special side tube intersects with the other, and brings to countless crossings,
thus undisturbed, ungeirrt, all eyes the image of the same point. That is because he
has not penetrate outdoors and indoors by nerve protein, where each dot to inhibit
him and threatens to dissipate, but moves faster than lightning through air and ether
his way. Bad only would it be for the creatures, if he even so through I perform it,
without having the time and opportunity to develop the relationships to which it is to
be done in them, and to leave after-effects for future relationships, as it tangled in the
protein occurs because the brain. Also, it is different that the beam out not as in our
eyes only in electricity, chemical process, or God knows what - the physiologist does
not know himself, but thinks just this and that - has put to by the nervous Protein his
way to find, but he can therefore less light in air and ether, that he is not here making
such a transaction needs to get through, and are therefore less light electrical and
chemical light that they have their special lighters.
According to this, but also the achievements of the divine vision of creaturely other
than vision. God sees all things at the same time as they appear to themselves in the
space of three dimensions, viewed from all sides at the same time, in their correct
size, correct position, their proper brightness and color, and no delicacy of visibility
escapes him. His vision is just the direct seeing of things, as he sees things, they
really look, and this looks the same to God is one of the conditions of their
existence. We, however, see the elaborately decorated camera obscura of our eye, of
all things, only those who are in front of us, without being obscured by others, they
see only surface projections of the side or that, in this or that reductions and shifts
against each other , each according to its position and other equipment differently, but
that makes the world colorful, and it is just developed a wealth of relationships that
could not develop without it.
Now the man, even though he the divine vision may fail to meet his eye, by assets,
by changing its position, through understanding with other people, through conscious
and unconscious conclusions, the conditions of the outside world up to certain limits,
in the sense to submit to the divine view and manage all subjective views as to
interpret on the basis of there. As students view the night but he still thinks it was all
just be more subjective note, for things in themselves, there would be no seeing
behind his eye, and so is the whole world for him except his dark eye.
Hereafter, nor could the other senses in the same sense as talking about seeing, but
I will be no World physiology here, it was only to contradict the physiologist who
puts the short scale of human physiology at the doctrine of the general life, as though
he rich to cover them. Equally difficult is the fallacy of course, that he is rich for
3 The soul question, stars and plants.
Well, there are some who when the night view is capable of satisfying a more lively
desire, not only grasp the idea of the world as a whole unifying and animating, by
acting spiritual being, God, but represent themselves with vivacity and vigor. What
they lack even the full day view? Nothing so far, but what the lack of, from the dark
chamber through an opening in the daylight looking, it looks light, but blinded can
not see what is in the light, it looks like the one who lives in the light. Taken by the
grandeur of its general idea, but also content with them is any implication that
violates too hard against a view with their mother's milk they sucked, they are
brought up in the dark, too. By stars and plants the idea just like a wind blowing, the
idea is always up to God, the matter forms and moves under its influence, but only
humans and animals have it a little more than fine words. Poor stars, once gods and
angels, to which the eye still devoutly looks up, in the main, remains her dead lump,
which a man tramples; poor flowers at which pleases the eye, which seem to laugh at
ourselves, we can you at least live, but it would mean the night view at their safest
reagent reduced to sensation and the night itself shorten too much if your nerves
loose life should also mean feeling; poor books that speak of a soul of the stars and
plants of the materialists, on the one hand, ruffled by the idealists on the other end,
eliminated by naturalists, shaking his head, never to return, commercially sold off for
a song, makuliert, you have now finally been suffered. After all, what is self-evident
in the sense of Day, Night view appears in the sense of absurd, because so much
seems self-evident absurdity in it.
But of course is for the day view that, if the animation is enough to her about
people and animals out in the context of the world is no longer asking where
inspiration begins and ends, but only where and how far they made in a
corresponding manner the general animation lifts out, individualized, as in humans
and animals, and for the character of the building and life are the creatures there, and
is the conclusion of a step ladder that is within us, beyond us there, and source,
supplementary and related considerations because many kinds, and for the night view
of all in vain, because their axioms is that, where the signs of human and animal
animation missing, missing animation at all, contrary to a priori. At this rigid wall
smash all reasons, and thus forfeit the life round of the abyss.
Contrast, increases in the sense of the daily view on the world of individual human
consciousness circles a higher world in the consciousness circles of the stars, and has
the highly developed human mind, even a small circle in one of these great circles, in
addition to the child's soul stage of the plants. In the divine circles all consciousness
is finally on and completed, and while not a neighborly circle around the contents of
the other white, has the divine circle all the content with negotiations between all
agencies and all over.
The man looks and boasts the unity of his consciousness and thinks it to have
something special compared to the dispersal of natural things. He thinks in terms of
night view. But a scattering of things does not exist, the unity of consciousness is
pervasive, and the man himself has his own only part way distinguishable from the
divine, not as one of them, but only in the same distinct and from others of the same
subordinate units. For the unity of consciousness is actually - look but only into you -
not comparable to the tip, which has the content of the pyramid beside himself, but
the connexion of the pyramid, which has him in it, like the one their fractions not
upset but in it. A pyramid but can be divided and subdivided without split, break the
fractions of the new one in fractions without the fuel breaks. So divided and classifies
from the world.
What divorce of consciousness between neighboring stages, the distinction is only
a higher consciousness level. So we see it as a law of our own intellectual
construction and can no other beyond us Search. The senses circles our eyes and ears
are divorced, unless one fine sentiments shared another with the consciousness of the
entire people but engages both distinctive, both in itself, and in the eye of people the
individual intuiting points are divorced yet, but the whole notion Circle human uses,
both distinctive, both in itself.
How, then extends this gradation in humans, ranging beyond it, and so people have
and have the creatures every celestial body to her heavenly body itself as a higher
level than himself, the star but his creatures both among themselves and in
themselves by using enter their consciousness as moments in its more general sense,
the same is not exhaustive, but with testifying. Each constellation is part of the
general divine unity of consciousness, one of the stars, the other divorced, only
distinguished in God part. The due but, because instead of thinking that a
indiscriminate reflowing or coalescence of the content of consciousness of the stars in
the divine consciousness, the stars have all the outward signs on which can ever be
based, a more rigorous individual separation than the people themselves from each
other on the earth represents allows us to infer the Unsichtliche. However, all the
stars to follow in einträchtigem change the course of a general power which, beyond
all creaturely arbitrary order in the whole household of Heaven receives, but this
silent exchange, the astronomers.call it interference is room, each holding with of
other severity together yourself, you can see each in its own way an inexhaustible
wealth of inner unfold from that of the other distinct, life, every run with eignem year
and day exchange an other path of development. No man is so different from the
others, even from the surrounding element, as the stars from each other and from the
surrounding element, in each constellation seems to be all glued together, not as the
stars together, they only speak nor by light and gravity together.
In fact, while we ourselves are grown with our neighboring creatures speak in soil,
water, air, splits, the earth with the other heavenly creatures in the purer, finer, clearer
element of ether, floats, a great eye built comparable in light element and breathes the
same one constantly. Should there be any creatures for this item? For the night view
there is none. You probably fables of angels in heaven, but holds even for such fables.
Here Against the sky appears in the light of day view again inhabited by celestial
beings; mention they are gods or angels, they have been formerly called so and
so. The distance between us and God is great, they are an intermediate step between
us and God, but on a scale in which the steps rather than one exclusive.
But while they are on their higher level with each other as well as the earthly
creatures to their lower in the outer conditions of neighboring creatures, it may also
comparatively, like humans, animals, plants, embryos, children, adults, old people,
from various external rank in the earthly areas are adjacent to each other, give
appropriate rank and development stages in the heavenly realms together.
Should I speak to the view into the lofty realm of spirits over us from the small
plant soul besides us?
A blooming hyacinth in front of me on the table. As jewelry, the flower clusters
from the leaf growth is uplifting, as each flower is delicately curved and fitted it into
finer, what a pure color she has woven out of light, how rich it has unfolded since
yesterday. You look at me - the flower speaks - when I was a beautiful girl and I'm a
beautiful girl in my art report it to the people. - I've already told them, but they did
not want to believe.
Never the belief has developed the animation of our fellow man and the animals
that they have nerves; never a shred of evidence has been given that such unlike just
only for human and animal animation are necessary, it is a stale superstition, that they
are necessary for this at all. You do not want it so well at last the world, the stars, the
plants adopt that they have nerves like humans and animals, to keep them inspired for
when more important reasons for the animation speak. You do not want to just be
people and animals, and need to another soul also another carrier and expression in
the realm of matter. But it seems you have not done enough with the previous
considerations, so you can further development of such as offered the day view in
terms of the soul question, found in one large and two small fonts 1) .
l) Zendavesta, Nanna, and the soul question

4 The Earth in particular.

Based on the previous, we have the earth. Than us both to material and spiritual
side parent, hereby to express in a higher sense than we uniformly bound beings as a
node einknüpft ourselves with our neighbor creatures together in the divine band
Just think, in order to grasp that, not merely to the thin crust on which you walk
with your neighbor creatures in the roots, the plants, herewith a dry soil, so even
when you think people not only to his bones. The inner Glutmeer, the solid
framework about the ocean, the air circuit, the whole human, animal and plant life,
yourself, held together with included everything concentrically by a joint force to the
same center, common periods of lying in purpose and effect relationships grow
together, charged into each other, only one is in the earth, and hereby the punishment
upon you. The same earth that keeps us and all her creatures by the same force to be
tied up, has also all born from himself, all resumes in back, feeds and dresses it all,
conveying the traffic between all, and maintains all these changes one by the
exchange itself continues sustaining and evolving inventory.
The foot of man is no less the ground, the claw of the bird adapted to the branches,
as the foot of humans and claw of a bird whose eignem body, but with the advantages
to ignore also move on their surface and the changes and irregularities them to adapt
but of the whole earth, the whole man and bird can still move around even less to
separate, as any member of the body of man or bird. Much fixed it does what you
seem to loose much, in expanded purpose relationship together. And so the earth
proves in all general conditions both the uniform operation of all of its parts and the
ratio of the superorder about it, myself included us. But as it clearly does in material
relations, they will do it unsichtlich in spiritual relationships.
From the outset to allow plenty of equation points all over the world are with the
people, so day and night waking and sleeping, the circulation of the waters with the
circular course of the blood, the tides of the sea with the pulse beat of the heart, the
green vegetation of the earth with Find the sentient human skin and so similar, only
the similarity extends anywhere beyond a certain limit, is rather widely exceeded and
topped by the dissimilarity of the greater height, width, superiority of the earth to the
people. And there are probably people in itself a part of the whole human Possible,
how shall the earth a part of their very same. In a sense, although it has almost
everything that their people by inbegreift same even advantageous now but does not
need to have again what they have and how they have it, keeping it up to them, just as
they have to have, but everywhere has something uniform, unanimous end to a point
of higher usefulness Together Timm end it, and nowhere reaches the analogy further
than the teleology in this sense is enough. So the earth does not repeat the circulation
of the blood in a larger blood baptism, the breath of the creatures in a larger lungs,
but all the blood circulations of the creatures are only branches of the large
circulation of water in it, by draw all of it and are related by; instead of a lung made
from small bubbles have once again, it is completely enveloped by the atmosphere,
drawing from all the lungs of the creatures, and by which animals and plants, oxygen
and carbon dioxide exchange with each other, and instead of having a brain closely
folded again in a cranium with nerves that carry him on long walks sensory stimuli
and dissipate motion cues from there, she has her whole organic world with its roads,
cultural exchanges and cultural products unfolded and attached externally to an all
cohesive strength capsule freely the light of heaven and the vibrations of the air
represents from which all the nerves and brains of their creatures immediately draw
their inspiration and causing them to communicate their mutual inspiration. Then
why to use a particular brain with special nerves for mental tasks. Of such vain
repetitions, the earth does not know, and it is useless, those to be found in her foolish
to require such to grant her an organic life as a spiritual support. But you missed
those and remains open or hidden to the conclusion that because a man dies, loses his
mind, when you take away his brain, the earth is dead from the start, mindless,
because it has no brain from the outset.
And so one of their crimes worthy of death, they not irregular in heaven walking
around like a human running. But again, why should they do it again outside of what
people are already doing enough in it. And what they would have to run? For food,
clothes? Rather, it best meets their higher purpose in that it goes to a fixed rule. As
man leads an inner and an outer life, but to the inner part of the outer circulation of
the people themselves, and after this there are already more than enough of the
irregularities is good that they did not even completely outside it rises, rather in their
common parent swing direction, control, measure obtained in space and time for their
people, and with the knowledge of, any irregularities raised clear order of heavenly
things at the same time brings the idea of a unsichtlichen.
But while there is no shortage of the earth but to change in the outer life she leads
in its dealings with other stars. And how the inner life of every human being
influenced by its external traffic and is itself controlled from general considerations,
it is with the earth, but the man himself is from general considerations which have
dominated. In what an eventful manifold the stars light up depending on the day and
night, of summer and winter, and after the pile height the earth, sun and moon up and
down rise above each other horizons at the same time of other height, the sun plays
with the clouds and winds of the earth, characterized veil pulls itself now here, now
there before, reflected in the waters of the earth, it lifts here in the air, to let them fall
there again, makes the plants grow, green, bloom, boil fragrance and sweetness in
them, at any time, in any place else. Tags tend to her flowers at all, however, all eyes
turn to the higher creatures of her to not go blind by their splendor, and her close at
night in order to rest quietly for themselves. The tidal wave of the sea circles,
following the passage of the moon to the earth, the amount depending on the
changing compliance or conflict with the train of the sun, and how the earth approach
the other planets or remove from her, she just does not like the change the brightness
but also the train feel more than merely external.
Meanwhile reaches no sound, no smell, no touching of the earth to another, or from
another heavenly body to Earth, no speck of dust to another place of her way, no
creature is capable of it a creature of the other heavenly bodies to see or order to
operate, and everything that has the sun in it, the earth handled differently in itself,
and together than the other planets, and the lively traffic of the Earth as aspects
remain with other heavenly bodies but their individual separation of the rights.
That the earth bears to all 'and the consciousness in it, no one needs to be proven,
because everyone in the consciousness of what he carries himself in itself, can be
immediately rejected part of it, and more than that he can not rejected them require to
not require the whole consciousness of the earth itself. But he already believes yes to
more by also believes in the consciousness of other people without having it myself
and without that can show him something of it. To believe in a consciousness of all
this band but he has reason to remember the last number of the world thereby
established position of the earth in the kingdom of the soul levels as a heavenly
creature. The band of consciousness at all ranges through the whole world, and the
earth just only cuts from the general consciousness of their special circle circles over
other celestial bodies out how the man in her back towards other people. Not that
they would back riddled established the world, but so that it will apply to the filling
itself contributes by filling their particular circle with a specific content. This
however does not consist merely of the sum of the individual souls he closes in itself,
but includes both gates between all one, which engage the individual, full, and but
very only in the fall all across and so consistently linking higher consciousness. To
find them, you only have to give the Clear translate into Unsichtliche.
Do you ask, how can one of everything human, yes Terrestrial unifying
consciousness of the question, but if we look at religions, peoples, conceived
individual on earth in fierce dispute. But how much it denies itself in the individual,
between what he seeks peace, without being able to see him often. Instead of the
unity of his consciousness prevents the inner conflict that makes them only that he
feels it and is looking to settle. But of course, that in the larger and higher rising
awareness circles the world of the armed powerful and the ultimate peace harder is
reached, as in the small of the individual - in a glass, it may not even storm as in the
sea -; however, a larger , more powerful, just more slowly to targets leading to
aspiration is. How great but this is already the progress of those days where no state,
no morality, no law, no religion, no reaching across the seas trade and commerce
joined the people.And not only the earth, by all the stars and all stars between
accesses by the same divine aspiration to direct the progressive development of
fruitful paths.
All 'which is now of course nowadays grouped differently according to the night
view. After that, people, animals, plants, rather than parts of the earth, something
outward, and on earth, a large dead mother gave birth to living children, apart from
himself and then remained as dead as before. Only the astronomer it does not occur
when other heavenly bodies considered the world over, be subtracted from the mass
of the Earth, the mass of creatures, otherwise you're doing it, and, pulling with it the
spirit of the creatures of the earth from, how then of course be able to think about a
spirit of the earth, after having deducted such of them in pieces. The night
philosopher sanctioned this view completely in his speculations about the contrast of
organic and inorganic, living and dead as Empire Earth and the Darwinist plaguing
today with a kind of alchemy to bring out organic from inorganic slag gold.
And of course, the contrast between the organic and inorganic kingdoms of the
earth is greater than between bone on the one hand, flesh and nerves on the other
hand in our body, only it is of course in the nature of a parent organism, that it holds
greater opposites than its parts, as our shareholders organism as a whole over its parts
proves. With the old opposition to the organic kingdom but the inorganic even the
link of the organic into an organic whole, in a higher sense. Rip it out of the whole,
and all life not only tumbles apart, but falls in himself. And therefore can only give
away the inorganic nothing more organic, because no one ever has ever given away
the other, but both have emerged as moments of development of the higher organic
whole through its differentiation 2) .
2) remarks here about see in Scripture "Some ideas, etc.".
We geography, geology, paleontology, meteorology, botany, zoology, anthropology,
ethnology, history of nations and whatnot yet. Teachings of the earth for special Quite
well, but it's all just lessons which teach us to know the same piecemeal or by this or
that side. Where is the doctrine which gave us the vision of the Earth as a single,
ourselves in body and soul with einbegreifenden, whole. For the night is not even the
point of view of such a doctrine, and since I myself am dealing with it, I'm a dreamer
in these things.
A bird escaped from the cage to take a closer look at the world from above. But a
bird that wants to be free must also put up with it to be outlawed, they do not care
about him or shoot him down. In the cage under the cages down he would have been
safe and would run no other danger than to be übersungen or yelled at by the birds in
neighboring cages as they do with each other, and he was then but to society
5 The Hereafter.
The belief in the Hereafter is prescribed for us by the Word, and the desire of the
people, one day fortzuleben, and what can be here not have to have there, comes to
his aid. An actual bridge but this belief does not exist, nor can there be, as long as the
night view stands guard at the gap. For as the consciousness ring breaks off after her
at all, it breaks off naturally after each, one depends traced together with the
other. And it will still be a future life, it will be demolished for the same reason from
this world, in a mythical, mystical realm, which is the other side of the night view
out. Even this world it's a Sheol, which only possible by black dots run like tinder,
and the sky itself, in which we look up, this fall with Sheol.So are for the night view
of paradise and hell over all the heavens and all depths. Will it have a future life more
closely, it looks it up in the sun or leaves the mind wander through the stars. Who can
resist it. Either is not to believe after the night view of an afterlife, and the consequent
night philosopher's doing either, but draws materialistic the demise of the soul with
the body or idealistic the absorption by the general spirit before, or everyone can
believe what he wants, and does it also to fill the void, which leaves the faith
For the day view but the Hereafter is only the extension and improvement of this
side already out in God, life, the bridge to the hereafter is in the relationships between
the human and divine existence, and the belief in the transcendent existence is the
belief in the divine firmly adherent. The intermediate step between us and God but do
us this is not of God, but only in the same done to us.
Is meant for the whole conscious life of a man in a can, same with bodies
responsible for such more general conscious life appear and disappear without
leaving a consequence of its kind is like a bubble. So it is not within the conscious
life of man himself, so how would the way around it, it will also not be so, only there
must be a more general conscious life beyond wohinein the worldly man his order
and extension may extend.
The materialist certainly will not tire of reminding the soul and mind to threaten so
that it is the necessary condition of existence and operation have at their corporeality,
how could they continue to exist if this condition of their existence ceases. Contrary,
you will not get tired of proving the materialists, but the soul or the mind - because
we cut like this the whole agree, at least to save the most expensive piece of it - is
essential regardless of the body. Nothing, what facts help evidence against the
materialists. Rather than to prove to him that his weapons are bad, it is to hit him with
his weapons; others to beat him, there is not, but this is it.
As the soul should not continue if the condition of their existence, as necessary as it
is for the here and now, with equal necessity puts forth the condition of the future
stand off.Letting it be true that the life of the soul is bound on this side of the stock of
any material processes, the essential, inviolable, so much the better, but can as
material processes, whatever they may be, ever pass without entering in a row
operations, or transferred to the consciousness make an exception to this? Rather,
where their consequences may be found even after our death, and if you know how to
find them, so must those be there, and we are them, but precisely because there are
consequences consciousness supporting operations can trust the same capacity,
without the a better than even knowing of the other, which gives them this capacity,
because we know that in fact this part of the causal as little as we can know it by it
continuing into the afterlife. Causes contact at all by their nature unchanged in its
consequences continue as far none of them work with them in else or else feeds into
the consequences, but so far it is the case, their nature is not thereby destroyed, but
only newly influenced, and determined the andre new with 3) . So this will also apply
from the consequences of our consciousness-bearing operations. But in order to move
into the sequence operations that have to go out causal, ie die.
3)A more detailed explanation of this here only briefly and superficially
pronounced sentence in physical senses, which leads back to the above
conclusions, see at the end of the 12th Portion.
And if all causal processes which carried our this-worldly consciousness are
extinguished with destruction of all worldly physicality, where should finally see the
entire follow-up activities of this life, than the one of unsrem death is not affected
thereby, further, higher and more general awareness supporting the whole - the day
view, not the caller says the night view - to which we already belong to this side of
body and soul, to include him with otherworldly our continued only in a new form of
existence, and to contribute in new ways to further determination of his life. We
certainly know the material consequences of our life in this world not to pursue
particularly about the same thing, because they are too radiate into space, they are as
it were too far unpacked, however, those which carry our this-worldly consciousness,
are too closely packed to provide them with a to capture light and glimpses and track;
insbesondre and easily escapes us the context of the consequences of our life in this
world. Thus, it is impossible to break the temporal relationship between cause and
effect, so impossible between the spatial consequences of breaking the spatial self-
related processes, as are the processes in our body. So will expand with the expansion
of our consciousness, our life circle only circle, and he remains held together at all
but in the earthly extension and finally the world.
How to do from the outset, the most general point of view for material page with
the consideration for mental side hand in hand and leads to the same goals. The spirit
of man extends its consequences in the general spirit, and the body of the people in
the general world of physical things that carries this spirit into it, and how the
spiritual and physical causes of related cis to each other, the otherworldly spiritual
and physical consequences . But this did not apply to detach the mind from matter,
but to continue the way the mind goes on this side with her in the afterlife,
The string and the sound fades soars into the air, that's simplest terms, the
relationship between this world and the hereafter. The natural man has conceived it as
opened and even otherwise the window to the soul can also entschwebende. But
when the air might not sound as well as the string is fading away, there would be no
sound for the Hereafter, in the matter of the remaining string is nothing. Elapses or
about the tone by soars into the air in their community? On the contrary, it only
spreads out, and intertwines with continued maintenance of its full peculiarity with
other compounds to higher tones. Thus, the spread otherworldly spheres of life
among people.
Certainly can not hit anything it applies here to meet the image in its
simplicity. And in particular it makes it not, that man is not a simple sounding string,
but a whole range strung, fulfilled with oscillating and pulsating life instrument is
what his own life game feels, and the world to give people no empty air, but a already
high and well developed system, which receives the shaft blows this game in itself
and thereby continue and expand determined.
But also the fact it is not true, because it only ever the material side of what it is
you come to meet, and it can affect not merely a material image at all, that the
consciousness of his seat to for certain, trackable already in this world and hereafter
to transition to the afterlife transferable laws changed. But what can not teach us the
one-sided picture in this respect, the view of the legal facts will themselves teach us.
And so the whole doctrine of the Day of the afterlife depends on the following
Is there a future conscious life, so it can be searched as a continuation of the
present only in the dependent consequences. - The present conscious life extends into
its consequences in a general spirit of the overlapped world; thereinto one has to
pursue them. - And there are laws of consciousness change already in this world,
which is also the transition from this life into the beyond control.
The following is just the explanation, confirmation and development thereof.
Now, at first in this respect certainly that, from the people on this side led to the
narrow limits of the bodily life suggests a wide circle of effects to get that endure it,
never go by always create new effects, a circle that never decays as the wave circle
around the plucked string or the fallen in the pond drops or stone never breaks down,
and, undisturbed by other cutting circles and interweaving, continually maintains the
relationship with the same origin. We can trace this side of it, however only some
directions, and what is it beyond us, seems lost, but is not lost to us, but canceled as a
continuation of our being, for the afterlife. Wearing any inner impulse of man, finally
transferring to the outside and thus going out of the interior to continue its effect on
this other circles at, the finest nerve vibration can not escape this fate, and dies the
man, so has his whole outer his whole inner being in these broad circle and hereby be
converted to be beyond this world. At the back remaining matter is nothing depends
on it is given to the tombstone, but he reveals nothing of the outside entschwebten
Now this would fall wide circle of aftermath of a conscious human life to an
unconscious world prey to the people and would thus itself an unconscious moments
thereof, as it is the consequence of the night view, there would be no afterlife for
humans. But inasmuch as the conscious human life by continuing only in a higher
and more conscious world, for him there is an afterlife, in which he, rather than fade
away to be scattered, as the plant unfolded from the dying seed beads and finds
further and higher development conditions under lying and even contribute to further
develop the next world. He needs to lose but just this world's consciousness, so the
ability to only to find the beyond, after he had created the base to the consequences of
his life in this world before, like the child in the life before birth have the conditions
second of his life produced, but only the first life must lose in order to win the
Probably did ask at the outset: why this side lose consciousness only to find the
beyond, if the conditions of the otherworldly are already there, the whole life of this
world itself continues gehends into it implements. - But already the newborn child,
which before birth had no consciousness, you might ask, why the sudden
consciousness only at birth and at once breaks forth in him, but after it had created
the conditions are given before birth. Otherwise but breaks on the previously
generated surface of the afterlife suddenly and all at once the consciousness in the
birth of new life out, and instead of the outer life charms that make the child come to
first conscious life, it's the full cover of this conscious life itself, which represents the
external stimulus lives here.
The state of consciousness together with the underlying physical activity changes at
all have this side in sleep and waking periodically between ascending above a
threshold, and fall below a threshold, but the sinking of which is self-condition of the
next In-climbing, and the deeper the sleep, so vivid that it following awakening, and
so is also the utter sleep of worldly life close to the condition of a bright awakening
of another life beyond the circle are, for the same thing from time, is the spatial
change of consciousness. We summarize this important relationship now closer to the
Even on this side of human consciousness will be in the space around with
evidence that there is any space to install, and in himself, so to speak, it changes the
place. Engrossed in a drama, the man sees only and does not hear what is going on
around him, sometimes he hears and does not see what is going on around him, and
then another time he just thinks and sees and hears not know what is going on around
him. This means that the various organs of his sensual and higher spiritual life are
alternately placed in conscious activity, the consciousness reflected in the attachment
to physical exercise his subject like a wave between them over and over, but can not
get here without sinking there. Now as long as the person is still alive on this side, it
also migrates only partly throughout his whole living body in the world, sometimes
alternating between the organs of this body to and fro; death comes, it can not with
the whole body, the is no longer there, nor in them hiking, but wanders over this body
in another body - because why not brevity, this expression for the need - into which
his life in this world had been driven forth by the narrow, but slept until then to
henceforth as before to migrate into this further in the body closer. The ships are
burned behind him, but in order to move beyond that, it had just left the old
ships. However, appears to you the expression of consciousness hiking too
materialistic, so put it your idealistic, and the matter remains the same; fetch it only
logical in the sense of the facts from this world to the Hereafter.
Of all the changes in this world, but one is especially suited to bridge the gap of
observation and the conclusion to the afterlife. And it would not be that hard to
believe in this, what will happen to us one day, so alien to the usual view of a
consciousness empty world it enters into it to us so we can look at what is already
met in us. But there is already in us and the hereafter, only at a lower level, and it's
just the same principle, which the other in us and leading us out of the one above and
Not unlike the perception of its expiry regenerates in us, as a reminder, in a further
and higher realms of human consciousness, all the worldly spirit of the people will
find reborn beyond in a wider and higher memory kingdom of God, just different in
so far as our whole Spirit already farther and higher than our intuition and God's
kingdom more memory and higher than of our being, including all conditions of our
memories expanded and improved it will find. As the memory is carried in us of
widespread physical effects, which, because they have focused on the physical
condition of intuition, beyond itself generated into the brain - and counter the effects
of these circles intersect in the brain without interfering - the spiritual existence of
man in the Hereafter will be supported by physical effects, generated inside his
bodily existence, even as it existed in the material world thrill of preparing God only
further extended and enhanced everything. Just as now you could go see the outside
looking in, the memories in a living brain, but those go in, any more than in the world
outside, looking in the previous otherworldly spirits, but those go in it.
So the day view seems the belief in the Hereafter is nothing new, unthinkable,
unheard of, but only a generalization, extension, increase of what can be observed,
moreover, an extension and increase, because it is an extended and increased field of
view . This is more than mere analogy, although it is also analogy, there are general
laws that govern this world and the hereafter in connexion that are here brought to
bear, while the mean, the philosophical, theological, just the night view of today with
this life breaks the laws of this life.
Of course, such a zerlaufenes beings as our future bodily should be, you will not
like. But you you imagine just plain wrong before, when you are imagining runny
unsexed; however, it receives all definiteness of this world into themselves by springs
from her. The seed may also imagine the plant that bursts forth from him by breaking
him zerlaufe indefinitely because he can not follow her, but every form part of the
seed drives its associated form part of the plant produced, and also in the adult plant
beyond the bud their case, not to melt into the indefinite, but to unfold in expanded
form. Only the limited external form, in you appear on this side seems lost for the
afterlife to go, but the fact that she is lost for this world phenomenon, it is not lost for
the otherworldly, and we have only this side not the eyes of the Hereafter . This is
how well can the small inner Beyond a people encounter the Remembrance of all his
acquaintances, as well in the big beyond memory empires the Remembrance of all
people, but that neither here nor there that the appearance unsuccessful, melted
translucent material beings, the external shape of the phenomenon itself bears.
Our memories are woven together into a higher spiritual game in fantasies,
concepts, thoughts, ideas and the views for yourself, it is not capable, but play a
thousand memories in every perception, it is called association begeistend inside. So
shall also the higher life game on earth, because life on earth is eingetan in God, not
out the higher life in God between the spirits of this world, but of the hereafter, but
play ideas of the deceased, in which these yourself away with living in the cis
backward into it, even the life of this world circuits allwegs cut circles of life beyond
and passed, and the most intimate intercourse between this world and the hereafter is
charged in the natural way of being and the development of this world itself, so what
would we be today if not the ghosts of past centuries continued to live in us, only
they live not only in ourselves but also beyond us away.
One thinks that the spirits of our loved ones are pushed us with death in
unapproachable distance, probably even one doubts whether one will find them again
in the afterlife. On the contrary, the more you this-worldly life circle was fused with
ours, the more he engages in his otherworldly episode yet into our worldly. We just
do not know this side that he does, by our count than what it is at the same time
their. The unconscious side of our dealings with them but is a conscious, if we now
take myself to them in the Hereafter; lives up to that part of the deceased, husband,
wife, lover, lover the parts are still left behind as guardian spirit at.
The here are already one in spirit and feel but still outwardly apart, there are also
inwardly feel one of the pages to which they are truly one. But the conflict of spirits
will be inward and felt harder, and thus more driving to the raising and reconciliation,
and a ruthless will depend on the more inward transport of spirits, like fear to
advance before the many. What one would like to hide from his thoughts here all will
be transparent in all realms beyond memory, and only the console like everyone and
make all indulgent to all, that all of her thoughts down here all want to hide
something. But it will still be a purgatory for all, through which they pass, and he that
not only his actions, but also his thoughts here so chastises him that it is not too hot
when dereinstigen passing.
Much broader and more serious promises and threats of registers in our outlook in
the Hereafter. The good and bad of what is expected from the people on this side of
the world, and what he says that it is already beyond it, is the positive and negative
effects that it has to meet its nature, in the Hereafter, full face, and what does it not
here yet stirred his consciousness, the same stir there; hereby man himself create his
future heaven or his hell. The pain that worn man, pain already in this world memory
no more, they will not hurt also in the spiritual reminder empires; yes, where no
trimming of a sick member helps more, helps finally even the cutting of the sick
around people, the pain but that one has awakened the other, hurt because this side in
the memory, it is called the conscience, and bitter pain beyond memory empires, even
where the conscience was on this side not awake yet, for the Hereafter means to wake
her. You've cheated the wrong done, and what it is you still remember, it will concern
you most, if you're in the spread of your future existence of the evil consequences of
this side, from where do you think that they are beyond you, than on back beating
you, yes cross directly into you'll encounter.
Would be much more of all 'to say the, but it was enough for now 4) .
4)Once again, the question of the afterlife in 12 Section of the second part was
added, but in more detail, book of life after death, "and in the third part of the"
Zend-Avesta "traded it.

In the Scripture, we should believe every word, gibts words - a system of course
gibts not - that you just needed to really take in the words, in order to have faith in the
Hereafter referred to the Day view or to conclude 5) . As faith in the one God, the
Day view is the biblical belief that only complied. But you just do not believe the
words further than allowing the night view.
5) See the "three motives and reasons of faith," pp. 175, 214, 217
6 The evil in the world.
No less than for the day view for the night view there remains the serious question:
how, why, what, where unite the evil in the world, and how his existence with the
existence of a merciful at the same time, all-powerful, all-wise God. It seems a pure
contradiction. The day view but escapes the contradiction at first by the fact that they,
at first glance, instead, striving bordered on the dark origins, the clear facts of things
throwing, with the fact of evil at the same time, walking through the world in the eye,
the to ward off evil, to raise it to heal and turn into blessings, and that she is looking
for the summit, concentration and completion of this quest as all that is good in
God. But the evil they can not search it, because evil as such, just by virtue of God in
summary, culminating, final counter striving at all has no summit, merger and
termination. Rather, the longer it evolves, the more it takes to get the higher and ever
higher areas it rises, the more comprehensive, more and more funds and forces it gets
in the world order against him, which it finally overgrown, even make to the source
of a new good; however, once reached the good shows the opposite behavior, in its
expansion and strengthening of the conditions to win a further expansion and
strengthening. But since this world's existence is not the whole of existence, it is not
the final turn and reconciliation of evil, nor are all means to do so already to be found
in this world, only the direction is to have to look in it and see.
So stir the evil here, where it may be, so we must not consolation in the fact that in
the world of the unconscious, for which there are only evil, not even just an costumes
is what is going to uplift rather than promotion of evil - only that the finite costumes
can only finite in itself - but also that far and so high and mighty evil enough in the
realm of the finite and it is presented by a still higher, wider and more powerful
buttresses. But this is not only in the highest sense the idea of a benevolent, wise and
powerful God, but this requires the idea of such a God. This is one, this is still only a
second coming.
Of course, the pursuit of each individual to fight the evil, to wipe it first refers only
to his own welfare, and there is an innate sinfulness of man, it is his egoism, so take
the smallest child to another, doll, suggests and it is against the law: the man often
spoils the future to the present enjoyment's sake. But according grows as a person, his
interests expand, and he feels of himself recognizes that his well-connected with the
of others, and requires that future victims of the present, and the more his intelligence
and his sense is extended in this direction increased, deepened, strengthened,
clarified, the more he has the means to carry out his purposes in his hand, and from
each higher point he controlled, the better and safer it succeeds. God's insight and
power but extends over all conditions and means of the world, it is quite the his, his
feelings ranging from the highest level down to the depth of feeling of all his
creatures, a conflict of selfishness with love for them but can not yes exist, because
he does not upset but has in itself,. egoism its highest falls with the most love them
together by themselves But his caution has no limit, because in the presence of all
knowledge and the knowledge of the condition of all subsequent future lies.
So infinitely high God above all these relations in all his creatures is so infinitely
great, high, of course, his task is far beyond that which is provided to them, and what
they have in their hineinzutreten in a minor way. All evil in the world in the spread
across the room, in its deepest roots, in its highest peaks in his entanglements
verwachsensten, in his ever new incarnations he has to master, but in order to master
it in an infinite space, has He, also increases the infinite time, and in a finite time but
finite approximations to it that expand and increase and lead to new and advanced
degrees, such as the area expands and takes on new life stages.
Are the views and prospects, vain woven out of air? But we look back to know how
we have to look forward to and we are looking into the distance and height from the
Narrows and Low. Has been in the time of chaos, a blue sky over a flowery earth, and
over a sea, which reflects the sun and moon, curved to enjoy its beauty and grandeur
creatures, offering them measure and track. Was there at the time of Megatherien and
then the piles already religion, customs, laws, science and art; does not improve any
time of the errors of the past, by every new invention wins the world: and when the
climbing new level up new evil, it is but only as an incentive to exceed them again,
and in itself is a life appeal. It is not the custom of the piano, to decompose the
harmonic chord a dissonant, but in a harmonious resolve the discordant. But this
custom has played the piano from the people of God in the world of games. And so
we are to believe that this world and follow the purposes of this custom and the death
of the creature will only be a means itself, the discords of this world, which itself
could not find their resolution in this life, in the afterlife, even if not all dissolve
immediately, but continue until the final resolution and reconciliation.
Is all conscious existence decided in the divine life, so also all the evils that can
befall willing, knowing, sentient beings, sin, error, pain is resolved therein with, only,
none of God meet beings of the highest level, it governs only in lower finite regions
of existence where one is still against the other, however, God intervenes with its
highest motivation, knowledge, being in agree on everything. There Is also in humans
through a lower a higher intellectual field, psychic drives the higher will, to the
seeing eye, the higher insight about low desire the higher joy. The highest in man but
is still a Low in God. So also the human will is not God's will, even though the
person may have his own way in conformity with the divine and should be. And we
are so blessed that our evil is not out of God, but at the same time and under God, on
the assurance that he can have no evil of his unreconciled world, not to leave it in
unreconciled to the anything goes, within the meaning of Day believes in God and the
afterlife. So great it is itself, and so great is his power and duration, it is a longer time,
a larger area, a larger force to wipe it, have ready. But each has, as advantageously
included in God, in whose works help with.
With all of 'the course, the hardest question is pushed back: Where ever the evil in
the world, if there is an all-good, all-powerful God to the world, the harder for the
day view, when but after her all evils, which felt in the world is felt by God in His
creatures with. Why not prevent it from entering the beginning to complete it to pay
off over time until all contingent forces and thus yet in any finite time?
There is only one non-contradictory in itself answer the question, which may be
with God and with God. No being done to themselves with will harm or cause to be
with such a will, unless that without a greater evil can not be avoided or a greater
good'll not have. It contradicts not only the nature of the human will, and it
contradicts the nature of the will at all. So even God can evil have neither a higher
nor lower regions of his being brought forth or authorized by will, unless that such
did not prevent a greater or higher good without let or not.And did you think put out
of God's creatures in the conventional sense and therefore its evil, then it is no less
contrary to his goodness and omnipotence, wanted their evil to himself or to have
So the day view exalts secondly the contradiction in that it the emergence of the
problem and its evolution up to the limits up to which it is able at all to thrive, rather
than looking in the will or in an arbitrary approval of God, in a Urnotwendigkeit of
being , it is called a metaphysical necessity, addiction, its being virtue itself either
could not be at all without succumbing to the evil in time starts and finite districts,
and falling again and again in new incarnations, or that at least the upgrade to a larger
and greater good could not happen without passing through evil. Really though, lies
in the adjustment, elevation, reconciliation, outdoing evil out of general, higher
voraussetzlich from this life into the beyond overarching point itself the source of the
more general, larger, higher good, is to speak of in the world, and at the every
individual, finite according as it progresses itself, expands its sphere of existence,
rises, becoming part. So necessary but the evil one or the other or simultaneously in
both senses, so necessary now also the direction of the divine will to his elevation,
reconciliation, overcoming.
I say, this is the only non-contradictory in itself way God's will, it is in a because of
the existence of evil created by him or penetrated by him or rising in his world, what
the dispute here would be pointless to raise the responsibility, and we the inviolable
and eternal goodness of his nature to insure. But would consider anyone but God's
omnipotence reduced so that the will of the same is directed against something either
not even by this desire is there - although it's always there in God, by God, but not
entirely composed of supreme will, -, or what God want for the sake of higher
purpose or had to admit, it would have to take to heart the words of Leibniz, that
where God's goodness and omnipotence come into conflict, the latter had to give way.
There is a logical necessity, can do nothing against the omnipotence of God,
because he can not make twice two five and not negate the validity of Ludolf's
theorem to diameter ratio of the circumference of the circle. Rather, the logical
necessity is a basic moment of the truth of his eternal being, the metaphysical need is
a moment andres reason of his being that his work and will. If everything has always
been the best, as we like to think of it, so could we not also willing and doing what it
sought out and led to think more. But there is no such office, we must also allow the
principle to apply.
Of all the wonders that there is the greatest that there is anything at all, even if it's
not really was something that one would think it impossible that there could be
something, because where, how, by what agency it should come about. Nothing
remains but to say it has always been a, no external agency of its existence
bedürfendes, existing by itself, essence, is just not comprehensible by us, and that as
such a being could exist, and no way of conclusion, no right to demand exists for us
in this regard. We need God to denote the origin and existence of the Supreme Being
with this name, taking, as he gives himself to us. Could we please God dictate how he
had to make, so we wish to impose on him good: so that no evil a finding of him as
source of all existence in this existence, everything is would be equally perfect, or
even more perfect progress of the good, but evil exists, and we must reverse conclude
that the existence of evil with the deepest roots of the existence or its evolution itself
is fused inseparably; provided but there is also a general desire to raise the evil and
the general progress of the world is a success aspiration shows, we do not have to
close less that such a pursuit, and the possibility of its success is inseparable from the
deepest roots of their existence and development.
The night view does not know the previous ways of viewing to go. Nothing would
stop me to believe in God, I heard someone say, did not exist when the evil in the
world. He spoke well and think in terms of thousands night view. Holdings God, he
would have not allowed the evil, he could not resist himself from evil, because evil
exists, there is no God. Thus, the night view of the contradiction is wrong easiest. The
world may try to cope without God with evil as they can, and because it is not
finished, the pessimism is ready. But there is still a God and an afterlife for the night
view in spite of all evil, so she stands out the contradictions that it can not capture in
their ways. Contradictions by larger God has given man for love of him released from
the outset itself good or evil, and thus to make happy or unhappy, and the world
closes half from the sky, half of hell to break the God of merciful no will or Almighty
has no power, or is there a third? For moral evil, which elected the first man himself,
God the world has the physical and intellectual, the good and evil so aptly added gift,
to the animals, who can not vote, gifted with cruelty and torture; either he wanted
with his infinite goodness or could not break this connection, the evil with his
omnipotence, or is there a third? The right human father leaves his children out of
love for them and for the love of freedom only good for good, only a limited freedom
is among men, and proves himself among men as well, and there is but a freedom
even in good things, God but let the people to make it my very well with them, for
good half from the outset, the evil half of freedom. The right father does not beat the
good with the bad kids, not to rob them of confidence in his justice, and does not
punish them because of use of a freedom he left them only. The merciful, just God,
the Father of the human, legislators, judges should take the pattern in all of them is an
example andres 6) .
Also in respect to the evil Day is just the reversal of a previous Weltanschauung
view in a second. After the heathen gods are still subject to human weaknesses and
errors, the current view of measuring God an abstruse perfection, beyond all
weaknesses and errors in, the day view raises the necessary mistakes and weaknesses
of the finiteness along with the pursuit of their reconciliation and sufficiency in God,
but in most areas of his being recognized by the ungetrübteste perfection.
6) Further remarks on the question of freedom in the 16th Section.
VI. Religious views and prospects.
1 So that the Day ends in a doctrine and concludes as such, it goes far beyond mere
philosophy addition, If this, in vain of course, faith will entschlagen in principle, as
previously described (Chapter 4) discussed, agrees rather in this regard with religion,
and is in its highest and ultimate beliefs religion itself, but what it is more than
philosophy, but is not against it.The historical belief in revelation, as it is represented
by the Orthodox theology is far more than mere philosophy, but he's more, some
against it. Therefore, Paul could speak of a divine folly, which is higher than human
wisdom, Tertullian could say: Credo quia absurdum est , and Luther says somewhere
(something like this): it was a most reprehensible set the Sorbonne, that what the
mathematics and philosophy were true, must be true also for theology. And today, the
human reason is often accused of Revelation believers that they easily lead the right
way in the highest and last things to wrong.
How, then, has become the historically established belief in revelation is to make
the day view and this against him after the day view makes itself claim to be a
religion? Let's put it shortly: he will cast the day view, because it professes to have
only the highest and best, but not the whole of it and take; the day view but will save
His highest and best, even before it whole with the itself expires. Hereafter we say the
same thing a little longer.
2 The revelation believers need only ever the historical and practical reason to
certainty of his faith, and the venerable book what it offers these safety, do not put it
down, in order to grasp these new leaves. Why should he? He is given up by the word
of what those leaves look only to rise from below, and feels in reliance thereon all
vacillation and erring human reason over emphasized. The firm stand on his faith
amidst the rocks and umbrausenden him from all sides against oncoming waves of
today's philosophy may not be interchanged with a fall in the abyss of him. And
because he, on his standpoint provided from above finding, the steps to upgrade does
not need that both need and win these leaves, he will not miss it too, and is armed
with his faith tanks from the outset against the attack of any contradiction, from
human wisdom comes with which and between which these leaves are looking for
But there are others, so much more and more and more day by day, which, if the
historical and practical, missing the third ground of faith in which this reconciliation
is, the belief in the highest and the orthodox belief in revelation to those two reasons,
last things are wrong, and this provides the day view out its aid
But it is more than a mere assistance, which offers individual, it is a restoration of
faith that it offers to the world as a whole, and not need it as such?
Let's take a serious look at the current state of things.
3 A feeling passes through the world so it can not stay, or it may not go away. Yes
already searched the world almost with fear a renewal of faith, or even a new faith;
been even one such as in league with the knowledge, is only the overthrow of the old
faith, and with it the fear of the world proclaimed not breastfeed but can only
increase. He draws but only the final consequences of the night view at odds with
those of the old belief held upright, was light and consolation, and so the opposition
to the Day view, which he shared from another quarter itself, overcame. Because
basically drops with the clear appearance, which spreads through the world, all
Higher, which rises about at night and the old faith but it has demolished it, saved in a
heaven above the heavens, and the new it crashes consistently in the same night.
I think now with the Today morning, it occurs to me that in mind:
4 Although faith weak, but reason strong that it even mean well with religion and
want to stop its decline, it mean by that may be that they made the historic Build off
all the rotten beams thereof; firmer or just others collect it they do not have, because
instead of those received by the philosophy can - and where to look else - this only
helps their own discord and their Glaubenswidrigkeit about it, also can not mend a
religion. But the nature of the research hammered by those rescue efforts only
become increasingly frail, building completely together. Even the Orthodox lift with
all his strength against the rotten as clinging as the parties, by living and dying, that if
the whole thing is to keep have to keep it quite proper conviction, and truly depends
on them nor the main blessing of religion, as long as it still holds, because they do not
hold by it. But there is still faith cohesion, strength of faith, and faith to find fruit,
where else? Because there is nothing else good, does not flow from faith. And if there
is no lack of pretenders and quiet doubters among them, so it is only mislead sheep of
the flock, but it is still a herd that feels safe under a shepherd, a shelter. But the
handful already become small melts together more and more, and is finally buried
under the inexorable ruin of the once mighty building, even after the state has the
same support its withdrawn, for which he now finds no support in it. Therefore woe
to the Church and therefore woe to the state. Pessimistic notions of top and bottom of
proletarian fists complete the ruin, by smashing the rubble of the old building still.
5 They say this is true of the church, but the church and religion are two different
things: let the dogmas of the Church fall, as is the free, no longer fettered by religion
evolve. - But strangely, the more you see falling from the untenable dogmas of the
Church, the more you can see from the grip of religion fall, the left free zerfährt and
disappears into the air. If the church and religion are two different things, so is it as
mind and body are two different things, and they are falling together. And are not all
signs of shrinkage because of their interaction? It heats the churches, you are baptism
and communion in vain, it's free, you do not re-animate a corpse by external heating,
and the people do not like the more reduced the prices good. Already seems to
communities the minister a burden, for he who still like to pay for the maintenance of
a preacher, whose sermon he does not go and its sacraments he does not need, replace
the table of the registrar so the altar at least is as pastor of the minimum Demanding
in Faith Matters brought forward. According to the new faith God is ever only the
name of a general world order that comes in the people to consciousness, and the
future life for the General deliquescent consequences of this life, and some preaching
from the pulpit of reason deceives the worshipers only nor with that name. Are there
still those who want more than mere names or surrogates for God and the afterlife, so
they do not know how and where to find it, after only reason not to apply the word
more in the Bible, the reason of a but against that of the other, is the chair against the
pulpit, and finally even the reason is the individual and it would be unreasonable to
leave, to make the own belief or disbelief or leave the make or of those, however, the
belief in Along the mood of the believer is to seek his life principle and its
maintenance, and church and state should agree to go to ensure uniform teaching
through these connections mood, except that it no longer is today. Last to get as far as
not to miss the atmosphere of faith together, and so already hold Christianity and
Judaism, Catholicism and Protestantism happy marriage, as does everything in
nothing wedding, and when it has become nothing. And it is not anywhere as far as it
goes but, as on an inclined plane to descend, and the faster it goes down, the louder
the cheers of the movement. So now the religious belief outside the Orthodox circles
is average already almost up to the level of sunk in deeper depth including up to
negative, and the orthodoxy itself finds it increasingly difficult to have state as a
fortress to berennt from all sides and to which the country is devastated around.
Now we ask ourselves once the time which threatens met before, where there is no
religion and no church. There will be a time where each barrel bursts its tires, the
Bottom turns against the Supreme to have them to be on top, the free support in the
open like searches of God and the afterlife fallen moral law, which managed by the
random act of nature and managed to replace the mass of state law and free light
breed from above, looking duty and love towards the neighbor to bring that do not
start with more water to baptize baptized with blood. There will be a time of the
general struggle for existence against prudence and wisdom, instead of the feeling of
togetherness and a concatenation of all existence of highest and last points.
But while it may not have be content, so it will not be able to come across, and
before you even know what will turn sichs, you can be sure that will turn
sichs. Religion can fall only to rise again elastically.
As long as a religion is still there, it is everywhere where it comes to highest, last,
unanimous end Dauerndstes, Final, and where it is lost, is all lost, the individual and
the state, the custom of science, art. Lies in a bed, and do not remember where from
another, he has not a hope in God and an afterlife reconciling all suffering, only
without the resignation or despair. Where no fear of the law is enough, enough fear of
God and otherworldly retribution. But that this can not escape. Without launching the
religious faith that science moves back and forth without purpose, or is just in the
empty target, and streichst you from the art of religious ideas, so you have it
shortened so to speak around her head. Would all themselves' the illusion that it is
only right for the follow night view, they could not miss in the long run.
The whole history of the world has been dominated in general outline and from top
points by religious motives, drives, statutes, the biggest and best as the greatest and
worst in history has emerged by the best of the best of the worst of the worst of
religions , while the worst would emerge from the lack of any religion. Because the
worst religion, as long as they still deserve to be called religion is better than
none. That will not change and will never change, even if the physiologist from the
slaughtered dogs, the chemist nothing to feel before the heated oven itself from labor,
which goes through the history of the world, and think they could do without
that. They would rather do without physiology and chemistry than without it.
So religion can not expire without using their expiration the need of renewal for the
individual and for the whole thing grows and grows ever stronger, until after all the
vain attempts of the restoration of the old time for new Build ripe.
Is the time to do it already full? I do not know, but let it not be today, it will be
tomorrow or the day after. And now you see well to keep that after having exhausted
all means of night view to keep the religion of repairs or evacuation yet, and all the
forces of orthodoxy, they as it is an else remains as it new in the sense of the Day to
The new construction but, in the day view invites its followers, will not give up and
rise from the ashes of the old, but new to reason that new bars, new stones, but with
the unbreakable crosses on top of the old. But not the cross, is nailed to the Christ,
but that is increased in the light of him to light himself on the world out. And it would
not be out of the ruins of the old building into which it is sinking more every day,
increase again, as well as the new Build missing its top. Yes, he could not rise again if
he did not from the outset its direction towards the re-establishment and collection of
that in which he has unanimously to culminate with the old and complete itself,
would take. The train comes up here and there from above, but the stones can add
only by forces from below in the sense of this train.
6 I want to say without a picture By previous following.
In Christianity there are two ideas that combine an eternal universal in their
assertion, it has surpassed all previous times of clarity, decisiveness and height, which
makes it all that he still opposes overcome, and what it will maintain its eternal
nature, and a time, specifically dogmatic, which considerably influenced the current
shape of Christianity and of the Orthodox to the essence itself of the same, as is
almost its essence, expected.
The first is that, not Jews, pagans in particular, but all the families and nations of
the earth in faith to a few, the best ending God and a life after death with just
retribution have to agree, a moral band, a direction of action , a comfort to have a
hope to find on the ground, in this faith. Christ, but we have this idea to life as the
founder and supreme representative of worshiping the same l) .
l)"That Christ has set the highest as the unifying and the Farthest has set as that
has set about unifying and the best as the highest that has it never been done
before and will do it after that, because he did it." .... "But it's been what all
agreed with him, and all will be some that are not yet agreed that he first
brought the unification All from the point of view from which alone an
agreement for all is possible with consciousness into the consciousness of the
earthly world, and given by teaching and living the vital impetus to the
proliferation and activation of the idea that all people are children of the same
number, ending only good God, feel as a citizen of, reaching beyond the here
and beyond heavenly kingdom and as brothers to each other , and seek to act in
this sense. " Zendavesta II, 38 39)
While Judaism and Islam share the idea of the one God and the Hereafter with
Christianity, and thereby contribute itself to prove the universality of these
ideas, but remain behind Christianity back so that the Jewish people thinks he
is chosen, is looking for a Messiah, and the religion in the bonds of external
statutes suggests that Islam but only one kingdom of heaven is full of
sensuality in mind, and to spread by the sword rather than the power of the
ideas themselves examined.

The second idea is that the original sin through Adam's guilt afflicted with man,
incapable themselves, by virtue of obtaining only through the mediation of Christ's
death on the cross for forgiveness and reconciliation from the consequences of his
sins to rescue them by God himself, as in the second person 've humanized Christ,
lent themselves to this death victims and led the world walk through exceptionally
miracles in this way of salvation and receive it.
Both ideas, although its content is the thinking of each other externally and are not
necessarily demanding but historically grown together, and to be in this connection
by the claim, matter of divine revelation, not only armed against any attack, but
immune. For this purpose they are woven by the Orthodox Church to a system that
the reason that they are within the bounds of the system, rather in the service of the
disclosure provides, as they missed to master himself, through his inner connection
doing enough, thus the trailer its maintenance assured, however, his context and
cohesion with the other thoughts circles of the world more and more divided, indeed
has already become a chasm, what does not bridge, for the reason here and there does
not seem to fit each other, and also means the Orthodox, the bridge will be find, or
even tried to hit on his part, it is not enough to the other side, because it
accommodates no attempt from there.
Now, it is not sufficient to tear from the historical associations of both the specific
ideas as responsible for this dichotomy: but if not for the historical maintenance of
the whole, a new positive grip, suitable for a new beginning of history, the nature of
human and things commanded, for the dogmatic content is drawn from one else of
that nature, expires with one idea and the other dies, the whole faith under the knife,
which will heal him, the fact itself proves it. The Protestant Union is growing and the
churches continue to empty. One can make the pursuit and half half regret the failure,
success. The free churches and the Old Catholicism but equal branches that are cut
off from the tribe, the tribe will not go into the performance, but the branches have
become rootless. All this only speaks for the need of the very same remedy as for the
impossibility of making the existing foundations from. Today's wisdom has now once
rooted in its, the night view is prejudiced or to offer that with her spare computing,
directions, nothing. And so faith depends for most, still out of the counties where the
Orthodox some of it depends on a familiarity of her childhood and practical
needs. These are strong threads that are still tender and finally tear if the reason is not
tired to feed upon it, and to pull. They would rather own threads to spin it, there
would be a hold, not only resistors each attack, but not even one such would find.
7 But now I think that the day view in outline and the principles of their on
installation and removal, as they were recorded here, really offers such threads, ie the
universal idea of Christianity has positive moments of a new maintenance and
content for the award given dogmatic, - moments, which may consist not only from
reason, but represents the universal idea of Christianity itself at the forefront of a
rational world relationship so but finally put in a position to meet their own demand,
ie, to some all genders and peoples, while breaks the rigidity of dogmatic the success
of the missions 2) , and all the bitterness of reason is directed only against them.
"Why do we always preach the crucified instead of the living
God?" something like this asked a Brahmin.

In fact, what would it be, bringing the day view from the top Christian idea
herausträte, making it not rather to justify, consolidate and develop the same was
what they not together would take all the forces of reason and where they are not the
claims satisfied the same, or ways would consider open to satisfaction. So, those who
thought fit to reject the Christian idea of pure reason, have to reflect the time being, if
they need the same decline yet, and if not in the present but the future generation of
this reflection will become the prudence that they have the same from have reason to
demand reasons rather. Further, by the day view, although the pagan fragmentation
and degradation of the divine essence removes the pieces of it but throwing away, but
only picks up into a higher organization, thereby making them the top Christian idea
and the lowest levels of knowledge accessible and catchy. And gives it with all 'the
not Christianity's supreme idea, but it has from the outset of him as a lodestar
8 But has only religious faith gained a new stop in itself, as well as the cohesion
and thus exchange maintenance of church and state will find itself out of itself,
because it will no longer be a reason to separate. Will go the beyond certain limits,
but from the beginning beginning they were not separated, however, they seem to me
now, like two slats that are to keep each other alive by support, but now push each
other to be of mutual pressure off both fall. Or as two siblings who are long gone
hand-in-hand, now they pull the hands apart, scolding himself that no one wants to
obey the other, and go to the back, for now, the most radical tendencies are called in
state and church brothers and rich hands for the overthrow of both. The fact itself,
however, that church and state are no longer tolerated, shows that of the two if not
both plugged into a, got a bit lazy and decay of one of the others.
An oak can shoot up higher and more powerful, but if your core is rotten, and the
bad always rampant, it goes with the growth of the external power and splendor of a
certain level of backwards instead of advancing. Are we not already at this limit to be
next time also?
9 First of all the basic points of the day view only theoretical in nature seem to be,
but the belief in the highest and last things can not stand alone in theory, never alone
stood it and will never stand alone it; rather have the theoretical motives and reasons
of faith historical and practical to contact, if it is not cogent to say that those have to
come to this. Because alone is relied upon, where what appears to be the truest, also
appears to be the best in history and Most durable. Would not the Orthodox Faith
Bible particular disadvantage compared with the reason of today still in such great
advantage to them of historical and practical side, as he could still keep it? That we
have a history propagated and thus grown in strength and spread up to certain limits
belief in the sanctity of the Bible word, and that comfort and hope to draw on all
underground out of the Bible words, lets fear of all earthly addition awaken by
making, that we have a religion today. That we have philosophical systems with the
pretension, the most reasonable in all Supreme and provide latest, of Kant, Fichte,
Schelling, Hegel, Herbart, Feuerbach, Schopenhauer, Hartmann, etc., does not only
not that we do not have a religion today but rather we have only barely, despite these
systems, and partly because, for which also does not contradict the historical faith,
but with abstruse destroyed its comprehensibility, with the principle of doubt the
strength and blessing.
But only the one going into the shoes of the night view, reason, which is today, the
Orthodox Faith Bible confronts with such advantages. And who does deny that his
views up and consolation from above and its wholesomeness is a turbid element, a
moment of self-loathing and contempt for the world mixed, and that its historical grip
of the past no longer wants to reach into the future. Needed to a corruption of the
whole human race, indeed the whole of nature as a result of Adam Apfelbiß, to a God
who death on the cross of his Son, in order to find reconciled because of the fault of
the people he had created with sinful impulses, to an eternal mercy and justice, which
imposed on temporal sins and lack of faith in eternal punishment of hell, and how
many still can not believe forever, but the Orthodox do not be deceived.
And what, he asks, do you have to support yourself with your historical news
you? - So what I am from beginning beginning supported: not just on one but on two
more than a thousand years of stories, the fact that the day view basically picks up
only two successively historically been passed, and indeed the world still dividing
between them, views of the world to harmony with each other . Between two
superimposed only today, both distinctive, the night view with their negations. It is
lifted, both flow with separation of incompatible elements of self to the third one
The story is not standing idle, but they neither jumps nor grinds, but it progresses,
the last superior foot in place and holding back the remaining vorsetzend. The course
consists in the change of both steps, a higher view sees the connection between the
two steps. The steps of the religion are great, but slow. You need thousands to a new
step. But the progress of the repealed foot floats, already lowering himself into the
air, when it will sit him?
With mere pen-strokes, however it is not done. But when the time will be met, it
will not be missed on the word and igniting the community-forming power, which is
still needed. The wind plays only in the leaves of the tree that will one day fall on the
gain of Wehens, and religion zagt has yet to crush a world of the old with the new
step at a time,
As one of the tremendous load of one spots on the grow is something like - the
light can not only add - would roll away. He understood now here, now there on, lifts
the burden of this or that side, but it's too hard, pushed too far, and always falls back
on the lifted hand. The bystanders to see dull, shake your head or laugh, and some
that are on the load and help it grow, do not be thrown down and scold. Here and
there probably sounds a voice of encouragement, but no one engages in. About this
attempt he has grown old, feels, but he did not fully brings it, nor does a final tug and
is now waiting for the new force. You will have an easier time, because the inside has
become rotten stone of self already begins to crumble, and finally the story will have
only fortzukarren the chunks.
VII beliefs.

Should I hereafter summarize my creed in the sense of Day in a few short

sentences, so I make love to the top of the same a saying that I was looking at a small,
well-known in Orthodox circles, book "Christian Forget" that the everyday year
considering the shortest morning worship with a Bible verse, just apt to find on my
"There are diversities of operations, but there is a God who works all in all there"
(l.Cor. 12.6).
Much the same says the first sentence of the following confession, and all the
others just hang it. With all and all it remains true that the highest and best of faith,
about which nothing greater and better things going, even up to the universal idea of
Christianity (see above). The one God above all and in all, the afterlife with just
retribution, the highest moral commandment: Love God above all and your neighbor
as yourself are not any news of the day view, but a light from above, without it, I
repeat, confess, would not have found direction and purpose, and with this
acknowledgment includes the confession.
l There is a God whose infinite and eternal existence the entire finite and temporal
existence has not outwardly towards more externally canceled among themselves, but
to and subordinate to, so that, as far and high you pursue the existence of finite things
and measure wants the divine existence transcends it.
2 So too is the human being God is not externally over, but is also eingetan him and
decided subject, life and consciousness of man with the divine.
"My soul rests in God,
because God is alive, I'm alive,
for he alone has life,
I can not stand next to it,
. He can not leave me "
(From the three Mot. U Gr. Of faith.)

3 The world between people is not dark and silent, but God sees the light and hear
the sounds of his world everything that is happening in the world and, above all, and
what he sees and hears more than his creatures build, Also in his thoughts higher than
the highest of these creatures.
4 People have to be humble, not prominently stand out in the world, but find only
the highest individual development stages of the earthly kingdom, but which are
associated with higher relations in and through which the world including even
higher levels that finally all the highest level, ie the existence of God, together and
5 Each constellation has its own sense of the world and about rising higher
consciousness world that consistently over the his creatures joins forces and against
which closes the other heavenly bodies, for the divine consciousness but very open-
minded remains, so that the stars are an intermediate and intermediary level between
its creatures and God make, so also the earth.
, In God, my soul, rests
The angel whole host
heights in its pure
light Radiant seh go I
And one carries me at all. "

6 As our this-worldly earthly life to another and higher and has over, it will have to
be such by its continuation rather than in another and higher life verfließend to be
working, as a new development now enters into it and win part of it. What our
intuition when going countered that she is reborn as a reminder higher areas of our
mind, it is only the corresponding expanded and enhanced our whole spirit the spirit
about which he is already eingetan, encounter.
"In God rests my soul
You talk that she goes,
since I bear no worries,
always to feel secure,
the now is in him.
God in my soul, rests
entirely Seems it out with her,
lost the track of her,
If they only reborn
in a höhres his house. "

7 The future life of the spirit will no longer be confined in the same close spatial
barriers, as the worldly. The ghosts are in fact a freer and more intimate than higher
traffic occur in this world, and the only alleged suspect justice will advertise there
met on the principle that each will follow his works and there he reap what he has
sown here.
8 Our mistake, our folly and sin depends only on our finitude and our lower
positions on God, not unlike the man himself ideas, thoughts may arise and go
against his instincts and his higher intelligence and higher will, it remains the right
insight, the right will and command him about it.

"In God rests my soul,

God acts in from;
His will is my want,
I want against it,
but he leads it out.

My soul rests in God,

not himself the sins,
but with bears his child
in his sin also,
Does it last for duty. "

9 All pain and suffering, all the ills in the world ever is not by God's will or
approval, but by a necessity of existence there, but with the same necessity as it is
there, is in the nature of God and hereby its dependent world order, the strive to raise
it to reconcile what his creatures have to participate with. Finally and completely he
can only lift in and reconcile, as he does in all his creatures, and the further and
higher reach his average over his creatures up and out in time and space and climb to
higher levels of life, the more certain is the its uplift and reconciliation; one must also
expect from there. With such faith, you can go to sleep quietly.
"In God rests my soul,
O greatest consolation in sorrow!
's God can not tolerate in himself,
Only joy debt,
I'll wait my time.
God rests in my soul
It is the last word;
Whether remote even from the port,
I can not sleep well,
he is my s eternal port ".

10th In the ideas of truth, beauty, goodness itself culminates the divine nature, and
in faith, hope, love of the people in relation to God.

"My soul rests in God,

He holds in itself the Council
of truth, beauty, goodness,
That unit in the mind
and guide is the fact.

God rests in my soul,

And it fluctuates so much
chastisement of earthly instincts,
in faith, hope, love
He remains their ultimate goal. "

11th The divine, di moral commandments have the sense that man his costumes
and acting in the direction of one's own well the costumes and acting in the direction
of the welfare of the whole, which he is subordinating. Man is to educate the effect
that he does his duty out of love, and his conscience tells him no account of what is
12th The loftiest and most general doctrines of Christianity are the highest, best and
most durable in general, which can make the religion at their head, and Christ is the
head of all the witnesses for the existence and validity of the highest, best, most
sacred truths.

"In God rests my soul,

the soul begs him,
Because the Lord God to show
the witnesses descend,
forward Christ as the light. "
VIII The Old and the New Day.
As new as the day view in some respects appears and is so old you can find them in
other respects, so it should be something entirely new, it would certainly be
something fundamentally wrong because the truth can never be entirely absent, but
much of the whole truth and be missing out a lot about the truth. In order to
supplement the lack of it, that too many must fall, and so the day view with the old
one contains some more, some less than the old.
In this sense was already repeatedly emphasized that the day view basically just the
repeal of two historically each other successively, world views is another, that she
shares her ideas in the highest and last things with the Christian view their primitive
base with the pagan view. Whilst they were, rather than an externally and
contradictory to the other to add, the one by lifting the other and culmination
uniformly inflicted by the other, it differs from every particular, not only by the
majority of the others, but also by dropping the moments who do not agree to this
relationship, from. And in today's theological, philosophical and scientific views of
this unified addition escape from this or that side, even the day view is true nowhere
all, but only of this or that, in this or that piece, along with it to be in other respects to
deviate so more of it.
Probably the most intrusive occurs, the difference in day view in large pieces of the
now prevailing views forth in the view of the objective spread of sensuous
appearance by the world in the implementation of the immanence of finite spirits in
God instead of mere phrase, in the doctrine of soul of the stars and of plants, and in a
way to conclude the world out of this world. We have seen how naturally all the
related work in Day view, swells apart, is reciprocally holds and supports and calls,
whereas none of it will fit right into today's world view. Meanwhile, it may not be
without interest to overlook what I am but rather from here andershin refer
(Zendavesta III, 332 ff), as so very strange appearing for the first sight doctrine of the
afterlife basically both the collection and uniform link speak all possible, presented so
far come, is about views, even beyond the Spiritualist faith of modern times occurs
(after XXIII) with into it. That the belief in the individual God soulfulness of the stars
is a matter of the old paganism, knows each student from the lessons of mythology,
also known to the Christian belief in angels rooted originally in this belief and is the
same among the primitive peoples still around. The view of the spread of sensory
appearance by the world can you find in a newer version of the Monadology (Chapter
XXII), and the immanence of God in finite spirits was from the outset (p. 14) as a
first authority cited a biblical word what more than a philosopher and poet could be
argued as Mitbekenner.
Can you say now after all this rightly: All of the day view was partly been there,
some still there, but it remains equally true the whole day view was not there so, and
fight with the whole world today believes what they of their opposition every nook
and corner will have to expect here, because a few middle has the same not yes.
Easily can the Day confused with natural philosophy, and why not, just that they
are not confused with each version of the same. Natural philosophy but can be taken
once as the doctrine of the common aspects and regularities, which the world of
material things ruthlessly subordinating themselves to a spiritual content, just as a
more general and higher natural science, and to such the Day wishes to support well,
without whose expected and expansion to their task itself, they would find far more
than just fragments and problems of such before. Second, natural philosophy can be
taken as a lesson of the highest and most general relations of the spiritual to the
material internally or externally to erscheinlichen erscheinlichen world wohinein the
view of a Gottbeseelung the world and the structure of this animated world occurs. A
natural philosophy in this sense takes the day view to be really, just not merely of
theoretical character, but with a scope into the Religious and Useful into it, also it
would be so present in the reverse direction, that latter point would appear as the
senior and parent. Third, but can be understood a lesson in natural philosophy, which,
considering the nature of categories that belong rather to the mental field, or in which
the aspects of both areas to a finished mix unclear schematism. In this sense, the
natural philosophy is mainly occurred recently, has so disturbed enter into natural
science, and the indignation of the latter, however, has even brought the word natural
philosophy into disrepute. And after you've caught the Day with words from this, one
has to also including with hung.
In the sense, however, in which the day view themselves as natural philosophy
really is, is, according to its theoretical side, it is basically just the completion and the
completion of its top, which is raised from below as psychophysics, or the faith
flower and fruit above the root, which investigated the psychophysics directly in
knowledge. You surprised that the first presentation of the day view in the "Zend-
Avesta" and "Elements of Psychophysics" have the same author. It was two and a
column in the author himself. But you can not see because if the development
principles related together and both agree. In areas of the Perceptible are based on
experience, such as psychophysics does, and also still be based on, but with the
necessary generalization, extension, increase the factors like the day view does
theoretischerseits, but are not too different things. Also, the basic relationship
between the two doctrines of itself proves that the first germ of Psychopysik from the
first presentation of the Day - I gave you earlier is not the name - has emerged
(Zendavesta II 373), and that in some final sections Elements of psychophysics (XLV
and XLVI) is shown, as you come in with generalizations from psychophysics in the
day view.
Similarly as with the contents of the daily view it behaves with the development
principles of this content. Individually, it is nothing new, only the unanimous taking
together all that can be based on what is new. From time immemorial it has made
inferences from the given to the non-given, and even extends one-sided conclusions
on the nature of the most common, highest and last things, have always been of
practical and historical factors contributed to support or justify the religious faith. The
Day has just only the new that they all can not be one or the other, but go this way
without their biases and half-truths and apply, and in the greatest possible co-tuning
of all searches in the greatest possible guarantee of faith (IV IX). In the same strong
opposition but it is against the two main directions of today's philosophical night
view against each other keep that in common with eignem opposition that all those
paths that are there to get from the given to the non-given, to find out individual
cases, the law, we upon us to close out and up, neglect or even reject, to generate
either from the a priori emptiness of abstract concepts out of the world content and to
conceive or around the world to limit the knowledge of the people to the knowledge
of his own subjectivity.
But what may now be old or new in the day view, this contains font so far nothing
really new, as it basically just the content of earlier writings, some shorter summary,
some more or executive to another direction, some in another, sometimes probably
reflects the same phrases. Why does she do it? Well, first and foremost because of
that view from the bank of the countryside they produce sales as it were like a fresh
germs, it is because a tree that little feeling the first blows of the laid him ax may fall
by a final blows when it returns only the first like, finally, because in general:
" Nunquam satis dicitur, quod nunquam satis disciture ".
Following the list of earlier writings that complement representation in the day
view partly true meet from different points of view, but be summarized in the present
in some way, in chronological order of their first appearance.
1) The little book of life after death. l edition. Dresden. Grimmer. ,
1836. 2 Ed Leipzig, Voss, 1866.
2) About the highest good. Leipzig, Breitkopf and Hartel in 1846.
3) Nanna, or about the inner life of plants. Leipzig, Voss 1848.
4) Zendavesta or about the things of heaven and the afterlife from the
point of view of nature. Leipzig, Voss, 1851. 3 Tle
5) On the Soul question, a walk through the natural world, to find
invisible. Leipzig, Amelang, 1861.
6) The three motives and reasons of faith. Leipzig, Breitkopf and
Hartel. , 1863.
7) Some ideas for creative and evolutionary history of
organisms. Leipzig, Breitkopf and Härtel in 1873.
The relationship with the Day view of physics by synechologische view (what
folgends Section XXII to compare) found in 28 Section of the "physical and
philosophical atomism" (l ed 1855. 2nd edition 1864), and the connection thereof
with the Psychopsysik in sections 45 and 46 of the second Treated part of the
"Elements of Psychophysics" (1860), and the connection thereof with the aesthetic is
in preschool aesthetics "(1876, I, 37) at least touched as a kind of contribution to the
history of the Day, the Scripture." Professor Schleiden and the Moon "(1856) apply.
The writings of the former would "three motives" and "On the Soul question" the
most appropriate introduction to the whole doctrine to be, especially in the former
prinzipiellem UPHOLSTERY, the latter through its treatment of some main
themes. On the content of both is returned in this document only shortly. Most
extensively, sometimes disputed too wide, teaching in the three volumes of the
"Zend-Avesta" is developed, which treats third in itself the doctrine of immortality by
various sides, while the same is shorter and hereby perhaps engaging in "book". The
ethical side of the daily view, what this scripture refers only in passing, is particularly
represented in the paper "On the highest good."
While there are some points of difference from those earlier writings of this
document, which is to commemorate special. The most significant deviation from
formal side, if it has extended its influence over the whole course of observation,
without leading to essentially different results would, be that in the present, the
reference to the desolation of the world from the point of the night view of the output
the observation forms, however, in those earlier rather the output of positive
analogies, context and origin considerations larger scale is taken.One can at each of
these output modes complain in particular, if you want to find the reasons for the
whole day view it, but the day view can not be justified adequately by a single points
or a single page, but every moment of them has to contribute, the whole thing
hold. Some additional considerations taken here to the starting points but are still in
the last sections (XXIV) included.
Factually speaking, the question of freedom in the 16th Section of this document
differently regarded and treated as in Zendavesta I, 374 ff and d soul Üb question 217
et seq Some people like the earlier view of the newer still prefer the me with their
greater decisiveness both greater clarity, inner strength and practical usability seems
to connect, provided that the decision and recovery happens more in the spirit than
the day view night view. For doing so, change the aspects, conditions and
consequences of the decision. On the other hand, was earlier in the "Ideas for
Creation Story" in Zendavesta put forward II, 174 ff view of the development of the
organic kingdom leave, of other points of deviation of more minor importance
between the present and not to mention the earlier writings.
With all this, you will say, but proves to be that as sophisticated and confident
against the night view from the outset that occurred daily and may fluctuate view
themselves wrong.
It is true, but also conceded from the outset (p. 17), because the immodesty of the
Day to the night view is not missing the day view of modesty in their own areas.
The solid nature of the Day rest in the three basic points of the third and the three
creeds of the 9th Portion. Who are these fundamental points and principles, the first
of which rely on the latter, thus committed to the day view and it is not only his world
view in general and supreme interests, but also determines the main direction of its
development. Price is according to the form or substance of any one of those
moments of the day view, leaves or denied, you get into the darks, biases,
contradictions, desolations, night view of the deep rifts. But the three principles of
faith are but admittedly no principles absolute knowledge, but merely principles of
progress to all the more security, the more you into cogent application of the same
proceeding, and the task of developing a world view in all directions and regulations
is too great for that first attempts the same could be accomplished. And so it is of
course also does not have to be, and to have modest, if only the same basic system
and prove its durability. Not only is every book, what those principles better than this
use be white, about this book, but the book itself acknowledges that there may be
such, however, it also claims that it just only means of using its principles give such
can, and that the opposition to the night view that has to be a resounding just that.
IX. The three creeds of the day view.

All faith and above all religious belief actually depends on three motifs, and has to
be the right one to depend on three reasons, which are only the purification and
generalization of the one side, raw and imperfect here and there coming to bear
motifs . This is discussed in detail in the pamphlet mentioned more "the three motives
and reasons of faith." Here it may suffice it to reproduce the statement of the three
reasons, as distinguished theoretical, practical and historical principle, in some
abbreviated version.
In none of these Prinzipe faith has been relying only. Man can go wrong in
generalization of what he knows, can go wrong in what he considers to be the best to
believe, and history has done from time immemorial errors on both sides, so, the
three Prinzipe changing hand in such a way to monitor that they only lead to different
paths to the same goal. Depending on the task, although the path may here and there
be preferably followed rather in the sense of one than the other Prinzipe, and of
course, when it comes to theory, only the theoretical principle can be the guiding, but
always respecting that not by the other one Prinzipe, mediation inaccessible, remains
Theoretical principle.
It is the largest possible circle of experience moderating issue in the realm of
existence, through generalization, extension and improvement of the factors which
arise here, go to the view of what the existence is also in the other, further and higher
areas to the account of their distance our experience is not enough or the width and
height presents our experience and beyond to make with the caution that
generalization, extension and increase of the area of the Perceptible, only in the sense
and the direction already within the Perceptible itself is taken, ie, to take only the
other, further and higher areas in the claim as valid to consider, which generalizes the
more extended, increases the farther and higher we look into the experiential field,
and the points of difference which arises due to the larger distance, width, height of
the area, taking into full account. Of ever more diverse starting points, fro meet in
these pages conclusions unanimously ways, the safer the faith will be supported
Practical principle
Any erroneous and deficient condition would thus be revealed as such, that they, as
true assumed by the influence which they won on our thinking, feeling and acting,
Disadvantages pulls or human happiness detracts by in us vile involved moods and
perverse acts that part directly displeasure, dissatisfaction, partly indirectly
displeasure with consequences and follow, whereas the truth of a condition by itself
proves the opposite of all this as such. This set proved to be the more, the greater
influence error or truth wins on our feelings, thoughts, actions, depending on a larger
area of people and the longer the time it extends, while a mistake without significant
interference with the rest of our feelings, thoughts , acting, for a single person or a
small radius of people and for a short time can also probably appear satisfactory and
even useful. So that, after all, only faith can be seen as the truest, which is most
beneficial to the whole of humanity on their relationship, which is to make a
conclusion out of the goodness of a belief in its truth.
Historical principle.
If a belief is in the existence of something that is not directly subject to the
experience, so the people have any conscious or unconscious, acting by
Existengebiete forth reasons to be available that generate this faith in man or needs
that drive to . Everyone, even the irrigste, faith has reasons of style, just not always
zulängliche generally, but often only one-sided, partial, egoistic, generating electricity
from undue overweight or untriftige generalization of the false belief or faith in the
wrong thing. With regard to this can the soundness and quality of faith, with greater
probability to be closed, the general and unanimous, each with greater durability and
effectiveness, it extends through the world and time, and the more he strengthened
with increasing culture and proliferation growing.
X. The theology of the day view.
l Sachliches.

We decide, in accordance with the Day View to believe in a real band everything
unconscious in a highest and last single consciousness in the image of the cross on
our own intellectual territory consciousness only with the greatest expansion and
growth of the viewpoint, we have also to all the consequences to believe it.
First place, we have to believe that God, by which name we worship the supreme
unified conscious beings to all his creatures know how to know myself even more
and higher than all white, not as some think, just a transcendental consciousness of
the people, even as others think that a mere immanent consciousness in man, but one
with the other has.
Since God knows everything His creatures know, he also knows about their
ignorance and mistakes without sharing them, because they just only thing the parts
are not as well know the whole thing, as the whole thing white about her. Some
people do not believe or doubt God, but that he is in God, but that does not mean that
God does not believe in his own existence or doubts, because the individual is not
God. God sees the unbelief of the people as well as the faith, and has in his world
order means to promote the faith to repay the unbelief, and applies it in this sense,
because the belief has grown from time immemorial unbelief, and is it as he also lock
itself, also overgrown. But if God does not suddenly raises the errors and unbelief, as
standing on the same leaf, than why he did not suddenly lifts the evil, and can about
what God is accompanied by a limited by anything omnipotence, better say why he
was not there suddenly does?
We have to believe, secondly, that God also inbegreift the conscious tendencies of
all his creatures, and with higher tendencies which determine the direction of the
world run throughout the final, overlaps, so much so that the finite creatures not only
with, but also against its top trends, we briefly say against God's will, can go as low
instincts in us against our superior will. But that they can not change the direction of
the world run as a whole, must rather itself eventually give in to the pre-recorded
from above direction, if the divine will against anything that is against him running,
while all helps, what goes in his direction.
We think of a main stream with many small tributaries. You can lead into a
direction into him, running with or against his, hereby against the main direction of
the entire current branch, and let their water for a while against the direction it
continues to flow, but can not reverse this direction with its counter flow, and must
but finally follow the same.
Third, we have to believe that God feels for all pleasure, all delight, the highest
bliss, but also all the pain, pain, suffering, the greatest pain of his creatures in a lower
area of his being, but also a creaturely on all costumes and wealth beyond cross-
costumes and finite capacity for adjustment, elevation and reconciliation of all evil in
the world in it, and above all lower aversion overarching desire of progression to
higher goals this feels in himself.
No evil, what we ourselves feel as such, appears in us with our will or our free
admission to, but the way we perceive the evil, our instinct is directed, and as he can
not lift by directly counteracting, our will against and is more general, if only acting
by a further run time, remedy into force. It will be no different in God. Where evil is
perceived in the world - and that nowhere, either directly or is perceived as such in its
consequences, is not evil - it is felt in God and of God hereby, and immediately
directed him in a low drive, and where it is not sufficient, a higher will, which still
can both fall into his creatures, but if not the highest will of the creature reaches the
highest will of the Creator's hand, and is more general, if only acting through another
time leveling agents, as the individual bids to be in force, so that when the of this
world are not enough, you experience the effect of the afterlife, and death is the only
mediator between the two.
However, we will now have to be patient when the evil will not suddenly lifted and
suddenly, enough that we see the tendency in the divine order of things, and must
trust God that he could lift it finally. At the same Urbedingungen of existence, of
which the existence of evil depends on it at all, depends on the inability to lift it with
one blow, but also depend on the possible means of its improvement; God knows in
His omniscience to these funds, and white with the smallest costs and the shortest
way to come to an end. These costs may seem large and this long way, but the world's
evils with which God has to create, not even small.
Well it runs hard against the common belief of a purely blessed in himself God, the
unspeakable pain and suffering of his creatures think of him felt. Also we needed
even to relate the name of God only on the abstract culmination of spiritual existence,
rather than to refer to the below nascent field with so we would with the ordinary
conception of the divine nature in general and to its superiority to all the sufferings of
his creatures back. But as good of human suffering that meet him in a lower area of
his being, in spite of its grandeur from a higher point of view about it, feels at least as
suffering, and His will feel called to remove them, it will be with God, when we in
him whole connexion of his being put. Also is a great value for the people of the
notion that it is the same as is with God in this respect only of higher considerations
in the people, and all philosophy and theology, which by virtue of their abstract
concept of God, the same also of age participating in the abstract suffering of his
creatures, not a replacement for the thoughts you have to offer, this suffering that
God, if he feels like his, even as his will lift demgemäße by addition of the agent.
How can you even have to love and trust a God who, according hergebrachter idea
of his omnipotence, self-suffering and saved all his creatures endowed with it. Must
at all his suffering, and only because they had to be, they could be, must the essence,
which comprehends all the spiritual existent in itself, also of course inbegreifen all
the sufferings of this present existence, but at the same time with the drive to lift
them, and a stronger foundation of trust in God in our suffering, we believe in God,
otherwise, we can not find. Yes God is about us all feel out even bigger and higher
suffering as we, the ones suffering all genders, ages and nations of their dating
relationships grow, which extend beyond the individual creature is not merely the
sum of individual suffering, but as a feeling of Quelles suffering, but also he will
carry supplements and reconciliations of those suffering from higher point in itself,
the resort beyond us, and all the joy, all to apply themselves to the best to wear with
the foresight of this change in him to illustrate the small the fact that even us the pain,
which awakens the disharmony in music that reconciled you in advance and success
is more than compensated by the following resolution in harmony. But what we have
already in the finite expiration of a short music, God has the whole end of the world
things, without being subject to the success of any resolution to eternity to wait, for in
every time perceived already with pleasure progressions to harmonic degrees and
those even occur for larger or smaller circles.
2 Linguistic.
That we enter into God with all faults, mistakes, suffering our knowledge, willing,
feeling, that does not prevent God at the highest level of his being an absolute
perfection of old categories by which we judge perfection zukomme,: only in the
lower areas of his mind it is not to be found. And hereafter can, however, ask what
was already thought up if you do not take the whole of a unified consciousness
overlapped spiritual existence only the most general and hereby also highest and the
best of it, just to look at the summit of spiritual existence as God did. As high
importance but seems this question, it's just a matter of language rather than the
cause. Because if you call the Supreme or the whole of the spiritual existence God,
but the relationships of the bottom stay at the top and vice versa the same, ask
yourself only one if the wording of the outer between God and a lower areas,
otherwise the internal between an upper and lower areas in God dar. former
corresponds admittedly better the living voice and many other particulars term - and
one should not be as much as possible had it?- Because we are accustomed yet only
the most general, highest and best to seek in God and deep to see the world of finite
things and characteristics under him, but he is then but only an abstraction, which is
called God, what's so little was able to be than the highest consciousness, will and
feeling unit in us, and God is the most common terms but also to have an
independence of all spirits, so it comes at such holder in contradictions with itself, we
also lose the fact that we God in another sense a spirit call as our own spirit, by which
we understand not merely an abstraction of the highest and best, the conceptual and
technical points of reference that can be found between the Divine Spirit and our
spirits. Info and away the day view it is just to do these reference points, it is
preferable to consider the manner and demgemäße notation of the divine essence,
which allows this comparison.
It does not depend on mainly on what you want to call it God, but whether the
whole spiritual world region on the same principle to be contiguous and ascending,
only in a larger size and higher ascension, and expanded is, as our own, and whether
our mind even as a child element in this structure with eingehe. We believe in the
meaning of the Day that is so, indeed, that we in the development and expansion of
our own mind have the only way to get an idea of the spirit of the whole. But if so,
then we will have to look for all this Spirit of a name, and find no other than God. He
is the few and sole and of itself was capable of that exists, and what spirit out fell
from him, would not, but also the divine spirit would not be without its content,
which includes the creaturely spirits, only that the divine is not merely the sum is the
same, but with higher relationships and a highest unit exceeds all. The day view
should ever break up with some hergebrachten terms, so they must also break many a
word with many other particulars, but the hergebrachte term used for God is only the
consequence of hergebrachten night view.
Meanwhile, in so far but the most general, highest and best is to be found precisely
in God, one may nevertheless, where, as is usually the religious interest only to this
point, God and in a narrower sense as representative of the most general, Supreme
best face of a world full of defects under him, and thus adapt themselves to the
prevailing concepts, but not forgetting from more general considerations, that this
conceptual juxtaposition does not exclude those factual agreement. The language has
now once not so much words as lengths of terms and phrases, and then the
connection must often choose between; enough if he really is sufficient to decide, and
that may also further our soon, soon more restrictive, so soon, soon as facing God's
terms apply.
You can expand the question yet, ask if we did not also include the entire
overlapped area of his physical consciousness in the concept of God. But it returns
the same answer again: it is rather a matter of language as the cause, because the
relationship between the spirit and the material world do not change that. Adding to
the whole world in God one, one is a pantheist, if not in the sense that before you do
fear the world today, as it would collapse the Personality of Godhead, but rather in
the unity of consciousness that much different in itself than can be searched in the
differentiation of others. One does not expect the world, God is one of the world over
and over, and can not fully extended, but both have the same view of the relationship
of the spiritual and material existence. It's similar to how one may wonder whether
you can expect from humans, or to look at his body with the body merely as a
standing man in relation to the actual externality to have the same. If you want to
stick to the later (Section XXI) held view that the material world is only the side to
outer appearance of the same essence, which is the spirit of the world according to
the part of his inner Erscheinlichkeit, so you can either God's whole being or just
mention only the side of the inner Erscheinlichkeit, the ratio of both sides but remains
the same. And wants to put a andre view of the relationship between spiritual and
material world instead of that view, so you will always have the same choice, because
no view there is, it would not have a point of differentiation between matter and
spirit, they also like the distinction cancel in a higher unity. Now if God as the
essence of all existence are the most common, highest and most independent
meaning, so it is in any case the spiritual and material world have to be considered as
distinct moments in God, one should follow the usual voice and word usage, one is
the have to distinguish between divine existence as merely spiritual from material
existence. To come now not entirely unconnected with the use of language, we follow
here insgemein the second version, that is different throughout the existence of God
as the spiritual and the world over as the material side of existence, not forgetting that
both are in a can pick up such a unit to demand a common name for it, but for which
we could only recapture only the name of God, but the demand of the distinction we
encounter more often than those on the decline link.
Instead of asking God and the world as spiritual and material side of existence of
each other, finally can also, without regard to this distinction, speak of a world of
creatures to God by the creatures in the sense of the daily view as particularly
distinguishable component nature of it all bodies responsible for such divine
existence faces; however, the night view here for the inner relation is an
external. And so the concept of the world towards God can be as good as the concept
of God to take a different turn himself, he always opposed by following the
expression of the latter.
3 The immutability of the divine essence.
Among the properties that one attaches to God, one is at the top of which is the
immutability of his nature. But it should not be the immutability of a stone, one talks
not less of a living God, look at him, even the fullness of life, but life is not without
change. How to avoid the conflict or convey? Some think it is probably this: what
appears to be successively for us there for God invariably the same time, but that
would be basically the immutability of a stone, and should not be the form of
intuition of time exist for God and for us, because we, as its part of nature Such itself
can have only by him. Would the night view of the under her many co-occurring also
sometimes thought that we in God and God in us, only one seriously, it could even be
no dispute about it. But all the same, after the view of the temporal course of things is
for us again, we can not as a present to you the world government and world
transition differently in their form, and ask ourselves now: there is no other, than
those with other abstruse coherent , abstruse Immutability in God, and nothing in it
was repealed in it, or even externally dependent on him imaginary world, what
meadow us on the immutable in God himself? Probably can be to find something
that's existing in and through all the changes of the spiritual and material world, all
binding, mediating the relationship of all law that made same, whether mental or
physical, causes, conditions, always and everywhere, today as tomorrow, here and
there, the same consequences flow, and only in a direction determined by the law, can
flow way. With this in God's unchanging nature or justified the maintenance of his
being immutable laws of God himself founded, dominated the whole course of the
world, without God and without hereby not a hair falls from our head. A fraction of
this law somewhere and sometime a break in God's essence would be itself God does
not say, I could, I want, I will do it either way, but he makes it up as it the provisions
of its laws will, knowledge, bring activity being as a result of the earlier provisions of
his will, knowledge, interaction, being with himself. That makes him a solid, and
some whole being. It is said that God has given the world its laws only, but he could
not give it to her without having them and they could not give her only in a finite
time, when she was picked up by always in it.And it is a shame for us that it is
so? Well, it would be unfortunate if the law of God will, knowledge, interaction, for
evil led for us, and now we have but in terms of day view to believe the contrary, we
have to look forward to a legalism that for sure and without wavering goals leads.
With the all-binding law, freedom is not at all excluded, only a lawless, a
groundless freedom is excluded, from which one speaks, however, as there were no
other, a freedom for which a subject, God himself as the supreme subject, so or may
decide that without his previous being, indeed the whole essence of the previous
spiritual and material things zulängliche contains reasons for the decision, the only
decision a while, did not know where that decision is equally easy to evil than to
good. But still, there's a andre freedom, according to which the human will as well, to
defend themselves against external pressure, can develop its resources in an
inexhaustible always new provisions of itself, as he does it so far, except that the
statutory eternal order of things by no fraction suffer, a freedom that, the creatures as
part of his essence but God belongs to unlimited on all his creatures only in one
limited by its subordination to God dimensions. Thereof and the consideration of
serious issues that make this state of affairs, but be a different section (XVI) reserved,
however, a later (XVII) discusses the general law.
XI. Question to the soul.
If, after the day view not only people and animals but even plants and stars have
their own soul, and the crystal will not want to be concerned with such a? Well, I
mean, that is. If the light is its brightness, its brightness, its color felt not only in
humans and animals, but also seen beyond - and that's one reason point the day view,
the general spirit is the vessel of all this feeling - so is also the particular way in
which a crystal refracts light, are perceived in a particular way, and as the crystal up
to the light or else this turns against him and turns, always different, and yet in one,
through its inner structure and the ratio its axes are seen in the context-related manner
without overlaps in the perception of the other crystals. Wilt thou then the expected
as a matter of a special soul, you are things freely in any case you are not thereby
prevented, it is the general spirit that has these feelings, the same Spirit also has all
your sensations, memories, etc., but differs He is in thee from other spirits and have
you order your own soul, why not in the same sense the crystal. And so the diamond
would have the most beautiful of all these little souls, even the ground formed by a
refined education,, and at its best when it is the diamond on the finger of one that has
an even higher and more beautiful soul in the head about it.
But the sensations of diamonds will leave no memories of his soul, he will not
reflect on his feelings, they will be created by external random influences in it, and
pass away without it, at its own frequency to repeat or retrain into something new,
and do you want to say, so instead of the diamond has no soul, so do it again is free
and it suits you so free, what do you want to link the expression of soul. And you
have not done the extensive use of this freedom? Even talked of souls without any
sensation, so far even approved for the plants themselves, without feeling therefore
allow for it, and then want to apply only souls who not only feel but also know that
they are feeling. Can I limit the freedom of words, and prevent the hassle of night
view by the use of words, it would mean they reduce to half their philosophy.
The plants anlangend, I do not mean saying that they higher, have a reflective
consciousness of any kind, probably, however, that they live in a disassembly
sequence and periodic development of sensual sensations and impulses, which the
crystal is not alive, however the newborn child already living in it. Also, this may not
say to himself, I feel, and is not to to remember the past in the first immersion in the
stimuli of the external world, but goes away in the river, the present, and also, I mean,
it is the plant, but later the child comes to that, however, it never comes at the plant it;
she does not have the facility to, but remains of certain side always at the level of the
newborn child of a different on female character level where animals and people are
facing. Of these, the first memory already, but not yet self-reflection, the adult man,
he is different than the raw Negro addition, even this. But I want this relationship
earlier elsewhere 1) run Running is not yet even the broader.
1) In "Nanna" and "On the soul question."

So now there are differences, levels manifold in the individual manner in which
consciousness is developed and operated, and not the name soul for this or that stage
one should argue - what the heck is to infer from a word that you do not previously
put into it - but merely ask for the matter, what alone is a factual dispute of
interest. Could only be seen in other souls as in the own to safely resolve the dispute
about it.
From very general considerations, the following question arises: since the physical
process ranges in connection with the world, the same ratio at which ties at all the
intellectual distinction, be it that they sensations, it is that it affects all the ghost
was. To as always be assumed facts, I go to two examples of the same.
The sky is full of stars by day and night, and yet we see no star by day. Why not
you? Each star but adds to the sky during the day at the place where he stands, as
much brightness as the sky at night. It is true, however, be distinguished from the
surrounding brightness to which it is attached, so to speak, is relatively low during
the day, and as it is too low in relation to it, we do not differentiate it more from the
environment, it reflows in the general brightness. Even in the twilight, therefore most
of the stars disappear.
The game is clearly heard a violin, when played near us for days or in low
noise. But when a monstrous Volkstumult is, it is indeed still belongs in the general
noise with and contributes to increase it, but their game is not particularly
discriminated but the general impression elapses. But it took only sufficiently
strengthened, it would again be distinguished.Also the diversity of the quality of the
game from the rest of Noise contributes to make it easier to distinguish them.
In so far as the sensations of light and sound are linked to physical processes in us,
the increase with the external exciting causes and fall (though not to the same
conditions), we will have to say that sensations can be divided into our consciousness
only in so far as special be, and are distinguished with each other, as the underlying
physical processes differ beyond a certain limit, called the difference threshold, and
also from the adjacent mixed therewith, both quantity than quality is the difference in
We generalize now the previous law, the whole consciousness areas of humans and
animals are only those distinguished within the world of consciousness, as the
material processes which carry the consciousness of the people and animals differ
from the surrounding general process over a certain limit , otherwise they become
blurred in the public mind of the spirit world, and indeed still wear help to raise the
same throughout, but without lifting themselves distinguishable about the whole
thing. Depth of these relationships is traded in my elements of psychophysics.
XII. The doctrine of the afterlife 1) .

The materialist ridiculed the belief in another life, because he sees the conditions of
the first destroyed in death. But he is not ridiculed but the belief that everything that
happens in the physical areas produced indefinitely continuing consequences in the
physical areas, it is also that we can not pursue, in short, that the causality of cause
and effect in the physical areas not die wherefore he derided but the belief that the
causality in the spiritual areas does not die, and is supported by the physical causality
in areas beyond death otherwise than in life itself. Nothing else but want the faith of
the day view.
l)In part, this decreased to the basic considerations of V-5 only in a somewhat
different form, went out with some explanatory and additional considerations
about it. The not to prompt consideration of spiritualism but on the
23th Section moved. To motivate this preliminary deferral here some, the
whole judgment in this regard anticipatory words. May be granted as a fact of
spiritualism in my opinion but only signify an exceptional displacement of
normal relations between this world and the, which, as crazy states of this
world, certain conditions with the normal rules of reserves without giving a
pure expression of normal or safe allow it to end. Finally, however, the
possibility and fact abnormal conditions but must be worn.

The Pessimist regrets the faith in a second life, wondering: is it not enough to the
woes of the first life, we thank God, or rather the unconscious, because another god
gibts not think it withdraws us into itself and thus the continuation of the misery in a
adopt second life, when already he gives up the idea of the otherworldly continuation
of the misery and the thought of his otherworldly stabilization and reconciliation, and
no music in this world with a dissonance is concluded, including the misery that
concludes many lives here might imagine, the dissonant life is not at all complete.
The pantheist, which today so wont to be called, says the man who lived: the Moor
has done his duty, the Moor can go, the world will go away without him, the current
is, the shaft passes and form of the old waves new ones that carry the current further,
without himself far out of it because they have again to make the new space; issued to
the individual life of the claim to want to be finite as more than one vanishing
moment of the eternal. Although the pantheist but sees that it does not build pyramid
that you tear the old levels again and again to build the new fact and thus not a tree
continues to grow, that the old branches einkriechen repeatedly in the trunk, and the
Power up only therefore always the old Fort without development remains because he
also can melt into the waves, from which he was born again, however, the stream of
things today quite different and higher than the current wave strikes thousand years
The Monadolog ties with the unit at the same time the richness of conscious life to
a simple essence or atom that when the body is destroyed, is left intact, and the soul
with that obtained by physical placement, rescues content. Nothing easier than that,
only with the difficulty of creating a new body for the continuance and further
development of parent relations with the outside world after the destruction of the old
body, the soul, and with the concern that the Monadolog God gives award to the soul
of man to save, for nothing that the attempt to name and concept of God to adhere to
a simple essence, and at the same time to save the unity of the divine consciousness
and the monadological consequence.
The dogma and who is trained by rescues the body with the soul at the same time
due to the belief in a resurrection of the body with the soul, by eliminating the
difficulty of the idea of such Reject any attempt by the resurrection of their solution
and the new life at the same time very different just beautiful in the sky and imagine
worse of the first life, and in whose image all in hell, confessing as much as actually
knowing anything about it, and every scolding a fool who supposedly know more of
it or missed it. Although one would think should be if really is a second life from the
first, there must be also a traceable thread of connection between the two.
And precisely this is the point from which starting the day view the belief in a
second life not only holds, but also following the thread to throw some light on the
way to the afterlife and even looking into it.
In fact, the most general point of view from which the day view may make you
think of an otherworldly conscious life, at the same time the only one from which the
final way to remember is that, contrary to what we were from the beginning of the
If we ask what continuing receives in the now living continuity of an identical
consciousness from childhood to latest age to the same body, but that matter and form
of the body have changed, it is the fact that the later body has grown out of the
former, the institution of the previous consciousness has generated sequences, the
back attached consciousness, and we wonder what the conscious relation of the
memory gets to the view from which it is grown, it is again the fact that what the
memory in takes us, a consequence of what was the perception in us. It is this
principle of the continuity of consciousness in general, as far as we can trace it in this
world, and so we will be able to give him also result from this world to the Hereafter.
For this first experience occurs but the second principle, that the sinking of
consciousness in a conscious life areas itself a condition of advancement, in a related
or ensuing. But there are not yet complete, deeper and take more complete sinking of
consciousness in the present body and life than death, and therefore no stronger
condition for awakening, produce grown from the current conscious physical life
beyond what is neither in the abstract of the matter, as the death of the present.
These are the two principles on which the doctrine of the afterlife in the first part
substantially supported, and will also build henceforth.
Closer watching now, the consequences of the present conscious life into two, into
those of leaves it in the same body, and which, to chain the life of the current body to,
and those that it is proposed to and which attaches the future life by continuing to
remain when the current body melts. The consequences, however, which makes this
life in the same body, according to sit still during this life continues gehends in such
order, which suggests it to be by extend beyond the body, with a supplement nor the
last in the die, so that the whole inner wealth of worldly narrow circle of life has put
to death in the only other beyond its consequences, and the current tight body in fact
is only a transit point for all. With all visible and audible to us consequences of the
now life in actions, words, writing and other works, whereby the effects of mind over
his body also be taken of the finest nerve vibration to have to give their invisible and
inaudible to us Post by just this can only go inside that, it is also part looking
implemented in another form, goes to the outside. And so coherent in itself, so varied,
so complex, so viable and continually in the same character himself is continually
evolving, the range of initial conditions, it must be the circle of the consequences of
what one can explain image by following if only already weak.
If a swan swims in the water - in order to compare this with the course of life of a
people - so all wave propagation emanating from its path remain, unless it is also
considered, coherent among themselves, and the subsequent fall in the previous one
and contribute to the further development the whole system by getting new
provisions where, not only those who come from the suitable path of the swan, but
also those which, starting intervene into it by the railways of other swans in the same
water, yet without the relationship of each wave system lost the same track and the
output which depend on character goes.
The example does not apply only in that the consequences of which leaves this life
of a human being, not merely from its outer, but much more substantial coming out of
his inner life progress or life processes, but in terms of the continuing relationship,
the involvement, development ability, and development of other circle of life, to be
closer to the beats, it hits quite, unless the dependent inner life consequences
underway in this regard are not subject to other conditions, as can the think from the
outside, but only to a still more complicated mesh.
Difficult though it would be to imagine that the full droop of the narrower circle of
life below the threshold of consciousness in death, in a survey of the whole other
sphere of life umschlüge suddenly and all at once about the same, because it can
directly but one circle only benefit, What the others are missing, the whole wide
circle but not at once be raised substantially by what escapes the narrow in its last
phase. But for that very reason as for other reasons, we are not entertain such a
notion. Is it already in this world never anything that can be awakened in us awake at
once, and soon wakes up the eye, soon the ear, now this, now that memory, while the
other sleeps in the unconscious, to the exchange and subsequent play of the
intellectual life comes the turn to it, adding to the already specified conditions of
consciousness adds a new to a sufficiently exceeding the threshold at this point or in
this regard to effect. And so the utter sinking of the life of this circle is to be regarded
in death below the threshold only as a condition whereby the consciousness of the
last phase of life of the people directly into the consequences that assumed this phase
turns, from where on it but not only more and freer way of walking through the native
of the previous life takes possession, as in this world, but also on larger worlds can
grab verknüpfend. This association laws and other laws of this psycho-metallic hand
spread in the Hereafter, and to assert itself only in accordance with the extended and
enhanced conditions of the afterlife in accordance extended and enhanced effects.
Belief in the Hereafter occurs wherever we meet him, with faith in God twinned on,
but by the otherworldly as this-worldly spirits are allowed to live their lives rather
except as in God after hergebrachter way, or withdraws the thing, what one admits
with words, life loses both its common ground and his band, falls simply unrelated,
vermittlungslos apart, doubt and denial wins space. Let but seriously with the belief
that all spiritual life that is otherworldly as this side, eingetan in God, and the divine
spiritual benching enough on the same principle beyond us as into us, we are also the
worldly life over the how to find this side of himself in this blending in
benching. Without the future life of his creatures God lacked the full height of the
building above her intellectual life of this world, without incurring God was missing
in the life beyond the mental stability and soil. Because, in a dead nature into bright
remained the aftermath of our life dead
And so we have placed it represents früherhin so that, as with the philosophical life in
us a memory from adult life to continue to be woven from higher mental processes
builds, so our whole life of this one from adult higher in God. Now the scope,
strength, the durability of the memories and the level of relations takes between ever
having the width, thickness, height of the spirit in which they respond to, we only
compare in this respect our memory lives with the animals, the divine spirit but
exceeds in width, thickness and height unspeakably our spirits, so also our
remembrance of life will be led in God in an unspeakably further room with quite a
different strength and durability and at a higher Bewußtseinßtufe, as the memories of
the life within us.
We forget much of the animals even more, the plants will not remember anything,
our mental images are weak, we can not call a lot of memories at once into
consciousness, but these are all imperfections of our memory life, on the one hand of
the divine with the spirit incomparable tightness and weakness of our mind, on the
other hand hang on, that the echo of a perception in people themselves may not have
the same power and wealth, as the echo of a whole human life in God. So the point of
view of equality is the point of view of the small difference between this world and
that goes into ourselves and the great, in which we'll cover himself, always
hold. Voraussätzlich we win with the death of the ability to remind us all of our
worldly life, and life itself in these memories, just at the same time the consciousness
of consequences that has left our lives on.
This itself, however, that the afterlife conditions of material-as geistigerseits not
merely as a consequence, but also as an extension and improvement of the occur on
this side, there is a difficulty Eingänglichkeit their idea for us that we are still under
the conditions of this world's narrow life Find. We are the old narrow compact,
laboriously going on foot from one place to another or coach 'and horses for ease of
movement Needing, body now once lived, and we where already the future life as a
brand new, the current unsurpassable, want, and purpose also want the means, we
should come off easily but not the same on the opposition to the old familiar form of
life at presentation, and difficulties arise partly depends on that we, the conditions of
the narrow form of conscious life, we in the base of the new not find that the
conditions of conscious life at all confounding think if it was with those from, be it
from any of us, some that we have the equation points of the future life of the present,
which attempt to find, because the width and height of the view that their opinion
requires us to be missed. But instead of letting us wander through the difficulties one
way or another, we raise only the view, they will disappear.
First of may are not mistaken, that our life after death must be supported by a wide
circle of effects, as it can not exist a unit of otherworldly consciousness, since even
our present conscious life not by a point but by a connexion and a divergence
sequence of effects is supported, but this not only does not exist for the less worldly
life than for the circle on this side, but also in connection with this myself, so that we
otherworldly unit continuo can take with this side.
The scope for the operation and development of conscious life is just a grown still
further, mannigfaltigerer and freer than in the here and the hereafter, and the man by
the omnipresence and omnipotence of God one step closer; everything that we want
people also from the future life, but neither with the Risen old body still achieve a
solid from ether body, vermöchten because we only had a reduction rather than
expansion of the old center in the latter.
Nor can we be mistaken, that the parties engage in our life beyond this world and
into one another, as this could mutual interference, straying, confusion, or even a
flowing of the individualities arise. Without us to invoke the analogy undisturbed
shaft junction, although the principle of the same common ground for the material
basis of existence beyond just fundamentally consists, as for this world, we keep to
direct facts at our disposal.
In fact, the outgoing, and left behind by our ancestors ideas, institutions, works
extend into their effects in us, but rather that we would disturbed by mistake, but
heard the intervention of it in our significant contribution to further develop ourselves
to train, we would indeed otherwise always start afresh with what we receive from
them ready in whole or in part. But that does not change, we may imagine the
aftermath of the life of the deceased consciousness affected by the deceased or
not. But we are not mistaken by their intervention in us, why should they be mistaken
by it; rather they are received in the encounter with us opposite Fort provisions by us,
which contribute to its further development.
Also, this is only the extension and improvement of what we already find ourselves
in this side. In fact, in the views of our senses continue gehends access memories,
which itself only come from the philosophical life, a determining factors, and so thus
linked, for example, to the contemplation of the form of a man who pretends we
basically just a colorful spot , the whole meaning of a person we see in house and tree
into the whole meaning of the same and make the sound of words, the meaning of
words 2) . Contrary carry but the views through each new appearance that they
provide, at the Fort provision and development of memory life without it by mutual
interference, straying and confusion is the question.
2) Incoming here on in the ninth. Section of the "pre-aesthetic".

But what they may our memories themselves are always dependent - probably yet
to mess cross-wave trains in our brain - rather than interfere with their versatile
encounter that we can at least track geistigerseits, interwoven as to concepts and
ideas, without the ability the own reproduction and their relationship to the outputs of
losing it. A corresponding development of the whole afterlife only in a higher sense,
we might also expect because of the confusion gripping of the participating
individual life beyond it circles.
You say about: again and again the comparison of the otherworldly kingdom with
the kingdom of our memories. Beyond us but where the future life is to play, but
somehow not comparable means for a souvenir life are there. What for would be our
care, fine and elaborately developed brain when his body would not be used for
realization and storage of memories, even to the base of a developed spiritual
life. Now it should even be a higher and richer developed memory realm in which we
enter with death, however, we ensure that only the means at present, narrower, lower
But I mean, that's fine and carefully a brain may be strengthened, but is one
developed by church, state, science, art, commerce and trade, convivial and family
life world, by baptizing and thousands of roads, cars, ships, books letters, words go, a
much richer and more sophisticated organization than a single brain by including also
all brains and memory resources of the brain itself. But a brain has just only the same
provision as the seed, forcing it out of the finer structure of a larger, richer
Preisgebung under the narrower the larger. For what each contributed to the
expansion of consciousness diesseitigem this larger organization, he will have it with
otherworldly consciousness and develop under the general and other conditions of the
afterlife on.
Also but should not be mistaken that such formative countless dead on the same
equipment and effects, to which they are jointly contributed, whether jointly, each
one has but in another sense, from another quarter, according of others towards his
part in it, and in summarizes each of them in the totality of other ways together. Yes,
only in this way is to imagine how so countless that are sequentially born into the
afterlife, have another place. The same world is the common property of all but one
of others in any way different sense than the other.
Resist aim it to us finally, instead of the circumscribed ideological form of the
present body and the underground of the future life without certain boundary, hereby
for arrival intuition to think incomprehensible, so it could well be that what in this
world as a means of mutual recognition, intercommunication and Revival means is
estimated by sensations of beauty and love, in the afterlife would lose that value and
lost at the cost of higher benefits would that precious feelings can be sought in the
means of a more immediate and versatile-ing traffic and the conditions underlying
it. But I think it is, as already touched on earlier short, more likely that the loss of
self, the one concerned, does not occur, but it also extends into this relationship,
which appears on this side lost beyond and increased again finds, as I, as always,
from this world close to the hereafter. But to do this is to point the following bids.
The physical processes which are subject to the memory of the shape of a living or
deceased in the brain, this figure may even no longer have, but rather the reason that
they reflect the shape in question we can not just look it, that they might long ago are
starting from a picture in mind what this figure had, and continues to go into the
connexion and order, which were the starting points 3) . Namely, the shape of the
image obtained in the memories still continue, but that the same facial nerves radiate
through countless images, so the after-effects of it, on which rest the memories, grasp
confused. It takes only highlight from the mixture of these effects, the memory of one
of these images before the other in consciousness, a deliberate direction of will and
attention or an involuntary event in progress of our association ideas, or to an external
excitation. Incomprehensible, one can say that this ability to bring the most diverse
special memories to consciousness, but because the conditions in the brain
mix 4) . But the fact is in us, and also as an equally incomprehensible translucent fact
by analogy with that conclusion and further from that can exist is beyond. For what
has to take care of this Fort-circuit the incomprehensibility of the matter, if it exists as
a fact.
3) The fact that these processes tend to shrink despite their spatial extension in
the Fort shape of the original image depends on the common ground, in 22 To
be discussed in sections from more general point of view and to be founded
synechologischen principle. Even the view which provides the image in the eye
depends hereafter not only at the points of the retina on which the picture
paints itself but the whole Schwingungszug that goes from one point on the
retina inward, runs synechologisch in the appearance of the starting point
together, and are associated with the outgoing radiation from the neighboring
points of the appearance of the whole image of the central points of the brain
but more through the bright memory of the image. At least this seems to be the
most likely psychophysical representation of the course of events to me now.
4)The comprehensibility would gain nothing by saying that it was thought
quite removed from the memories of the material condition, by mystical
qualities of the mind to represent the same facts you would have to take
advantage. Incidentally, contrary to experience a separation of the memories of
the material condition. Some clues to get the representability of these
conditions to aid, in the 2nd Additional discussed at the end.

In fact, we can think hereafter that the radiations that are assumed the same of our
visible form during life, in conjunction with the other Fort effects for those who are
in the spiritual realm, still reflect the former shape when appropriate occasions, to let
them come into consciousness, occur, as well as in the life belong to the conscious
recollection of specific forms.Just as it is in us on this side is required to call a
particular figure in the recollection that a limited substantive picture of this form and
a material eye to as it should be - it is sufficient that required aftermath and events of
their special Rückrufung are in us because - it will be in the spiritual realms further
reminder. The spirits will be able to see in its earlier form, without having a restricted
material to eye, when they set out the intention or find in their dealings involuntary
occasion for it. Now a wall or prevent the spatial distance that I see the
others.Barriers of the kind there is in the spiritual reminder rich no more, as it were
airy, the otherworldly figure moment now here, now there appear where it is invoked
by a demgemäßen occasion; cultivates himself but already the phenomena of the
otherworldly spirits to think so. But there is so little at all lacking in barriers in the
otherworldly as this side memory empires; lure nevertheless produced only in
compliance of laws of association in the memories of himself, and with the
psychological laws of this world in this as all respects of the hereafter are related and
where together agree, than the conditions on both sides agree together.
Now one can ask: but the human form changes from youth to old age; facial
expression change, today the figure is so and so tomorrow clothed. What form, what
dress will attract the appearance in the afterlife. The answer is very simple: to
circumstances each, just not all like yes the same already applies at once, by the
memories of the changing shape and clothing of people in this world, and they will
not need to remain unchanged, even on this side of change of Remembrance and be
changed by influences of the imagination.
To illustrate this I will return to tell a charming little story, which to me by my now
long dead, friends TBI Müller, formerly director of the school in Wiesbaden, has been
told, without preventing that, in the appearance of which is the speech, only a
subjective hallucination see, although even more could see it.
As a miller grandmother died, her daughter, his mother, not at their death was
present and could not be quiet about the fact that they have the same never seen one
last time, the thought tormented her day and night, and they went as they say, it
almost. One night now as she sat up wide awake in bed, and the desire to have yet
seen her mother once more before her demise, again took possession of all their soul,
they suddenly saw a light phenomenon right from forthwith the figure of a young
person came out, they did not recognize at first. But it soon became clear to her, so
her mother would have looked at their highest bloom of youth. No sooner was it that
thought came to full consciousness, the figure of the young girl disappeared, but soon
joined her mother as she really saw as a child the same the appearance in its place,
and this appearance made yet a third place, where her mother so constituted as she
was when she saw the same for the last time. But then everything disappeared and
there could be no cause reemergence. From hour to the mother was calm and
completely recovered again to fresh life.
Stories of ghosts, there are well known in quantity, and also collections of such
doubts in such enough. Without me here in one or another sense embrace it, will, I
only a entstammend as a particularly reliable source, add to the previous story, for
example, and indeed rather a this kind of phenomena relevant to socialize question in
mind as they also to decide. Dr. Rüte, died as a professor of ophthalmology in
Leipzig, a man who was otherwise not inclined at a very rationalist turn of mind to
believe in mystical things, once told me that it was him but even following what this
character wear, come across.
When he was still in Göttingen, he treated two ladies who both suffered from
consumption. They were related in any personal relationship, but those mediated by
their common physician aware of their same passion she had let take a mutual interest
in each other, they asked the doctors each other after her health and greeted each
other when they met.Gradually worsened the condition of both, and as Rüte one
morning to the one immediately before it was different. After a short meeting with
the relatives, he went immediately to the other patients, their relatives, he found in the
greatest excitement. The patient had in fact just the appearance of the deceased had,
which waved to her, as she watched her characters imminent death, which occurred
too soon.
Indisputably now offer phenomena of this kind to yourself no means by which to
decide whether to by one from the brain on either survivors abnormal action of the
imagination projected speak to the outside world beyond, or are projected from the
outside world by abnormally acting grounds of the afterlife into or whether perhaps
both running into each other or conditionally related, there are just still lack the
theory of such abnormalities, which in any event are, but we want to look for a clue
in comparison to the large with the small memory realm, we must not forget that in
our small kingdoms not only memories of real gewesene available figures, but also
fancies that have been woven together from various memories happen even entire
stories can be devised novelistic. And that leaves from the outset to remember that
even deceit and Luggebilde as ghosts abnormalerweise into play in this world and the
same can ape with deceptive and deceitful pretenses.
Facts of the previous type, if you can even apply as such to hang out with a large
areas of other facts which are pleaded as such, the so-called spiritualist, together, or
rather, make themselves a part hereof, whereupon still one of the last sections (XXIII)
will be coming back, no less enters the so-called somnambulistic area with in that
circle, what here are some observations.
Insofar as the specific to the otherworldly awakening life circle of people with this
side already connected, could be thinking that sometimes or abnormerweise overlaps
already during the now life waking from one to the other, and it is the closer, the
somnambulistic guards under these to gain perspective, as already happened in many
cases otherwise than during the same sleep most of the organs of the ordinary waking
deep. As you can see not pure awakening in the afterlife among them, but just one
between this world and the cross, as the somnambulistic yes but in fact still lives on
in this world and the worldly means of transport operated by others. With so many
others, what each beifällt easily, without my touch here to not mix In undoubted
under Actual, would be explained by such contagion, that at its recalls in the
somnambulistic guards, which in the ordinary, as well as a previous somnambulistic
guards is done in and with us, but not in its usual thing in the somnambulistic, is the
content of the life beyond the circle but the result of the present, not vice versa,
because the later can not remember the ancients, but not vice versa.
This is then followed could further establish the idea, if not already a Into game
from beyond the grave owe their origins to the generally so strange dreams of normal
sleep, also if not in sleep at all ever so brighter, the memories in this world but hereby
the less accessible awakening of the afterlife takes place, the deeper the sleep, sleep
and waking of this world so with waking and sleeping of the afterlife together
executed, but death would be the point from where stopped at the possibility of
returning to this world's guards at all. But who will decide these questions, so let us
not dwell on the question possibilities in this respect.
What can be asserted against the view that to view the somnambulistic guards even
as a partial awakening for the afterlife, is that, although you often enough of
somnambulistic about the conditions in the afterlife information, but little among
themselves provoking, generally fantastic character , and which seem influenced by
the current ideas on this side soon after this or that, has received. Meanwhile, we
must not overlook, once that the here and foreign relations of the Hereafter do not
want to be easy to describe in terms of this world, in part, that the information about
it, more or less interspersed with the various ideas that circulate the Beyond this side
may be because the somnambulistic yes even the guards on this side still retains
share. So can come into play from a field into the other ideas, and it is made of
information under such abnormal circumstances no useful conclusions about the area
one or the other can draw for yourself. In fact, you return it to, and wonder if you
yourself are (not from memories of ordinary guards) drawn from information
provided by the somnambulist about the conditions of this world as far as such from
the somnambulistic state, pure matching, true understanding of the relationships of
this world would get: certainly not.
Explanation to Section V. 5
A movement can partly by experience, that it converts itself to a larger or smaller
part in another form of movement, partly with the movements they encountered in
other media, composed in passing from one medium into another new co-
determination. Thus, the movement of the hammer is the impact on the anvil largely
in Erzitterungen the anvil to the breed from him further, the whole anvil but also gets
caught in a movement in the direction of the shock, so the shock effect propagates to
the ground . Conversely, the imperceptibly small thermal vibrations of the steam in
the boiler put some order into the larger visible movements of the plunger and the
barrel of the whole machine, but without exhausting yourself in it.Latter case,
analogous now to set the fine nerve vibrations that carry our spiritual life, in the act of
the will in part in muscle contractions to that grip our actions to the outside, but
without exhausting the fact by itself physiologically proven to some extent in
Erzitterungen continue the muscles themselves, which brought forth at the one by
muscle contraction, transmitting outer movements common ground with the outside,
for what she thought of it back. Apart from this, but must, even if the person thinks
sitting still or dreams, the fine nerve oscillations, which are subject to the mental
processes, steady, silent and invisible propagate in the periodicity, composition and
disassembly sequence as they occur within, beyond man, for any more than a thermal
or acoustic vibration can be locked up in a capsule, any more than any kind of
vibration, and it would be strange after but the motions of the parties, cash and airy
element, which we can follow in their paths through the body, then, only one crossing
point found in man. If the vibration movements, whether of ponderable or
imponderable, we can not track it, remain locked up in it, we will give only can not
also pursue. But As for the larger movements that engage our voluntary actions to the
outside so by effects and works of various kinds are produced, which is no less of
their mode of origin, their context and their disassembly sequence according to the
mode of origin, the context, and the disassembly sequence of causal movements
depend on ourselves, as the invisible is beyond us propagating movements, and such
shape in connection with this help the people while preserving its character as it were
translated into the outside world, and new co-determination darzubieten through it.
Addition to Chapter XII.
So mysterious ability appears to bring the various memories especially to
consciousness, regardless of their conditions mingle in the brain, but can be divided
into the following note a kind of vivid evidence of the way to win it, without of
course therefore is to speak of a statement.
Think of those overseas letters, such as one gets sometimes, even after the length
thereof, are probably even be described not only in the diagonal of the Cross of the
leaves, but to set it perpendicular rows to the saving of space Letter easier. The lines
extend through each other here, as we think that the memories of the underlying
transactions fall through each other, except that the lines are represented here
voraussetzlich by wave trains of oscillations and facilities to elicit such. Now for
letters up to certain limits, of course, only to those that undisturbed Follow the lines
to interfere with, the diagonal length and possible, if you let the attention go this way,
but what can the attention externally, they can also internally. Of course, reading the
letters will be easier if you write the different directional lines with different colored
ink, and even more would be the case if the one with German, the others were writing
in Latin, the third with Greek letters, are corresponding differences but also the
different wave trains in the period and form of their vibrations to bidding. By
consultation of such differences but can also think that even trains of oscillations,
which follow the same paths can be distinguished, and of course you will have to
accept any unspeakably developed this principle in our brain as in a letter.
It may be objected that we, either in memory or perception through attention to
disassemble components a composite color vibration that radiates from a given point
of the retina to the inside. But this fact does not invalidate the equally certain fact that
I was in the memory of the image of the Sistine and the holbeinischen Madonna and
countless other images that are penetrated by the same nerve fibers separate, ie
changing one to the other can bring into consciousness. Wherein lies the difference
between the two cases? Fact is that color vibrations that go by the same retinal points
in succession by the same nerve fibers, in succession to enter into consciousness
through memory again, while those who also run by the same retinal points only
once, and therefore can indifferently occur in the memory. Since the first case but
also the effects of the subsequent occurring vibrations in the colors of the earlier
occurred yet continuing to fall into it, in the various successes of both cases is at least
somewhat enigmatic.
The effect of attention anlangend, it can be found in an experiment conducted
psychophysical system for these psycho-physical representation, but it is not
necessary here to enter into it, since this is only the fact of the effectiveness of the
attention is all.
XIII. Through the mediation of higher education and intellectual life with

It is common ground for the people most important to consider the relationship of
God as a spirit or in his spiritual side to human mind into consideration, even if you
will need the name of God in a sense, the essence of all existence (cf. Kap.X.3 .), and
for religion is in any case considering only the interest on this page. Unless it but
relations of the divine and human mind with the material world are, can always ask
for this, and if the day view of the religious their, nature, facing, page, has put the
desire in them, the relationships of the divine spirit to nature in connection and
agreement with those of the human to grasp. After this now earlier (Kap.V. 2) happen
in respect to the sensual appearance area, it would apply even to extend the
consideration on the higher spiritual field, we only knew more of the material
mediation of higher mental activities within ourselves; because it can be but
according to the principles of days just to view an expanding and enhancing viewing
act from here. However that may be now, it may at least what we still think of us
through this mediation, are spun out here in a few more thoughts to lay without
andres weight on it than to show that the thread of the traceability of the conditions of
us over us out in this respect is not lost. Could be a more developed psychophysics
the starting points of view different take, they would of course also continue spinning
by itself differently. By the way, meet the essential considerations that present
themselves here, along with those of the previous section. God and the afterlife are
alike all over the same leaf.
The organs of our senses and of our external actions are swinging by intersecting
and variously interwoven paths of movement, because it is maintained but the nerve
fibers, connected, in short we have a brain, and all intellectual activities which exceed
the sensuality, we have the intricate keep playing the movements taught in this major
organs of our physical and spiritual life. Have no need to take this mediation as a
unilateral conditionality of the mind through the body, because so little a thought
without an underlying match material activity in the brain, could this game as it is,
without the idea come about. Conditions of lower and higher order between the
physical movements may be thought of with such intellectual movement in the ratio
of conditionality. More definite can hardly say about it. But now all the brains and all
the stars are once again on the same principle swinging by intersecting and
interwoven paths of movement connected, and no implication of these movements
can rise in us to such a high order, as their involvement beyond the earthly and the
earthly addition, the heavenly regions, because no movement can go in ourselves
without transferring outwards in a continuous effect and to engage with others then
transferred again, not in earthly regions can proceed without success looking to stir
the airwaves in and beyond with, hereby contribute an element to a higher
involvement. The physicist, however, does not pursue much more than the simplest
of sound and light waves through the air and smooth the smooth ether, but air and
ether are not smooth, in fact, but manifold interwoven with intricate vibrations, as our
brains. Every step, every gesture, every word, every look of a man, and to each of the
interior of the same outward propagated Erzitterung solves one of them dependent
oscillating or wave-like movement in the world to the people of that originating with
the one of other people and the independent foregoing of people in the world
movements involved, and the order and interweaving of movements in man himself
can not be more reasonable than outside, because yes, what it is in it and save it and
going, arises in relation and mutual dependence , and is evolving. Inside and outside a
seemingly insoluble tangle of physical movements that radiate through each other,
but the confusion is here and there just for the opposite, the involvement of outside
contemplative, not for herself with clarity his penetrating mind. Because although it
is as yet unexplained, as the Spirit begins from the mixture of different forms, by the
same nerve, and the various speeches that are penetrated by the same auditory nerve
in the form of vibrations and are necessary in their propagation through the brain
have mixed, but to build an empire of clear memories and concepts (see Chapter 12),
but the fact is inside, and so it will also be able to exist there.
One difference from the Inside Out is certainly the fact that the organization of the
brain moves inside the definite ways instructs as to find out through the motions. But
that condemns us, only to a certain a priori prescribed and hereby more limited
development of the higher mental life as the world about us. Also, the paths of the
movements out there but are not absolutely indeterminate, but by the natural and
progressive development of human establishment of the earthly kingdom and beyond
this through the establishment of the whole sky is just another limit. And inside and
outside the facility, which depends on the speed of movement, the changes, the effect
of the movements themselves over time, the brain of the adult is something other than
what the child and the world today other than in the original state. So all the
differences in this respect are only relative, but all in favor of a freer, wider and
higher development of the spirit life in the world, as in us, the parts of the world.
Vermissest you're outside the central ganglia balls of your brain, you've got it the
shining stars, with your own ganglion balls inside, and what does it matter that the
movements are out there tied to any protein filaments, the naked light beam outside
moves away in the second by thousands of miles, However his continued
contributions sneaks into your nervous 1) .Is it a disadvantage to you? The Great is
not at all not repeat the small, the whole of the part, and how it stands in the world, if
it took his coat and on the whole so-human in it and every ray of light, as in you, the
small Bruchstückchen the world . You do not want to anthropomorphize God, and o
contradiction in the whole heaven knows it can not be found, because you obviously
superhuman finds him in it.
1)The (excitation of nerves in living people planted in the second to less than
200 feet away.

To carry a picture of what coincides with part of the thing itself, to explain the
whole property, proportion, thinking 'to a string, which transmits its vibrations to the
air, all the strings of a violin or harp do it all violins and harps do , and all transmit
their vibrations to the same air. The greater the involvement of the vibrations through
their meeting over the strings, violins, harps, flutes, etc. also increases in such higher
tonal relationships is sounded the game, but the vibrations must reach out also about
the individual strings, give in itself this is no harmony and a single instrument, no
symphony, including, beyond the coincidence of oscillations about it. The creatures
and the creatures of the heavenly bodies are instruments by means of which the, the
whole of things animating and dominating, world spirit carries a game the feeling
falls into the instruments themselves, if they produce it themselves and it zückgreift
of andersher in it 2) while he alone is completely full and at the same time as it is in
addition to all the instruments and, hereby finds also its most general, highest and
final relations.
2)Every instrument sounds from the game namely the not too distant others
with weak, but preferably only of such sounds are those which can produce it
themselves, related.

It probably means, have the intellectual field but something about the substantive
area beyond which this could not agree with something appropriate or conditionally
associated,. Ie, the self-reflection, making a mental activity exceeds itself We think,
feel something, and thinking can make sense even in a higher representational act us
this. If anywhere, here is the point where the spiritual lift area free from the
material. Well, there is anything in the human spirit, what the material condition or
placement evades, it is also beyond withdraw the same, but why is preferably think of
the spiritual self-reflection as they find in a material at the same time her image and
her carrier can nay where only the expression of the intellectual, if he was not from
the comparison with the material. If a consciousness-bearing material process passes
over itself, so to speak, will the knotted because of his mental as objectively
aware.Everywhere, however, where an ether, air, or water wave is reflected back into
itself, one has a material or physical self-reflection. Small and large trains expect the
world, and when referred to the day view the entire physical world is filled with a
mental life, in the spirit of the earth, and over all the ghosts out in the divine spirit
together and closes beyond us, so is also the physical self-reflection have a
psychological meaning, which we now just can not find any other than the
psychological self-reflection. But it may be that outside as well as inside the physical
self reflection only must exceed a threshold before it becomes conscious of the
psychic. Continue to delve into possible chains here about the state of current
knowledge is not allowed.
Over the whole tangle of vibrations, circulatory movements, direct and reflected
movements in general everything in the world back and again goes, crosses and loose
again, but there is an unbreakable one, universal, unchanging, all most distant in time
and space inside binding, as already indicated earlier (Chapter 10 3) was noted, which
is the ubiquitous law of all events, and this something all externally-binding, which is
space and time itself, a light beam can be as fast as it goes, but one thousand years
need to get from one star to a remote and have scattered in all directions in between,
and not long be where he once was. But the law, which follows the beam, and the
law, which follow the stars themselves in their progress, at the same moment here and
there, is today as it was from eternity, and will be for ever. The beam may pass
through all finite spaces and times, he can not go beyond the infinite space and
infinite time, and so everything is collected for the spirit of and the infinity of power,
space for finite eyes Airborne, for finite memory Extinguished some time with his
knowledge and desire dominates, meets and penetrates.
Meanwhile, who, like the theologian, the decline did not require the physical base
of the mind to think beyond themselves to a divine spirit to the material world, and
need not enter into considerations as the previous, prove God does not so and only
the seeker in the world to clear his steps such exhibit.
XIV to teleology.

(Dispute the view that the appropriate equipment caused by the creatures was a
conscious creative reign, with the view of a formation by the same unconscious
creative forces of nature. Elimination of the Darwinian principle of purpose.)
It applies the following question: is the convenient means of creatures and the
world in general a conscious creative activity or just unconsciously creating natural
forces ahead? A question that enters it into the more general question: is required at
all assuming a conscious creator and the world folder? Regardless of the Day is now
on this assumption already apart of a special consideration for the appropriate
arrangement of the world, why should they not rely with it, if they really can not find
a support in it. But it is also by the way in which the appeal it commonly happens, the
case? This is called like this:
All reasonable facilities, tools, brings forth the man beside himself - Kroenig calls
Industrismen - requiring the application to the emergence of conscious activity in the
same direction with the express purpose. Never, as far as our experience goes, is by
mere unconscious interaction of material forces something similar to a microscope, a
musical tool, a functional furnished house arose, how could an eye, an organ of
speech, or even the whole, functional coherent in itself, the organization of people be
thought caused. Where directed towards a specific goal intention is eliminated, the
game of probability theory underlying Zufalles begins, but there are infinitely more
inappropriate than appropriate combinations on the basis of merely accidental
interaction of forces possible, so the chance of the first after infinitely greater. But
now there are not only functionally furnished organisms themselves in countless
numbers, but the whole outside world is also in relation to them and appropriately
furnished in relation to the outside world, since, as the vertrüge with a mere game of
chance. May now also the possibility of disease and other evils, which are subject to
all organisms, prove that exist for the achievement of an ideal goal of expediency,
obstacles and barriers in the nature of things, so it is not proved that nothing in this
regard has been reached, and that what is achieved, could be achieved without design
in the direction towards the end. Rather, we compare what is done by, the existence of
man antecedent creative forces in the establishment of the people themselves, with
what man can add even externally in the same sense, one does not know how to
admire enough that performance is, and finds that a rally, human unspeakably
exceeding wisdom and power that the people can probably agree to worship his
Creator. The device can not only for all possible circumstances in which a person
may be sufficient, and so the man has what he has noticed change, still help out with
varying ingredients depending on the changing conditions. But he can only by
directing conscious intention it, and it will have no lack even at his own device to
conscious intention, yes his conscious intention itself is from the outset in this
institution founded and adds to the ultimate point of view of practicality.
It changes nothing in this respect, if we go back by the same now as intricate
organization of the people on the simpler organisms in prehistoric times. So simple
one might imagine them, but included the continued ability to develop to the whole
present intricate organization already, and the same impossibility that such a had
come at once accidentally reached, returns with respect to a slow training the same
again by a number of generations.
Also, our microscopes are not as developed at once, as we have today, but rather it
were a simple lens was the same Urei. But the gradual progress in the establishment
of the microscope have as little of Zutuns conscious activity with the direction of the
purpose to be achieved thereby can miss, as when the microscope was invented by a
genius artist at once.The conscious activity has only placed apart, so to speak more in
the time sequence. So it must have been with creation and development of organic
This is about the previous approach. But one has found it compelling and well can
you find that? First place, the conclusion is not contradicted by the facts analogy from
the experience? In fact, it is that the embryo in the womb, the chicken egg is formed
in the end, with all its facilities by natural forces acting unconsciously, for what
comes into consciousness of it, shows insignificant for education. Of course
continues the formation of both a conscious parent advance; also was necessary a
conscious drive the parents to procreate, to induce the formation of the new creature,
but neither is necessary consciousness of the same to be paid to the formation of the
embryo or chicken in the egg particular, still hang the special provisions in the
formation of these new creatures of specific provisions of conscious activity of
parents as well, as is the case when a person with functional furnishings, a convenient
tool except to make the analogy that is not holding the main points down. It is just the
existence of conscious life at all, and a conscious drive to procreate in the generators,
which has nothing to do with the establishment of the new creature, to bring forth the
same necessary, both of which I won for the very first origin of organic creatures
eliminated by , after conscious beings were once there, apparently only by inheritance
from the already conscious continues into the following or repeated in the same,
without coming to the establishment of the creatures themselves still consider why
that is the same for the first generation.
While someone might think that consciousness holidays with a special direction to
the practical construction of all parts, instead of yourself looking into the parents of
the embryo or the chicken in the egg, in the embryo or chicken during its
development, but then would be the embryo, the chicken in the egg smarter before
birth than after, and the whole state of these creatures before birth, where he falls into
the observation, but like too much of sleep after childbirth, to entertain such an idea
seriously. Or you could be the purpose of ideas that belong to the formation of the
embryo, looking in a spirit of the world outside of the embryo and the parents: but
that they continued the advance to be proved, and in any case one are like other
hypotheses, of which no experience proof, replace or can support, but even only of
other restraints would require.
Second, one can object, from the outset it was untriftig, unconscious forces
acting ipso facto be taken on a random looking and hereby to give an assessment of
their probability of chance success of prey. The forces of nature are legally acting, but
not random acting as legal action, and it might in the most general causal laws
themselves, which obey the forces of nature, to be justified, that they unconsciously
to facilities to which clings consciousness, who have opted out Then get under the
influence of the same forces and regenerate through which they are first created. Or it
could be a coincidence, but unless in a certain sense from an infinitely complex and
unpredictable, therefore, for each case of forces 1) is allowed to speak, even special
conditions come to the aid of which, the uncertainty of the success restrictive, of
necessity lead to appropriate facilities without having needed to take this one to help
antecedent consciousness.
l)In fact, you can probably understand, instead of a lawless such action the
adventitious of forces that, depending on the indeterminable diverse and
changing points of application of forces and situations under which they act,
and the dependent movements indeterminable various trends, ratios, send
destinations without a principle present. Which favored certain before
anywhere else.

In fact, therefore, the teleological argument for a conscious creative workings of

nature, as we like to call it short, yet can win by hitting force in either of the above
still aprioristischeren also any other or theologically more logical replaced by any of
these versions against the previous objections protected. And so some prefer to settle
the nature of the start a kind of unconscious wisdom in their legal action, by virtue of
which it creates Purposeful, a wisdom that only later comes to consciousness in their
own products, the people, others, however, in recently more popular way randomly
through the struggle for existence and inheritance in the style come to the aid which
conveys the intent of the bill with the purpose arising products. Obtained from all
products created by Random and repeat only those which can be obtained according
to the laws of nature in the struggle for existence with another and repeat, pass the
other, the conscious beings but which are themselves formed in this way, then find
the facilities expedient to contribute to their own preservation and repetition.
Meanwhile appears all the contrary, the analogy of appropriate facilities that will
notice the man angeborenerweise, with those which he afterwards except to make so
great that one involuntarily again and again to that argument, which at the same
successes equal to similar least similar presupposes causes, will find their way back
out, more so than by more general claims that one reason is to provide otherwise, be
better satisfied by the view of the opponents. Once it meets our need for unity so that
it summarizes the bringing forth of suitable facilities by the people under the same
terms as bringing forth the expedient device of man himself, sees that only as a
continuation and supplement this in the expansion of the world, the man-made with
what he creates further contains at the same time. Second, it is our religious faith
need to help. So the opponents are able to penetrate nor the denial of the argument, so
often it is rejected by them as often as it returns again, and then return, however, the
same objections again. There is now no way to get beyond this fruitless back and
forth, and to strengthen the weak version of the above constant argument.
Really this, to my mind a kind of reversal of the opposing point of view, the
teleological argument which occurs empirischerseits under a new aspect. But before
entering into it until we make clear what we have at all understood by expediency, to
gain a clear sense otherwise the whole question.
If there were no sentient or conscious beings at all, it would not matter what and
how something holdings in the world, herginge, repeated or not repeated. One could
speak of regularity and irregularity, permanence and transience, but what would come
to one or the other, if nobody's interest rather than the one on the other had, in short,
the concept of expediency could find no bottom. And if even some want grasp the
concept of expediency extent that the relationship thereof to conscious beings all fell
away and only the relationship to the preservation, development, recurrence of
anything, but from what then would be left, then the concept would but for the
question around which it is here, not in such length into consideration.
So we call this anything useful insofar as it serves to prosperous condition,
operation and development of conscious life, with the epithet prosperous shortly
significant that these facilities as possible - a possibility which is of course very
limited - displeasure saving and the possibility Leaving space of desire, are. After all,
who would call facilities to the longest duration and most vigorous development of a
useful life, if they were aimed towards making the life full of pain, just hang in fact
the conditions as long and prosperous preservation of life up to certain limits
together. In itself it does not meet the general term use to find something even more
useful, each lasting or durable it is at all, but each is more associated with the
conditions of life which the Gedeihlichkeit, and even the most fleeting appears useful
to its volatility to its Gedeihlichkeit contributes. Of external or internal usefulness is
to speak according as it is something a conscious beings exterior or interior, which is
used to its prosperity, but also the external Expedient makes him the service but only
by that depend on internal effects.
These simple definitions against which nothing is likely to be an objection may
suffice here, but our objective is to question not decided that, rather, it follows that
some conscious sense in this previous life is in itself not even know that it also by
conscious direction is formed to this purpose. Now we call back the opposing view,
to face her our repentance.
Following the approach of the enemy require the bodies of organisms that we, as
the prosperous preservation and development of their conscious life serving, call
appropriate to their development, not only today no Intresting direction of conscious
activity more on what they have to make the creatures , that is, its purpose, nor on the
details of their formation: but even the weak and general involvement of
consciousness, which today is still necessary to repeat the creatures was
voraussetzlich to the first generation not needed by himself, after once brought forth
conscious beings , continues only through inheritance or repeated, and so it happened
the first bringing forth of beings with all their purpose facilities entirely by
unconscious forces of nature.
Whereas our inversion is: facilities for the service of conscious life, which we call
useful as such, be it external or internal, require for their initial emergence
everywhere of specialy direction of conscious activity on their purpose, but once
developed to its repetition, only a general Mitbetätigung of consciousness in which a
traceable relationship for the purpose is more or less vanished. In short: the first
bringing forth suitable facilities required special consciousness is spared more or less
in their repetition. So the purpose of requiring institutions with which the creatures
are now born to their initial emergence of a relevant to the purpose of education and
their demgemäße Intresting participation of consciousness, which they
nowadays in not require its repetition.
Now the question is, which is true for both sets better experience. The reference to
the human embryo and the chicken in the egg, so that the enemy struck the argument
in the first version, they come with the current version of the same is no longer in
good stead, but did not decide between the two, because the lack of special activity of
consciousness in the present repeated emergence of these creatures occurs only from
different points of view from the one as the other set. Can not go back but inasmuch
as our experience until the first emergence of creatures, so it is, from other cases to
which it returns to win the decision. And there are also convenient facilities, the first
emergence of such repetition in our present experience circle falls, and from which
we can make a conclusion. All experience but we can make in this regard today and
make every day, rather than confirm our proposition to the enemy, and after the
execution of our various means available to them by the cases of the circuit takes it
the character of an inductive rather than merely analogical to.
Let's first talk of the purpose facilities, in addition to creating the man at the service
of his conscious life, to which already occupied the argument in the first version, but
we do it now, in our new version. What strong tension of consciousness and speziale
towards the design of all individual parts in relation to what they have to pay the
people who required the first emergence of a steam engine, a clock, or even a saw, a
hammer. Are these facilities once there, so does the one who imitates them, not even
to think of the purpose thereof, and, even after he is given a general conscious
impulse to imitate, think of quite other things by imitating himself. Although
admitting that the imitator has yet to see how each part looks to imitate him, hereby
speziale employment of consciousness while very toned down, removed from power
and purpose, but is not yet saved in such a way as to the repetition of a creature by
successive generations of the case. But now you take the cast of a statue, the imprint
of a copper engraving, a font, then these speziale employment still falls off. Who, for
example, reproduces them a writing course, also need another drive of consciousness
to make to it, but all of his conscious activity is simply unrelated to re bringing forth
the details of Scripture than that of the parents when they beget children, to
Emergence of the details of their bringing forth.
Now you can certainly notice that children be repeated by other means, as headers
and other brands. But each significantly different kind product requires any of other
means of repetition, and now is just the of importance that is available in various
modes of repetition as the first emergence of suitable facilities, except those at all of
our observation, the validity of our set is composed; just thus he becomes the basis of
an inductive rather than merely analogical circuit.
To complete this basis, we now turn from outer to inner, from inorganic to organic
purpose facilities, which we are approaching the case itself, which we have to
conclude directly.
Namely, the already-born person to the purpose facilities that he will notice at birth,
or that develop from the innate system for inherited establish itself, also new in itself
create holidays with a special direction of consciousness it or hereditary change
appropriate. Each learning a skill, weaving, knitting, playing a musical instrument,
riding, reading, memorization, etc., all this presupposes an acquired with special
inner consciousness directed it means that the person will notice either at birth nor
capable to develop without such intervention of consciousness from the
mitbekommenen facilities during growth by itself. These multiple devices can not all
exist at the same time, the spider is a device other than to play the piano, a device is
no longer needed, it makes another, or in idle states of a middle course between
all. But again shows generally that the speziale conscious activity, which belonged to
the first generation of any such special purpose facilities, the more is saved, the more
often it was caused, and finally requires only a general contention of consciousness to
return or even in the river of habit without such as from repeated itself when
repeating the same external conditions. What is the cost of special attention directed
the spinner needs to in order to learn spinning, the knitter, knitting, she has learned it,
it shall become accustomed hour to the wheel or take the sock in his hand, directed
inwardly through the act of a simple resolve to spinning or knitting, and weaving or
knitting by thinking about other things, for, as the realization also requires the
provision of such internal devices, the less one Intresting direction of consciousness
it, the more often the repetition of the same has taken place, and in a way, does not
distinguish both. The performance of the spinner is that the device to which they are
themselves the unique impetus when you sit down at the wheel, always through new,
however, a certain periodicity guaranteed rate, phase, the foot is raised and lowered,
the hand moves along the thread, sops, etc., to all of this, the device must change, in
short, it has to undergo a course of time, which can now be done just the first few
times with specially directed consciousness, however, it recedes more and more in
accordance with the frequent repetition.
You can add remark that, if the spinner is spinning not learned by themselves, but
under foreign guidance, it is much much spared from the effort of consciousness,
which cost the very first learning the spinning, ie the invention. Each learning
through transmission is already a repetition of the original, which will save some of
the original activity of consciousness.
A third case in turn to the case, to which we have to close, just one step closer. The
functional facilities with which the creatures are born, they have come about through
inheritance from their ancestors and to those inherited by their offspring. Our
sentence also applies for as heritable facilities? Now, who will doubt that the
shepherd and chickens dog who possess them without the assistance of his own and
his parents' consciousness innate physical and mental institutions, to which their
peculiar instincts based, only because their ancestors it in the same way with tension
and specific direction have acquired the attention than similar devices can be
acquired after birth today. It is true that the German shepherd dog and the chickens
still requires some but very few dressage, to learn his duty. But that only means the
device which enables him to his functional performance is not quite finished at his
birth, inasmuch as it is but it is not, they now need again of specialy tension of
consciousness, to be quite complete but the Most of this effort is the now-born dogs
but is spared, that he was not spared his ancestors. And so the people will be the
largest part of the tension of consciousness, which was necessary to be his brain, his
nerves, his muscles, all expedient form related, save the fact that she was not spared a
creative power before him, most of because man has even after the birth of further
inwardly retrain appropriate.
It changes nothing essential if one draws attention to the fact that the ancestors of
the German Shepherd dog and chickens have acquired their skills through Dressage
by the people, without them even knowing something of the purpose for the
people. The consciousness of it had then but in those from whom they received the
dressage, are, thus, acquired by Dressage purpose facility of the dog under the
viewpoint of an external to humans occurs, however, the previous case for the
applicability of our record on inner purpose device remains valid . Incidentally, even
though the special awareness of the dog was involved in the Urdressur in some
way. He saved not only by the reluctance of the dressage appropriation of these blows
that drew upon him every mistake, and would never come to this without the
dressage, but had to be busy with his attention more intensively in dressage, than later
when exercising the learned. So it was basically about the first case of a purely
external and the second case of a purely inward appropriateness of the third case of
an association of two or divider between the two that we have here before us.
Now one can ask: but why not inherited the once learned skill of spinning and
knitting of the human mother to the children why not every art that teaches a dog to
his offspring? In fact, the questions are worth investigating, but that concern our
present question anything, and that we therefore need not concern us here. Enough of
that., In all cases the repetition of suitable facilities in which our experience or the
secure final permits from experience, go back to the first generation, the speziale
participation of consciousness turns out to be muchNeed for repetition but given the
existence of a suitable device neither in itself nor to infer from the savings in
consciousness taking place in repetition. Numerous external and internal functional
facilities come and go without repeating itself, it is necessary to repeat even more
special conditions and needs of the whole man himself to his repetition of the
interaction of parents kick in the generative acts. Nature has only made it to the
repetition of certain of suitable facilities in the now living organisms, from the outset
the germs may be caused to others, who could not be repeated. But the terms hereof
we have not pursue here.
Against all this, you might apply a: everyone creates with consciousness, and for
the first time, only for his own purposes, but the man could not even create
appropriate for achieving the purpose of shareholders consciousness before he was
even with consciousness there.
But it is not true that everyone creates with consciousness only for its own
purposes. And so we come to the fourth case. A benefactor of mankind creates
facilities for pious of others; mother prepares a crib and diapers for a child who is not
even here yet. You can do it but only with eignem awareness at the service of foreign
consciousness, and thereby avoid the more shareholders of conscious inventiveness,
the more they depend on foreign patterns. So our theorem extends also by his own
over to the foreign consciousness.
Now, admitting that the interest of the one who creates for the benefit of others, of
their benefits must be involved with. Enjoyed the benefactor not on the benefit of
others, the mother is not the welfare of the future child, they would do nothing for
it. And so also the creative power would not set up the appropriate people for whose
well if you do not own this well with gediehe. The sense of the ideological argument
but just the, a consciousness that can not be sought in man before his creation to be
looking at the creative power of which depends on its origin, before him, in order to
establish both that the idea that with the maintenance of a stock of human flourishing
purposes of the creative world are being fulfilled even to him the man-made then
come with benefits. But that remains the same, the person may be regarded as an
internal or in the traditional sense as the outer scion of a creative nature, provided for
all experiential analogies the interest of producing and being produced is grown, and
so our general proposition remains in any case there .
After all that we can to the opponents of the teleological argument, return its
empirical Reject. Thereof of the first version over they appeared in the right when
they said: the analogy would still so striking speak in favor of a conscious creation of
the organic purpose facilities, but the fact that the human embryo and the chicken in
the egg develop by unconscious forces suggests the evidence down. We now say, the
idea of ways, such as purpose facilities were caused by unconscious action of natural
forces would still thought so profound and perceptive appear (Hartmann, Darwin),
but the cogent and complete the contemplated fact that they are of the first emergence
of a Intresting participation require consciousness, knocks the proof.
You mean but thereafter, prioristically the question let yourself but get at better, so
it is not proven to be logically compelling, but must apply from the outset more than
likely that at creation of institutions that have to serve the thriving preservation and
development of conscious life even conscious life was causally involved, but do not
fall cause and effect in disparate areas. In fact, it would be a strange, under any
reasonable aspect to be brought causality, if unconsciously acting and creative forces
consequences that have a preferred meaning for consciousness, before those who
have no or an unwholesome meaning, preferred, those before this stock or repetition
ability would lend. Can ever produce effects which cause something is not already
specified a cause? Like you take only when you have to, or are not clear about what
you need. But what one hand can miss the logic must still be completed by the
previous general empirical information as possible.
Now, of course, is true, the induction on which we rely, is still not complete,
because the relationships that take place at the first origin of organic beings, we can
not but draw in our experience circle, but there is absolutely no induction, would be
complete; would they, we would not conclude but direct experience. Nowhere and
never return ever quite the same situation again, we must be content if the probation
of a general proposition, regardless of the diversity of all Mitbedingungen appears, by
which he can trace 2) .
2) VGI. the inductive inference section XVII.
Thereafter, it would be a clumsy and the main point entirely miss Descending
Reject the previous considerations, would you still say, well, when people and
animals even have consciousness, of course, may be it external or internal, purpose
facilities only under the influence of consciousness in created them, and the creatures
can do what they have once, not dismiss it, but it does not follow in the least that,
before consciousness was there, such was necessary also to the first generation of
such facilities. The cogent point is rather the: if people now anyway, that they have
consciousness, and the forces of nature less than outside them are not legally work in
them, but neither internal nor external purpose institutions may first produce without
special directed thereon consciousness, one can not hold even completely dispensable
for the very first generation of such devices, the consciousness, ie close because little
is not enough now, will initially have served nothing. Incidentally, the person does so
in his sleep but his consciousness from, and when ever despite all the wisdom that
one may attach to the unconscious, a new purpose facility originated in sleep?
As man and his fellow are equipped with innate purpose facilities. The achievable
on the basis of these facilities use for the different creatures are partly interdependent,
and partly by the other limited, and the external relations of the creatures agree with
expedient their internal institutions. We summarize this whole purpose related to the
point of our argument in the eye, we are thus to view one, transcending all individual
creatures out all this consciously appropriate einrichtenden and ordering creative
world system, and enter it into the general aspects of the day view in, wear so to
support themselves in the same, however, be justified in reverse of the antecedents of
the Day from the whole teleology could.
Thereafter, only some side discussions on the previous considerations.
With all that going through the world striving to prevent pain to plug their sources
or destroy such but still goes through the world, is of course certainly, but why is the
pursuit idle and make the pursuit of this purpose as referred to nothing? The opposite
is just as certain that pain without the tendency to eliminate them, and without whose
success would overgrow everything in the world. In fact, if man is not food, clothing,
housing and firing suitably prepared on purpose, not einrichtete itself internally
useful for preparing these outer purpose facilities, not the nature of the matter reverse
that trend came, the sun is not to rail, the Fruit trees do not deceive to the man were
not equipped from the outset with appropriate organs when I say, everything that was
not so would the whole life of man, even if it could endure up in pain. The positive
pleasure, the man knows how to give all due to its purpose facilities is located, just a
here and there entering excess of the compensation of displeasure sources that would
remain uncompensated without it looking tendencies purpose. Now, one might argue
whether this compensation is not to remain in the whole incomplete, not to let the
pain throughout an overweight, and whether a prosperous progress, ie, in terms of
decreasing pain, increasing pleasure at all in the whole takes place. But as you might
answer these difficult questions, which concern the general desire economy in the
world, according to pessimistic or optimistic inclination always - we touch on this in
the following sections to speak - so would in any case without the purpose tendencies
and their success, the pain Quantum in the world unspeakably be greater than it is,
and it is a mistake if, as evidence argues everything, what is lacking in consummate
practicality against a hinwirkendes on purpose reign in the world because you rather
just everything that has been achieved in this regard, as evidence to prove that it can
Full untriftig is an approach that is nevertheless sometimes taken, as contrary to the
teleological principle of the causal principle, yes urge to be absurd. One reason could
cause future and the right to speak hertreiben consequences, but that a future purpose
only appear backwards on the present and could set means for its achievement in
activity, is unthinkable. But that does not demand the teleological
principle. According to him, does not affect the future purpose in conflict with the
principle of causality, but the currently perceived drive or the present purpose idea
with what their subject of physical forces acting on the achievement of the future
purpose, and the purpose of imagining yourself with what their subject is not caused
by something in the future, but grow out of the previous existence of the subject,
what of course, have any previous experience of the subject, as constitutive ideas of
the future share.
Deterministic also the following explanation, would give. The future hangs in the
sense of causal law functionally from the past. But what stops to reverse the
functional approach in the sense of a mathematician, so the past states of a reverse
pursuance of the direction of the event 3) to consider as a function of the states to
which they lead. For a timeless, everlasting or time summarizing into a present being,
as some think is the divine being would even be almost self-evident this double
approach. Ever it would like an absurdity to think of the past as its future success,
because the concept of success goes to the real direction of events in time, whereas
there is no absurdity to think about the past and future in such exchange function, that
of the what happens in both, one can not be without the other.
3)Very weird taking it out, if, instead of imagining the course of the world to
pursue only backward in time, almost a return of the action in reality thinks
motion act. (Mises small. Schr 273 ff 339 ff)

Thus, the following approach is related. In space is always the effect of a point a to
point b is a reaction from the point b instead of the point a. Why should not occur as
the effect of a time a to another b a reverse effect of b to a, ie the nature of what is
happening in both time points, are at the legal exchange definiteness 4) , but this does
not prevent, as we that what happens in the future time b, do not know, actually
follow the action and practical rather than merely from the time a reverse of b from.
4)If I am not mistaken, the mathematician Neumann has decidedly somewhere
same or similar thoughts.

Meanwhile, the considerations that do not lead us into our next topic, what so
again, no weight is placed remain.
Similarly, it does not contradict itself, that the means and order of the world is done
with consciousness, and that she had developed after a fixed legality, because
consciousness and legality do not contradict (see Section XVI), and especially
nothing is legal than that aversion triggers a quest to become the displeasure Lord,
what unquestionably dominates the whole teleology. One can try, psychological and
psycho-physical deepen from this point of view, the teleological view of the world
sometimes, partly to develop, but by having it close to the people of the world, of
course, more questions remain than can be decided previously.
In ourselves builds on the sensation of pain immediately a drive to eliminate them,
which, if the pain is physical causes, also triggers physical changes that suffice
directly in the simplest cases, bring about the removal, whether it be that an inner
pain-giving movement thus toned down or vice versa, or retuned an inner pain-giving
relationship or an adverse material is excreted, or that an institution against an
external pain stimulus closes involuntarily, or turns away from him or from him. In
all such cases, it is easy at all to something that could be called before end position,
however, but always with the consciousness of a sensation and a perceived shoots,
also probably a simple idea of the cause of pain is involved here.But in complicated
cases this is not sufficient, but rather when the pain can be eliminated only by ways
and means which engage in the time and space distance, so take such simple physical
terms the idea of the ways and means must occur, which in time and space to achieve
the objective are to get it, and the same is necessary if a future aversion prevents safe
or a future desire is to be achieved. If there is ever to no or no correct idea of the
functional corresponding ways and means as well as the purpose is not achieved or
achieved only by chance, the same need but what is in this respect for the
achievement of human purposes, there voraussetzlich also for achieving far poignant
purpose of general world-conscious being, and human purpose ideas themselves
come into his own, the only minor ways.
Now, however, a difference occurs. The inventor of a steam engine all the material
means of excluding it produced machine with respect to its purpose had to imagine
how they should appear externally, but is there an inner functional, which has not to
appear outwardly, nor the outward appearance to the appropriate requires interaction,
it also does not need to be presented as something externally appearing to its
creation. So someone can not acquire skill or teach one another through education,
experience without the nervous system, and probably muscular system and
circulatory condition of the one who acquires the skill, amendments, or they do not
need to be presented objectively to their origin, but if every psychic activity by itself
carries a physical law, directed to the appropriate own or other mental activity
awakened the part of the acquisition of each skill by itself with internal physical
processes that lead to their object the internal device. But here too it is necessary to
elicit intricate purpose facilities developed ideas. In fact, if, for example, the spinner
has not even imagine the inner physical facilities even when acquiring their craft
belonging to the acquisition of their skills, they may be the same but developed only
on the basis of their intended purpose, conceptions of external things, on the refers to
their skill and as a result drives coming to consciousness that it receives from the
outside, train. It is not disputed is this double way as purpose ideas can come into
play, have come from time immemorial in the world to bear, but neither is necessary
for the overall position and justification of our argument, hereupon to dwell, nor
would be able by itself a useful starting point it has to offer.
It probably asks one: why now there are no organic creatures with appropriate
facilities more from the inorganic world under the influence of a preceding legal
world consciousness out if they could arise from a primitive? But this is a difficulty
which rather makes the opponent, which is why they also do not get tired, to toil with
experiments, still extort the inorganic world the same productivity, which they
attribute to the prehistoric times. For us, the thing is that.
When a hot salt solution decomposes at lowering the temperature in a mother
liquor and set crystals, so no one is the condition of the solution prior to removal
crystallize with the condition of the mother liquor by the same holding comparable
and none of the mother liquor expect, now once again give away crystals, after
which, which could give the solution are already given away by divorce the mother
liquor from the crystals. So you can also the condition in which there was the
underground system before it, with sufficient reduction in temperature organic
kingdom blazes, hereby be decomposed into an organic and unorganized Empire, do
not compare with the state of the inorganic kingdom after the decomposition, and
expect this as it happens from opposing side, once again give away an organic
empire, after it has already given away rather by such a separation from him 5) . But
however lies in the previous considerations justified the underground system to think
partakers of the start of the general animation, and if those distinctive to appropriate
facilities in the organic world as to functional relationships of the same has led to the
inorganic, the divorce itself as under the influence of a specially directed
consciousness consisting view. But undoubtedly the Urscheidung has only led to a
very simple Urgestaltung the organic world, as well as the associated consciousness
could be reduced to a relatively simple act, which has later more
specialized. Annoying but to engage with definite ideas about this would be.
5)Via the original state of the Earth system before deposition of the organic
kingdom, and even while impacting conditions are the outputs of the Kant-
Laplace hypothesis grasp certain ideas, which in my pamphlet "ideas of
creation and evolution," etc. (p. 41 ff) are discussed. Of course they are only
hypothetical, but why not both - because everything is hypothetical - than
because they do not fit the Darwinian yet another current system, you have
dismissed it briefly, and ignored ever since. They just fit only to Day view

What remains after all, in favor of a primordial creation happened unconsciously

conscious creatures? Nothing but materialistic dogmatism or deep speculation to
wegzuspekulieren what is necessary to the conscious creation consciousness.
The older naturalists, including those where it previously did no innovator of
accuracy, doubted from the outset not at all that God has the world according
purposes and rule.Naturalists of today is the insgemein as outmoded view. Only in
exceptional cases some still hold it fixed or come back to it (such as bear, Volkmann,
EH Weber, tax collectors). Has the well-known as an exact physicist, Kronig, even
more recently, the dependence of the end devices in the nature of an intelligent being
with ingenious observations in his book "The existence of God and the happiness of
the people" (in 1874. Berlin, perennial) represented. But there are just only
exceptions. More numerous are those who consider a sense of natural forces on
appropriateness as a legal, not only about people and animals also conscious, hereby
adopt a kind of middle position. But most, at least the loudest voices have Darwin
zugejauchzt than the one which finally teleology of all that the world had broken
through participation in any kind of purpose in the natural tendency creations
thoroughly the neck and freed from an old superstition unworthy of the true
scientist. Therein lies the fundamental merit of Darwin and the most important, even
just not consistent enough to tip driven by Darwin, new progress of philosophy.
Without discussions on here about to take that would be in vain if it would be the
antecedent considerations, unnecessary if find this place, I close with a parable.
It was a building a wall. Of material from blocks of machines and workmen were
not wanting him, it seemed not even to the time in which the wall was finished. So he
said: I will spare me to teach the stupid business people how to build the wall, but
wants them just say that they make the blocks and the lime gradually in all possible
positions, including must at last also found, which makes the wall, if such one is ever
produced, and they will persist if they can continue to exist at all. Since the husband
was incredibly long, it finally did come in this way to the wall. Since he is but after
his principle, they will persist if they could continue to operate, held unnecessary to
work to tell people that they should cease to continue in the indifferent manner, when
the wall came about, he found the next Watching the Wall again torn, and now might
again wait incredibly long time before they came back.
Since it seemed to him, however, that long, he said to himself: it is not, you have to
work the people still give a hint. It seems not at all merely a wall at. I'm going to
work people wood, metals, stones, shortly be all sorts of materials, from which can
make useful things, and say they should remain traversed in an indifferent way with
it, but do not destroy the once made whole again, but only gradually change it , and
always prefer to repeat something from the old make as new in it, I will, because all
sorts of useful services are actually included under all possible arrangements of the
materials yet, come to any, and the existence of those who matter to me, find not only
sufficiently long secured, but also gradually can even lead to even tougher hereby
better. If, however, useless and harmful subvert it with, this is indeed bad, but can not
be changed, the world is unfortunately even that bad, and it is good to realize that it
can not change. Make it in on my way in a few billion years of - a trifle compared to
eternity - the Best possible what can come. He slapped himself applauded, and it was
moved by his plan of aimlessness. But as it is to every possible expedient
arrangement of given materials endless futile and inappropriate is now, he thought as
he watched again after a long time, his whole property with a jumble of useless and
harmful things covered that made any claim to persist and to repeat itself, so it is
probably even invoked, they are just so useful that they have the capacity to persist
and to repeat, what is going on it that it verdrieße him. His neighbor, whose house
and garden stood beautiful and prosperous, had done it differently, and asked him
why he did not just made, to which he replied naively, he would have thought it
would go like this.
XV. The world questions of pleasure and pain. Optimism and pessimism.
(More general , beliefs in relation to pleasure and pain. Christian. personals.)
l For more general considerations.
Likens unconscious one, death with darkness, darkness, night, on the other hand
consciousness, life with brightness, light, day, also need the same comparison like the
contrast of evil, evil and the good, speaks in this sense of a dark side or dark side and
a light side of things. And seeing as the black night in the first relationship
philosopher looks slightly black in the second relationship. The world is a gloomy
him on the merits and bad at the same time, in the main, he is basically a pessimist,
and if he is not, it is because he is not much, in what would be its consequence. The
day philosopher would in turn like to see everything bright, it can certainly not as he
would like, can, with all his philosophy, the evil in the world does not deny, nor taken
away from it, but he is nevertheless beware of the eye to the light, the day to close or
semi zuzudrücken mind to it only for the darkness that night to keep the shade open,
and will eventually therefore consolation in that he trends and meaning of the same
forces of global transition in all rather from night to light as directed in the opposite
direction takes place, and this itself is the belief in the success of these contributing
towards the success. For a pessimistic belief contributes yes only to make the world
sad to darken and deteriorate, the belief, however, that the striving for the better, it
also brings something to please her, to comfort, to improve. With this optimism, the
day view as everywhere in these things, the same negative beliefs towards a positive
conclusion appears to the pessimism of the night view here. But it is also important to
support this belief, and the sake of clarity we start with some definitions to.
Apart from dogmatists that the terms rightly put themselves according to their
dogmas and even part of these dogmatists themselves in real term many other
particulars is something anywhere better or worse according to when it is appropriate,
in view of its consequences to preserve the state of happiness in the world to
promote, or harm against partly to destroy, and even the morality and religion of a
Full is then preferred over the other. The concepts of good and bad fortune but are
ultimately dependent on the concepts of pleasure and pain, you just have to not to fall
low and narrow perspective about many other particulars, both pleasure and pain, as
far believe that with the sensual, the highest spiritual pleasure and pain among them
occurs, after which the happiness of a good conscience and punishment of the wicked
conscience still pleasure and pain are. But it comes at the question of the quality not
only of the presence of pleasure and pain, but also to the consequences, and such a
bad desire is that which according to general principles more enters the world of pain
in the consequences than is actually present, as is true of any immoral lust, while the
punishment of evil, despite the pain, she awakens the evil is good, according to the
assumption that thereby greater displeasure in the world is defended herself as she is,
yes the principle of justice itself can be founded thereon. This conceptual preliminary
discussions have here concerning the relationship of desire and aversion to good and
evil meet 1) .
l)Incoming thereof in the pamphlet "On the highest good", and the 2nd Section
of the "pre-aesthetic". The widely-held reluctance to make the concept of good
and evil by the terms of pleasure and pain depends partly depends on a too low
and narrow version of pleasure and pain concept, partly because that is the
extent of goodness and of its opposite, the desire - Follow and pain does not
take into consideration required, so you get into theoretical and practical

In general, we speak of a different kind of pleasure and pain, according as they are
linked to different types of provisions or conditions of the soul, as sensual as
sensations, images, thoughts, or their ratios. Namely, by making different types of
pain or pleasure pleasure soul-loss provisions or unpleasurable, it receives even while
a contrary determination by this, and we call it even close degenerates wide. But
inasmuch as many. Leave designate provisions of the soul only by the nature of its
origin, this is also linked to it from the pleasure and pain, and drops the name of the
species of pleasure and pain for the most part with the relationship of the origin
together what we, for example, the desire of well taste else nature to that of the sweet
smell, the pleasure watching a beautiful painting of a different nature than that found
when listening to a beautiful music.
In general, measures of pleasure and pain to be all the lower character in, the more
they ever based on simple excitement of the senses, simple perceptions, conceptions,
to be all the greater, the more they on view of relationships, relationships, links or the
operation the mind rests in such and get the same on each higher level. In ordinary
life, however, height is often confused with strength of desire.
Pleasure and pain are subject, not merely a qualitative Mitbestimmtheit, but also
suitable quantitative determination. As difficult as it may seem now, the
quantitatively compare a pleasure with another or an aversion to another and to bring
the quantitative relations of pleasure and pain ever on clear rules, you go but actually
everywhere on estimates of type a, for example, says that us this or that more or less
pleasure or pain than anything else grant, and pretty much the whole practice of life
depends on it, all the more if you feel like giving or promising more pleasure, less
pain-giving or promising preferring to manufacture and examined. Thus be neither
theoretically nor practically do without reference to quantitative relations of pleasure
and pain, and so may be at least tried to say as much for certainty and clarity about
this, as now lets just say.
One can distinguish an intensive and extensive scale of pleasure and pain scale or
the intensive and extensive pleasure and pain, for the former the degree of strength or
intensity of pleasure and pain, the latter after the time by which it extends and the
number of individuals through which it propagates. Their overall size, to speak of so
far, is a product of both.
The distinction between the pleasure and pain for the purposes of the first scale,
according to the degree of strength or intensity can be done directly by internal
comparison of the feelings themselves, while you can be aware of whether you have
had one or the other case stronger or weaker desire; without, however, this estimate is
very sharp and safe, if it can be accomplished only by means of a more or less
uncertain memory. To this subjective scale by internal comparison of own feelings
but occurs of course even greater uncertainty of underlying, objective, partly by
direct expression of emotion through speech and gestures, partly by favor of this or
that desire, and the greater or lesser expenditure of activities or resources to obtain
the same is made. Regardless of its uncertainty, we can still both theoretically and
practically devoid standards, and must only strive, partly to reduce the uncertainty in
the individual case to the minimum possible, partly to gain or all applicable
provisions of the average.
In general, it is much easier to like the same kind and amount as to compare
different types and equal to its power to, for example, easier to tell us whether a dish
tastes better than one else than to tell us whether a court tastes better than smelling a
flower, easier to say if us a painting more like the one else as if us a painting more
like as a piece of music, light and sensual pleasure with each other, as well as higher
spiritual pleasure with each other to compare the strength of the sensual pleasure with
greater pleasure. Yes, one might think the kind or amount of various pleasure is not
quantitative, but rather comparable only to nature or amount.
Meanwhile, it behaves in this respect with the comparisons of the intensity of
pleasure completely different type or height as well as the comparisons of the
brightness of different colors or different shades of intensity. While we do provide
itself with a very small difference in brightness between two adjacent similar areas of
security, which is brighter of the two as the other, and know shall also be disclosed in
the same high notes with relative safety, which more or louder sword, the judgment in
this regard is very difficult when the color of the uneven nature of the tones are of
unequal height. But it suffices that blue is much brighter or darker than red, a high
tone is much stronger or weaker than a lower, so the distinction is undoubtedly the
For no one doubts but, a blue, which is very clearly visible, bright mention, as a
red, which is only just discernible bursts forth from the darkness, or a barely audible
low tone to mention weaker than a loud high. Hereafter also many a savory dish
attracts an art enjoyment, another vice versa decided on, depending on him this or
that decision tired granted, and as the desire for any kind of enjoyment themselves
exhausted by the duration times, now this is coming soon that kind of like the
preponderance of strength.
With the previously considered estimation of a more and less in degree or intensity
of pleasure and pain yet no actual measure has been the same, which would imply
that not let specify only whether a pleasure or pain is ever stronger than the other, but
much as strong as the one that was other times, or what proportion of a given
thickness pleasure or pain to any underlying strength as a unit degrees of pleasure or
pain has. To such an extent more of theoretical than practical interest is lacking until
now for pleasure and pain, but it is hoped the progress of psychophysics, after has the
same a very general Maßprinzip for the sensation can see that the expansion thereof
on pleasure and pain still will be found, without of course been clear viewpoints exist
in this relationship already, so while detained here the notion of a quantitative
relationship determination between various strengths of pleasure and pain in general,
but not discussed further discussion of such determination can be. Also has not given
the actual comparative measure of pleasure or pain, just as only the estimate whether
more or less, whether growth or loss, interest for most of the issues to be addressed in
the following.
Difficulties of the same kind as the quantitative comparisons of pleasure as the pain
stand in for yourself, enter, if pleasure with pain to be compared quantitatively. In this
respect we do not consider us to take a little pain in the purchase, when it enters our
great pleasure at all pleasure and pain of success in our plans to weigh against each
other, and often vary between equivalents of both, desire must surely also can
quantitatively compare pain, and we are, generally speaking, as equivalents of
pleasure and pain have to see where the same strong drives depend in opposite
directions, which in turn drives are to be measured by its effects.
Multiplication of pleasure can ever desire with the proliferation of displeasure from
the following aspects are considered equivalent with reduction of pain and reduction.
The conscious drive goes just as well in terms of propagation of the reduction of
pain and pleasure as well as against the increase of the reduction of pleasure as
pain. The ideas that we encounter multiplication of pleasure and reduction of pain
that we encounter, both are pleasurable, the ideas that we encounter reduction of
pleasure and of pain that we encounter proliferation, both are full of pain. After this
you need rules and laws that are common to both equivalents, but merely to express
respect to the one.
Immediately plausible than that there is an intense amount of pleasure and pain, can
make out that there is an extensive, provided, of course, a pleasure of a double life is
twice as large as the average or constant of a simple life, the pleasure of a double
large number of people all over twice as large as the average or equal to the simple
So we can say that 6 apples distributed to 6 children, are capable of producing 6
times as much pleasure as one apple, one assigned - that when a crowd
of m individuals watching an entertaining spectacle, and everyone has the should
have the same desire in mind the overall pleasure of the same m as large as is the
desire of each individual times, and as one can speak of a more and less of pleasure,
we must also speak of equal relish. But the desire not equal between the m distributed
people, as is the case of reality in general, the overall desire is m times as large as the
average pleasure each, although the contraction of the average already the intense
degree is required . Thereafter, but all operations that can be made with metrics that
can also make the Extensionsmaßzahlen of pleasure and pain.
With regard to previous provisions, the following very general questions can raise,
which I call the global issues of pleasure and pain, and even apart from the reference
setting of the concepts of pleasure and pain to those of good and evil, retain their
interest, but without these terms reduction would not let her related to the interests
that are represented by the conceptual circles of good and evil, recognize. In short,
are the most common questions about the pleasure and pain economy in the world,
and it should therefore also the issues around which it can ever act in disputes
between pessimism and optimism, be formulated in more detail than is generally to
be found.
l If the basic conditions of pleasure and pain such that the sum of pleasure (as the
product of intensity and extent) in all of time and space is equal to the sum of the
pain, or outweighs the sum in the whole taken over the other . In short, not the case
but what outweighs demand in all equivalents of pleasure and pain?
2 Remains under the condition that the sum of pleasure as pain is variable with
time, not yet the ratio of the two constant, or growing a progressively greater ratios
than the other, or finally finds an alternate rise and fall of one against the other in
kind of place that periodically restores the equality or a certain proportion of their
Quanta again and again.
3 Fully drawn the same ratio of pleasure and pain, which is the whole of time and
space, for each individual creature assuming an over-time of the soul after death, or
remain a part of the creatures in the whole at a disadvantage or advantage against the
4 What is the initial state and that the definitive state of the world as a whole and
the individual in particular as to their pleasure and pain condition, or, so far as not to
speak of an initial and final states in a world without beginning or end, what
condition is the same order as approximated think, the further you their states in time
tracked backward or forward.
As the most fundamental questions in the previous has certainly the first to apply
unless already more or less prejudiced by their answer, the answer to the other, is
already given in part. And certainly it is a question of great interest, because, should
show that in the whole of time and space can not be more pleasure than pain, so
would one time only at the expense of others, a person only at the expense of other
people or can be happy at another time of his own life. The eternal blessedness itself
could only be the equivalent of an equal or a hell of the damned backwards co-eternal
state of unhappiness. But should not even need more pain than pleasure in his whole,
it would all desire to complain every happiness in the world because it would be
outweighed by the need through more pain, unhappiness, and it would have been
better if such a bad world did not exist, as is the view of pessimism, in fact.
Indisputably now many will be inclined to decide this question according to their
wishes or religious preterminals, but without bringing it about that a subjective
decision beyond. For if it merely to the wishes of the people, he would like the plague
ever wished away from the world, and as yet evil exists in fact, it could also
undesirable response to the first world issue among the evils that he has to
accept. And God has once allowed displeasure of the opposite desire in the world,
without that we understand the reason of this right, who wants to dictate to him the
balance of both, so if you like to choose since even God can not make two and two
make five, if not an equal strong metaphysical impossibility to produce the same
amount of pleasure without pain, is what would not hinder God by the way, the
eternal joy of the good, the eternal displeasure zuzuerteilen evil as finite fee. And that
may satisfy many theologians to have even fallen a necessary equivalence of pleasure
and pain as a whole, however, it may not satisfy another who wishes all his fellow
men, the ultimate happiness. And so you will probably find reason to battle, but no
decision in this way.
A philosopher may easily be based on the following considerations in favor of the
kind necessary equivalence of pleasure and pain. Pleasure and pain are in opposition,
but all calls are opposites in equivalents. Thus, the positive and negative set speed,
the positive and negative electricity, the possibility of movement in a direction and
equal movement in the opposite direction. Yes, if the world you think is derived from
an indifferent state, they could not emerge differently and can not exist otherwise
than as that opposites, such as pleasure and pain, came into equivalents apart and
forever persists in equivalents.
And certainly, if the condition of an indifferent primordial state of the world would
be right, so the inference would be correct. But the condition would really, really, it
would probably never a real world emerged. Is it not rather thus emerged that was of
the same possible conflicting factors of a, which we might call the positive from the
outset in real overweight against the other and remains forever, and only time and
place, a reduction or a step back, but no total removal by the other learns. Of course,
there are so many negative as positive numbers according to the concept, but there
are not as many but actually counted, the added numbers are subtracted against the
monstrous obesity, and there are unspeakably less debt as a positive asset. Certainly
can each movement also be acting in concert with the same size in the opposite
direction expected, but despite this same thinkability circling all the planets in the
same direction, we call them the right to be themselves and take to the sun, and all
parts of the planet participate in this movement by locally only partly reduce the same
by their own motion a little, some increase. Now, of course, really every planet in one
half of its course around the sun in the opposite direction than the other, but who's to
say that the contrast between pleasure and pain is comparable with that rather than
the kind of opposite movement. Any development also can of course, she once raised,
are just as backward forward persecuted as in thought, yet the world is always
developed on the whole, continued in the same direction, and never returns a child
back in the womb, the plant in the seed , a nation back to its original state, though
partial regressions not missing. The comparison of pleasure and pain with positive
and negative electricity, but otherwise meets the most fundamental aspects not, why
should he make concerning the equivalence. It can not be positively electrified a body
without that another in its immediate neighborhood is electrically negative, or
positive but loses electricity. Other hand, a man can be happy without his neighbor is
therefore unfortunate, and yes he can make her happy by gaining pleasure by itself,
and without a detectable disaster for even more standing follows. Should it be for a
hidden relationship, so at least it can not be assumed by analogy with the electricity.
Apart from all analogy, one may want to argue that we desire at all just to feel
according to their contrast with pain, and it is true that the longer the weather was
bad, the more we enjoy the good weather, the more we hunger tormented, the more
enjoyment granted us the same relief. Each source like blunts at all by the time from,
and between incident pain susceptibility is increased this again. But this is not yet
proven, that pleasure could ever arise against displeasure merely in opposition and in
accordance with the opposition, and Plato differed so incurred and a self-created
content. It may flavorful us something without us tasted something foul, a work of art
like regardless that we dislike one else, and probably some may speak of a time when
he has always, or at least found very prevalent happy throughout.
Finally, you can may want to establish the fundamental equivalence of pleasure and
pain on a psychophysical hypothesis. Eg set it to Socialize desire for growth, pain and
loss of kinetic energy of motion - a hypothesis that has recently been set up really - so
would be in accordance with the known laws of conservation of energy, in fact,
pleasure and pain compensate for all of time and space, and the desire connected even
by distant relationships in a place and at a time with the pain of others in other places
and in time. But my view is contradicted by the experience of this
hypothesis. Approaching the bed, the living force, including the psychophysical of
the whole body falls, but brings no sleep displeasure, and the most violent passionate
arousal can be as well as pleasurable unpleasurable. Also, there is a hypothesis to
other bids that do not meet the same contradictions in experience, and leads to quite
different results (Chapter XVIII), but we leave psychophysical hypotheses at all
With all previous general considerations so the first main question, and with it the
rest is still undecided. Now you can search the decision by way of experience, only
the experiential balance of pleasure and pain in the world cause a more or less vague
and subjective estimation, which can give a very different result, depending on its
attention more to the light or dark side of the world depends, to be weighed against
each other and the weights being estimated. Hartmann has to be compiled with
anerkennenswertem acumen worthy of love and factory completeness frightening
everything makes the world as a de facto bad, the pain has always been and still
appear in overweight against lust. And when you offer each individual the sufferings
of the mass misery of whole classes of people, the mass misery of war, famine years
and epidemics, the mass atrocities of nature in the daily struggle of creatures for
existence, the thousands of points of attack which body and soul, looks, like which
envisioned us that a physical or mental pain for days, weeks, months, years of toil
may not want dull, however, is soon dulled all desire, the faster, the greater it is, we
each Quelles of pleasure finally tired are, however, a pain to us is not tired, so to
speak, when all lays on a heap, and the joy wants something casual and just as
illusory and therefore appear about how you should not find the pessimism in the
right. But there are also counter-considerations to make.
Would probably like to live in the whole outweigh, if not the desire to live in the
whole überwöge? I can even though me, the fact does not deprive that the displeasure
intrusive zusammenhäuft in larger masses for the attention than the lust thereof: but
should even man for each whole dollars like he occupies a whole Thaler role take
displeasure in the purchase need, so it would be a false statement, only the valleys
and valleys roles expected against each other when the people of minutes, hours, days
wages paid in his life is mostly like dimes and pennies pleasure. But it is not really
Let us imagine the size of lust, like the pain in the different places of the world,
those with a red, this by a black contour line (ordinate) over a level plain before;
opposite so we are big black mountain ranges relatively economical and scattered red
mountains behold and can easily be inclined to keep the black levels in overweight
against the red, but the land between the mountains is at a low elevation above the
level plane but that the vast expansion can be red, and the sum of the red heights but
the sum of the black equivalent or they themselves can not beat. In fact, it is one of
the many ways in which pain and pleasure do not comply with the ratio of a simple
opposition that the pleasure a distribution is quite different than the pain distribution,
and regardless, you can not win any real result.
To this respect is above all that, though displeasure sources can not be blunt with
continuous action as easily as sources of pleasure, so plague us more sustainable, this
is compensated by the fact that sources of pleasure can be renewed after moderate
enjoyment and moderate Meanwhile, with ever new effect and because we seek
pleasure, to be truly renewed as often as possible, while continuing reluctance
sources we encounter relatively rare only against our will and reason that we just do
everything possible to avoid them. How can one be morning coffee taste anew every
day, though he can enjoy not continue it as if plague continued him a toothache can,
for enjoying hundreds of their morning coffee and their lunch each day anew with
pleasure, of which only a few, and this only are occasionally plagued by a persistent
physical pain. Yes who may say that the desire for a daily job, the desire to love,
honor, on doing good and so dulls in another sense than that one can not have them
continuously in consciousness, however, inexhaustible sources of recurring pleasure
lie in it.Enmity, hatred can be very bitter and very bitter consequences, but they're just
the exception, however, the pleasures of love and companionship in the regular
course of life occur.What is worse than shame, but there is more honor in the world
as a disgrace. Against thousands who are starving, there are millions that saturate,
and the probability of saturation not only raises most of the pain of starvation, but
surpasses it with pleasure. No man fears, but almost everyone hopes throughout his
life, and if the hope be fulfilled or not, it contributes to the pleasure of life. All in all
the illusions which bring pleasure, no less pleasurable, that they are illusions, and so
the pessimist canceling out with the wrong account.
The person concerned at all anyway, as long as he lives, and there are always
positive purposes or pleasure, it is prevention or elimination of sources of pain, what
he strives for it.There are however in the daily progress of life unspeakably more of
the small purposes, the man for the day is to reach, has not been achieved, and where
man turns larger purposes, much more common every day a preliminary step as a step
backwards with respect thereto made , not only to attain the objective itself, however,
but also the anticipation of the achievement in the conception, finally any
approximation to it in the sense of pleasure. When I perform a logarithmic account,
then each classification of a logarithm, which I visited, accompanied in the bill of a
little exceeding the pleasure threshold, and so by the one who digs up a bed, every
ceremony, at the seamstress hemming a towel , every pinprick, briefly, what job you
have in mind, every move, step, which supplies the achievement of the
purpose. Although now this is top of the pleasure threshold by continuing through the
time of an ordinary employment through, for each moment is so small that it easily
escapes the attention and memory, and you may be inclined recaps on employment,
rather a Hing conducting on the threshold to be seen in than the threshold of pleasure,
but you can also probably be aware that our usual shops rather than the level that we
call indifference receive our state of mind, and I'm looking in fact this as a major
factor the pleasure of life. Of course, we can be a work too acidic or barriers occur
repulsive or we are forced to work only for purposes other than, or missing in solitary
detention of employment. But that's not the rule, for that very reason, because that
would bring an aversion obesity in the world, the world has set the whole on the
opposite. You see a mason or stone-breaker whether he makes it to be too acidic, and
when he finds beautiful than the working day on Sunday, he would soon realize what
he lost when every day should be Sunday. Also welcome change from working with
peace is much more common than fatigue or boredom. Difficulties, their reluctance
effect is not immediately reconciled through the foresight of overcoming them, occur
only rarely in the course of daily work, and they are overcome, the previous pain is
usually rewarded by the joy of overcoming. The work that someone does for others is
not done nearly always at the same time for himself, yes it is that one of the most
effective levers of lust economy in the world, that the purpose of the individual in
society rather conducive to meet as locking and interlocking, and where it is in the
best institution in this regard is still missing, the company seeks more and more to
And let's not forget about all the desire that runs it were at a moderate level
throughout the world, including high points of the same, as those are yet to be
considered. And what strikes me as anything. A serene evening in social circles, the
view of a beautiful or lovely face, the first time of young love, the feeling of knowing
in joy and sorrow with one or a one, the joy of motherhood, the joy of welcoming a
great gift or to give the Christmas Eve, the beautiful views on a journey that
Raphaelsche Sistine Chapel and Beethoven's C minor Symphony, and whatnot still,
to be above all a clear conscience and consciousness in God's hands. It would be a
shame if the world did not exist with all this.
Can we now also with previous observations, the pessimistic view of the
preponderance of displeasure about the desire in the world can not refute in full rigor,
or so the same sharpness and thereby mitigate defend their one-sidedness. I repeat,
the experiential assessment is too difficult to determine for certain. After all the
previous considerations, I confess, it wants myself often seem as if everything is
taken in all the pain but throughout überwöge, and whom I ask around, which it
seems most just, while he can still enjoy like life . But suppose it really would be so,
so that is the main question to which it must arrive to us, even decide nothing less
than pessimistic sense.
In fact, we even more than the question of the existing conditions of pleasure and
pain to interest the question of whether and in what sense, the relationship between
the progress of time, which we proceed yourself, change, and we should be able to
accept that the direction comes for the better from the worse, and we carry through all
the suffering, it is also only go to meet with the passing of this world, a happy final
states, we might ask ourselves a now unsatisfactory condition with respect to its
improvement and the foresight fallen to its destination can be.
Now the world is not standing still, and it is certain that, if the amendment thereto
emanating from conscious drives, it happens to the sources of pain for protecting and
increasing the sources of pleasure, elimination and reduction, in any event, the desire
herein has a significant advantage over the aversion ahead of where you would think
that, if even the mighty displeasure initially überwöge, the desire would finally gain
the upper hand. Although beat countless attempts to improve the state of the world,
fails or misleading, but they are, generally speaking, continued until they finally
succeed in it, and each success is only the step to a new success. All useful as fine art
perfect in this sense, an invention always outbids the other and the sciences always
offer the new aids progress. Now, although the costumes of each other with the
costumes can come into conflict, but above all single costume also makes a more
general claim costumes, which compensates for all these conflicts to the benefits of
the welfare, happiness di state more and more. In this sense it is, that in the course of
time - if you compare only sufficiently long periods and sufficiently large spaces -
perfect religion and morality, laws, government and social institutions more and more
and more perfect, the more spread out over the earth.
Should now certainly the influence and work of the creatures go towards improving
their conditions worsening by influences from the unconscious nature continue
gehends the scales are held, the improvement could not be established. But on the
contrary, a great teleology of nature, or we say to please the spirit of the times, a
causality in the successes exempts itself as teleology, works hand in hand with the
aspirations of the people. How messy like the matter of early beginning have been
ordered, now go sun and moon at the same time as the clock, as light and the first and
invigorating heat source on a glorious blue or starry sky above the head of man, and
vice versa, the human is directed and directed all creatures on and on to a more
prosperous one component under the given climatic and local conditions, and has the
struggle for existence itself only to mind, the best equipped to make the claim area.
If you ask then why it has not yet brought further despite this continued walking
always in the same direction tendency to improvement to the world today, so that one
can be in doubt even more if desire, whether aversion prevails, or may be even
inclined to the last still hold for most, it can respond to the fact that one could ask at
every point at which the world is some reached even know why she has not yet, it
brought further, it will just be that they, the further one looks backward, it was further
back. The crossing point of more pain to feel like it can be for each constellation for
every creature as a particular variety.
The pessimist will find certainly by all that was not beaten, but about the other
hand, argue: first, that when a man is always looking to open new sources of
pleasure, it is only because he gradually dulls against the old, even at the cost of
Emfänglichkeit for the old receptive to the new will, and secondly, that according as
the progress of human culture, the sources of pleasure multiply and increase, at the
same time the pain increase and increase, so let the ruder state of yore not a more
unfortunate that not more civilized with a happier, may be confused, thirdly, that we
see looking back in time as well as the obvious setbacks progress in improving the
conditions. In short, that all striving to improve the state of the world, it also brings
no further than the old relationship between pleasure and pain only in a new form, to
keep upright on a new stage of development, however, would be even worse without
this effort the state. And who does deny that objections of this kind of statement is to
There are now, as I remember, sources of pleasure, against the man never dulls, but
to which he repeatedly returns periodically with new freshness, but so far he dulls
against sources of pleasure, it's just info away as they sometimes greater by sources,
partly higher desire to be replaced, and new sources of pain that are conjured up with
it, although there are in disorder, and inhibitions of new sources of pleasure, but not
one of them can say that they cancel the same, and compensate. These disturbances
and inhibitions call through the pain that they bring, even so powerful drives out to
raise them, the stronger they are, in the activity that is related to, is itself a source of
pleasure, the other in the foresight of the finite uplift and this itself the culmination of
lust. Each regression in the improvement of the conditions finally is to be regarded
only as a new start for all the more better.
Now, of course, that it temporarily and locally held such setbacks, making it
difficult to draw a certain conclusion from the comparison of past and current times
for all the time, but must increase the security, the greater the periods and areas you
move to the comparison. And I do think that no one can find the time of the pile-
dwellings of the culture time in which we live today, and the conditions of the present
savages, take us back to those times, zurückzuwünschen for our culture conditions or
willing to exchange cause. It is true, a more rough state is not necessarily a
unglücklicherer, but if not feel every one said that generally speaking, the less raw
state conditions of happiness, more of suffering, including, as the cultivated, it would
not be the last such prefer to be decided, and you can indeed claim that they do not
prove that this was only an illusion of success, and can not say that we prefer the
current state because it is the present just on the contrary, man always goes with his
wishes about the present state of use, and only insofar as they can then also probably
wish back simpler states, but they also idyllic, harmonious with nature imagined it
during the primitive conditions of the people are just the opposite, if their lot rather a
constant struggle with the nature.
It would be at all strange, since everything is conceived in the world, knowledge
and skill in progress when the order whose promotion is to do the mankind last in all
of this would be on the same registry, not in the flow of this progress itself with
einginge, ie the state of happiness of mankind. If, however, each new advance of that
new obstacles encountered, making partial return flows are induced, the whole river
but it comes on.
Meanwhile, what can reciprocate the pessimist of an optimist when it finally rises
as follows objections against him.
Have you carefully considered, that if you want to take a step forward in terms of
increasing pleasure or decreasing pain indefinitely for the future, you have the
pleasure back into the indefinite slimming think the pain indefinitely growing, and it
goes against you but not that world starting with infinite pain and to think through
eons with a enormous overweight with pain going away before it has come to the
same current barely tolerable state of the world by a gradual decrease. But would
even admit that I do not admit that it will be with the world getting better after my
death, and the survivors after me win it will have, what help me if I have no part in
this betterment after a miserable run life . For me, this world was always a bad one,
and the world itself remains poorly in that there is no betterment is for enough
Meanwhile, the first conclusion one wants to ever close indefinitely backwards in
itself has no binding force, because it can be asymptotically slightly forward or
backward indefinitely a zero or finite values without exceeding it by a positive or
negative direction, so needs a growth of displeasure or a decrease of pleasure
indefinitely backward traced not to lead to an infinite displeasure, but may at first the
prospect back into the whole then still questionable seem, for the creatures stands out
in any case this objection by itself, since they occur only in finite time with a finite
degree of pleasure or pain into existence, ie to customize from the general existence
out, and only the ball regarding their future remains there, and we confess to be so
useful and needed our previous considerations liked to address the biases and abuses
of pessimism, but they beat against the first part of delivering the ball with respect to
the past of the whole, not by, and directed against the second, as to the future of the
creatures, nothing outstanding. But we are also against our considerations do not end
there. There remains a final step, the course leads from the field of experience in the
area of faith, but which have recently complete all views into the distance and height,
and was therefore referred to the well from the outset. The pessimistic view of night
can this step that the day view not only here does not only take back here again, do
not fight, they just do not do it with.
Egg, says the pessimist, because you can not refute me with experience, are you
trying it with faith into the blue. And of course, the pessimism of the night view and
the negation of a belief, that leads beyond him hang together naturally. Meanwhile,
the belief in God and the Hereafter and the world by ambitious, highest and last, but
not faith goals of the blue because he is optimistic claims without regard to its other
wide support in the day view. But it turns out here to the theoretical advantages of the
practical day view also then that they need us, succumbing to pessimism, relieve, and
that can have a convenient principle of faith (Chapter IX) help themselves to support
The thing is: there is ever a more general life over the life of the individual and the
beyond the individual to the life of this world, the world questions of pleasure and
pain may also be made with respect thereto, and only so far with conclusions from
what we can find in our limited life of this world, to be answered, as we see in what
sense the change of pleasure and pain conditions already this side with extension and
improvement of the general conditions of existence. The world question but what
relationship between pleasure and pain ever existed as a whole, and whether and in
what sense it is about change falls for the day view with the issue together, the ratio
between pleasure and pain throughout is for God, and how far it for God will
change. For while God carries all his creatures in himself, he also bears all of its
pleasure and pain at the same time with all of the self, which can be searched in the
more general and higher provisions and the existence of relationships between and
over the creatures. Assets we do not pursue now from our low point of these rules and
relationships with clarity and certainty to the most common and highest parts of the
divine life into it, so we still are considerations as follows to support the faith to bids
that do not in God only conditions a higher pleasure than for the creatures exist, but
that the exchange and subsequent game of pleasure and pain in the creaturely areas is
itself one of these conditions.
I see a painting only on the impression of the individual lines and colors and their
simple compounds, so I like to think it is a hopeless tangle and daub. But I see it as a
whole, I am able to establish a meaning to it, which gives me a pleasure which I
would be unable to recoup the sum of the individual to be apprehended, and while not
only the low reluctance, the ideological from the would emerge clutter of lines and
colors in itself, does not pay, but also the pain is outweighed that could emerge from
the conception of the meaning of some major parts of the painting itself, it's just the
right painting. In general, it requires, as now even stand the pleasure and pain
conditions to each other, the estate of beauty in detail, so the contrasts in this respect,
to achieve greater and more varied higher beauty throughout. The same as for the one
who receives the vision of the painting in itself, applies to the artist who produced
it. It is not just the painting, it is with all art works that way. Instead the work of art
the world set, instead of the artist and spectator put God at the same time, except that
it has a more inward relative to the world impacted by him as the artist for his work.
Well of course wonders whether the world a right artwork comparable or what says
the same, whether a right work of art is a real representation of the world. Is there still
enough bad art in the world, but not everything in the world is ever a work of art. It is
true, why are there bad art? Because the artist does not feel all the pain and pleasure
of all, what will emerge from a consideration of his work, nor the knowledge to use
all of the conditions of pleasure and pain, nor the power of all the purposes of his
efforts has. But his feeling, his knowledge and abilities ranging farther and higher in
these relationships, the consummate his works, the god of day view but presents in
this respect all artists. And if everything is not at all a work of art in the world, is
indeed not everything in the artwork itself such. So the whole world can quite well as
a predominantly loss-giving work of art for an all-encompassing and thus a higher
level relationships behave aware of awareness, without the close to behave and lower
consciousness of the individual being that way.
Direct and general following observation leads to the same thing. Indeed, the
tendency is rather conscious everything on his own pleasure as pain, are the only
conditions of his own lust, and hereby the tendencies of the individual often at odds
with the desire and the tendencies of other individual. An ever larger area but one
dominated by his feelings, knowledge, skill, the less it can counter effects encounter
from the outside and the greater its ability to internal conflicts for the good of the
whole, which he controls, of which he draws pleasure and pain, for bring
discharge. But by the same time the God of the Day unites the whole region of
existence in itself and ruled over it offers all creatures.
To the pleasure that can be drawn from the existing states of the world, there is a
desire to increase of his desire, reduce pain, promote sources of pleasure, pain
elimination of sources, just as active as the first desire of distinguishing
receptive. The joy of giving, doing good, healing physical and moral infirmities, and
the desire for creation of beautiful works, improvement of useful facilities, etc.
belong here. In addition, there is a pleasure in anticipation of the success of such an
action and, but only later (see below) to be considered to increase the desire by the
direction of success. Even after all these respects, but God gains an increase in desire
over all his creatures, if the leadership of the creatures even in this direction and the
improvement of the conditions of the world with the foresight and direction of
success is beyond them, on the whole him in good stead; ever all his costumes and
work of the highest level takes this direction.
We return thereafter to that anticipated questions, though to be brought to any
secure decision, world question returns whether and in what sense the state of
pleasure for the whole region of existence, according to our view of God changes, so
we could think of on the previous that the desire Quantum throughout remains
constant and only the ratio of its moments change by the active desire to promote the
sources of pleasure and the pleasure of foresight of success here is always as much
abginge for the episode, as the success of the promotion itself to receptive pleasure or
their sources is obtained; - but might think that the state of the whole, more so, it was
an indifference condition center held between pleasure and pain or an equilibrium
state between existing desire and aversion approaches, the further backwards he
followed us, are against this so would like a larger overweights place, the farther
forward, it was that this overweight asymptotically zustrebe a specific goals or certain
target growth above each addition is room. But who could the question of whether so
or so, or even different, sure to decide, we leave them so undecided and keep us
satisfied with finding no reason on the previous in any case that the desire quantity of
the world as a whole, it is backward or forward tracked down ever go under the
displeasure Quantum - because what is lacking in this regard below, will be
compensated or think about always offered above - to find a general tendency and not
unsuccessful in the world to improve the existing conditions.
But what the creatures concerned, to remind us also of the second part of the throw,
we can at least the pain in the early stages of their existence - and the whole life of
this world is one of them - outweigh, come for the continued closing of a future life
following point of view into consideration.
In the direction of progress of conditions of displeasure to those of lust, we call it
the right direction, is ever a condition of the increase of his desire, in the reverse of
the same conditions, we call them pure with the wicked, such the increase of his
displeasure, which is the simplest example can be found in the various successes,
which is obtained depending on whether one can be resolved into a harmonious or a
discordant chord sounds the same chords in reverse order. What a contrast between
the feelings of satisfaction if the first and second case of dissatisfaction. It is but just
one example of a general fact. Let us consider any two conditions of life of a people,
apart from its impact conditions contain the same pleasure and pain for him, so will
outweigh the right or wrong depending on the result of the pleasure or pain
throughout. With the right result, the desire by the opposition to the previous aversion
appears increased without that pain could be increased by because the contrast was
not there yet, we feel not only like the current desire condition, but also the difference
of the same from the previous condition displeasure with pleasure. In the wrong
result, the reverse is the case. Now that the world can not have pleasure without pain,
their tendency is to go all in detail as to bring the pain and sources of pleasure rather
than unjust in the right sequence, and thus achieve the pleasure itself. So shall also in
accordance with the direction of the to expect not only about all the space, but also
about all the time cross, the creatures with good stead coming, common pursuit in
this sense, the afterlife as a result of this life in the favorable conditions of the right
sequence for this world be. This, but still occurs following observation.
Not every discordant chord can be resolved by each harmonic, but only by such,
apart from the disharmonious like him. Even a bad concert can not be reconciled by a
good painting; each area but tends to harmonic degrees in themselves, and so also a
reconciliation of the unfortunate CV of a person is not able to be held by the fortunate
one another: and there is ever a general reconciliation of evil, so whoever can expect
such for his own evil, this certainly has some wait over this world beyond it, and the
only voraussetzlich go through even bad by bad in the afterlife to go to conciliation.
In the life course, we also often encounter unjust consequences for the individual
by the right consequences for the individual may be unjust for others. But when our
day view is right, it expands and increases with our ascent into the afterlife our life
circle, we obtain part of the more general and higher relations of things in which
these conflicts resolve themselves more and more, we get to speak to the broader and
higher like conditions that exist for God, with. Now of course there are conditions not
only increased pleasure, but also pain in the general and higher relations of
things. But no less stronger as conditions for stabilization, reconciliation and
outdoing the evil. And so we can think well what to demand of practical
considerations and support through other wide reasons that the evil the opposite
effects against the evil, which came through him to the world, in the enlarged and
elevated sphere of life of the Hereafter with pain as punishment feels that not even
touched him in his worldly Lebensspähre tight, but that he will also be forced finally
to a reversal of what the resources of this world were not enough. But when he enters
it in the direction of good, he also gains in the enjoyment of the higher goods of the
Hereafter, whereas the best this side of the entrance to the afterlife immediately claim
it has. So happens the desire progress from this world to the Hereafter but the whole
After all, is certainly not an obstacle, what the practical interest calls to believe that
everyone who comes into the life, itself, more and more can approximate a
continuous blissful state by the way he sets up his will and action - on average drives
already here the best best, the more reliable when it passes into the afterlife - and that
if emerging nature always new danger overwhelming displeasure subject, they in turn
have the ability, thereby reversing the relationship that they their lives and striving
more and more in terms of the most common and highest tendencies be directed at
themselves as much as possible to contribute to the happiness of the whole, be if they
do not do it willingly, finally be forced to do it. To the maintenance of a stock of this
belief but just the view taken of the Day faith belongs in the highest and last things.
It is an old question that you often enough, especially in religious songs, hear and
read that the earth is a vale of tears. And if she has too much beautiful, good and
Love, not so wrong to do it, so you can not deny that for many it is yet. Now, if this
earthly existence, what we call so, the second and last after a first, there would be not
only for those many no consolation, but no help against the pessimism. But that we
have to our present life the prospect of a second, and this is a general tendency to
make every second better than the first, can offer us this comfort and this help.
Probably some are already here, the question is, after having gone through a long
and severe trials, if they last a satisfactory Abschlusse, and it would be against the
back end of life, have led: have lived you'd rather or not lived? He looks different
with a clear conscience back to the past, he will not say: I do not want. That pain is
just gone, he is so lucky, and has increased it by the opposition against the former
suffering, so much the better if he joins the hopeful view of a future life with it. Of
course, if one were to ask the question: if you was imminent, the whole sum of the
body with the happy Abschlusse until you want to this conclusion sake live through
the whole life time, or prefer not to live, then some would consider and begin to be
expected. So it may well be that the world order people without asking them, through
suffering, they can not spare them happy targets to achieve them they are happy to
have lived.
And so I think for a frequently used image of the world transition like that of a
symphony, in the course of running longer and heavier dissonances, go to meet than
in the symphonies of our concert halls, but none the less the resolution as a whole and
for each individual, and through this themselves about the result of a desire to
increase the resolution symphony that would move only in consonance. In part, now
the rich dissonance from this world to the Hereafter, but the afterlife is not tired, go
on working on their resolution and reconciliation.
Is now all that is here stated and demands of God and the afterlife, proven? None of
this is proven, because these things can prove anything, but it is probably a
reasonable connection with what can be wise, rejected, and this is yes indeed the
whole theoretical wisdom of the day view. More effective than the theoretical but
practical reasons for the position taken by their optimism, and if doubt of that side
would remain as such do not come up against this side from the outset. For surely it is
that the world is served through our optimistic view of her walk more, than the
Even so far as to see her man joyfully into the future, keep in apparently
unchangeable suffering instead of dark or dull resignation nor consolation and hope
and may perceive the world transition to commitment their viewpoints, whereby the
state of happiness in the world is conveyed directly, and secondly, insofar when man
thus continued to work on the fortunes of the world will receive vigorous as if he
would keep it basically futile for this work, so the fortunes of the world is also served
in the aftermath. This takes our optimistic world view itself not only in the actual
trend all conscious life after The Addition of happiness inside, but also helps them
meet; however, the pessimistic contradicts it, and still claims to have with this
contradiction the right of existence for themselves. The consequence of this will be
the de facto contradiction but that they will never penetrate into some general time
and so also can not acquire historical right - bad fashions here and there but belong to
the actual evils of the world that need to be overcome.
You see now well that in this previous no complete answer to the world issues of
pleasure and pain is the left line up, but would like to be given the answer in terms of
the points that can interest us most, so far as they referred to the Day view can give.
From very different points of view, as here ever been discussed that lead to
considerations of the 18th Section to a rather optimistic than pessimistic view of the
world-process, and occur so supportive added to the previous one.
2 Beliefs in relation to the evil. Same relations to the
Christian ideas.
Contrary to the pessimism of the night view that sees engaged in a wild mess of
pleasure and pain with a steady wins the displeasure the world, I lead from the
vorstehends and otherwise (v. 5, 6, XIV, XVI. XVIII) established viewpoints of Day
following beliefs, RELATING from the evil equally valid for physical, intellectual
and moral evil for evil just as a source of displeasure at all 2) .
2) Under physical evil is understood to physical ailments and suffering, through
moral evil selfishness, immorality, wickedness, evil under intellectual stupidity,
error, madness. Another common point for all kinds of evil, but that they lead,
in consideration of the context and consequences, but for the increase of pain
than pleasure, for the individual or the whole thing, according to the
relationship in which one considers the term , you will not find, you want to
have a clear and otherwise used in practice. But it is not quite covered by the
above three categories, the field of evil, as for example, loss of property, loss of
reputation are evil for the one who suffers the loss, without allowing
themselves to accommodate under those categories, I but find absolutely no
legal right expression for a missing category of evil.

First, that the existence of evil in the world and its growth are justified up to certain
limits in the necessary basic and Urbedingungen the existence, in the same primary
and Urbedingungen but also a tendency towards evil and related tendency due to the
good is whose success in the time progressively accomplished.
Secondly, that between the emergence of evil and basically counteracting tendency
so far there is no contradiction, than that from the bottom up, ie from individuals and
especially here, this in from above, ie from the perspective of the whole, and
generally acts 3) .
3) This is based moral evil to the fact that the man prefers his own particulate
like the rear view of the general state of pleasure, present or obvious desire of
considering the whole episodes, the intellectual rests on contradictions of
individual knowledge and knowledge conditions generally, the physical on the
one-sided preponderance special about general living conditions.

Third, that the tendency towards evil and in the sense of good in the way mostly the
whole thing mastered that a continuous progressive improvement of the existing
conditions of the world taken as a whole, ie one expected the other takes place,
without lifting so that the whole evil at once can.
Fourthly, that is not able to the connexion of things and the laws of their divergence
result of progress for the better throughout without temporarily to perform backward
steps in detail or special, so with each new advance in all for the better, new evils in
the world show up, the but the progress of the whole outweigh.
Fifth, that these evils implement even in a later contribution to the overall
betterment of the world, brought by the counteracting tendency to envelope and
thereafter become the source of a new good that without the previous evil could not
have been created.
Sixth, that the man may bring good or evil with conscious drives in the world, he
will find sooner or later, if not in this world but hereafter, the consequences
beziehentlich rewarding or punishing on his consciousness back slapping, whereby
the one in obtain the direction of good and encouraged, the other in the direction
redirected to and thereafter also the good consequences will partake.
Seventhly, that if evil exists only in relation to conscious beings 4) , also the way of
his elevation only through conscious buttresses, going over everything that the
supreme conscious being, so that the confidence in the final uplift and reconciliation
of all evil is not a dead world order, but to a conscious link to the same address.
4) Of course, since pain is just a matter of conscious beings.
Eighth, that the legality with which the course of events takes place in from above,
contains no contradiction, however, that it takes place in conscious ways and with
conscious striving by God's just the most conscious representatives of the legal order
and sequence of events and the strength of the law it only serves to lead them its
objectives with security.
Ninth, that the ways of leadership involved in general to and far-discontinued, the
human cognitive powers and resources, but are too weak to safely predict the way in
which current ills will lead to good, or completely follow after the success of the
paths to be can, we therefore put the trust in God not to our knowledge of his ways in
particular, but to the general and fixed direction this way for the salvation of the
world, our own with enclosed, and everything we in this world, in this miss ways still
have to expect from the afterlife.
Tenth, that confidence in God's help even to this help assists 5) , and so much more
good helping and finally generating power from Schlimmem expressed, the greater
the evil is present, which it is grown.
5)In this respect, the same considerations as still under XVI apply. 4 will come
with respect to the language of prayer.

It may be noted that, if after the 4th and 5 Proposition to improve the conditions in
the whole world taken steps can be done without the individual failed, and finally the
evil itself becomes the source of a good, which was not accessible by another road,
the concept of evil that ever becomes a relative character. In fact, you can then speak
of evil only insofar as it is not just come through its consequences on the envelope in
the good, the bad guy but has after 6 To keep current sentence that this envelope takes
the path through his punishment.
Keeping the previous beliefs of the Christian doctrine, one can thus see
contradiction in those some of the dogmas of the Orthodox version of this doctrine
beyond walking or even, as the first sentence of the origin of evil, the sets 4 and 8 of
the in one conscious and legal management of the universe, and the sentence 6 of the
finiteness of the penalties of evil, the evil originates provided by the orthodox
teaching of the abuses of liberty, legal course of things by God's omnipotence is
broken with miracles, and the evil one which is forfeited once the punishments of
hell, will not come out. But none of the doctrines which flow from the universal idea
of Christianity (Section VI), hereby none of healing and comforting conclusions of
Christianity is, knock, leave or exceeded by those beliefs. Sample it to offer particular
Christian songs represent that express "trust in God", "consolation in tribulation," the
"praise and songs of thanksgiving" to God, the songs that speak of "preparation for
death", including well- be found in every hymn-book as whole sections of
overwritten songs. Here are just some of those who express the confidence of
Christians to God the first verse, which is slightly reminiscent of the following, as
these songs just because of her comforting contents among the most famous.
Everything is in God's
'area, and at his mercy
over all Erdengut
be to God Who 'Sit hope
the reserves all unverletzet
a free valor.
From 1676.

On God and not on my

I want to build my
And the one who created
trust of thy soul.

Commit thou all thy ways

And what hurts your heart,
the most faithful care
Of that directs the sky;
The clouds and air and wind
there ways run and train,
the will also find ways
Since your feet can go.
Paul Gerhard.

The Lord is my refuge,

My einz'ger comfort in life.
Whom there is never lacking
in comfort and light,
the result of the Lord.
God my God; On his bid
is my soul silent,
I gnügt the Father's will.

In all my actions
I let the Supreme advise
the everything can and has,
he must be all things
else's target probably
even give good advice and

Shall it right sometimes

God was leaving as his
Oh, so believe and I know
God finally but certainly

What God does is well

it is just his will,
as he catches my stuff on,
I want to keep him silent.
He is my God and
in need of
to get probably know me,
therefore I let him alone

Who can exercise only the

love God
and put your trust in him at
all times,
it is the wonderful condition
in all distress and sorrow,
Who dares God the Most
Who has not built on sand.
Well say these songs in their statement of trust in God something to the above
beliefs were wrong? They just say the same for the edifying religious feeling what
those sets dry for the dry mind, and I always look forward, holding both together, that
they do not only with each other but also mutually supportive.
The materialists and pessimists are these songs a mockery, but also let so many of
those who are not or do not want to be the question and doubt left, how should the
confidence to come to God, that they take advantage of after God the whole evil of
the world, including, in whom I am suffering itself, has only admitted or
sent. Blessed is he such questions and doubts in the naive devotion to the comfort of
those songs do not come from the outset, but when they occur to him - and
increasingly fades from that naive devotion - he is probably the consolation of these
songs by other reply can save within the meaning of the previous beliefs? Against
hand what a powerful historical and practical support these beliefs in ancient times
passed and widespread application of these songs, as if it did not exist doubt that
3 Personal.
I look back at last in my own life, wondering how far it accords to the previous
considerations and sets an example - and what could only serve me mere abstract
speculations in this field themselves what the other previous considerations, if they
do not even myself served - so I think when you first look me among the number of
those to whom the life was made easy, but I find, as I glance over its whole context
and think partly spared by the worst for me even worse in the aftermath, has been
partly taught better in the episodes that I had anything different, what was denied me,
gained, I would be poorer remained in more important relationships, and would not
have punitive consequences of what was not right for me to continue gehends
practiced justice to me I would have remained poor throughout. I will not dwell on
details because it does not address the interest of another, and even more thing is
internal rather than external experience. But my relatively easy life seems to me in
those relationships in the main, quite transparent, and I am sometimes astonished,
when I can, near the end of the causes overlooked the consequences, as I do, in ways
that were not in the areas of human providence have been performed better against
what could not be achieved under the existing laws of being and action in other
ways. The main feature of the present life path but tells me the principle and direction
of the whole passage, and so I ask what is so far still remained heavy and dark for
me, a future beyond this life prey, in which I believe and do not believe would, if
everything had already been done. But the fact that the own life path taken that
direction, even faith in a corresponding direction of the world Ganges adheres easily
Probably some whose thread of life is relatively closing credits as simple and
inwardly than mine, it might give them a look back on it, they want otherwise do him
in truth, the same wonder about the leadership of the past life, and thereafter, that
same trust in the continuation of the same by a future life and awaken finite
adjustment of evil would be able 6) . But of course not all will do the same things,
such a review. For not of any life transition is as transparent, because not as simple
because more woven into the outer world gear, and probably some has come through
his life from Schlimmem in ever worse, for this but the opposite belief is closer and
does it for him and to bad it only got worse. So of course individual can alone shall
apply in that first sense any more for a belief of more than merely subjective
experiences values than those in the second sense should apply for it, but only
respects in which both can unite. And for such I now had just those who have spoken
in the antecedent considerations and sentences. The experience of the first kind still
remain important in that they have to make up the balance against the other, and so
far more important than they appear suitable, abspiegeln the direction of the whole, in
the small and simple. Because you can not understand the more complicated the
simpler, but just the reverse. Everyone is drawn into the overall progress according as
it suits and when it fits with whatever it suits and fits everyone, the question is just
about the time period in which it makes itself and shows.
6)In particular, I remember this one Schriftchens in which an uncle of mine,
thank God Eusebius fishermen, as superintendent in Sangerhausen in old age
and died in the enjoyment of high esteem, which I as a provider and educator
of me in my younger years, the most grateful remembrance pay tribute,
performed the description of his life path completely under the above
viewpoint, the same high level management. But unfortunately, the memory is
me with the pamphlet had lost at the title itself.

The belief in the sense of those observations and propositions which are justified,
in connection the day view, but has not merely been a support for me in his own life
going on, but, conversely, my life path has found support in this belief, and
contributes to or from any other page when, to exemplify the previous one. Also,
some important words. Materialism, which I am a medical student, had fallen as now
almost every student of medicine, Schelling's philosophy of nature, the first with a
full time also led me to of course to have the time afterwards fall back only the
deeper into it, could bear fruit, continuing forward the realization of
Ungenügenderem to Genügenderem me well, but as they last left to themselves
thinking unsatisfied, they would have carried me no fruit for life, as the need came up
to the same thing, a support which no knowledge of close and the present and his
leaving it offered, about to seek out. Only faith the day view to their re-stop in the
Christian idea of a divine guidance made me see this post. And would not the darkest
and seemingly most hopeless time in my life, the first dawn of the day view in the
ideas of gone ahead "little book of life after death," had not the seriousness of the
time with the belief in the divine guidance through this and through this life addition,
also brought the comfort of this faith, in the song, so I close, pronounce, and not the
trust that the persistence in confidence to finally yet so or worth as needed, endured,
so I had that time not sustain. Now, one swallow does not make a summer, but the
first swallow would not, if not come in one summer, and as this summer, I look at the
dereinstigen win the day view with the resurgence of entering into them and from top
dominant Christian ideas of dismissal so many oppressive dogmas (Chapter VI),
according to this view to their consolation songs also probably still will be able to
bring more joyful songs.
Solace in affliction (1841).
If everything turns dark,
the light is extinguished,
the lonely still sparkled
from the last Sternelein;
thinking 'that a solar
still is alive,
a new day of bliss
One day stands before you.
Whether it's here or over
there was,
not trouble thyself,
if God wants it to move,
to show you his light,
be sure that your eyes
Accustomed to earth night,
here below is not use at all,
to see such splendor.
Whatever you may offend
the zoom it out,
White is to steer even so,
That it is well done.
put on him 'your worries,
the places the burden on
Who knows if tomorrow you
do not
you've played.
How does it help that your
. cry out to you in the world
, the world will not take
what God has appointed
From the wailing of grief
is silent, you are silent,
Drum bet 'in your chamber
slightest Only ': as God
Such consolation you can
so you're not sick anymore,
so you're not leaving,
And you can not say
for what he sent
to relieve your pain,
Were all geglücket you,
So Please consider you all
In ird'schen hours of life,
Who never what has
who has found everything,
What the heart depends
vor'm The fear is death,
the bitter potion it seems,
You can ask for it,
God sends you his friend.
Did peace drum, mind,
your eyes do not weep,
That God before the bloom
breaks Mark Of life.
All 'everything bind'
what was and gives you
And put it where it might
in the bosom of God into it.
XVI. The question of freedom.
(dispute of determinism and indeterminism. accountability, punishment,

l For more general considerations.

Is there freedom in the world? A certain freedom, in virtue of which a subject from
internal drives or motives that cause of his inner being are, one way or decide
fluctuate with fluctuating subjects against the decision and defend themselves against
external coercion can. Who can argue against the fact of such freedom, they could not
rob the people without robbing him speak to himself or to have passive glide over the
world. And he'd 'born in chains, only its outer limbs and the ability to use it, but not
his thoughts and his will are intrinsically tied by which he can continue to be made to
determine in itself, can also make attempts shake off the external constraint.
Meanwhile, someone can be prevented externally to follow his inner drives or
endure something outside of what he does not want to endure his inner mood, so one
distinguishes inner and outer freedom. The will and desire is for the inner, the
possibility of executing the riddance of external constraints cause of outer freedom,.
Those can fully exist if it is restricted or abolished
But also of restrictions of inner freedom can speak in a certain sense. It could be
someone wanting something from higher viewpoints of moral motives, while his
sensual impulses or egoistic motives run, and not always win over those that
overweight. So can speak the same by overriding lower Determinants of a higher
freedom and a restriction or suspension.
After this is an important question: will the self-determination of a, free in our
previous sense, subject and even his vacillation before deciding where such takes
place, with legal necessity from the previous state and the current co-determination of
the subject out or not. Taking the first of, it is believed at all that not only the will,
action and inaction of man, but old events in the world, in both material and spiritual
areas of legal need of the ancients and the current co-determination (itself legally as
well follow) follows and only in one way, follow as it follows, one has the so-called
deterministic view of the consequence itself follows the whole divine workings in
unswerving lawfulness of himself and only in a manner done so may as follows.
Contrary to all previous reasons still undetermined not merely, is not it also the
contrary, a freedom which man, God himself, be so or it may decide without that
neither the external nor internal rules of its previous system condition the decision of
necessity virtue for the knowledge, but the fact remains after where the decision will
be made. Taking a liberty in this sense of, are you the free will to power, the need to
break, and can be asked to choose two or more options of choosing the subject, so
you have the, so called with the previous lies in the struggle . indeterministic view.
Even after the deterministic view of man has free will, but only insofar as the will
can not be imposed externally to him, cause of his self-determination remains, but
probably it is him by the existing internal rules of his being and their current external
co-determination, to the extent they exist, and translate into internal regulations,
imposed as a necessary consequence, after the indeterministic view both practice
together on free will no such constraint but as far as the will is truly free, is
independent of all previous provisions for him and current co-determination outside
the same possibility to choose either way, and so far it does not exist, the will just is
not free.
Is the subject in front of two ways, and applies it to go another one or just select the
subject in that first sense in which also speaks of the determinist of freedom, inner
freedom between if it the one inside of the other for any motives somehow related
internal desire, prefer and is the path chosen freely outside, if it is neither the one nor
the other is pushed by external force, still held by one or other of those, but the inner
motivations, inner desire the walking itself emerged with necessity from the previous
rule and the co-determination of the subject about by the preferred stimulus of one or
other way. However, is through all of this earlier or exterior of the given in the other,
the indeterministic, meaning, free men indeed determines the area in which the
current decision to make, and a suggestion to make these, so far as the Previous and
participatory is not indifferent, but it is not sufficiently to cause the decision that
freedom comes as something of them self, so to speak, about the sublime, in addition
to tip the balance to one or the other side, without anything earlier or exterior and all
desire, it is the adult that compels people to make a choice before the other.
The indeterminist allows the freedom of the determinists ever not be considered
freedom, well he does not find its indeterministic freedom in it, while the determinist
does not apply to the freedom of the libertarians, because he did not find such in the
world. Conceptually keep both types of freedom but the common that after a subject
to determine in and of itself, from the inside out for one or the other, where to choose
from, you can decide, except that for the deterministic version of this with the need to
the indeterministic done without such. In indeterministic sense THEREFORE
freedom and necessity contradict each other by definition, and the ordinary language
and common term used is this contradiction, whereas both contradict each other in a
deterministic sense any more than that Schelling even downright explains freedom
for inner necessity.
Short we can say that the freedom in the first sense - can be the name still
considered freedom for it - is legal, so long as the self-determination, which
establishes the general concept of freedom, for unswerving lawfulness of previous
provisions follows; freedom in another sense, however, is unlawful or lawless
freedom, where their distinctive character from the previous flat is to be bound by
any law of the sequence of previous provisions to be rather the same way, laws that
exist apart from freedom to follow or break. What but the libertarians not prevent this
lawless freedom, when it is quite used to settle a higher value than the law, if it were,
improve the damage or bad consequences of a steadfastly followed the law or
prevent, and preserve the world transition from a purely mechanical procedure is,
however, the determinist the continued legality prefers far the breaking of a once
well-designed law only worsen the world, could not improve. After libertarians, God
holds in its absolutely free spiritual beings in general not bound by certain laws, but
has given those of the material and created world, and engages only occasionally free
in the consequent legal canal. After determinists based all order in the spiritual as
well as material events on legalism, God is never necessary to improve the world
order, laws to break them, and if they do, people often break the state laws and moral
laws, this fraction itself is under general laws.
Of course, merely aspects are hereby referred to, which can determine the one and
the other to the advantage of one or the other view, but only what is yet to decide
between the soundness and feasibility of these aspects.
The common view makes no difference nor the consequences of both versions of
the freedom quite clear to freedom of praising at all, not knowing quite what to praise
it, and therefore resists mostly against determinism, because they, a contrast against
freedom self-determination ability ever sees. Who can roam at will, you say free, but
whether the will is free in deterministic or indeterministischem sense, then it does not
ask that they not interested, so she does not understand the question.
Wissenschaftlicherseits most naturalists, and, though by no means all philosophers,
but a large proportion have much the same, decided to determinism, the former in the
interest of full implementation of legality, whose persecution in natural areas is their
main task, and with regard to the ratio of the conditionality, which is between
material and spiritual territory, the latter in the interest of a unified world view, and
because of the difficulty of a priori indeterministic view of what will be
discussed. Meanwhile, yet practical considerations seem to call for indeterminacy,
therefore, the opposite of the same preference on the part of theologians and
moralists, and even some philosophers.
There are methods of treatment of the question of freedom, which my same get at
the fact that they take the concept and the word freedom for self-determination of a
reasonable or moral points to complete, and that the latter can be done in a certain
narrow sense, is discussed above. But what is thus achieved for the main
question? That there are such self-determination, no, they do not lack doubted myself,
but they can not just as deterministic as the self-determination by lower impulses and
motives be? It is important to take the bull by the horns of the question whether
determinism or indeterminism, and both in the argument about had clearly apart.
Now the question comes to us in this respect, the next answer is that there is an
essential need, whether to put the question in relation to Day view or night view. The
former has happened so far not quite follow, here it should be done, and so is the
determinism gain the upper hand. But we can only express the indeterminism is
something certain than ever before, we represent the determinism with equal
certainty, however, by taking up this soon again with the previous provisions.
2 Representation of indeterminism.
About thus saith the indeterminist.
What had gone before in the world, everything ranging together not sufficient to
determine the result by the mind at every moment by virtue of his freedom itself
ruthlessly on Former continue redefining and which depend on intervention in the
material world in which natural events changes can bring that are not explained by
natural laws. Therefore, the unpredictability of the actions of a man who needs his
God Himself this freedom comes to absolutely, but also the people he gave it from
the outset, at least in terms of moral things as a supreme good. Virtue of the same
man may choose between good and evil, without any of it was to be internally or
externally forced predetermined rules to choose one before the other, so all people
especially the gifted freely created Adam and freedom. By repeated decisions in one
or another sense of human limits while a certain extent this freedom, if it then is it
always easier to decide either way, he also has to limit it more and more in good
sense, so that it finally as necessary is to act well, but this restriction has to be
meritorious to happen themselves from freedom, and he has never so completely to
give freedom award, but so far they preserve full, as it still remains quite free him
even greater difficulty contrary Rather than thus to want, by opposing the greater
difficulty of a stronger-free drive. That man is influenced by motives which do not
originate from his freedom, can not be denied, but they come for the free people up
only as suggestions into consideration, to use his freedom in this or that area, without
ever forcing him to can.
A decision and action has ever demgemäße only insofar moral worth or
worthlessness, as it presupposes freedom is freedom from, so the animals as devoid
of freedom, can not sin.The freedom at all just falls into the spiritual, and for the
people maybe only in the moral field, the nature, the lower animate beings and the
lower instincts of man goes from here against itself, that man should therefore
dominate with greater freedom. That a legal response in the spiritual as well as
material events exists at all, is not denied, only that where there is freedom, in each
period a fraction of legality can be effected. This always new, adequately by anything
previously related beginnings, impulses in the course of the world, of which from the
action to once again followed his new impulses necessary legal step. However, there
may withdraw at all, under influence of intellectual standing, full of something
happening legality virtue of freedom, except that the exceptions in the file called free
will emerge most unmistakably.
In support of this view, it is claimed that one can view a deterministic function of
the beginning of things from nothing preceded, because the beginning just nothing
precedes aninfinite regress but the representability or thinkability dehydrating, so it
must surely an indeterministic free principle for have been the beginning of the
world, and why not also for the progress? - Next: declare that the immediate feeling
only by the indeterministic view to be in free-standing election forced by anything to
decide either way. - Next, that a strict legal requirement, if anywhere, at least not
about the natural area is also demonstrably free volitions but often take place in a
direction that defy all calculation from the pregiven. - Next: that not only the material
but also spiritual world by the deterministic view falls prey to a machine even
underway, however, after the indeterministic the material world itself was protected
by the renewing operations of the free spirit of it. - Next: that if just with relentless
need only come what must come, man may do what he wanted, he could put his
hands in his lap, and cease all drives to work for him. - Next: that morality,
responsibility and sense of guilt can only exist so that the debt itself is not driven
forth by necessity. - Finally, what benefit could a God to the world and a prayer to
God even when everything is going vonstatten with inviolable necessity. Could God
and a prayer to God quell the need?
3 Representation of determinism.
What 'serious charges against determinism. Them accepts the determinist first and
foremost with the word counter-accusations, in order afterwards to meet even those
allegations, but so to find another reason to counter accusations.
Let the people a choice between two options offered. If the certainty of its previous
system, together with the certainty that it receives from the outside (which,
incidentally, but also implements an inner certainty), not forces him to choose rather
to the one as the other side, which decides on all the choice ? If the decision if such
indeterministic but is not as something accidental, the former being foreign,
independent of him, as it were from the desire of the nature into it, instead of coming
out of it and further develop it consistently.Although the indeterministic freedom is
itself the former as following maintenance of a stock of a being are, indeed the most
precious moment to be the same, but their notions about the nature of its remaining
provisions allow the independent and equal opportunity to decide one way or another,
but how can It then decide at all and how can the decision of such a freedom that
does not concern the whole previous beings having the same charge? Yes, what is it
to me if I am instead come through indeterministic free decisions, rather by good
innate systems, education, etc. Examples meaning that it has become my second
nature, in the sense of the general direction of the divine world order, which we call
in a good sense, to feel, to think, to act, that does not free the following resolutions
make me prefer the bad before the good. All images, arising from the previous
existence, are supposed to serve merely as suggestions to take my indeterministic
freedom which no guarantee for the privilege, nay the probability of the preference
dividend is in front of one another. It is true (at least from a certain page) spoken by a
gradually executive self-restraint of freedom in a good sense, but just as easily it
could be such a bad sense, and as can be at all a clear notion grasp of a restriction
indeterministic freedom. Either way it makes the same decision on two sides, then it's
all there, and no decision could actually take place, or it outweighs a determining
factor to one side, then it is not there.
Priori difficulties of this kind are probably not collected here for the first time,
though I knew where they were lifted enough.
Let us remember this, that the indeterminism two principles of action that
introduces the legality and therefrom emancipating freedom in the world, while
determinism manage with a white - that indeterminism by allowing interventions that
may affect the course of nature through spiritual freedom, the dualism between spirit
and matter sanctioned without allowing the possibility to reverse it into a higher unity
- and that all difficulties to reconcile the existence of evil with the existence of an all-
good and all-powerful God, to remain ungehoben indeterministic view (cf. v. 6).
Are now with all these difficulties the charges against the indeterminism still
ungehoben from his side against determinism, and so we now turn to these.
The world beginning anlangend, it can be by a known antinomy from there make
absolutely no end to the episode. Was nothing, not even God, before a certain time
there, so can not think that anything could ever arise from nothing to nothing, a
decrease to infinity on the other hand can be in the imagination or in thought not fully
accomplish. We are but the same but ideally completed in the concept of eternity,
hereafter God for ever composed and the world as his creation, so he will have it
naturally created in indeterministischem or deterministic sense, according as his
nature itself was so or adapted, and that is the question to which it is, but can not
decide by a requirement above.
What might seem most strikingly to speak for the indeterministic view is that
seemingly sudden feeling of indeterministic freedom in resolutions which we now
call up free. I can so I can like, and find neither outer nor inner determinants in me,
force me to one or the other, so it can also vary arbitrarily between the two, so I am
reluctant to think that I can only wish I want to have.
And yet nothing Dielectric end lies herein. If the fluctuation of Entschlusse speak
for indeterministic freedom, it would also be the tube, which varies more or less long
before it tilts towards certain indeterministic freedom. And I look closer at how the
freest resolve what I call so finally comes about, it is in the consciousness finally for
overweight coming motif, which is not out of lust, but from the, earlier development
underway here and the current co-determination comes, leading to the decision, the
feeling but to still be able to or decide as before, just is the feeling that it's not already
come from here and there driving motives for obesity; finally wins a motive, and if
the dispute as to the own interior victory falls to us is not imposed externally, we
expect both as a matter of inner freedom. But the reluctance determines necessary to
find though, as long as natural as not cherishes the belief that it was a necessary
provision for good and for finite reconciliation of all tribulation, that is, unless one
entertains the belief of the Day, in purposes of this belief, however, the good is only
pleased, even a necessary tool in the world order to achieve good goals, while its
inner future to be sure.
Admitting is: through experience alone can decide for sure neither determinism nor
indeterminism. Not even for a strictly legal course of nature is strictly proved, much
of the spiritual events. Who can from an unexpected sudden gust of wind, who by a
sudden idea that someone has to prove that they are necessary consequences of prior
conditions. Who can prove the other hand, that in the complication of the preceding
causes of such operations is not explicable, except that one can not meet you with
monitoring and accounting. Incidentally, the indeterminist itself will be the least
inclined to just such transactions whose causality we can not trace to think came free
in his spirit, whereas for the voluntary decisions for good and evil, which speak of
indeterminism is invented to love, the reasons have in the past almost always at least
generally locate. Certain it is that, the further you come to the knowledge of the
conditions of action and recovery of laws to win the determinism of the more
experience side of probability, however, is the end of dielectric in conceptual and
practical reasons.
It is said that the world of determinism to the machine do, and so he is considered
by many to dismiss. And the most advantageous feature of the machine, he certainly
left the world.What would be a machine that stands there just as free to go bad as
well, for there would be no law to ensure continued her passage to the right
targets. But a machine can not want to think, feel, do not develop out of themselves,
do not improve themselves, which also retains the deterministic world before the
machine forward. Are love, friendship, trust in God, as far as they are in the world, so
bad that they are necessary, and would be the opposite, if it's there, so better that it
could not be. Rather, this is good, that it must be better in terms of daily view, and the
only excuse his existence which it had to be there. Probably you want to curse the
determinism when he fought you once to become better, and once to have it better
because you are determined once for the worse, which is the bad determinism night
view, and no better of indeterminism, the same way allows for both sides, but you can
not want that as you are guided by unswerving need then to be once once more and to
have better better. That is the comforting determinism of the Day. Yes it is so bad in
the world and so bad Schlimmem comes from, but lets himself believe that under the
current law there is no shorter, yes there another way to turn the bad thing for the
better, as the world goes. One has only just have the faith to the daily view, the
reasons for this belief but are discussed elsewhere.
You say the world so let go, just as they now goes when it comes time to need what
I need me then to strive for it; the criminal says: what are you blaming me, I am by
necessity as I am. - You like it say he likes to say it, but you need can not be idle, and
reaches the warning does not go, you to action, to compel him to recovery, the
penalty will finally do it; Blessed are you when it the warning already does. The
warning is in conflict with other determinants that complement each other to
coercion, often only a weak center,. However, the penalty may be increased to the
point where it forces you And the longer the inertia or malice lasts and the more it
grows, the more certain they can count on after already in this world noticeable,
continuing in the afterlife and consummating progress of world order that adjusts the
penalty and while growing up she improvement the forces.
To give an example, which fits the image at the same time.
We use once a boy who has just celebrated his naughtiness quite naively hear that
everything follows out of necessity in the world, also will and action of man. Stop, he
thinks, so yes you can excuse your bad behavior in the future, and soon he commits
such. The father beats him for it. What do you suggest me the wise boy says I can not
do anything for my rudeness, the necessity of my being as it brings with it. Very well,
says the father, but the need of my nature also brings with it that I will beat you for
it. The boy said, what I care about this strange necessity if the own inner need for
continued pushing me to commit the same bad habit, so he commits them but and
again, each time the father beats him for more, and so we find the boy finally but
inwardly compelled not to commit the same bad habit. For the boy put the people, for
the blows penalties at all, for the Father, the divine world order, so that it is necessary
and hereby also obliging, can not be less managed aware, because yes just everything
conscious as well after as unconscious laws of necessity proceeds.
Of course, without the belief in a punishing and rewarding afterlife, it would be
nothing to the previous view, because the beatings often take on in the divine and
human education. In general, however, it appears in human education that, when a
boy in the house is not got enough beating, he afterwards more, so just get in another
form other than the home, but not enough or even the shifts from here further, now it
is just the Hereafter a further stage beyond which it can not be delayed even
further. You can see here below in any case the general direction of the Ganges of
things, but because this is not yet here below to the end, you can also here below only
the direction, not demand to see the end. It would be strange if we wanted to fall at
any point, where he quite naturally occurs when an otherwise missing complement
the belief in the afterlife, here or else an ever important and based of a different side
factor of the Day, Mon. Rather, it requires that its to itself contributes to support him.
Now you can say to tie in with the previous example, better it would have been if
the father of the boy that sorry to be obliged to naughtiness, had cut off from the start,
and really is the concern of bad will in the deterministic View blame everything on
the need for a main motive of indeterminism. Morality must suffer so, yes, the
concept of morality itself will be lost. And that determinism is still dismissed as
though from a different page and onto the most thorough, so much so that as the third
highest in demand and last things of God and immortality and freedom - but we think
that the indeterministic - wont set up. I would use coercion for such freedom for
Therefore as the indeterministic admonition of the father would have the same to
the boys instead of the deterministic reprimand to noisy. In order to be consistent and
open, he would, I think, have to talk about that.
There is also free you to commit the bad habit than not to commit, and even after so
many punches you will keep this freedom, without which there is no moral value of
people, unless that thou thyself with liberty and not begibst because of the shock of
your freedom. So if I beat you now, so I do not really know why I'm doing it because
I you this freedom so that it can not shorten and may. If you have been there through
the beats or other penalties or by reward amount to you well, this would have no
value, rather the contrary, if it is to blame at all to can be determined in moral affairs
of advantages and disadvantages . So resist the temptation, as to let you keep from
evil, the only thing you must be freedom. But if Even the beats can help nothing to
your true moral education, so they take it out patiently, and it is now once again in the
world order that sin atonement demanded if I do not remember why they put on the
moral evil nor a physical wants to know. Ask teachers about the law, and they shall
know it. Something to help out moral education like the punishment after all, at least
it will be practically as if one's theoretically not allowed to admit. Encourage you to
at least contemplation of what it but the people still at liberty to take care of the
punishment or not, and only insofar as he does not care, his action is good or
bad. Basically, my dear son, you'll find yourself the decisions we took in a
metaphysical transcendental intelligible time, space and appearance timeless realm of
things in themselves, for better or worse, hereby to heaven or to hell, probably even
before birth, as no one can for not even the Lord: let so you like what freedom does
have done to you. Is Your intelligible character as finished in timeless eternity, then
all depends of course in his time empirical phenomenon in the sense of character
necessary together and thus sees from all deterministic, but the intelligible character
you've got made, even with freedom, and if deterministic opponents enforce your
very freedom with empirical facts, it need only be intelligible in the area to save,
since no one can meet, and that's the main thing. So much the better, but you see a
well, when you realize anything of all this, that all empirical education basically can
not afford to make you better, your character is indeed already finished in timeless
Let the unfathomable profundity of the intelligible, but rather basically
inintelligiblen freedom to which the Altvater of modern philosophy is well known,
advanced, lying, and to remain with the empirical field. Since ask me some women in
mind, where there is no sin, so to speak, at least they come to me so. They are from a
good family, her parents honorable living in delivering adequate and fair people, they
enjoyed the most careful education, all impurity was kept away from them, they had
at their parents good examples and good examples were kept them. Them was to look
up and opened the afterlife over this life beyond the earthly. It was satisfying and
develop their innate inclinations where given free rein, when it adjourned to the
health, morals and manners, with the smallest deviation from it but they were
expressions of disapproval of her parents, threat, punishment, and above all by
pointing to favor and displeasure of God and otherworldly effects of sin on the right
path back out, so that it finally became second nature for them to go down the right
path, and an inner reluctance arose, even to the smallest depart from it. As far as can
be traced's, the education and the innate system did all this, and fortunately, this
system was a happy one.
From the point of indeterminism has everything that is created, not actual
value. Because these women have not even made out of inner freedom, it was equally
easy to turn for better or worse so virtuous, and they are made by means of the world
order as to which their innate facility with its. How do I but a shining gem or a
beautiful work of art therefore guess no less, that they are not homemade, given away
only some of the materials are suitable to do so, such characters. With gratitude and
joy I greet them as evidence that it has been down here for some the world order can
bring what pure pleasure awakens, so to speak, that it is sometimes finished already
here with something in the sense where it strives everywhere.
Opposite I certainly imagine even characters who are born with the worst facilities,
educated under the most unfavorable conditions for the necessary successes of these
preconditions have been only a vicious life and pursuit it, and I also regret that the
world order with all its resources but is not progressed beyond the possibility of such
characters here below. But while I was a pure joy to those characters, I have only one
regret for just this, that the world has yet to suffer damage thereby, and that these
people have to expect yourself to have to be clever by damage. A reason to them that
loss, that their punishment to spare, but I do not see that they had to be so bad, but
only the front set at the same necessity that they must be better once, and it was not
unlike means of passage through are able to damage.
Now we are both extreme cases even the following aspects each other; extreme
cases are just to the most appropriate - to be clear to us that the direction of world
order really is towards the morally to keep good and promote the bad by the Follow
wickedness even to keep adversary and to inhibit it.
Those women enjoy universal respect, love, everything comes to meet them, they
even enjoy the order and prosperity of their household, of the blessing they to be
wide, over all a good conscience; themselves not to do and feel enough , can be worn
and probably would be even easier to wear them if they are not the theology because
of their sinfulness but hardcore hot in the hell made redundant manner. And the
vicious face? Everything is against him, you hate him, you despise, you breach it, you
lock it on, he has no inner peace, intemperance or sinful pleasure in revenge
consequences on own bodies.
While the eyes of the world it is often better than the bad, the good and you take as
a reason to sue the world order. Externally it's like to feel better, but also whether
inside? Not only in extreme cases, but also on average, drives the diligent, Moderate,
Fair, Honest, Charitable, even externally better than that is the opposite of this, and
what initially did not catch in this sense, suggests already on this side usually before
the end of and when even the best can encounter great suffering, so it helps to look
beyond the here and beyond, what helps the vicious beyond?
It is true, if education has failed the child, to use it for good, and can include fines,
although they not only belong, also reward and as part of it - as the subsequent
penalties are rarely sufficient to bring about the improvement even in this world,
there was too much neglected, probably yes man sinks in the penitentiary in being
with evil companions, only deeper into the vice. And while the righteous, surrounded
by those who were dear to him, dies with a look upwards, last depends of the vicious,
is cut down and thrown into the pit, without to have improved, it remains for him no
choice, but this last means to save himself from the supremacy of the punitive
consequences of his sins on this side, saves him not only not against the otherworldly,
but throws it the same as executioners who are waiting for him to, and when worldly
ordeals only extract confessions, then the otherworldly finally force improvement. So
the hell is with the fact that they defeat the evil that finally kills himself.
And what do you beweisest that? asks one. Again I say: I can not prove, I believe
it, but there is a belief that with everything I know and what I can conclude, and I
have to demand of practical aspects related reasonable. Do not believe it, the better
you verharrst in vice; hang you, but fear not; safer in any case, nor to improve
yourself in this world.
After all that, the responsibility goes right decision taken by the determinism is not
lost, it is only under a different point of view than in the sense of indeterminism dar.
Man is responsible in so far as he has to expect punishment for wrongdoing from the
point that it is in its consequences thrives itself as the world. That his sin is necessary
to change anything in it. But the idea that a punishment which finally surpasses the
sin, as necessary occurs like this need today or tomorrow, here or there, this side or
fulfill other side, is one where it occurs, even with among the means of the world
order, sins to prevent and thereby to obtain in good condition and progress, and it will
change again, nothing in the quality of this means that it appears necessary where it
occurs. But if he does not occur or does not work enough, so now the punishment
expresses its necessary effect, and proposes a first blow it with this effect not through,
so it does last a final but this there must also be a first.
Just as the punishment is not the only means to improve the human - as well as,
teaching and reward the good part of it - it's not just there to improve the people, but
before it causes you and also without bringing it to them scares the evil himself and
others from before injury to the company or deprived him of liberty, and these three
aspects of recovery, deterrence and prevention, of which the one or the other
predominates circumstances that are united under the one : the fact that the sinners
for the evil which he causes to society again evil is added to the preservation and
promotion of the welfare of society as a whole to serve, and the sinner himself is of
this only a small piece, but in the drives to be improvement fragment receives the
benefits of punishment. Because suggests not even the single sentence, it is but a
fragment of the series of penalties to finally break free.
With this, the most general practical principle directly to subordinating principle to
serve the sentence the benefit of society, and their application should be such that this
purpose is achieved, wherever possible, the Day takes the principle of expiation of sin
against the punishment, which is baseless and futile as long as it can not be translated
into that. But should also manage its translation into that general principle, why such
rather not save the fact that you stick directly to the clear Auspruch.
Nor is the moral worth or worthlessness of acts or omission is lost with the
determinism arises again only under a rather cogent Gesichspunkt within the meaning
of indeterminism.The indeterminist itself can not only found in the fact that
something is done for freedom, otherwise the freely chose evil would be equivalent to
the freely chosen good, but it seems that, with the freedom that God in the general
sense, ie, the moral value world leadership is the is preferred, which is in contrary
will sense. The very fact of determinism but also examines the moral worth or
worthlessness, except that he deterministic summarizes the freedom in the above
sense rather than indeterministic. From external constraints do something that will
benefit the world, founded in the sense of determinism no moral value of the action,
because the action does not follow from inner goodness of man, but declined the
essence of a people so strongly to the good, that all external temptations to evil,
nothing lined up against it, so would the inner necessity, out of which he is good, the
moral value of his actions not only did not reduce, but can make as high as possible.
Let us return to another point.
Admirable and enviable is patience, calmness and resignation, which the Turk
every pain and sorrow that makes it endures. God wants it that way, it is intended by
him, and after all the waiting believers paradise. Christians also are available with
this patience, peace and submission to the Schickungen God, but only as rare
exceptions, there is a rule. This is the blessing of determinism, a blessing that all
might have considered themselves not contaminated with indeterministic freedom of
teaching, Christians over the Turks faith exalted and spilled his good and his bad
element. Because of course he has his bad element. The determinism can be properly
understood only when unavoidable fortunes of the hands in my lap with the security,
everything will still turn out fine, but leads with the knowledge that failure to revenge
himself on the seaming, the drive, the hands to avert of preventable evil to rain.What
the person with the best knowledge and will by itself alone can not accomplish this he
first has to find the supplement in God. Because the Turk does not have the
understanding, he can fire the city, and the pestilence devour the people, and the time
will come where you will find the site of the Turks, for the necessity of world order is
understood that not all expectations of their activity, but the handling of their forces
and resources reserves the victory.
You say, but then what does a divine world government, the will of God, a
provision of God for the world when the need to do anything? Is that not the whole
God obsolete? But how can you keep a God in his essence and effect itself represents
the need for superfluous. The need is not apart from God, not against him, but their
law itself is the band of his character and work. And so you've got the necessary care
of a father for your Auferziehung, so necessary to mankind in their Auferziehung the
care of God. And that the one other concern themselves are necessary, it changes
nothing. The night view, however, it is often as if the spiritual life and work ceased,
where the need anginge, but that's just only to the many false illusions of the night
4 The prayer.
You finally ask: what can still use a prayer when it is in the world according to laws
which predict everything need approaching. Can it overcome the need? No, that can
not prayer, but even among their reasons take hold. Something it seems certain, first
in man himself and consequently looking beyond, because nothing works in people,
which is not directly or indirectly, obviously or unsichtlich, extended its effects
beyond him in the contiguous with it world, may we not also these effects know
track. If I see that someone at one of other people, parents, friends, and even
strangers, may significantly contribute please forward them to determine the granting
of something that would not be granted without a request, I can do well in cases see a
general law, consider it possible that a declaration addressed to God as representative
of the whole world Please have a corresponding influence. It is the only difference
that I have a plea to other people express externally, because they are out of what I
did not need in God because I have compassion in him. But that only makes the belief
in the efficacy of prayer. Probably even more than the effects, which extends the
prayer as it were secretly on the praying out, and can be effective only through a non-
traceable engaging a broader context of things, there are those into consideration,
which expresses the prayer immediately in prayer itself provided that the manner in
which it is opposed to the exterior and turns, has so much influence on his fortunes as
how the exterior is against him and turns, and without that he even knows what it's
like, a prayer in it, the have resulted in his more favorable the terms of the fulfillment
of his request arises, as would have been the case without prayer.
Now, of course, no one can force you to believe in the efficacy of prayer or a
different sense; faith but it assigns itself the three principles of faith among and thus
enters as a factor in the religious aspect of the day view. From the theoretical side, it
is only newly hired consideration in good stead that prayer ever anything in people
and consequently pointing must look beyond it, which presuppose the analogy of the
effectiveness of request from people to people, that it rather in the sense of granting
the non-payment is effective. Practical side of the people driving the need for prayer,
and he feels the beneficial effects of a right prayer, and historischerseits there were
prayers, as long as there are religions. Take prayer out of the world, and it's as if
you've broken the bond of humanity with God, made the tongue of the dumb child's
father. Without the belief in the efficacy of prayer, but the prayer itself could express
neither its effectiveness nor gain its historical significance.
From the previous considerations about the effectiveness of prayer in general, at the
same time promoting the flow conditions such as restriction of this effect, for an
unconditional effect is the same even as little as asking the people to people
award. Of course, after a prayer is so safe to hope for the grant, the hotter it is, the
steady, it goes in the same direction, the more unite in the same direction is because
with all the emphasis on the granting hinwirkende reason; also true with the general
view of the prayer, but these subjective conditions of granting it gets to an
objective. A prayer is also more certain to hope for the grant, the unanimous, it is the
direction that takes the divine world leadership in all, quite apart from the prayers;
force by itself can not grant, it is just a suggestion for God , to fulfill the request, that
is any forces, means moving in this direction, but is not happy never to forget, just a
participation, engages in the course of things. The grant may be too much conflict in
the world order, it has to provide for others and for else than for the petitioners, and
perhaps for himself about his own foolish request to make out. The foolish child will
some please cut off because it goes from impossible to Difficult, with general
considerations not acceptable, or downright harmful but also the kindest father: but
he may say in all this, that the request contributes nothing to induce him to grant ,
without the request, he might not have thought of the grant, but now it may please
him to grant the petitions to get as the petitioners granted it, so also prayer can help,
something that would not otherwise be allowable, allowable to make, and
circumstances in everything else the pros and cons equal, the prayer would be the
impact, a grand prayer enough to go when facing two equal pounds oppose
themselves; course a pound of prayer is not when an empty shell the scales against
should be a talent.
So man well see what he please, and do not mean that he could upset a solid wall of
God with his prayer, in short did not ask for the impossible. Also what they can
achieve by his knowledge and with his powers by himself, so he has not only to ask
God for he himself is God, be it the next or sole means to afford it or achieve; has in
God it to contact only if suitable means are exhausted, but he may well ask why God
daily that God keep him in a position to make his own, and are suitable for
performance outside help and blessing fail not from above. But wanted to ask
something in a schlimmem sense, would, looking in good sense, have held the world
order granting or consequences of granting himself the punishment ready.
However, you have a prayer did not merely directed at God please, that he may
grant us a wish, but also raised with confidence in him thought that he what we
encounter now and is still to come, will turn out for the best, and that if, after the
necessary course of things the means of this world not to reach that of the Hereafter
will be complete. Anyone who has felt the comfort of this idea in the most severe
suffering only once, and who has seen this idea and thereby aroused mood of those
who submit himself, by the most severe tests will not only inwardly upright, but also
gives it an outer attitude and behavior which he remains the best growth conditions,
which is not to say that such a prayer not use. Has done his one, to help themselves,
and can not help but so it remains flat even as a last means of the own thought: God
will help and the request that God would show him the right path. And what a peace
of others, he then moves to the unfortunate circumstances, he then enters the events
over, and much prefer to help the other, the so turns to his fate than he who curses his
fate and blasphemes God or denied. But it does not apply to direct those thoughts to a
dead world order, but in a living, participating in our bodying forth God, the idea is to
be truly alive and so comforting and effective.
Also, thanksgiving prayers there, and if the indeterminist says, how can you ask
God for something that happens to sheer necessity or not, as he may well say, how
can you thank God for something he has granted out of necessity , while the
determinist asks: how can we thank God for something he has not granted a sufficient
internal or external reason. Now we would like to thank parents, friends, benefactors,
if they prove to us good, as we assume that they do it out of love, without asking
whether love is necessary arisen to us necessary or not enough, we will also assume
that they have a fancy to our Thank you, and it makes us even pleasure, to thank them
again no matter whether this favor, this joy are necessary, why should it be any
different with God. I assume that God is pleased with my Thank you have, and it
gives me a sense of pleasure to thank him. That is enough of reason.
It looks like the previous one, although very deterministic view of the efficacy of
prayer, but leads to viewpoints with which one can get along well, and for which the
indeterminist is nothing better to offer. According to him, there God is indeterministic
free, what prayer is to grant, or refuse, but if it always prefers the most after the
libertarians God because of His perfect wisdom and goodness, so that comes out to
the same as if the determinist precisely because of this nature of the divine being
God, can prefer necessarily the best thing is at all possible under the conditions of
existence, and it seems pointless, if not to speak as a contradiction of a freedom, it is
not preferable, yet. Now you can indeed say: God may choose what he wants, it's just
the sense that God prefers the best, but in fact it in fact requires the goodness of God,
that what he prefers, also his creatures stead come. And where the draws
indeterminist appropriate conditions the efficacy of prayer as the determinist.
Since, according to the daily view of the spirit of the earth is an intermediate being
between God and us, we can ask: would not have to set up the first prayer of the spirit
that instead that we take God for it to complete. A subject but also directed his
request first to the Safety Authority before the king so that he molested. But in this
respect, makes the difference claimed that the man the king facing outward, that he
far has up to him, the king can not know all his needs and conditions as well as the
central authority not accommodate all requests, even in the Conflict of them can all
weigh against each other, but that is all in God differently, and there may be
represented in these relationships does not mean authority throughout God, man turns
also prefer equal to the whole God as the agent authority that is itself still deficient ,
and is also handy just in such a twist full enough. The pagans indeed worshiped
instead of the one God, the heavenly bodies on; but just how far they did not know
the one and only God in and over all the heavenly bodies, and it is the to the points in
the Christian world view to removal of the heathen fall must.
Against this, it is just an extension and increase of the principle of the request we
sent to Mitlebende if we also addressed to then divorced ones or holy ones are in that
in which they particularly close to us or through us or the object of the request in a
special relationship available to assist in the afterlife and to represent in God. For,
according to the teachings of the Day is located on this side of the road between
living only in a different form with the afterlife About trodden on, and these are more
far-reaching than this side means at his command.Protestantism is, however, this
beautiful and practical so effective, however, if often misused, lost all morals come,
and the Enlightened sees in the Catholic invocation of saints nothing but abuse. The
doctrine of the Day of the afterlife but makes other thought here about space, just do
not be discussed further here.
XVII. The law of causality or causal principle 1) .

(Allgemeineres. The concept of power and the experience drawn.)

Although the law of causality or causal principle 2) no less intellectual than
physical or natural area is concerned, it is still here, first and mainly considered in
relation to the latter and to bestimmterem evidence for the idea of the output of the
one adopted in the exact sciences, basic provisions of the material world to be taken,
without the law of causality bound to explain in principle, since rather the reverse is
1)This section encountered in the essential aspects of an earlier essay "On the
law of causality" in the mountains. d royal. sächs Soz. In 1849. Pp. 98 ff
2)The latter term refers to the general point of view, by which it will act here,
perhaps better than the first.

The internal state of a material system is determined at every moment: first, by

extension, shape, density and some still to be adopted quality of the last part up to
which the return can be found occasion we briefly summarize the nature of these
parts, secondly, by the relative distance and position them relative to each other,
which we briefly as an arrangement of the same call, thirdly, by their relative state of
motion, ie, direction, speed and acceleration state of their mutual movement, relative
movement but is in the transitions from one into another arrangement ratio. The sum
of these three determining moments of the internal state, we will briefly survey the
internal environment or internal conditions of the system, however, we, as external
circumstances, external circumstances of a material system, the corresponding
provision moments of the material world outside it, for the same with the epitome of
their relations to consider. For the whole material world, there are of course merely
internal circumstances, for any finite system and any finite part of a system both
internal and external circumstances. Now as long as you go back even just to parts of
finite size, can be conceived as possible that all texture differences of the same in
extent, shape, density dependent differences in the spacing and arrangement
conditions even smaller in the final analysis easier, the same kind of point particles,
resulting they are composed, well that itself will leave a place in space, but no spatial
extent, have no different tightness, and the various basic qualities of matter thus
eliminate. For a great fundamental simplification of nature would certainly be given
consideration. Now it is not there yet in the nature of knowledge in order to decide
the question of such reducibility can be fully valid, but nature seems to research more
and more prone to this simplification. Under the same assumption with respect to the
last atoms would be to speak of just yet external circumstances, and would be the so-
called simple basic chemical substances which are currently still different, their only
difference therefore have that anywhere similar simple atoms in them to molecules of
different number and grouping, possibly different state of motion, its simple elements
are met. The ponderable bodies were merely conglomerations same material from
which the ether is, the various imponderables were based merely on different states of
motion of this ether, and two kinds of electricity would have been only one. Also
would be a great simplification with a reduction to only two differente qualities of
matter, such as to seem utter unlike the kinds of electricity, achieved what an
ingenious recent study of tax collector leads.
For the following general considerations, however, can ever be left aside the whole
question of the possibility and limits of such simplification. What manner of basic
rules you may also need to settle the matter for the representation of dependent
phenomena, not only remains to be considered in the following causal law or
principle of causality from these differences, unaffected, but also of last resort itself
as authoritative for what one of basic provisions the matter has to be noted to look
at. By focusing namely on provisions which have been noted undoubtedly confirms
one has to watch for doubtful provisions, such as those to be adopted, so here come
out a confirmation of the law.
But we turn to these considerations that should avowedly merely serve the
presentation of the conditions to which to apply the law of causality, to give a certain
indication, to the contemplation of the law itself
In general, the circumstances, conditions in the world change and follow the
respective given other depending on the given. Respect one now of a universal
lawfulness of this dependence throughout nature, hereby wishes to speak to a general
causal laws, one has to assume that, when and where the same material
circumstances, conditions recur, return the same success, for, followed by the einemal
other than the another time, it would be generally valid for use of the concept of law
or no law would be just a fraction of the Act. Short that assumption is in terms of
legality itself, or establishes the same principle. Whether, however, the term, the
principle is realized, whether a general law of nature really is in this sense, the same
can not be decided, but requires experience, through the development of the concept
or principle.
Now be certainly absolutely identical internal and external conditions for a material
system restore at all, nor does occur such by itself in the course of nature again, but
you can find it, that the more approaching the preceding conditions of equality, so as
to equal the successes fail, so that you can close when the equality of the preceding
circumstances would be complete, it would be the equality of results. Here, the
corroborability in good stead, so basically those are only possible because they are on
the successes that occur in a given district, also lying parts disappears, the influence
of the more, so it can be neglected even more so the farther are, as is demonstrated in
the decrease of gravity with distance and the Unmerklichwerden the molecular forces
appreciable distances beyond. Like now, absolutely also taken account of but never
quite disappearing, influence distant parts and the inability to recover at all
completely the same conditions in the experience, the adoption of a general law of
nature, as defined above always remain a hypothesis, yet the naturalist takes this
hypothesis because he finds it confirms the more so the more thoroughly he followed
in cases that are approaching equality as possible, and because it enables him to
conclusions that are confirmed again in the experience, if a pursuit in the same, is
As a correlative to the law that, when and where the same circumstances recur,
return the same results, so to speak, as the second side of the common law, one can
establish the proposition that, when and where different circumstances, conditions
occur occur several successes. In fact, as to the true corroborability and the remaining
hypothetical nature of this second side of the law of the same as the first side.
Often, however, it may seem that arise from the same circumstances, different
sequences or different circumstances, the same consequences; alone always will be
then either prove or can think of as possible in the circumstances that we have
escaped from the preceding or following provisions somewhat or neglect by us , in
his concurrence, the bill would show confirmed. Such is the case of a stone from
different heights always leads to the same successes of Anlangens on the ground,
which apparently argues against the second side of the law, but he meets with
different speed and shakes the ground with various strength. In any case, the law has
been in the observation and evaluation approachable cases where confirmed by both
sides that they now reversed back closes of equal or unequal consequences of equal
or unequal causes, and touches like before, even to decide the basic question it and
really examined to decide whether to make do with the same basic assumption of all
matter in various command and state of motion. It could be, for example, that you
return to the command and movement conditions even the last part up to which in
thinking, regarded as equal in the two cases, reason would, but but several successes
would find arising from it, then one would have a accept difference in the density or
quality of the parts both necessary.
The statutory successes preceding circumstances or conditions are referred to as
causal or as conditions of success, the achievements themselves as their effects, one
hypostatizes the legal relationship between cause and effect in terms of a force by
virtue of which the cause brings forth their effect, and characterizes the power quality
or formally by the law, indicating what sort result from the circumstances indicate to
which the law applies, for example, whether attraction or repulsion, quantified by the
following from the legal relationship magnitude of the positive or negative
acceleration, which learn the material parts.
Short, one can say with apparent circumvention of the concept of law: force is the
relationship, by virtue of which one follows from the other, not just by one. But so is
this different "from the other" from mere "after another?" Only the very fact that what
follows from here and once, everywhere and always, that it follows the law. How to
reach the last attempt clarification of the concept of power but back to the reference
to the concepts of law. Otherwise in the following, encountered by me, explanation,
and the like, which you probably otherwise found "effects are only those appearing
on a thing changes, which would not have occurred without the presence of another
thing," and force "the nexus between two things which accounts for the effect of
capability ". But given that changes a thing can not take place without the presence of
a given others, is again accepting only insofar as always and everywhere the same
proportions of the two things (equality or absence of external circumstances like
mitbedingender provided) would follow the same changes. Where not let the entrance
of the changes in a things in existence of some other thing subordinate to this law,
they can also be non-addictive effects as the existence of some other thing.
Now you can say though: While the observance of the law proves that something
follows from the other, and is demonstrating the existence of a force of which
depends on the disassembly sequence, but the concept of law has yet to itself not with
the concept of mediation to create the divergence of sequence and hereby force; held
so as to adopt the actuating force of the law, one has to consider the law as a
determining force. Only then wonders how the law comes to an evidence for the
existence of a force and characteristic of their mode of action to be. All the same,
however, as you want the relationship between law and power rightly lay
conceptually, technically remain law and force by a more than merely insignificant
relationship cohere, and acts in fact for the physicist the notion of force only as an
auxiliary term for presentation of the laws of motion on.
To think the matter itself composed of forces, as is done by some philosophers, for
the naturalist has no clear meaning, and I do not know who they would have such a
general. In order to have a clear concept of forces in the areas of material happening,
something must be spatially Localized what is called matter, presuppose, it is clearly
definable forces are expressed in clear and specifiable way that physicists know to
create something. Forces from which or through which the spatially localized itself
should only arise have no traceable connection with this, nor can ever abgewinnen a
clear understanding them. If one wants to speak of creation of matter, we have them
but not to be confused with movement of matter, that is not powers of creation, when
speak of such could be, using movement forces. Equally unclear is the identification
of force and matter, after which some are doing something beneficial, something
good to do without it.
One says: we take the matter but only by forces which it is expressed to our senses,
true, so it's basically forces that we perceive as matter or interpreted as such. But that
is incorrect.What we interpret as matter directly, but are tactile sensations sensations
of sight, which appear to us in our perception localized areas, and the concept of
forces arises only from relationships between them. That these sensations are out of
the feeling of what we call matter, causally dependent made of something and into it
translates itself, is another matter, at least we can the causal mediation between the
hypothetical matter outside and the feelings inside, that is, the strength not identify
itself with matter, without getting into utter confusion.
Insofar as one draws the legal success considering the from the togetherness of two
substantive parts a , b shows another further neglect or equating co-determination 3) ,
this success can always be decomposed into two successes, to which a the part
of a concerned and the others, which the other part b applies. Of these, we think those
by the action of an external force of b to a , of these a to b formed. Both forces but
are not independent, but depend of law by the nature and being together, the two parts
together, and so the same forces are also called internal forces of the system of both
parts, so far as one reflects the fact that it the system both inwohnen and its regulate
internal relations within the legal context. The difference between external and
internal forces is respektiv do not therefore a difference in the matter, but in the
relationship of the parts or the whole of the system. What two parts is true of any
number of parts of a system, and each undergoes external forces from the other parts
of the system and expresses those on the other parts of the system, but all of these
internal forces of the system are themselves rich in the inorganic one considers the
successes mostly as external forces, in the organic than depending on internal forces,
and probably even mistakenly thinks, is of a substantial difference between the
inorganic and organic forces that that is the only way, this can only be taken that
way. But the planetary system moves no less internally by internal forces, which are
in outer separable, as a human or animal, and the nerve is expressed on the muscle,
the heart on the blood no less external forces, but in the internal of the whole
organism cancel, than any inorganic part to the other.
Assuming for a any finite part of the material world, for b the entire outside
world, it is absolutely not to be taken into consideration co-determination.

With the establishment of the principle of a general law of nature in this previous
meaning nothing yet is found it would someday go what sort successes anywhere and
from circumstances, but only just that, what manner it is always, repeat, if the
preceding circumstances somewhere and eventually repeat. Meanwhile, it's no idle or
meaningless principle, even if it proves a reaching across the room all the time and
context of the events of the ministry in substantive areas, which linked in time and
space farthest through a common reference, secondly, if Experience the conclusions
of induction and analogy in respect to the anticipated success depend on it, thirdly, if
it is the precondition and the general node of all special laws of nature.
We believe it to these three relationships somewhat more closely. In the first
relationship can observe that though have characterized a general context of the
events and work through the whole material world through which hung maturing over
the room, by a known law of gravity proves you, but the effect of this force, ie by
them acceleration generated weakens with distance indefinitely, our law is not
weakened by distance, and referred the matter to gravity even among themselves, by
anywhere and at any time when two masses of a given size in the heavens to face
from a given distance, they at the same acceleration condition to get confused info
remote participation of other masses can be neglected because of their removal
there. If this is not the case, the motion of both masses is modified in the same way if
they are accompanied the participating masses under the same conditions. So, while
the whole material world outside, extensively connected through time and space in
the same way everywhere, our law also established an independent of space and time,
all distance spanning fact everywhere constant interdependence of the world.
The Second anlangend, one holds in general for induction in the foot on repeated
experience necessary. But now reaches out to our principle that success was observed
under given circumstances only once to establish a valid for all time and all space law
regarding the success of the circumstances affecting it. Whence the need repeated
experience? It seems to me that it prevails sonderliche clarity. Therefore, we do not
have bemerktermaßen able to the same external and internal circumstances that
necessitate a success, somewhere and sometime just restore, so our laws principle
would ever be an illusion, do not allow a probation still apply if not the complication
of the various circumstances that occur at different times and in different places,
broken down into something the same and could be unequal, and one could not
conclude that the circumstances of the match at different times and places a match in
the successes which corresponds to an unequal unequal. Now, one might indeed a
priori doubt the possibility or the zulänglichen success of such decomposition. But
this would be to doubt the possibility and success of science itself. The whole science
is based namely on its successes any such decompositions 4) and now it takes just as
before, that zulängliche successes come out of it, ie that after confirm conclusions in
the experience.
4)I remember, for example, the decomposition according to the parallelogram
of forces, the decomposition federated translated oscillations in simplest
possible, the decomposition of the force by which ascends the steam or a
balloon into a force that drives him to put weight on the top and which tends to
pull down it down, etc.
To make now an inductive circuit, one must change the conditions in repeated
cases, but so that something remains the same in it, and see what the success remains
the same. This is found then the legal relationship between the causal factors and the
same held his successes. Usually, however, you believe it come to the induction at all
just depends on often possible to observe a given success under constant conditions
as possible, but this leads to nothing. In fact, the observation of success should
always be done under the same conditions, only at different times and in different
places, so the repeated confirmation of success under these circumstances would
mean nothing else than a confirmation of our common law, but to make it to the finals
at Induction is not to do, because rather its validity is assumed in these circuits. They
want to know what this depends on what particular on those moments. If now the
induction to be complete, it would be necessary under the same attitude of a moment
whose legal effect is examined, the variation can be performed by any other of the
kind and in degree, to be sure, that the equality of the causes such as success in the
repeated cases is not based on a composition of that moment with other moments, and
to general laws which take the success of the amendment of a certain moment in
itself, be proven inductively, it of course also applies to repeatedly watch these
amendments under certain circumstances even modified . Now that is not possible a
full implementation by all possible variations, the inductive conclusion can not make
the obligatory certainty of logical inference, which is based on the principle of
contradiction, of course, claim.
It applies, for example, the discovery of the case law. You raise a body up to a
certain height above the ground and let him free. He will go down at a certain speed
to the ground. He will do this at all times and everywhere, when and where to let go
of him, no matter how one changes of the same color, shape, substance, while not
lifting forces counteract from the bottom or it is not on the scales lighter in weight
shows, as an equal Luftvolum, or he is not too small even if mist bubbles (droplets of
mist?) can remain suspended in the air. So it is first and foremost to establish the law
that the remaining constant of the survey of the body above the ground with like
staying that Mitbedingungen corresponds ruthlessly variation in other circumstances,
at all times and in all places of the earth a Walking down the body to the earth. More
can be initially not close by induction. If you had not done enough variations of those
circumstances apply, for example, always by the same body color, shape, made of the
same materials, or always the case on the same design, a special personality and
distance from the Earth's center point can be characterized held the earth, leave or
getting air of the same type and density between the body and the earth find space, it
would indeed be the constant Walking down the body in all observation cases of the
stabilization in this or that left unchanged Mitbedingung can hang out with, which is
excluded by the made variations if the result was that the body is reduced at all,
remained the same at any changes thereto Mitbedingungen.
Meanwhile, this same success will have to be tainted depending on the variation of
those Mitbedingungen according to our general laws still with associated changing
co-determination, by the way, not all need to refer to the case of motion, such as the
color of the body, only the wave motion of the of its surface reflected light
changes. Of other conditions, but also shows an influence on detailed provisions of
the falling motion, if, for example, the density of the air and the weight of the body at
a given volume, the speed of walking down shows variable. But now looking for
natural science laws for simple conditions as possible to get out of the composition to
include the same on composite outcomes which our most general law so far remains
valid, as is of the same composition manner similar conditions on the same, from
unequal to infer unequal success. Now, to find the case law for simplified conditions,
we allow the body to fall in empty space, and then find that we can also vary volume
and density of the body in any circumstances in this case, without changing the
speed. But let the body at different places on Earth where a different gravity takes
place, falling, it can be seen from this even in empty space, an influence on the
absolute rate of fall, but the ratio of successive speeds somewhat the same remains
etc. In addition to inductive way before.
In the analogy, if applied to temporal success, you usually closes indefinitely:
similar causes will give similar results, but the question is, to what extent
similar. Under our law it is completely determined include: the extent to which the
same causes, the same successes, info, much the same causes do not, will not the
same successes. The frequent rejection of the analogy of how the no less frequent
false conclusions by analogy, based on a lack of segregation and detention of this
double point of view. Once one means when the cause in two cases merely similar, so
in some respects but are not equal, needs a result of the first case and the second case
does not take place, because they could rather depend on the unequals as equals with
the second case. On the other hand, one often includes reckless on this generally
speaking really held only possibility of similar causes, the same consequences. The
security while fertility of the conclusion by analogy but we would be winning if taken
down in the same and similar causes of unequal and then from the former as on the
same, as would exclude the impact on Unevenly in the Second, which the unlike the
conclusion as subservient is referred to as the same. However, inasmuch as the right
separation of the match can make the causes and consequences of unequal cases in
intricate difficulties, you will increase the safety of the circuit, and the same value of
an induction thereby can give that one incurs analogies from different sides, and in
which the same dissimilar the compared cases, variously combined, and watching,
how far it is thus attributed to the same key point 5) .
5)The previous considerations remain relevant for the analogy, after which
equals and unequals from the physical conditions in two cases on the same
intellectual and Unequal accessories (not too close to the episodes). Only one
not actually in the considerations of the causal law.

The Third anlangend so distinguishes different laws of nature and hence forces,
such as physical, chemical, organic, among which the physical gravity, electricity,
magnetism, elasticity, etc. But all this distinction depends merely the fact that the
respective laws and forces relate to different causal relations, ie from which to
emerge various successes after our general laws principle. All are just special cases of
the common law and the common force, which follows from the same match, from
unequals unequal, for this or that causal odds ratios. The philosophers of course have
been inclined always been to look for specific differences in the forces themselves,
and especially specifically different to see the so-called organic forces as of the
otherwise prevailing in nature mechanical, but as far as can be traced, are the material
successes in Indeed, only if different between organic and unorganischem empires, as
the material conditions are different, but so far as the same are one, the others are also
the same, for example, the eye acts like a camera obscura , the heart as a pump with
valves the bones as levers, etc., digestion and breathing out as well but can not
proceed in the organisms, since no such devices are there.
Pursuant than ever special conditions can be conceptually subsumed under more
general, can also be the special laws that apply to the particular circumstances, be
subsumed under general laws, which hold the amended success of the modified
conditions with among themselves, for example, the case law for any heavenly body,
especially under the general law of gravitation, the laws of sound and light vibrations
under general laws of material. Now you are looking for a most general law which
summarizes all possible variations of material relations among themselves. No
naturalist doubts that there is such, that it is not found until now. Necessary it is up to
the most basic conditions, worein can be any conceivable combination of
circumstances apart, back, and, therefore, the most general elementary law hot (it is
called also probably the most common molecular Act), however, our most eye-
aggregated-most universal natural law principle on the simplest situation is like on
any combination of the same application. In possession of our common law, we can
regardless of the elementary law and without the knowledge of the same for any
combination of circumstances predict success if we have only ever observed the
success of the same combination. In the possession of general elementary law, we can
for each set of circumstances ever to have been observed also without success, to
predict the success, we just have to except the law itself, the elemental ratios of the
complication and the calculation method that is needed for deriving the Successes is
to know. But since the former can be reached in a general way never, and will even
moderate complication insurmountable account of the difficulties, it would remain
referenced practically the derivation of successes always more or less on special laws
for special cases and conditions even if advised of the general elementary law, and
thereby only have to maintain the subordination under the general law.
Regardless now the most common elementary law is still unknown, but some
relatively very basic, more or less all material conditions sweeping, laws are found,
which without added rich, in isolation to the complete certainty of success because
they contain a complete determination of the causal conditions, but conclusions by
very general relationships allow, and require only the addition of more definite
conditions to lead to greater certainty of success, as: the law of equality of action and
reaction, the law of conservation of center of gravity, the law of conservation of areas
the law smallest effect, the law of coexistence of small oscillations, the law of the
parallelogram of forces, the law of conservation of energy or energy.
Previously it was assumed that all motion and inertia forces of law only, which are
independent of velocity and acceleration of the particles depends, by Wilhelm Weber
forces are electrical in areas known to hang out with the speed and acceleration of the
particles, and probably apply to all such matter, except that their success, the
marginal effect is unnoticeable in many circumstances, as in the movement of the
heavenly bodies, because of the depending on the distance. Once they were for sure
in that the gravitational and at all material forces without loss of time only act with
decreasing potency at the greatest distances, more recently, the possibility has
emerged that a certain amount of time to reproduce the effect is necessary in the
distance. In altgemeinen you are looking for today for all movements of the
composition of the effects merely binary forces, ie, that depend on the interaction of
each two parts to make them dependent with persistence, I have to justify the
probability of ternary, quaternary and even multiple forces in my atomic theory
sought, the effect of which connects with the binary forces. In general, both attractive
than repulsive forces pulling on the representation of natural phenomena, and it does
not seem that you can get along to elementary conditions without Mitzuziehung the
latter to the former, even in decline, but wonders if the repulsive forces, where such
occur are to relate to one other quality of matter as the attractive (as with the adoption
of two opposite kinds of electricity) or by other distance and arrangement conditions
of the last particles can be made dependent on what there is a simple principle in my
hypothesis of multiple forces. The atomistic view, according to which the space is
intermittently filled with matter, prevails among naturalists, and speak my mind
overwhelming reasons that I have discussed in my atomic theory, which considered
that all forces are remote workers connected,, but have recently, some very important
research for the view of a continuous space-filling, and, in connection therewith
ensure that all forces act only between contacting particles.
So large now, uncertainty in these fundamental points is still without its completion
a most general elementary law that would testify, emerge what manner of success for
any material conditions, not be erected, but our most general law of causality or
causal principle is not only on unaffected, but the final settlement of that uncertainty
itself can be sought only in the most general satisfaction of this principle. You change
the assumption about the basic constitution of matter and the forces that depend on
until such a satisfaction is done in the simplest possible manner, and agree together.
Info distance the forces of nature's present in every moment may depend, however,
change this by the action of the forces themselves;, the success of any material
circumstances and hereby forces for a later time in principle be just as determined to
be successively the success followed by the number of newly arising circumstances,
by considering any previous success of this series as a cause of later generations. Do
this is to calculus insofar shorthand way that it allows to summarize the whole series
of successes from a starting point to a final result, but the difficulties of this bill, as
already regarding recalls the general elementary law, only in the simplest cases, or for
the simplest conditions to overcome, and it is not to think that one can learn by what
will become of all of nature by the action of their forces once, which targets it tends,
even if she even a determined pronounceable goals, a final state tends to date. It is not
disputed but it would be desirable to know about our general causal principle of
nature such final principle, which we of course any more than the causal principle
purely a priori, as necessary would have hoped to prove. But the question is not
whether such a principle similar to the final causal principle proven experience as far
as principle that we are entitled as well to put it far ahead our views based on the
causal principle as we lay the next basis. In fact, I think that makes up such a
principle, and will speak in the name of principle, the tendency to stability in the
following section.
Hereinafter, the following question.
How do we insure us because actually the equality of material circumstances or
conditions for given cases? I can with my senses, which alone I owe the customer of
a material world, but only this or that immediately perceive from what I, as a causal
conditioning one has to take into consideration, see the material things only the
exterior, just see it of this or that party, see the articles vary in size depending on my
distance from it, they look different depending on the device of my eye, and for every
other man everything falls the different again as for me, the feel at all does not extend
beyond the immediate close out, and the use of other senses seems to involve only the
task, not to solve. What so we have to keep in assessing the equality and inequality of
physical circumstances, but we must not view the equality and inequality of
subjective individual perceptions are relevant for objective equality and inequality
from which we have to close on objective achievements.
Indisputably not, but above all, we have to consider that the equality and inequality
of objective appearance conditions determined only with the subjective together the
appearance of success after the causal laws, so we do not have to be drawn from the
first only in terms of the same our conclusions. I look at the moon, he strikes me as a
moving across the sky shining disc, I turn around, so none of it seems to me,
regardless of how early he goes across the sky. That would contradict the causal laws,
which for the same conditions same consequences requires, if not my position to the
moon changed with my repentance, so it appears to me no more after the rejection,
appear unto others after the rejection thereof; however it all after the grant open eyes
appear healthy. So this corresponds rather to the causal laws. Places on the earth apart
the different observers will see the moon in a different position and movement to the
sun, so for example, a total eclipse for some places it is not everywhere, here are the
objective conditions are the same appearance, but not the subjective, Therefore, the
different manifestations of the moon path. But now comes the naturalist eventually
everything depends on, preserving the equality of subjective appearance conditions,
the temporal and spatial limits given phenomena with the boundaries
unchangeable 6) or their changes after controlled space and time scales or with their
departments to cover to bring, and by always applying these standards in the same
way, the smaller expands onto bigger and vice versa, and the laws followed, after
which the symptoms change with changes in the degree in a given phenomenon
territories hereafter back also includes the changes of appearances on the extent He
gets to assure the equality or inequality of objective material conditions with more or
less security.
6)This invariance is naturally turn to be stated only for equality of subjective

Recently, the possibility has emerged and been represented (by customs officials)
not only ingenious considerations, but even with regard to experience, that it is still a
fourth addition to the three dimensions of space in which our lives are decided, and
that if only in exceptional cases, forces from this fourth dimension in our world of
three dimensions into play. Now if the so - what the question may here be left aside -
so would that our causal laws have not objected to by needed to extend it only to the
world of four dimensions; well but consider the exceptional cases where the
intervention of forces from the fourth dimension in success is visible, which can be
observed in our three dimensions, at the same time be regarded as exceptions to the
otherwise valid rule, successes are realized in our three dimensions, even just by
forces that are understood within the same three dimensions, can make causally
In all of this we had been merely the substantive area being and occurrence in the
eye, but this area there is a spiritual, is to cast a last glance at the still. Now, an
important question arises: can not the spirit abändernd act on the material successes,
which would depend on mere laws of nature in the previous sense, if not a ghost
while stocks by draw near its relations themselves as conditions to the conditions of
material events, his forces therefore to add to the material forces, and it can not
hereafter happen, that from the same material circumstances at different times and in
different places uneven, resulting from unequal same success if the first case involved
various mental conditions, one second if the inequality of material conditions through
effect would be compensated by spiritual side. Short, one would have the same result
of this intervention to call this operation of the Spirit in the legal course of nature and
After dualistic conception of the relation between material and spiritual principle
must now such an intervention, appear such interference principle as possible
anyway, and as facts of experience for the realization of this possibility can be the
real power of the will, our muscles to move so and so, the power of emotions to
distribute our bloodstream so and so, claim it.
Meanwhile hereafter our most general law of nature with the to him submissive
laws would not be meaningless once, because it is still purely authoritative for all
cases remain where the spirit of the matter would go their way, secondly one with the
causal law only to the physical area transfer needed to be able to say: according as the
material and spiritual circumstances, conditions, together somewhere and sometime
same or not the same, it is with the success of the event.
But at least the substantive action would hereafter can be designed differently
according to the Spirit of various stake here, and therefore the law of causality in
such participation is not a pure pursuit allow more material in the area. Unlike in
monistic version, if you depend on each other thinks the spiritual and material events
in exchange conditionality from each other according to the following basic
psychophysical laws. According as the spiritual circumstances, circumstances are the
same or not the same, it is said also to the associated material of the case, or else: for
peers and unequal in intellectual areas, there are also some belonging to the same,
and unequal in substantive areas, which can be assumed would mean that every same
as unequal direction of will or emotion also equal or unequal material conditions in
our match, and, wofern the world a spiritual principle is subject, that would be the
case throughout the world. Under this assumption, our most general law for the
substantive area could very well go harmoniously with the laws of mental action,
without any disturbance would be the same by engaging the mind possible. For the
purposes of any monistic conception of the relation of body and soul, it must even be
taken for granted, and for at least a dualistic view as possible, but if body and soul,
mind and body should be set up to fit each other well in this view.
Regardless we now understand the psychophysical constitution in the previous
sense, nor is able to prove by induction, as the physical law of causality, but one can
experience, in so far as such can make the same hold as favorable.
If one were to those in the previous sections discussed indeterministic freedom
view of the intellectual field of prefer deterministic, so nothing would ever stop to
take a harmonious co-goings of the natural law and intellectual legitimacy insofar as
they both were to assume that, as the legality as well as the results in a break of
legality in both areas, in connection to the basic psychophysical laws.
There are arguments about whether the condition or requirement of a causal us only
begotten or resulting from experience is. My opinion is not easy to answer this
question with yes or no, but one has to distinguish two there.
If physical movements of our limbs depend on successful detection of our will or
perceived drives, so there are undoubtedly those psychic drives themselves any
material processes in our brain under that law, tighten the outer movements in
question, provided that the connection between brain and limbs and the limbs
themselves demgemäße have the facility. In this arbitrary many other particulars of
our limbs, we probably have an innate sense immediately that we can refer to as the
causality of the movements brought forth by us, as well as a sense of the strength of
our mental drive and the effort that costs us the movement. Contrast, neither the law,
according to which the internal motion the outer triggers, nor that this legalism is at
all in games, we come immediately to mind, but it is only a matter for the research
part of the physicist, physiologist, psychophysicist, they want to be different to the
task dare. The less the person is a legal relationship between angeborenerweise apart
following events that take place outside him, require or request. What asks the child
according to whether the path of the moon in the sky is legally related or not, the
Moon goes for the child as he now just goes, even the adult man can pass a lot of
phenomena in themselves, without asking for a cause and the question then is a
matter of consideration, the answer is a matter of investigation.
Meanwhile leads an obvious analogy to the natural man to the fact that, as he
moves his limbs in response to conscious drives, all movement in the world,
depending on such successes, and the day view leads back to this, award given by the
night view, view. Seemingly speaks against it, but that take place in our body itself
enough movements, the digestion, blood run, involuntarily and unconsciously, so
why not also beyond? Our bodies subject but anyway only a part the influence of our
will and of our becoming conscious drives, if it is one, is growing with the rest of a
general material system, which carries a more general sense, is also subject to this
part of the coming of as conscious influences which, incidentally, quite probably in a
more or less general, a whole system of movements in one dominant, can reduce
momentum after the facilities belonging to the execution of these movements from
ancient times, are produced with the participation of consciousness spezialer here (cf.
Sect XIV).. And this is true not only of movements in our body, but also those in the
outer nature.
XVIII. Principle of the tendency to stability final principle of the world.
Psychophysical Hypothesis of pleasure and pain 1) .
By the material in the world, short nature prevailing forces are generated changes,
so varied they are, but in principle a universal lawfulness, which linked causes and
effects, also referred to as the principle of causality of us find a band, which in the
previous sections was talk. This was the question touches on whether the final result
of the action of these forces is not on by a general principle, short final principle, be
1)Earlier in my "ideas for creation and development History of
Org" established, but mostly followed by other relations here.

Although, when the time has no end, the world transition should have an end? You
need not be assumed to speak of a final state if one understands by such to whom the
world indefinitely (asymptotically) tends 2) , without ever reaching it. A retired it
might not be. As long as the law of conservation of energy applies. But it could be a
way to a ratio of the movement.
2) In pursuit is understood in the material world at all a force or force action
that proves itself by its own success. If no andersher forces predominate in the
opposite direction, or no resistors cancel the effect. Thus, there is a desire of
every body to fall to the center of the earth, ie a force that pulls him away, and
he really falls in this direction, as long as no predominantly lifting forces to
counteract, or the resistance of the soil does not destroy the success of his
efforts. A secured at one end rope sought through an attached train to tear, but
it does not happen as long as the reactive force of the elastic ripping prevents
etc. The fact that a quest can be perceived, the spiritual field goes on, but we
initially apply only to later be extended to the material world in the sense of the
physicist, the relationship to the spiritual world.

Now, however, would think well that actions and reactions in the material world in
the whole always compensated or undetermined change so outweigh that at all from a
pursuit of the whole material world for a specific final state, or even a success of this
endeavor, di an approximation to such, is not to speak. But there are real relationships
that but let us remember quite well.
Be given a self located below or above-ground material system constant external
conditions, the particles are held together by forces in a limited space. The account
teaches for certain not to difficult cases, the experience proves more generally that the
particles relate to each other in such relationships and respect can be constrained by
the dependent of these conditions force effects in such movements today that it
periodically, ie after the same sequential time periods either return fully or with
greater or lesser proximity to the same conditions and therefore with respect to repeat
also because of the return of the dependent power effects the same movements each
other completely or approximate what we a completely or approximate stablen state
of motion (not to be confused with a stablen equilibrium state) want to call.
How would the relative motion of the Sun and Earth, apart from the interference
caused by the other planets and a possible resistance of the ether, be a completely
stable, with respect to the disturbances it is an approximate stable. Thus, the rotation
of the earth is apart from the fact that the particles at the surface and even inside
Glutmeer make more or less irregular movements, a completely stable, with regard to
this, in relation to the joint rotation but only as minor to beating movements she is a
Approximate stable. The motion of a pendulum and a string attached at their end
points would be, apart from the resistance of the air and the friction may be an
entirely stable at the fastening points, in consideration of these circumstances, it is an
approximate stable. The total mass of our solar system are understood with respect to
each other in an approximate stablen movement, if indeed they never exactly but
close relative return because of the incommensurability of their orbital periods longer
periods in the same proportions to each other, and thereafter repeat almost the same
movements. Our whole body is so set on more or less approximate stable states of
motion in waking and sleeping, breathing, circulation, peristaltic movement of the
intestines. Any kind of movement is at all insofar as it can be described as regular, a
stable by the rule represents a point of repeating itself, and one may well assume,
although the exact proof must be provided even that as far as the movements of the
parts of a system of spatial arrangement thereof depend also on regular, hereby
stablen movements of the parts against each other is regularity this arrangement
If we indeed somehow arranged the particles of a system from the outset by
chance, thinking directed arbitrarily large and arbitrarily their initial velocities, and
the same may be varied movements against each including first and very instable
resulting therefrom. The success of this instability itself, however, is that the
particles, rather than with respect to repeat the same movements each other and thus
return to the same position, are restless, out indefinitely continued into new
relationships until they under all possible conditions in which they can get such a
formative where are advised that allow either an exact or should such not be reached
on the circumstances of the initial conditions, approximate possible recurrence,
according to the former, if it is achieved, can be left again never, however, the second
it refers to a limit, by which to expect a regression in the approximation. Both of
course, only as long as the system is really left to itself or located under constant
external conditions remain, and so far the former in any case is the system all over the
world, one can speak of an existing in the world tends to stability, and the existence
of such a tendency as a principle pronounce. In fact, hereinafter referred to stability
or may not impassable approximation because the final state of the world to which
gravitate all of the movements, of which it has no retroactive strive, but this does not
preclude an accomplished in a single parts or areas of the world stabler state time
setting is again disturbed by changing its external relations, but only to go to meet a
new stablen states with reference to these changed circumstances within the meaning
of the tendency of the whole, what continues to come back.
As a priori side of this principle can argue that, if any of a final principle, the
speech should be, there may be no other than our principle, because should change to
indeterminate, the movements, it would be so just said that there was no final state,
where they are approaching. So the question falls to the admissibility of our principle
to the question of the admissibility of a final principle at all together. Now, of course,
would be very desirable, the same as a necessary from the general nature of the forces
to be able to deduce what until now is not yet the case. Of course, it is therefore not
less priori that, once conditions have occurred that lead back what earlier to restore
conditions, this state of stability in the exclusion of external changing forces can not
again be reversed, and equally self-evident that unless full stability in this sense is
there, the restless movements must change until it is reached when it is reachable. But
it is up to now not from the nature of the forces proved that in the unlimited for
thinking way instabler forms of movement this restless change genuinely
approximated under all circumstances more and more a stablen state and under all
circumstances, if not full stability, but an approximation step was attainable without
it. We can therefore, the principle of the tendency to stability in the sense indicated
only up to a certain extent be explained as a priori self-evident, however, we found it
in some of the bill easily joined simple cases as, but otherwise have to be regarded as
a very universal experience principle. What especially the in the same into passing
rate is concerned, that no regression will made in respect to the approach to stability
in a left to themselves or being under constant external conditions system so we can
have the planetary system, although its mass bemerktermaßen never exactly in the
same conditions back to one another but do but in such proximity, that certain limits
of deviation are exceeded.
As limiting cases of stability and instability of a system we can beziehentlich the
case described, where the particles of the system always remain each other in the
same position, ie, the state of rest against each other, we as absolute (inner) denote
stability of the system, and the case where they change their relationship by diversion
into the indefinite continued gehends. The tendency to stability in the whole world
but not at the absolute but only on full stability, or greatest possible approximation to
it. For the achievement of absolute stability would be a disappearance of the living
force in the world presuppose what bemerktermaßen the laws of their preservation
contrary, while full stability of a system can ruthlessly insist on the size of it make
living force, except that the ratios of the kinetic energy between the individual parts
of the system for which stability is not to be abandoned by unilateral decrease or
increase the living power of certain parts without disturbing the stability of the whole.
To summarize the previous one, there is the principle of the tendency for stability
for his own strength over-ground or located below constant ambient conditions
system, which is held together in a given space, in that it more by the action of its
internal forces without step and more stabeln a so-called state approaches, that is such
where the parts periodically, ie return to each other at equal time intervals in the same
locations and movement conditions.
For the world as a whole is the utterance of this principle can be taken as strict in
claim for partial systems of the universe but if they are subject to external influences
on the part of other systems, further is the following considerations one, which, for
those in favor of increasing the stability of the whole temporarily, but only
temporarily can take place setbacks in stability, however, but eventually they have to
add to the tendency of the whole.
We look hereafter of the material world over to the carried thereby, ie, in a ratio of
conditionality to standing, spiritual world, we can see from the outset cause to the
general tendency of the material movement to stability in first with the equally
general tendency satisfactory or pleasurable states recently, and hereafter also
stability to think first with satisfaction or pleasure recently in relationship. Some
developed certain this idea boils down to: psychophysical 3) operations at all for the
more satisfactory or keep pleasurable, the more they are beyond a certain limit or
width approaching that of indifference, the full stability, so pain full to order each
more they take off down below this limit or width of the full stability.However, this is
only a hypothesis at first, and if it is durable, will depend on whether it is
feasible. Come back to this subject later in a more general consideration, we at least
take the following further explanation of the physical side of the principle on which
voraussetzliche mental capacity with respect. What is it predicated of pleasure and
pain conditions regarding instabler stabler and conditions as such, can refer generally
to conditions above and below the indifference at previous sense.
"Psyhologisch" short term for Physical insofar as it contributes something
mental, di stands in a relationship of conditionality to it.

One has to distinguish between internal and external stability conditions, relating
inner insofar as they relate to the ratios of the relative movement of parts of a system
to be external if it is based on two or more systems on the parts in relation to each
other. Thereafter, two partial systems the world A and B , each of which contains a
number of particles in internal stability by itself, from outside the instability to each
other and hereby the overall system both be internally instabel by both the particles
of A than B but to not the particles to each other with respect both to return
incommensurable with each other due to their movements one another, according to
the same periods in the same ratios. However no system can have inner stability
without its parts, even if they still contain parts, both internally and externally against
each possess stability.
Now let's try the psychological interpretation of these conditions, as can the
psychic being, the two systems A , B belong to, be taken by internal stability of each
for himself in satisfactory condition, but in an unsatisfactory relationships to each
other, which of the psychic being, the system A and B and, more generally listened to
the whole system of the world is felt, and the occasion is, the state of A and B as long
as any revisions to by growing stability in the whole enters a fuller commitment ratio
for the whole. This, but the internal stability condition of need A and B to leave time
looking for what the pain carries to adapt to each other until the still taking place
adaptation, but which suddenly can not take place, a simultaneously external and
internal stability ratio for both and hereby also both for the system is brought about.
As long as two systems, or parts A , B with internal stability of each, but the lack of
external stability, stand with respect to each other except effect relation, is also can be
no mutual influence on the change in its state of motion, therefore, a tendency to
bring about stability between them, not appreciably be. But just as B with A interacts
through growing near or intermediate entry of intermediate links, and the stability
condition will suffer each for himself amendments to pass through instable states of
the system on both a full or approximate internal stability to lead, in which the own of
each for himself is again included.
From another quarter, it is expected to be in line with the principle, without,
however, a certain general evidence already exists that an existing in the existing
conditions of difficulty, Aand B to lead another one approximate stabeln conditions,
by entering the distance between them or breaking the switching elements, which
maintain the effect relationship between them until it can be certain limits, be
compensated, by which to subsume physischerseits that when a planet to its relations
to the sun is not able to get into a stabeln state of motion in relation to her, he,
according to the law of gravitation to Indefinite like a comet from her, until he comes
around in the attraction sphere of another sun, in which he is held, however, can be
drawn psychischerseits here that hostile individuals who are able neither to adapt to
each other, yet of which one to defeat the other and thus is able to accommodate itself
to avoid possible, flee, or abort the connection with each other.
The imperfect stable internal state of a system can, generally speaking, think
decomposed into a perfect or approximate stablen possible joint motion condition of
all parts and a instabeln the individual parts or assembled it. Thus, the movements, in
which the parts of our earth understood from the common stablen all rotational
movement of the earth and the relative movements thereof are designed instabeln
arranged against each other. Thus, the focus of two masses of a system to which one
thinks transmit a common movement of all parts, be understood in stabler movement
relative to each other by themselves orbiting in a regular period, while the masses of
the two particles are in the process instabler movement relative to each other. A string
can throughout in a regular period-to swing up and down and thus give their main
sound with subtle overtones, but at the same time give an annoying background noise
by irregular vibrations, etc.
And so we can also satisfy some respects from the general, after major
relationships, which brings us to special provisions of dissatisfaction.
Bids stabeln movements are periodic, ever comes into much consideration that can
fit smaller to larger periods, and that the stability conditions can pursue in relation to
the larger and smaller periods especially. But if a full or approximate internal stability
of the system held the same with regard to the entire movement conditions, as part of
it, that not only the periods of each particle in itself, but also of the different particles
to each other in whole or approximate rational proportion. Two main cases arise
under this term, once that the particles of a system all adopt the same common
motion in a regular period, and that they make vibrations are the times in rational
proportion to each other.
But we hold only after the previous exemplary Mitbezugnahme on the mental side
of the same principle now generally considered.
The state of pleasure is psychischerseits solidarity with one, if not kicking himself
for the reflective consciousness, in any case falling into conscious life, which also
determines consciousness. Eliminate strive to maintain the same state or to increase,
the state of displeasure with a desire to improve it, or to reduce, in
conjunction. Although we can swap a lustful state with an unpleasurable also free
from conscious drives, but then always only because of conflict with the predominant
motifs in the above sense. The joy of the good, the pain of a bad conscience, the
desire of sensation, by current aversion to acquire greater pleasure, the pain of
foresight that we have to bear great pain, if we do not leave us like minor pain
associated with, such motives, but motives are all in the above sense.
Pleasure as pain can make to many different states. Each area has its peculiar sense
of pleasure and pain, or rather the pleasure and pain can be obtained by entering into
various different areas of co-determination sense, what in the 15th Sections is
discussed. It can make us something to general relations like what makes us special
relationship to pain, such as a painting like after its general composition, however,
displeased us special characters in it. It may also feel like such displeasure with
various degrees of mental activity there, such as a quiet as noisy music like as well as
displeased, except that the activity at any rate must exceed the psychological
threshold 4) , because lust like pain are essential provisions of consciousness .
4)That in m. Elem. d psychophysics discussed closer to the threshold law is
that every physical process, which by its very nature carry a given definition of
consciousness can, but must first exceed a certain degree of strength, the so-
called threshold, provision shall really aware are.

We consider now first the most general point of view in mind that, according
occurs as instability, a pursuit is, that the forces go there to leave this state and
perform in stability, in accordance with the stability is, a striving, this condition
received or, in the case of mere approximation to it, as far as possible on the situation,
the conditions are to be increased, further, however, that conditions of stability and
instability can occur in the most diverse ways of moving that they may consist of
general and special relationships that they are not tied to any particular degree of
living force, we will find fulfilled the above general conditions of representation of
pleasure and pain, when we, in general, with conditional qualifiers, like with stability,
pain with instability psychophysical states or conditions of the movement set above
the threshold relationship. Also the view is on the most common examples of the
emergence of pleasure and pain of this hypothesis stead by the common interpretation
of these examples in terms of the hypothesis comes easily, while another man linking
point for the variety of the same hardly seems possible, except that the impossibility
of a direct observation of our psycho-physical states is hypothesized paths in the
respective examples in a strict recycling.Brevity's sake we take in the discussion here
about pleasure and pain conditions in the short term aesthetic conditions together and
call states and modes of harmonic or disharmonic motion, according as they are more
prone to side of pleasure or pain.
Suppose a pure tone. It pleases us by its purity. On what is the same? The fact that
the vibrations in a regular period, so apart from the gradual fading away, go full
stability on. When impure clays are a mix vibrations, which, consequently disrupt this
regular recurrence stability. We take a harmonic chord, then the complicated
vibrational state, but not to return after long intervals back to its outputs back. In
dissonant chords whose notes have oscillation periods, which expressible in rational,
but only by large numbers, are fair, this is only after longer periods of time, in those
where they are in irrational ratios, never the case. Now the ideal case that the same
relations are manufactured only after infinite time again considered the case of
instability, and undoubtedly comes along the length of the periods in which extends
the stability would insbesondre for beings whose life is itself subject to a finite
periodicity in which pleasure and pain on account of an even more detailed
provisions requiring operation are suitable, and the beat of the music and tempo,
meter and rhyme of the poem immediately arrange themselves under the terms of the
stability. The pure color behaves like the sound. The regular colors, patterns,
symmetry, regularity ever give any of the comments made earlier dispute to stabeln
movements occasion. At least it is easy to think that the unanimity of the members of
each work of art is based on a uniform impression on stabler revival movements, and
that take place at each regular pain disorders hereby stabler movements in us.
The well-known very general aesthetic principle of uniform link the manifold
suggests that the desire ever growing, ever more and ever more varied periods, a
greater general harmonious period, ie, installed in stablem relationship to it.
From the displeasure of boredom I guess: it depends on the fact that if nothing is
there to captivate our attention and hold together in a certain direction, our psycho-
physical process in general is divided into small instable movements.
Insofar phenomena of consciousness which different parts of our psychophysical
system, such as facial organ, auditory apparatus, belong to probe member, both
distinguished and can be linked into a unified consciousness, may also pleasure or
pain, which depends on the internal stability conditions of the parts for themselves,
and, which are distinguished in both the mutual outer depends. So if two for himself
pleasing or displeasing colors, which are perceived by different optic fibers, represent
a pleasing or displeasing color connection, or if two of probably sounding or
mißklingende sounds which are perceived by different Akustikusfasern, consonant
with each other or dissonant.
Strangely, pain stimuli, generally speaking, do not exhaust their action as easily as
delights and attention while also capable of not continuous, but persistent and to tie in
more frequent recurrence than delights; think of a toothache, a worry. Without ever
completely clarify the reason of this difference may, I still think to take a law of
attention, which of course itself is still necessary to recycle, it claimed, that the
attention they particularly through changes in the sphere of phenomena to which
refers, is attracted, if instability and variability of movement state can be identified in
some way, also can be at least generally overlooked that the relevant difference in
terms of the tendency to stability or harmony. Namely, by pulling a pain stimulus
attention to himself, he pulls them both standing in relation to the means and the
prospect of such funds to eliminate him and determines our activity in this direction
until it is eliminated. A delight but does not draw attention to itself and the means to
bring him, because he is already there. So it is to keep more in the sense of the
tendency to harmony, attention fixed on pain stimuli as delights, which of course the
downside for us was that we dislike stimuli, generally speaking, longer plaguing the
delights enjoyed, but on the whole brings the major advantage that they are lifted to
the safer and more sustainable.
That our principle at all is much more optimistic than pessimistic view of the world
to help, is readily apparent. Although it because it is no implication for the existing
state of the world out, but probably not for an unsuccessful always been passed and
continuing forever tendency to improvement of the conditions which we have of a
different side through the discussions of the 15th Section was performed, and it gives
a peculiar consolation to know a principle which guarantees this improvement, and us
the same bound as opposed to that no backsliding in it for the whole thing possible,
the setbacks in individual and for the individual but only new start-ups to those are so
last improvement.
Closes but the stable state of the whole individual all by itself. As long as that is
now gone contrary, however, the stable condition of the individual, which stands to
other things in instablen conditions, according to earlier discussions plowed go lost
again, but only to promote stability in the whole and the individual itself a new
stabeln to lead state in which it is located and at the same time blend in with the
I try not to carry out our principle of pleasure and pain through the means of the
world even further after the previous should have sufficiently shown that such an
implementation of general considerations hardly likely to stand in the way. In order
however to give a more definite and rigorous representation of these relationships on
the basis of our principle, we can not at the first short still pretty vague prints will be
the relationship of pleasure and pain to stability and instability and their attempt to
respond to more detailed provisions, but subject to difficulties and uncertainties for
their uplift a more secure and more development of psychophysics would include
only when there is until now. So also the following experiment may be the first or
only accessible rather precarious and further discussion Attack of the task, as already
considered authoritative.
That completely stable states should occur at all in us, can not be assumed a priori,
but needs a sound, a konsunierender chord not be absolutely pure, to please us, also
there are a lot of states of mind, of which we can say neither that they have that they
are accompanied by pain, however, but the underlying psycho-physical process must
be either stabel or instabel of desire. This andres and taking into consideration, we
formulate our hypothesis specific as follows:
Pleasure and pain of registers in psycho-physical activities, which are, first, even
strong enough to exceed the threshold, and therefore ever to be conscious of what we
believe as a quantitative aspect of the operation, secondly (as already made above
remark), the full stability , approaching a certain limit, the pleasure threshold or
beyond a certain limit, the pain threshold, remove out of what we believe as a
qualitative aspect to quantify, however, there is a width between two limits, where
neither pleasure nor pain enters consciousness, while but consciousness at all about
virtue climbing the threshold for quantitative side may be there.
Accordingly, we also denote the threshold, which (the collection of the same
enclosed by the attention) must be exceeded to become conscious of the strength of
the psychophysical activity, as qantitative threshold, the degree of approximation of
the activity of stability, which is still the consciousness of pleasure or pain, in
particular must be exceeded, as a qualitative threshold.
Psychophysical states in which the qualitative threshold of pleasure is exceeded,
called us to use imported earlier, harmonious, those in which the pain is on the
increase, disharmonious, falling indifferent between both. But harmonious and
disharmonious states can be unconscious as well as conscious, depending on the
quantitative threshold is exceeded it or not. And so it can feel like such pain at all just
as well by wane, that the psycho-physical activity or provision thereof, can carry
what pleasure or pain, falls below the quantitative threshold than that it falls below
the quality threshold, and depends on the strength of the aesthetic feeling ever at the
same time and in the assembled conditions from exceeding the quantitative and the
qualitative threshold from.
After these explanations we may call the principle of the tendency toward stability
as a principle of harmony and tendency to say that a tendency to harmony dominates
the world, which is not stated on the previous that all harmonic movements in the
world with pleasure, all disharmonious be felt with pain, because everywhere the
only question is whether they exceed the quantitative threshold to it.
If it just arrive on the qualitative threshold, would a system whose parts are relative
to each other in complete tranquility, located in the largest state of pleasure, since this
case corresponds to the absolute stability, but he is under the deepest possible
quantitative threshold. A simple particles by itself can by previous provisions feel
neither pleasure nor pain, because the state of pleasure and pain is an inner, and since
a simple particle does not include more parts against each other by relative motion,
whether quantitative or qualitative threshold could exceed, so no need for
development of internal pleasure or pain also occurs for the same, but only for the
system any majority of particles, which is in late-22 Section meets the following
considerations. Similarly, the exception of the small perturbations completely stable,
movement of the earth around the sun not the cause of pleasure for them to be
especially because it is a matter of external stability for the earth, but they probably
can for the system of Sun Earth and a cause his lust, except that if the system of both,
the desire relationships that depend on the relative motion relations of celestial
bodies, are to be considered in greater connexion only a subsystem of the whole
planetary system and this is a part of the world system, what but definite aspects
missing . One can recall the all the harmony of the spheres. To speak of the pleasure
and pain of a Partialsystems particular, it must be ever distinguished his mental
content in the public consciousness as a special, what general points are already
installed without the conditions which exist already clear.
Admittedly still not achieved full certainty same with the above saying of the
hypothesis. For to this end would include that we knew one, applicable to all cases,
but Maßprinzip or degree of approximation processes due to full stability or variation
thereof, and a measure of pleasure and pain as a function of this measure, both of
which is not the case. But it is sufficient for more general rules and to draw general
conclusions already the acknowledgment to the fact that there is in any case greater
and lesser degrees of approximation to stability, greater and lesser degrees of pleasure
and pain, and that they are at all of those in the specified general dependence . At the
same time that the first common point of exploring for a measure of pain and pleasure
is pleasure psychophysischerseits offered.
Apart from the pleasure and pain, which builds on the previous to the current
conditions of stability and instability, which I call the fundamental source of pleasure
and pain, we also have to recognize a secondary source of pleasure and pain that is
not well with the previous coincides than can meet in the same or opposite sense with
him, and the fact is that the progress to stability, if it does not fall by too great
slowness under an existing in this regard threshold, lust, the regression of
(respectively) aversion aroused, pleasure or pain which adds to the pleasure or pain,
which depends on the states themselves, depending on the direction of enhancing or
reducing. In fact, it makes a big difference in the overall results like whether a
disharmonious chord dissolves in a subsequent harmonic, or both chords to follow in
the reverse sense. We can delight in a, the dislike of others especially if both feel, but
this is still a feel pleasure or pain, depending on the manner of their order. The sick,
which is in a recovery of the arms, vorschreitet to affluence, still while they are sick,
poor, a desire to improve their condition feel of healthy, rich reversed while their
condition worsens, a reluctance to deterioration, even before the condition is to call a
bad start.
Now would remember to collect this source of pleasure and pain for himself the
sole and fundamental, that is to say that pleasure and pain at all with the maintenance
of a stock of a large or small approximation of stability, but with the proximity and
distance of movement this and related it, and be greater, the more rapid is the
proximity and distance of movement, it is between what then even an indifference
width give, and for the first sight appears to be the fact that the loss of most influence
on us at a constant continuance more and more loses its pleasurable effect, and finally
even the displeasure of boredom gives way to indicate that the greatest possible
approximation to the stablen condition, which can be reached by continuous exposure
to the lust agent, rather than the desire to lift up to the top, the same picks, so the Lust
is only so long, and growing, as is the Approximationsbewegung stability and
accelerating, here against decreases as against the target slows down this movement
to expire after achieving the objective of stability can not be exceeded by the same
decrease pain.Meanwhile the facts belonging here should cogent partly be explained
by the fact that the internal excitation, which depends on the action, according to
known laws of blunting more and more of the quantitative threshold of strength
zusinkt, which depends on the degree of pleasure with, partly because that when I
folders in accordance with the attention to a particular area, a particular object, the
tendency to stability makes preferably located in a certain part or a certain side of the
psychophysical system submits this but now forfeit the easier irregular movements,
moreover, which generate the displeasure of boredom and hereby encourage the
exchange of employment. Because undoubtedly find such an institution of our
psychophysical system and the overall system in the world ever held that an
approximate stabler state of the whole system can only exist with a certain ratio of
excitation between its individual parts, which some continued beyond a certain limit
unilateral excitation including contradicts. In fact, when we are finally tired of the
contemplation of the most beautiful painting, it is not because we are the painting, but
because of the lack of change begins to displease us, the need to deal differently,
becomes lively. In addition, the complication of the fundamental and secondary
source of pleasure and pain seems proven by facts like the above even in the above
sense, and it would be hard to imagine that years of pain in a given area of sensation,
such as those occur often enough, should can hang on a continuous departing
decrease of stability, without earlier to lead to a border or destruction, though it is true
that the organism finally suffers thereby. This counter can be long-lasting pain at one,
think linked not verbesserliche under the existing ambient conditions strong deviation
from the full stability, which does not exclude that in the length of time by the
existing in the universe tends to stability but also occurs a change in the external
conditions, which carries such an improvement.
Anyway, it seems easier for me, the representation of all facts to which it is to
effect with reference to both sources, as only on one of them.
We go to all the previous observation indefinitely backwards, so you may think the
world is starting at least with a chaotic, ie all state instabeln to think with no strings
attached so to speak, an infinite aversion to it. In fact, was initially the material,
which has now drawn together into circumscribed world body with overall
movements have been disorderly scattered throughout the space and realized in order
loose movements, then from each other because of the out of this extension following
removal of the particles, the intervening forces acting and consequent movements of
the individual particles to be initially been very weak, so could be to a certain degree
of development of the world under the quantitative threshold or at least the same do
not exceed far, and thus had to be equal to the first movements in the sense of
increasing stability, has the the progress towards stability in the secondary like
hanging around even outweigh the initial pain, which hung about in the sum of
instabeln small movements, or it could emerge for the whole a stable resultant, which
gave pleasure. But are the circumstances in which one does better because of its
darkness, not to deepen.
You can find a difficulty in the fact that lust can make the whole duration of a
movement process, however, required for the stability of the process of the same
desire to return calls to the initial conditions, which can come only after a certain
time. But it raises this difficulty by the following observation. At every moment of a
moving process is the passage that he will take to look through the existing
conditions and the law of motion already as determined with this through the duration
of the motion continued conserving determination is the determination to want to be
regarded as given, without that the full execution of the movement being required.
Perhaps the mathematical development of our principle still following terms
Every linear movement of a point can not in any way changing speed and the
reverse direction repeatedly, in accordance with the Fourier principle in one way as a
composition of linear simplest possible vibrations in general different amplitudes a , a
', a " .. different period T, T ', T' ... and different output p, p ', p "are considered and
mathematically decomposed into it ..., the general or composite period in which
absorbed all individual periods, is then the product of T, T', T" ... given. From another
quarter can be any curvilinear motion, whether performed in one or more planes, by
projection on three mutually perpendicular axes in rectilinear disassemble permitting
which further the previous separation, and so on all the points which contribute to a
psycho-physical processes , expand. Finally, what kind so this process may be, it is
decomposed into a number of simple vibrations of the three main directions, in
general, of unequal amplitude, period and output, but which in Intresting cases can
also be coincidental. It is now the pleasure and pain at all as a function of a, a ',
"according to quantitative side of T, T .. a' be t 'be determined by qualitative side,
however, the ratio of the output values only co-determines the shape of the process is
likely to be without influence on its aesthetic earnings.
In any case, you will only have occasion to submit such a complex of particles and
such continuation of their exercise of this treatment, as they belong to a single or
unitary phenomenon of consciousness or awareness, in the case of a uniform but it is
out of the total processes even the Partialprozesse, which belong to special
phenomena that can take into account special.
IX. What caused and authorized us to accept an external world,
and how far a knowledge of their nature is possible.

The man speaks from outward appearances or manifestations of an exterior made to

him by a so-called material or physical world outside, say gewohntermaßen short
nature or simply outside world, causally dependent thinking, however, it basically
only internal rules, apparitions of his own spiritual nature, sensual perceptions,
beliefs, and these are the kind that he caused to the existence of the material world
outside, as by the same, suggests. What can accept it at all, that the inner world of
feelings, beliefs correspond to a real world outside, and which entitles him to such an
Is it an instinctive compulsion? The expression itself in itself explains nothing, if
such exists, then it is how can ever be of particular instinctive either no clear
accountability or such must be sought before lying back. First question is in this
respect, to ask for something the factual, whether a newborn child has a different
world outside of themselves. Of course, in the same way as we can do it reflective or
do not, but it could be the way we do it instinctively without reflection on us and in
our actions are determined by external one) . Meanwhile, much is gained in us through
experience and practice in life only what instinctively makes himself afterwards as
something innate, instinctive law. Could this not be the case, with the involuntary
distinction of an external world from us? Or would the involuntary distinction innate,
they could not only be acquired by our ancestors and passed only by inheritance to
us?Who could these issues be determined with certainty, it is even difficult to clarify
it. But we try with some considerations that can not gain some light on the issue.
l)any case, it seems to be related to their actions as the outside world in
newborn animals.

First, one may be inclined to reason that we keep our external perceptions of an
external world depends, as noted, and in fact it is made at least similar to many
times. The becoming aware through the outer appearances perceptions, sensations
reveal no causal dependence of previously existing provisions of our spiritual selves
in the same sense as our memories of our beliefs, our ideas of our memories, etc.,
while they themselves can give rise to new rules that betray such. So you look for a
causal them except the Spirit. While we can by mediating considerations assure us of
a causal connection between our external perceptions, and so it happens even in
science that establishes their whole system on the causal relationship between such
perceptions, but in any case this causal relationship is not as simple and directly into
consciousness falling when that inner, does not coincide with it, can not be with him
in continuo pursue its own laws in it, so to speak, is perpendicular to that, so we
distinguish that which occurs in the one, of what in the occurs other than a andres
area, and since the causal link is not present inside us immediately externally
translucent areas, we search the Causative to involuntarily outside.
Thereafter, would the question of whether we angeborenerweise distinguish a
world outside of us, at all depend on whether we, the requirement of causality is
innate priori, conversely, some believe a rigorous proof that the latter is the case, find
the fact that we involuntarily looking for a cause to our external perceptions except
us. Meanwhile, it has already been noted above that it is questionable from the outset
whether we, what do we do instinctively, also do angeborenerweise, so it could very
well, as is the view of others - the requirement of a causal connection only through
the experience of life conveys, and thereof be purchased later, depending also has the
distinction of a world outside of us. Yes, we as even today the demand of causality as
involuntary and familiar to them to make the very involuntary and common
distinction of an external world depends on us all? Even earlier remarks (Chapter
XVII) stand in the way. Who usually asks for it when he sees a sequence of external
phenomena going on, whether they are actually causally related, this relationship
term comes only by special reflection, which we do not employ the rule and do not
need to distinguish between an outer world of ours, materialize, it follows
immediately just only the succession of phenomena. And instead of a causal
involuntarily except for us to look at our external perceptions, we confuse rather
unreflecting what enters into the perception, almost with something external.
View a trailer indeterministic freedom even deny from the outset that the causality
in the spiritual areas have absolute validity, if free will zulängliche resolutions
without conditionality can be caused by pre-Walking, but these resolutions appear as
something of the spirit inside, not the outside Aufgedrungenes. The same way they
have to concede for the external perceptions, and could not hereby the appearance
that the same are forced upon from the outside, depending on make of missing
internal causality. But even apart from the question of freedom seem sudden
incursions of which we do not know where they came from us, but not directly as a
little older from the outside.
Thereafter, you can find it at least doubtful whether the Missing an inner causality
is ever a role in the us speak a second nature become distinguish a material world
outside of ourselves, and we can then put them the question of the final analysis, after
not all had come to terms about it.
Another question as to the psychological reason that we involuntarily assume a
really existing outside world to our external perceptions, is the more fundamental,
because our objective knowledge itself budding, question of the validity of this
assumption. Matter of faith is the assumption of an external world always remain,
since we what we have of it and know actually have only our heart and also recognize
as such at some consideration. But the very fact that you believe has always been to
an external world, such is distinguished from to gives historical support, and that in
order to act in the outside world in, in the existence of one must believe such, the
practical support of this faith. Still asks for a theoretical support.
If you then the fact that we instinctively distinguish a world outside of us, not sure
thus seemed to explain why we instinctively look to our external perceptions a cause
outside of us that we do not find in us, can be the authority to make this distinction
not well founded it. First, because we in thorough investigation of the natural
relationship that occurs in our outer perception, between really discover yet more or
less a causal relationship, without go out of our affairs here, secondly, because we
ourselves by our thoughts the causal link is not fully in us pursue vermöchten without
them can therefore deny the existence of purely internal. Would be What conceivable
that external perceptions as thought both abliefen of a purely internal, but not
everywhere trackable, causal connexion, for that the is a causal connection for a used
above short term as it were vertically on the other, would not always prevent that one
as good as the other one is purely internal. Following analysis reveals, however, in
any case what we actually support the authorization in science and life, keep the
external perceptions and externally caused.
Hallucinations, which we hold nothing externally accordingly, make the one who
has those same impression as another external perceptions, which we hold something
externally accordingly. What makes the difference between the two? Basically, the
external perceptions, as good but the latter is a purely internal matter than the former,
hallucinations, and finds the hallucinating any more than an internal cause to the
phantasms, as it considers external objects, as the external perceiver to the
phenomena real, that is recognized by all this, objects.Could not you say the external
phenomena, which we refer to the existence of such, but even subjective phantasms,
as the hallucinations to be. But we should not confuse, apart from hallucinated itself,
both, and this must be a reason.
Ocular this reason is that with the possibilities offered by the external perceptions,
appearance of the held for real objects in the external world for us, partly relevant and
partly legally actionable so that may arise related to other human spirits, of which we
can receive messages about it. The same tree that I can see, can see others, they like
him according to their different position and the various means of her eye to see
differently, and in view of these differences can be the variety of phenomena to
explain, but the context in virtue of which the appearance of the tree for a spiritual
entity according is possible only when they in law related manner is also possible for
others, gives us the authorization or shall we for assuming a common Causative of
what goes beyond every spirit in particular, a right which the hallucinations
missing. And so we have the appearances delude the hallucinated external things,
therefore, not considered as dependent on real external things, because they do not fit
the legal connexion of the ideas, which we all have from the outside world. Stocks
such a relationship for all, as heard on all theoretical justification to see in the
phenomena of the outside world more than a sum of subjective hallucinations.
Now it is true that there are spirits out of us, we can but only from impacts include
the same for us who have become internally to us, and may hereafter from the outset
as well the existence of a spiritual, material as an external world doubt beyond us, but
to historical and practical reasons for the existence of faith spirits except we still
occurs, the theoretical analogy of what we are similar to our body and physical
manifestations as well as similar souls and soul expressions are as our build 2) .
2) Something explained in detail, so I take my body and my actions was
outwardly, as of the other men. The thus gained so-called external phenomena
are both if only one heart for me, ie my mind, but after I find the extractable
from my body and my actions outer appearances in solidarity connection with
inner soul appearances, I presume that it analog soul appearances in solidarity
'll connexion give the analogous outer appearances that I have of others from
the body and the physical manifestations, but which do not coincide with my
inner soul appearances, so do not enter into my consciousness, because yes, the
physical phenomena of the two of us in myself do not coincide. So these
outwardly against each other, so the beziehentlich externally related, on the one
hand inwardly perceived by me, on the other hand by me to add
Seelenerscheinnugen taken. Of course, this analogy is not as developed in the
form of self enters consciousness, but it can be so in developing its moments.
With all of this is not to say that the involuntary impression of the existence of a
material world outside of our knowledge, that others also have such an effect
depends, undoubtedly it arises quite independently for each of them, but it is only
said that we through the passage must take the belief in ghosts but us, to find the
hallucinations compared with a theoretical justification for the belief that the foreign
bills of material things for each of us really things objectively, di-existent for others
Also rests our whole approach to nature or material outside world as an objective
daseienden actually on the condition that they not only ourselves but also others
appearing, can enter produce di-effects in others as in ourselves, that we make it a
condition of her as the cause , and our whole characteristics of the objective nature
based not only on experience, which are made of this and that, but on as many and
more circuits of the brightest among them, how the phenomena would change under
modified circumstances used.
However, thereafter, generally speaking, stocks, nor the possibility that the legal
context of external phenomena, though indicative of every single mind also, for the
totality of all was mediated by an existing between them pre-established harmony,
without there beyond them something. And common ground is not logically
compelling evidence to lead something, but also none of this. It is certain that until
now no clear and practical understanding of the world of external things for the
people in the form or condition appeared possible that, nothing causal except those
spirits admit the so-called external phenomena, which delude the individual spirits of
an external world , hence neither the natural nor scientific view of who enters it, not
much of a philosophical system represents purely basically the same. For godly
Monas is true even in Leibniz's system of pre-established harmony even as an
existing beyond the individual spirits beyond essence, what their mood conveyed
together without, however, there are clear ideas about the system. Since we are now,
where no decision between several possible views, whether on purely logical,
whether direct experience paths is possible to have preferred the one which gives the
clearest, most practical and historically most proven guidance in the overall areas of
human knowledge - because what we otherwise hold - so we abstract, not to implicate
the considerations from the outset unsuccessfully, from the logical possibility that
infertile view.
The question is now, when we have yet to concede a world outside the individual
spirits beyond us is how far a knowledge of its nature possible. The so influential
become Kantian doctrine denies such a possibility, can the objective nature of what
produces the symptoms of an external world into us, even indefinite, speaks of things
in themselves, the nature of which was quite unrecognizable in by any dependent of it
in us phenomena, even the temporal and spatial form of the same, mainly due to the
establishment of our subjectivity are 3) , is in any event impossible to see what it was
not related. At this point yes you can certainly ask, just ask yourself what you win so
that we neglect the final way in principle and rejects that can offer us a view of our
own limited existence beyond. Kant himself is but can not deny that our own
existence is a part of the entire existence, and it is a peculiar postulate that this part is
so incomparable with the other parts of existence in order to make any inference from
one to the other can , however we all know otherwise make such conclusions with the
more fruit for our knowledge and practical life it built, one for each major security
implications and we give these conclusions. Now also missing all inductions,
analogies, causal considerations on which we like here are based, logical evidence,
hereby presents its results, the absolute certainty, let us be otherwise not thereby
prevent, to make use of these circuit paths, and could without in manage any
branches of life and knowledge, and now we will make do without even in our views
on the most common and highest things. Anyway, it seems to me better to indicate
explicitly the most probable, theoretically and practically, to look us in the realm of
existence to orient Suitable on most available means, and to bring them to the greatest
possible clarity, security and development, as the impossibility of absolute to be
confused with absolute certainty of knowledge lack of possibility of knowledge, so to
speak, and to see in this confusion the foundation of philosophical wisdom.
3)The fact that space and time are subjective forms of our intuition, needs no
special proof at all, since it is a simple fact of our experience, the look inside
ourselves. That they are only forms of our intuition, is not to infer from this,
and if you can think away from time and space, all content without time and
space to think away itself, this suggests rather than against it essential forms of
intelligence ever are.

Well of course we must not, directly on the exterior, as there as consisting

transferred from the outset provisions, which are caused in us by the appearance, as
does the common or natural view. The glow of the sun, the sound of the wind, the
scents of the flowers as her something that falls not only in ourselves, but in the
objective world outside itself out over our soul. If it does not but, if at all, outside but
light differently, rustle, dufte than any of us who receive only an effect from outside,
so if it ever out there still light, rustling, dufte if not the only effects in us are, which
depend on a very different kind of certainty of the outside, then it does not ask why
she does not care. Yet. can what causes a phenomenon of nature from outside in our
impossible outdoors find themselves just as it is tricked all of us inside, because it is
indeed in all of us after the establishment of his bodily organs, including the creation
of the soul in a ratio of conditionality is, and its position relative to the outer world
reflects differently, and not all mirror images may be the same at the same time.
From the other side, but it can also think that, as well, are subject to certain rules
and within movements of our body, especially the nervous system sensations of
lighting, tinting, etc. fragrance with the law, this is also relevant provisions of
movements and the physical external world is true, such a name, of which
experienced the brilliant, sonorous, fragrant movements in our body itself only
causally depend only that these movements are modified by entering the physical
system of our body by the individual establishment of each in each other and other
co-determination may remain, however, but also something common in the quality of
the sensation between inside and outside;, thus also carry different sensations
modified and enter into a system of other psychiatric co-determination. To take a
picture from the areas of our ideas from the outside world itself: the same light beam,
depending on the nature of the different ground glasses, through which it is refracted
differently curved mirror through which he is thrown back, different colored surfaces,
going through the scattered, very different modified lighter, darker, easier, Airborne,
one way or the colored appear, but remains the quality of lighting all these Fort
effects in common with the original, and so could the oscillating beam out just as
well the sensation of illumination socialize in a knotted to the material world outside
general spiritual beings, as in our organic system into the perception of illumination
in our soul attached to it ties in with its oscillating action 4) .
4) Of course, what we as oscillating of sight out there, like what we the same in
us take as an oscillating effect, both only an abstraction from the areas of
external perception is, but both made similar observations has so far abstracted,
it also has the prerequisite for themselves that it corresponds to something
objectively comparable.

In fact, this is the conception of the relation between inside and outside, whereupon
our Day comes back to the night view that the outside is still gloomy light only
comes to light in us.
As previously recalled, our Day is hereby in some ways to the natural view back,
makes up but a clear difference between what objectively appears in nature itself or
the associated spiritual beings, and what depending on each of us appears that the
natural or common view does not, by not explicitly rejects him, but in their ambiguity
and vagueness does not make reference.
We see now in the following sections how this conception of the sensuous world of
phenomena or nature thereof conveyed by the day view of the scientific conception

XX. Mediation the day view of the scientific

conception of nature.

To enter with clear preterminals in the following discussion, we define more

closely than in the past, what we understand to be in substantial conformity with the
scientific language and terminology as generally many other particulars, here at
Nature or equivalent material world.
We understand it and is generally meant by that, as a non-existent presented to our
minds, the so-called Causal outer appearances or perceptions that are actually
obtained by us and by others with the so-called outer senses or can be obtained, ie, of
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling (palpation) 1) , the nature is commonly
characterized by thereinto produced in us effects, though wissenschaftlicherseits
always with the awareness that these effects in us, our spirit, not the Causative of it,
not the Nature themselves. The reasons that cause us and entitle to really search for
causative effects of these are out of our minds, discussed in the previous sections and
not return to it here.
l)The so-called common feelings as hunger, thirst, pain, we denote also well as
physical, at least as sensual feelings, but we will not use it in the same way as
the perceptions of the so-called outer senses, the characteristics of the material
world outside and as they of others not associated with the corresponding
feelings in a well trackable legal connexion, than the external perceptions,
which made the (chapter 19) Comments enters it that it is level for many
existing context of us at all as a criterion of objective nature of the individual
perception of each addition is used.

Our shareholders as the Causal body is external phenomena in nature or all of the
material world advantageously included, unless it can be externally perceived by
others yes to part with suitable external senses of ourselves. While the interior of a
living body, we can not directly have external perceptions, but according to the
researches of anatomists and physiologists believe an idea of how the interior would
appear on the surface after clearing away the outer obstacles, and, if the external
phenomena of our on the purity and distinctiveness purposes vary, make inferences,
which we appearances at the greatest possible delicacy and the same support as
perfected by the same thought, would have external aids.To characterize the natural
or material world to its outer Erscheinlichkeit now belongs to us all, at least in
scientific observation, what and how would some conditions appear among those
most favorably imaginary, though it eludes our real perception because of external
obstacles or limitations of our means of observation. Enough that it developed in this
sense from the context of the real external Erscheinlichen the same in shape, even if
only as the limit presented in the traceable by science causal connection of external
Erscheinlichen contradiction occurs and the same complement itself helps 2) . This is
for the following if from external Erscheinlichkeit talk to always keep in mind.
2)This step atoms and undulations of the light to the one eye, and
differentiation microscope ranges, but in the scientific detected natural

Watched closer we find the sensations, perceptions, memories, volitions, etc.,

which are linked in the unity of our consciousness, without at the same time to be a
matter of an alien consciousness, and we therefore as appearances, provisions of our
mental or watch soul being, by a ratio of conditionality with the provisions to outer
appearance of our body connected, tied to the usual expression to it, worn it, which
can be identified and monitored through direct observation, partly through experience
some conclusions. One can argue about the reason for this contingency, as over the
relationship between body and associated soul, but here it is at first merely the fact of
contingency in mind to keep, according to the given determinations of the soul law
related determinations of erscheinlichen externally in the above sense body take
These preconceptions can meet for the following. Without now to contradict the
same, the strictly scientific approach and treatment of nature is but only in a certain
restriction on the later of nature to computing terms, a holding namely from all over
the outside sensuous world of appearances only the countable or infinitely summable,
by time and Discretionary measure of space, we briefly say that quantitatively
determinable, fixed, but abstracted from all qualitative certainty how our sensory
phenomena such as light sensation, sensation of sound plays, etc. 3) . Remains for
them only the notion of spatial and temporal extent, the idea of a present in this room,
it was with extended or split into discrete atoms, at least left high indefinitely or
indifferent imaginary, something they call matter, and the idea of layers and position
changes (movements) of the parts of matter in space left. She puts the matter forces in
that for scientific point of view and scientific use by nothing else but are actually
characterizable as the fact that follow from given quantifiable time-spatial
relationships of matter legally others what they referred to as the effect of the matter
indwelling forces. She does so, the philosopher like the terms of the forces jump
around as he wants, and thereby make it for science as incomprehensible and useless
as possible (see par. XVII). But all this is liable nothing happens for the strictly
scientific approach of the qualities of sensation of the face, hearing, etc, which makes
it complicated but the external perception, and if they are still about statuiert the
possibility of the subject to two kinds of electricity different kinds of matter it's just
info distant as quantitatively different about movement successes depend on without
them thinks of those sensible qualities of the external visibility.
3) The intensity of a light and tone sensation is reduced for the exact science of
living force (product of mass and the square of velocity) of vibrating
particles. Matter itself is atomistic as something countable, not atomistic as
something taken infinitesimally Summierbares. The mass of matter will be
judged on movement variables. The tightness comes back in a proportionate
number or amount of particles of given mass in a given space. The different
basic chemical constitution of the body can be attributed to various shape and
mass last particles or different number and arrangement of simple particles in
small groups (molecules) into which can be thought of shared before their split
last matter. The shape and arrangement of material parts themselves expected
to perform linear and angular sizes of given points from back.

After abstraction but of all these qualities of sensation, the scientific approach
recognizes but that, decisions taken according to the different circumstances of her
previous way the eye, suitable material world to the parts that our body which is for
them, and after its inner conditions, can provide high specific sensations of various
kinds arise in the soul, which is attached to our bodies, under laws which they
followed to a certain extent in physics and physiology itself, leaves to pursue further
and more detailed psychophysics. And conversely, it closes by such sensations in us
to the existence of quantitatively certain conditions in the outside world, in us to
rapidly ether vibrations of tone sensation in us the light sensation on slower
vibrations of the air in the outside world, without at this even for the scientific
approach some of quality of these sensations liable.
In short, the scientific approach objectified merely quantitative auffaßbare
provisions of our external perceptions as to the nature outside us Coming at, or
belonging to the same essential characteristics, and abstracts from the
qualitative 4) . Now it's a peculiar thing when the materialist, and this, but basically
therefore considers not only the whole of modern, infected by the night view,
scientific world of nature beyond us no qualitative determination Coming at far
abstracts of Sciences of her. He holds it up for the task to deal with the quantitative,
however, but this occurs in an inseparable connection with the qualitative in its
perception. If the world beyond us, to enter qualitative sensations produced in us,
even high yet, be indefinite? Or should she have qualities that are incomparable with
the tangible of our soul, so can not speak of which, you simply must ask then. But
that is not yet in effect for the part of nature, which gives the outward appearance of a
living body, if not tie it to direct inner experience the sensation qualities of seeing,
hearing, etc.. Here we have a direct point of contact in the experience for the adoption
of certain qualities to the quantitative determinations of nature beyond us, it is the
only track and exploit. We conclude by analogy, induction, causal considerations of
what belongs together legally in us, to what it belongs together beyond us. May now
also the execution of this conclusion be difficult to separate and fall into Insecure, a
principle and starting point of the ending is certainly given By previous, and the
difficulty and uncertainty does not apply both the universal as just only the particular
and special about the consequences.
4) Although number of spatial and temporal extension all quantitative
determination subject, but their distinctiveness from each other is not
attributable to a quantitative, and so one could say: number, space, time had
differed qualitatively from the outset, and thus would even quite fundamental
qualities of the Date science in itself. Only true wide version of this duality is
not the general notion many other particulars, which rather any pure number,;
explain the concept of space is for without quality, time-but who wants to
defend the arbitrariness of definitions. So be it, yet these fundamental qualities
are not thrown together with the qualities of light sensation, sensation of sound,
etc., to the Use expressly concerns here, and want ever better than various
formal determinations of the sensible world of appearances, which together are
subject to quantity terms, are referred to.
Because of course our body is externally erscheinlich set up differently than the rest
of the material world, and make the motions therein engage differently than outside,
but why not for the, decisions taken in the eye of the natural sciences, quantitative
determinations incomparably so, why should the comparability stop by pages of the
qualitative determination, if they persist after the quantitative side. Vibrations, for
example, there is both indoors and outdoors, each motion system but ever, as
mathematical physicists is well known as a complex simple vibrations presented only
different amplitude and period and into it thinking solvable, which is the outer nature
is no less than our own internal movement system, and if higher mental phenomena
may be, subject to certain conditions of overlapping of vibrations or movements,
which may be thought of resolvable into those in us, so you can, for example, at a
concert like conditions of meeting again find out but if it is also too dissimilar, then it
will make up only dissimilar but not incomparable or no mental phenomena.
It is true in the external erscheinlichen movement areas, as it is conceived by the
physicist, the simple movement of a handle can be triggered by transfer to a
composite machine successively very manifold and complicated movements therein,
however, the immediate transmission only in a correspondingly simple movement, it
was towards the Hanbgriffsbewegung or, consists of the same of others by breaking
direction. It is up to now, the triggering of a movement which carries sensation to
compare in our brain complicated by a relatively simple stimulus hereby. This
illustrated, but only the emergence of a kind of composite material movement in us
by the external stimulus, not the breaking of a quality of sensation in this
composition, the transition to remain a causal leap, one might do it in the simplest or
most complex motion, and can only be avoided if also the triggering induced
movements are thought as affected by a quality sensation 5) . And what of the jump
because the science itself is compelled to make him only because eventually, because
they previously abstracted from the qualitative determination of the external
perceptions; giving them restituiere this determination, and it is a priori no longer any
reason to spring. But does the materialism and the night view of the jump, as if in the
peculiar complication of brain movements would be something that could conjure
sensation of movement at once 6) .
5)Very worth reading and persuasive in this regard, the publicans of l in S.
comet book edition, p 230 I. 338 ff Abh or scientific considerations presented,
even if I set it in the relationship view of the psycho-physical reasons for the
pleasure and pain for the comments page 139 and Section XVIII would be
unable to share. On the basis of other considerations was already in the
40th Section m. Elements d Psych mental capacity for material movement ever
6)That the great complication of the brain of the higher animals and man rather
only to the development of the built about their sense of life higher mental life
as to trigger the sensory sensation itself is necessary, already proves himself by
saying that the existing of the same type of organic matter nerveless polyps
very give vivid sign of feeling excited by external stimuli.

The dualist in the traditional sense now says, however, that the light stimulus from
outside, liable nothing of quality of sensation at the, but those in the component
linked to our body, mind can trigger depends on the fact that just in our bodies, but
not to Nature is subject beyond a soul. Well, but how he comes to this view? By
nothing else than that he moved the jump to an other place. The bodies of two men
are part of the general physical world, between the two they should be inanimate, in
transitions to them, they will jump to about animation. Added the possibility of a
dualistic view of dualism is the jump but can only be avoided that the natural or
physical world through our body out as well as to our bodies, in short, that he thinks
belong to the material existence at all, a spiritual being he.
If one were nevertheless of the qualitative determinations of external perceptions,
as the lenses except us nothing angehend only in us falling, abstract, Kant would be at
least consistent, if he wants to know about the quantitative determinateness as an
objective determination of a world beyond us as abstracted than the qualitative. Have
we yet theoretical and practical reasons, our inner world of external perceptions ever
though so not to keep the indention shows the same, but somewhat by considerations
of equality akin except ourselves accordingly, suggesting an effect relationship
between the two appear to be possible, this is not less as to the quality must be
regarded as quantitative side of existence, on the other hand, the objective
quantitative side of the outer existence with as little subjective appearance of specialy
the same for each of us to be confused or to look upon it to be the same, as the
qualitative. Also, the scientific approach itself does not commit such a mistake, but it
keeps the comparability of quantitative side fixed, and the Day occurs only add to
that the fact that she does the same also as to the qualitative side of existence.
But, one may ask, what reason has the scientific approach at all, in full
contradiction to abstract the natural quality of the whole side of the phenomenon to
expose her Endeingriffe to draw quantitative in our souls into consideration. The
reason lies in its purpose, given existing conditions derived from the outer world of
phenomena not with the greatest possible clarity, the success or altered conditions of
the external appearance relationship predetermine as safe as possible. She can not
help but to laws that are drawn from combination of external perceptions, through
consultation of measurement and calculation. But only quantitative, not qualitative
side of the phenomenon is the extent and the invoice directly accessible7) . And the
proof that this is really the point of view from which the scientific abstraction is done
by the feeling quality of externally perceived, is that where that purpose is eliminated,
also omitted that abstraction, ie, in the description of nature, where in fact the
qualitative side of the phenomenon is taken into account with the same
quantitative. It describes, for example, an animal by its color, the sound of his voice,
the smell that it spreads, the roughness of his skin, no less a mineral is characterized
by qualities of sensation. Against this there is the abstraction of physics, chemistry,
astronomy, physiology (not to the extent such changes into inner psychophysics) and
place them together in the dominant and pervasive mechanism as it were of the
highest purity sanctioned. Really there are only these parts of the general science, but
if one has to reckon with the general description of the nature, the need has led to that
abstraction. In real making of bills even natural science abstracts even further, still
operates only with numbers, and in general just more bills even with letters that
represent very abstract quantities, without asserting the fact that such abstraction with
reality is covered.
7)The Psychophysics also refers to the measure of the intensity of sensation
qualities, but it is expected that the measurement system presented without
quality natural and makes you dependent measure.

So now is not to say that any conclusions merely to there, from today morning
again by means of scientific abstraction of qualitative determination on the basis of
purely quantitative determinations are possible from here. Without such an
abstraction, we conclude by analogy, induction, causal considerations with more or
less certainty that the sun is shining today, also appear tomorrow is that other people
when we similar feelings than we do, that there is a God in heaven but the pursuit
after page of quantitative determinability will be necessary not only to themselves for
sharp and accurate view of the existence of conditions, but also needed to build sharp
conclusions on it, but of course, the pursuit of quantitative side not directly and of
themselves with interference of qualitative determinations, but only in his own
connexion happen; therefore as long as abstracts of qualitative determinations, as it is
now those same pursuit is to eventually add to the quantitative successes in us as a
qualitative determination of our mind. This does not preclude, and is not taken into
account only by the natural sciences in their conclusion and invoice ways that the
quantitative cause beyond us no less inflicts a qualitative determination, as is the case
with the quantitative impact in us.And that's it, so our day view at the same time
exceeds and supplements without contesting their exact design itself in the least, the
scientific view.
Recently, the question remains whether we have to settle the material world as the
Causal outer appearances that arise in our mind an existence apart from the
intellectual areas at all.Just about all outward appearances, one of which we can
speak, something in our mind, could what we have penetrated as causal basis of the
same to accept beyond us, even just be something in a general spirit that includes
ours with, and in Indeed, neither a direct experience base nor a conceptual or causal
reason seems to compel me to speak something to take back to the general and our
spirit, of which the whole spiritual depends again only because in fact all causality in
the spiritual can be considered actionable even if we consider that the matter is
detectable even only by provisions which fall within our minds for us. At some even
think that another similar or broader spirit does not fall within our or so, or may fall,
or it is abstracted, does not think of anything. In fact, I confess myself in the last
instance to an objective idealism, which does not prevent, but can pass the coercion
to distinguish a physical outer world and inner spiritual life, in that the first through
the legal context of perceptions, which in a majority of individuals can rise or fall, the
latter by the context of spiritual provisions that already respektiv fall within the
general spirit of each individual for himself, can be characterized. The following
section is to come back here to the accompanying questions.
XXI. Basic relationship between physical and intellectual principle.
dualism and monism.

With diligence I have the basic relationship between body and soul, matter and
spirit left undetermined in the general presentation of the Day to take place only in
accordance with intimate relationship two Prinzipe by the world than ourselves, to
bring to bear (Chapter IV). In fact, this relationship may be taken here as there
dualistic or monistic, as long as it as is happening here consistently in the same sense
and contradiction with the experience, the day view will be able to tolerate it, only the
Monadologen I knew they neither catchy nor accessible to make, to discuss in the
following sections. Summarizing the basic view dualistic, so you will be able to
speak of an inspiration throughout the world as the inspiration of our body by this the
soul or spiritual essence of the physical as basically and essentially different, but
connected with it and interact and cooperatively according to certain laws look;
summarizes they monistic, one is two principles highlight a common reason being,
and if they both are to be distinguished, depending on the more materialistic,
idealistic or Spinozistic version of the view, in spirit only a function or a result of the
material composition and disassembly sequence , or in matter an external
manifestation of the Spirit, or in only two different modes, pages, rules, levels,
attributes of one and the same, being able to see reason. All the same, it provided
only ever take one or the other reason view a priori be assumed proceeds from facts
of experience, and by means of experience circuits goes beyond that, will that what
you find so generally represent by one like the other view as well as from a be
translated into the other, and thus can meet in any case the most important aspects of
the day view. Regardless now the dualistic view is nowadays philosophischerseits
little in force, but are predominant in the life of expression and imagination, in the
spirit are kept the same, and I avail myself also like the under it submissive
expression animation of world animation of the human body, without itself to
combine this with a dualistic mode of thought, but it all about leaving if he wants to
join such an order. Only he is to be the essential elements of the Day View just, but
existing in contradiction with the usual version of the dualistic view, the connection
between material and spiritual principle not merely as an exception, only for humans
and animals, and not just on the This limited hand, not allowed to view as a
outwardly separable.
Now it is a general rule of science, not to accept two Prinzipe, for lack of a
mediation when can a get along, which makes the placement expendable, and the
monistic view of reserves therefore in principle the advantage of a single character
before the dualistic advance. Of course, this advantage is of a different side opposite
the difficulty to make it clear as what should be the basic one being, ever be
distinguished, indeed may even take the form of two very different basic
essence. Which inability in this respect with the materialists and not less in Spinoza;
ambiguity in which Schelling and Hegel. And that brings that dualistic modes of
representation for which this difficulty is eliminated in principle, slightly clearer, fail
hereby popular than monistic, they also remain many monistic conceptions far more
preferable than having them speak the thing is not moved, because it is easier to
translate than a clear dualistic unclear monistic in a clear tier.
Any case, the benefits of monistic position remain for a truly philosophical interest
predominantly, and I have the same already present in earlier writings in my own
way. This happened in detail Zendavesta II 312 ff, with some depression in the record
of the soul question 198 ff and very shortly after the main features in Section l of my
"Elements of Psychophysics". Allow me to come back here only on the most
essential of them.
If someone has the brain of a dead person or animal in front of him, he sees a
white, soft feeling for the mass therein which dissolves under the microscope in a
network of fine threads, cells, and veins. He can in the brain of the living not directly
look, but after conclusions, which are based on externally perceived, imagine under
the form of externally perceivable that if the obstacles of observation were dropped
and he could be the outer observation means refine more and more, he also ever finer
parts and movements would be able to distinguish, and pursuit of such circuits in the
sense of causal law enters the physiologist finally there, the smallest part of the living
brain grasped in motion, and this in all probability in the form of vibrations, at least
in a form of introduce externally perceptible. But as long as the observer remains on
the outer positions his body to the brain of the living, he can do nothing of the
feelings and thoughts, which he regarded as a thing of the spirit of this living,
perceive, but exclude sufficient facts such that a ratio of conditionality between what
he conceives to external stand against the brain as physical brain process, and what
still falls entirely within his own soul, and the objective sensations and other mental
activities of him facing living takes place. This on the other hand can not see any of
the material process of his own brain, however, he perceives his own feelings and
thoughts, which are linked to this process.
Now, two things are possible idea of this purely factual relationship. Dualistic one
can imagine that the physical brain with its motion process and the relationship of
conditionality to standing mind are two separate entities, the first of which, as well as
any other matter has the property only externally, ie as it is another being itself, to the
other, the spirit, the soul, the property may only appear to itself, or, more precisely,
which differ in that the first, the material, not for themselves, and of themselves
appear to his own terms can be perceived, but can in the spiritual being attached to
another part of matter produce effects that depend on these provisions, which are
perceived from this, however, that other beings only his own internal determinations,
with the inclusion of those which have been generated from the first into being in it,
can perceive. And from here you can get to the day view by itself for further
considerations, not to come back to here, imagine that, as well to the material brain
process, a spiritual being linked also to the whole physical process of nature, which
the brain process itself includes only more general spiritual being linked, which
includes the related to the brain, but we of the general spiritual beings nothing about
our own spirit also perceive, because it just is a matter of the mind to be able to
perceive only its own internal rules, our mind however, only a finite part of the
universal spirit.
Do we want to take, however, the ratio monistic, we are first subject to further
explanation, may need the following formula for this. The material, physical,
corporeal and by a ratio of direct conditionality knotted it mental, spiritual are two
manifestations of the same essence, the former, the outer for other beings, the latter
the internal publication of his own nature, both therefore different, because ever one
and the same appears different according as it is interpreted by various from different
point of view. So also the physical brain process appears different from the thoughts
and emotions attached to it, because the same nature, which is subject to both
together, is taken as the brain process externally, as a spiritual process within.And so
is also the day view, this monistic conception of the whole world being what
outwardly appears to us as material nature and material movement process, still in of
other ways internally as a spiritual (our own spirit occluding) can beings appear, and
we ourselves are a part general nature of the world after physical and mental side of
this double publication subject; however, all fall into the general phenomena of world
affairs, which includes all parts.
However, one can still find an unclear point in saying of previous basic view. Outer
and inner phenomena are aufzeigliche things, and all you will have to base views on
Aufzeigliches or return it in logical ways abstractable to keep not last only empty
words or unclear terms the basis of the consideration left. But the essence of what is
to be subject to the internal and external publication together, first appears as a dark,
recyclable to nothing of the kind, concept, similar to the things in themselves, but of
Kant, Schelling the Absolute, the substance of Spinoza, etc. in fact, the essential
concept here is only an auxiliary concept, which can be eliminated or it clear through
reduction to its actual, di aufzeigliche importance and performance, its use, however,
the advantage of an abbreviated and with the general term use of the being well-
provoking, hereby for the first start-up grants so eingänglicheren representation. We
put different phenomena, properties, changes, provisions at all the same being under
if the same law as solidarity with the fact that with the possibility or reality of the one
of the others is given of themselves. That alone is demonstrable by a common nature,
and in any case it is understood in this sense by us in the above formula. But in fact
hang together in such a way that physical and mental phenomena and the associated
common being represented basically just this relationship. For every soul, ie a linked
through consciousness-unit complex of real and imaginary as possible phenomena,
etc., are as sensations, thoughts inwardly aufzeiglich heard by a ratio of legal
relativity a physical process, ie complex of associated real or imaginary as possible
external phenomena that fall into other souls, or can be thought of as falling, what we
may call effect of existence of a soul into other souls into it. This is ultimately the
factual relationship of soul and body.
It should be noted that the nervous process, the internal appearance of a soul is
bound with the corresponding processes, the subject of another soul, not directly
communicate, but through the mediation of their rest of the body and nature between
their bodies, according to the souls of two individuals can communicate only through
the mediation of the universal spirit who wears them together in it.
One may be inclined for the first sight, with previous conception of the relationship
of body and soul to find the psychophysical threshold term in opposition. A certain
strength of the psychophysical process belongs to sensation, to give a general
phenomenon of consciousness; below this level will be no consciousness, however,
but the physical process is still continuing in some lower strength. How then can a
psychic, which is not even there, outwardly appear as a physical effect? But it has to
be considered that even our consciousness as a special consciousness only of a certain
collection of our psycho-physical process of the trial, which bears the general
consciousness depends. If now our process in sleep below this value, he still carries
on the collection of general consciousness, his mental value is therefore not nothing,
except that our consciousness has nothing in it, so for us, the psychological value as
the distance of the points where it is really for us a negative. And also during waking
may fall below their threshold speziale phenomena of consciousness, ie do not lift
more than special about our waking consciousness Generally, however, they still
contribute to raise this themselves.
In general we can only occur due to a general a special awareness or consciousness
phenomenon always, and not what is lacking to the terms of the special survey about
reasons for the outer physical Erscheinlichkeit, but what of it but it is the collection of
public consciousness itself there.
The previous screen appears in her first statement means that soul and body are two
manifestations of the same essence, the Spinoza identity view, according to which
they are attributes of the same substance, very similar, but has preceded the
advantage that they, by the unexplained Spinoza difference between the two attributes
the reference to the different point of view from which they are conceived, makes
explicable. By returning the last character concept but it assumes a purely idealistic
character, the material is then only a psychic, but in the mode for else than itself.
Even with monistic version you will have to distinguish always Tangible and
Intellectual insofar as one thinks of an object placed upon consideration of its
substantive position against the outer side on, so it thinks characterized by features
such as it appears to us externally, as viewed in mental side, as yourself or the general
spiritual beings appear inside.
XXII. Position of the Day for monadology.
Synechologische view of monadic over.

Of certain side monadology seems quite hineinzutreten in the day view, for not
using the Day View, passing through the whole world animation, and does not
measure the monadology all just imaginary points of the world mental capacity at,
but is a profound difference between the two instead, the design is only slightly
different, depending on whether one the day view the previously counted only in the
history of philosophy forms the Monadology, as compared to Leibniz, Herbart, and is
represented in a sense of Lotze, or a recently arisen form the eye understood. Like the
first first take place, where we will refer only to the general point of agreement, not
the various modifications under which the monadology occurs in those philosophers
All the fundamental difference of monadology initially, we simply mean by
monadology of the day view is that the monadology the unity of consciousness to the
simplicity of the essence of world elements, the day view, however, on an interactive
connection the same builds that I the monadological view to short call as
synechologische. The Monadology missing thereafter the principle of adopting a, His,
and over all events in the world or even just about the same given area-wide
consciousness, however, the Day that hath the foundations. The whole of human
consciousness lies the Monadologen in a point in the brain, for he when even his
monads in a metaphysical view not with material points identified himself, he locates
it but in those of the experiential observation and probation, and investigated
accordingly express a simple point as seat of the human soul in the human brain. For
the day view, however, the human mind takes on a uniform complex in active
connection points of the brain that is related to the conditional nature. The divine
consciousness, even if in the Monadology of a God or ultimate consequence of the
speech, which of course they are happy to lose here, just in a plugged main points of
the world, after the day view, it takes over all points of the world over. This makes
the Monadology of its rightful se possibility sensuous appearance in the world on
human and animals also assume no use, pays homage to the contrary, it is the Kantian
principle, the unknowability of what lies beyond the human mind out, or writes the
monads about us and the animals, only to dim consciousness sees only sleeping souls
in it to not have to worry. Whereas the daily view of the positive view of the
expansion we are facing sensual appearance is space beyond us and another builds on
I have the incoming synechologische the principle monadological over the last
sections of my atomic theory, and (from more empirical aspects) in the 37th and
45 Portions of 2 Part of my Elements of Psychophysics represented, and at the latter
place (p. 526) briefly formulated as follows: "The Uniform mentally and physically
Simple builds on a manifold, the manifold physically mentally runs into Uniform,
Normal, or at least simpler together 1) . Or put differently: The Uniform mentally and
are simple resultants physical diversity, the physical diversity is unified or simple
mental resultants ". Or otherwise (subject to further explanation). "The spirit, the soul
is the principle of linking the physical assembly and disassembly sequence"
l)The mentally Uniform and Simple are info remotely distinguished as the
Uniform itself is still linking a distinct majority, from which, however, the
awareness of the link or linking consciousness is abstracted as something
simple, as you look at the unity of consciousness, the unity of a can explain a
concept or idea, however, does not include the absolutely simple majority more
distinguishable, and only element for shortcuts, but not more self-linking is
more simple, for which a simple sound, color, smell sensation examples grant.

Page of experience but I have the benefit of the principle synechologischen points
as the following highlighted (Elem. II 349). Monadological a point in our brain would
be to demand from the phase out all voluntary movement nerves converge in all
sensory nerves, while a point with its destruction or its environment certainly falls the
hell out of life, such a point can not be found, whereas a principle of reciprocal
representation corresponding parts of the brain in mental performance is everything
that challenges the gezwungensten statements to be interpreted monadological,
however, all that can be grasped synechologisch in the most natural way and
interpret. The same is true of the phenomena of the divisible animals. "With the two
halves of the brain we think simply, with the identical points of both retinas, we see
simply The simplest train of thought is after the composite institutions in our brain, a
very composite process under,. Most simple light or sound sensation builds on
operations in us, the well itself must somehow be oscillatory nature as inspired and
entertained by external Oszillationsvorgänge, without that we differ somewhat from
each phase and oscillations., the unspeakably diverse simple smell and taste
sensations would psychophysically not be represented if we are not simple resultants
of different composite wanted to see processes in which different qualify for this
composition. "
We speak now of the new form of Monadology, which probably first of publicans
in his famous comet Beech (ed l (., 1872. S. 320 or IS 338 scientific Abh) seems
excited, but without his development, which she afterwards learned by Hartmann in
his book "The theory of evolution or the Standp d. Physiol." etc., and Haeckel in his
"perigenesis the plastidules 1876" represents 2) . Also maybe Hartmann, Haeckel is
the only followed his view combined and developed as independent of publicans he
makes no explicit reference to it.
2) publican in fact impose sensation to the state of motion of the atoms to its
conclusion but the interaction of at least two atoms is necessary, which can still
be in doubt whether he monadological respectively two distinct feelings for
one and other atomic or synechologisch only a feeling for the system of two
statuiert. In any case, it is quite synechologisch and occurs completely out of
the socket or the consequences of the Monadology by his successor, that he
ascribes to the universe a universal will, for which the sensations of pleasure
and pain represent motifs, an idea which is true to the day view although the
psychophysical grounds of pleasure and pain itself is otherwise taken (after
Section XV and XVIII) of me as of a publican.

This new kind of Monadology comes back to it that the atoms of matter in the state
of motion, in particular vibrational states - just absolutely cold atoms but swing, no -
feelings are resolved, which in this state of motion (not on an inner reflection of the
world or inner self-preservation as to Leibniz or Herbart) depend. Thereafter, each
simple atom for itself a simple soul represents or is thinking with such a subject that
passes through the atom to vibration sensation. Notwithstanding the earlier form of
the Monadology makes this view, a fusion of simple elements to all souls are, but it
brings because of the bucking its representatives against the idea of God only until
the adoption of individual composite souls, without that it becomes clear why no one
up to composition for the whole world. About the principle as an overarching
consciousness comes from the individual psychological elements into being, there are
no clear or specific explanations. Hartmann called the consciousness of a composite
soul as a summation phenomenon, and the summation extends as far to him, until a
line resistance interrupts, thus separates the consciousness, just ask yourself, is on
which line resistance to think this because vibrations from atom to atom is tell the
whole world.Haeckel uses neither the term summation nor resultant, but his theory, if
one can speak of such with him, is the simple assumption that, if the substances it to
the composition of a so-called plastidules 3) bring, wherein the carbon
lebensbedingende is the most important element for the ability of memory is created,
which still lacks the simple atomic souls, making the first advance is done in the
higher soul realm.
3)Under plastidules understands Häckel the molecules of the simplest, no
internal differences performers in itself organisms, such as the Monera, whose
substance he calls Plasson. PIastidule arise from differentiation of molecules
that the cell nucleus, and that the same form surrounding protoplasm called
Kokkomodule and Plasmodule).

Fundamentat now seems to me the following objection to this whole conception.

A particle can not swing on its own, at least include (as well as tax collectors
highlights) two to determine which part to change. If, therefore, mean vibration
sensation, it can only sense the first place, both formed in the system. But it can also
have the system only two (or even more) of sensation. Because the particle is
unchanged as it is only in outer space back and forth through its vibration; simple as
it even has no interior, where some change by the vibration itself, so what the origin
and the process of sensation could not tie. They want to establish a principle, but the
dependence of the mental on the physical. How, then, can create something
psychologically when the physical base remains the same.
Unlike the system of both particles. Here we have another in the changes in
position of the particles, the speed and the changes in the rapidity with which the
change in position occurs, internal rules of the system, to which legal relationship can
be thought of in the formation and change of sensation. There are more than two
particles, as these movements involve entanglement through the interactions of the
particles more and more and thus can provide a base for more intricate intellectual
achievements. Thereafter, however, the feelings that attach themselves to the
composite vibrations and positional relationships, be regarded as a thing of the larger
system and its partial systems, but not as a matter of unchanged lasting individual
material points that remain the rather indifferent substance there.
Now you might in the sense of the opposite view saying, if not the atom, but the
vibration but has a heart, and in this, not the atom, the sensation can be obtained. The
atom is just the indifferent support the movement for us. - Whether, if any vibration
but includes a number of varying speeds, you already linked so that even a simple
psychological moment, the simple sensation, to a variety of physical moments, and it
already comes from the temporal side in synechologische into view. From another
quarter is not well explained, as may result from summation to be viable in imaginary
sensations of individual atoms, higher mental phenomena, the mind is not merely out
of a sum of individual sensory sensations, so must but the principle of contagion
psychological effect on a majority be approved by atoms, making you come in from
another quarter in the synechologische view, but hereby monadological principle
leaves at all.
After synechologischer view now the whole material world is actually a system to
exchange both to vibrations and greater circulatory movements determining starting
points of external phenomena with subordinate Partialsystemen, and an interruption
of the exchange definiteness in between, you would take as a line interrupt, does not
exist. That's a world with a cohesive self intellectual content, and a breakdown of this
content, belonging to the structure of the material world, provided that the change
determination and the resulting continuous movements can take different forms and
magnitudes, the fact of the threshold her in 11 Section discussed may play role in
distinguishing different mental areas. In this way, but not with the summation and
chaining individual atomic soul, which is interrupted here and there by cable
resistances, one comes back to the cross all over the world Synechologie the day
They say: if not the individual material points inwohnte psychic power, how should
such occur in their composition, it could only give a composition of sensation lots
Soulless be. But one forgets that the composition itself can only be done by
consultation of something new, which makes more than a mere sum of points from
it. Although a sensation can not arise from physical conditions, but their emergence at
time spatial relationships of atoms, the atoms themselves are not, make law, without
being able to build on individual atoms.
One certainly can not Zweies and be conceptually the same, that is not physically
and mentally Simple manifold, but that does not claim the synechologische view
when they claimed that a physical part of the mentally Simple Much. The underlying
reason of this relationship but, after a thorough consideration of the relationship
between body and soul, speaking of which elsewhere (Section XXI), are eventually
found in the fact that what is for himself in his own self-appearance, ie, as a psychic,
just a simple produced, but spread effects in the world around them, making it betrays
its existence other, and thus gives him the appearance of the associated externally
observable physical composition. The Psychophysicists but needs at this abstrusity if
he wants to have it, not to keep, but can leave the philosophers, the view
synechologische translate into it.
XXIII. Spiritualistic 1) .

(Position of the Day for spiritualism. Status of spiritualism to religion.

Personal remarks.)
l to the position of Day spiritualism.
Can no longer ignore the spiritualism after all, it is necessary to adopt a position
and to explain it. Although, as long as the observation holds in areas that are not
affected by the question of spiritualism, why worry about the same, but the Day is
more than just touching it.
l)That I will meet with the following considerations neither Antispiritisten
spiritualists, I know; former can not, because I do recognize spiritualistic facts,
the latter not because I do the character and scope of the same in some respects
against them by the spiritualists enclosed, sit down. There are now non-
spiritualists and Antispiritisten another until now party-less audience to which
you can turn to, and except Passionate Passion lots, with whom a conversation
about an area is possible via the but until now, no one, either in a positive or
negative sense , may be said to be quite the pure, and as a word of this
conversation on my part, one may take the following considerations. -
Spiritualism is understood here in a broad sense with the epitome of the so-
called spiritualism.

From the point of view of the same now I mean the whole spiritualist area belongs
to the dark side of the world, but the world has no downsides and use it to abstract
from them.Only the shadow is wrong to want to signify light even when he breaks
into his whimsical distortions in the day. But instead of continuing in pictures, we
engage in the tricky thing itself, of course, to engage the emotions into a hornet's nest.
The spiritualist will say from the outset: you've given you a lot of unnecessary
trouble (v. 5 and XIII) to prove the world out of this world out and construct, now is
the fact that there are spirits of the afterlife, by their appearance even proven and you
know to communicate directly with them.
Suppose that it is really so, what can our conclusions in good stead more than that
the spiritualistic experience provides confirmation that? And it does not really? In
fact, we see more closely, agree the spiritualistic experiences not only in general but
also to the most important features, the teaching of the day view of the afterlife as
such: that man is surrounded already in this world, a world of otherworldly spirits it
with them is a Into interaction of these spirits in the worldly people and ideas traffic
(Section V.5.) that the spirits of the afterlife are no longer bound to the same spatial
barriers as this side that they but without eyes and ears, a further reaching perception
as we deserve, that even with the earlier physical shape (exceptionally even into this
world into) to appear they are able (Section V.5., and XII), but that in all of existence
and work of these spirits usually so in our this-worldly existence and its legalities and
weaves is charged, that we have no cause under ordinary circumstances, to think
about the present and the play Into an otherworldly spirit world into our world on this
side. Even before the word was invented spiritualism, this doctrine was as inference
and existing piece of Day two scriptures 2) set. Recklessly disregarded this doctrine
remained the spiritualistic facts have developed, and the coincidence of both in those
main points can make both claims in favor of the truth after all.
2) v. Booklet life nd death in 1836 and the third part of the Zenavesta 1851.
Now it is true that spiritualism has facts brought to light that were not foreseen in
that doctrine, according to which first asks whether there are facts, and secondly,
whether they be recognized as such, contrary to the doctrine, not rather only to the
extent additional draw near, as they combined to form the one of the day view in the
eye, normal relations between this world and also bring abnormal to light, which
therefore do not add up to the by us as valid respected, laws, because they themselves
only from the normal conditions are abstracted.And since I find myself forced to let
facts are that type, it is the latter view that I hold it, which is not so much a statement
given from the same laws as we know, as an aspect of their Nichterklärbarkeit is
established it.
After spiritualist reports are brokered by a so-called medium otherworldly spirits,
declaring themselves for such, not just by knocking psychographs but with strong
influence of the media to tell even through legible and audible speech, not only
visible but also leave tangible (in the so-called materialization phenomena) appear
and lasting effects of a visible and tangible beings. Even without the visible presence
of the same should be raised by her physical objects thrown, can be pushed without a
lifting, throwing, pushing hands to be detected, so even services are produced, which
have the Into interaction of forces of a fourth spatial dimension. And let's not forget
to add that all of this, even the unglaublichst apparent end of it, seems proven by the
most diligent, employed with anxious precautions, observations strict researchers,
most of whom, if not, are all approached with the most decided unbelief in this
area, 3) . While otherwise errors are detected so confident as thorough, accurate
investigation, it must be said: the more it is been about the spiritualistic facts, the
safer to have such in the as to be regarded conclusive often than not by self-deception
yet been found to explain fraud , and it changes nothing herein that there has also
been no shortage of inadequate observations and proven frauds in this field.
3)Apart from the only recently have been added observations German
researchers what publican "Scientific. Unters." to compare and follow in No. 3
of this section some remarks, I refer here to the observations of the English
insbesondre researchers, such as Crookes, Wallace, Huggins, Varley, all,
members of the Royal. Soc. to London. Even scientific authorities in Russia
and America could be mentioned. The confirming observations by lay people
there are many, some of which even make it a confidence-inspiring
impression. Since 1874, the monthly "Psychic Studies" (Leipzig, Mutze)
register at all, most of what in particular German and English side comes to the
fore this field

Anyway, I think after all that no compelling theoretical reasons, the possibility of
spiritualistic phenomena to deny anything, however compelling empirical reasons to
accept the reality of these phenomena, although I am, add this constraint in particular
concerning the so-called materialization phenomena, and everything connected with
it with reluctance 4) . A foundation for the day view but I can not search at all in
spiritualism, and even find only an ambiguous help it.
4) Do you have to recognize that we have here an area whose phenomena are
not explainable by the principles known to us all, so it would itself; prinziplos
be to try to determine the limit of what is possible according to the principles
still unknown, and in Basically it is not the easiest of spiritualist fact that you
can not refuse, without being able to explain them to go hatie Crookes (Student
Mental Volume I), the hand and footprints of tax collectors, etc., etc., as the no
spark from the lighter amber to the thunder and lightning from the clouds and
the Atlantic telegraph, at which thoughts run and out again by the
sea. Certainly the improbability of spiritualist materialization phenomena is
ludicrous from the outset, and yet ultimately remains against the "brutality" of
the observed facts. To judge, however, one must know the literature about it.

Once out of the formal reason that spiritualism unbelief yet encountered in the
widest circles, and it would be unfortunate to mix the matters of faith, the day view of
the questionable nature of facts, second from the far more important objective reason
that healthy views of the afterlife and its relations with this world can not win from
abnormal traffic conditions between the two. But speak for the abnormal character of
the spiritualist movement between this world and the circumstances as follows.
Not only that the character-by-exception is implied that character itself in itself, and
the state and behavior of the spiritualistic phenomena mediating media during the
spiritualistic manifestations more or less is abnormal, the more (the convulsive twitch
to half or full unconsciousness) per the wonderful manifestations, and the media in
general feel attacked them, and in most cases is probably her nervous system at all
out of balance. What the otherworldly spirits called Spirits do or what is doing the
same as is seen, because it occurs in the context of definite expressions of
intelligence, of which we do not otherwise specify source mostly futile or sillier
Haunting, tables, chairs , sofas, bedsteads lifted Will, overturned, crazy, broken and
thus repealed laws overturned, crazy, broken, also disputed the otherworldly regulate
our normal lives and hereby insofar as it related to the this-worldly and engages in the
same. Together Take a spiritualistic forces to a practically useful power is to my
knowledge not yet happened, and so much the physical force of utterances Spirits
sometimes appear so pointless and stunt similar they appear at the same time. Also,
from everything that the spirits knock, write and speak, yet no promotion, it had
emerged or higher of our historical knowledge area.
As good as it may now just go, I will explain to me hereafter that in the
spiritualistic facts to the emergent relationship between this world and the hereafter,
so far I can not help, such as in games concede it, scooped the following from this
world itself analogy, which I said, anywhere in the doctrine followed the afterlife,
Prinzipe be faithful, not so much as a causal that emerged extension and
improvement to be seen in the proportions of the Hereafter will abort the conditions
of this world the same. But this can now be related to the abnormal as well as normal
conditions of this world.
There are laws healthy spiritual life in us, but they are sometimes
broken. Remembrance, more often imaginary figures, sometimes gain the power of
sensual reality, and play disturbing, confusing to the realm of beliefs into it. We call it
hallucinations, fantasies, and often they are in crazy with movements that do not
protrude less from the laws physically and mentally healthy life together. It is a
pathological relationship between the small this world and what we as demonstration
and memory lives already this side in our little spirit wear (section V.5 and XII.), So it
is natural also to the possibility of such between the big this world and in the general
spirit, both in the sense of including both the day view, to think, except that it will
always occur merely as a partial failure. So can not really come into it sometimes
ghosts and spirits fantastic formations of the hereafter with the power of sensual
reality to this world and the possibility of abnormal movements combine with the
possibility of abnormal phenomena themselves? But if there is something of the like,
it is a relationship, which may pious neither to this world nor the other world, bad as
it stands to the religious beliefs, he had nothing but what to support, from which to
build itself, and like uses such disorders of those who are wont to pursue the legalities
healthy life and events in themselves and beyond themselves and to enjoy the
progress of knowledge in himself, his back to. Can only proceed after an exact back
some of what does not look the same, and the disease has such a right to health
research. Easier, however, to register the facts of the disease and group, to find the
same laws as that which unite under more general aspects of health, and so far any
have to leave the area of spiritualism find so little that the resistance, also recognize
only facts of Spiritualism, is understandable.
The physiology of the pathology can learn the psychology of the pathology of the
mind somewhat, and only the former are may not want to justify the latter, and so far
only learn from it, as they also learn how the body and mind should not be. In a
similar situation is a healthy view of the relationship between this world and the
Hereafter for spiritualism.
Long ago it was considered almost everything that falls within the circle of
spiritualistic phenomena - for without the name played such has always been a role -
for work or deception of the devil, and burned the persons who mediated such
phenomena, nowadays called media as witches or wizard. And unquestionably it has
in it a true instinct, but also at the same time to behold an exaggeration. Even today
Antispiritisten see the cause of spiritualism in mild, no longer require that the media
burned, but most that they are recognized as an impostor and set the scholars that can
be making fools of them, instead of a devil hat a dunce cap on. In fact, it can be a
tough condemnations of Spiritualism over issues such as the following claim.
Strangely, the feel nothing during the séances present, while they are surrounded by
Geisterspuk, but by the ghosts horror, which probably everyone in fits of knows it,
but rather it has in the most wonderful pieces that perform the Spirits, just feel as if
you were sitting in a pocket player digs. Also, it runs generally quite harmless to the
Spirits. They betrayed no resentment about being disturbed from beyond the grave,
mostly they seem rather to provide entertainment and pleasure to fool the audience
something or get involved with them through the spiritualistic hergebrachten
transport on entertainment and when they are gone, one is of course thereafter as
smart or stupid as before. Very generally they give themselves an interest in the
promotion of spiritualism to recognize speak of him as of a thing that has a great
future, and give themselves gladly to be proved for experiments here, however, they
are against doubters and deniers poorly tuned. Everything sounds and is now
certainly very curious and suspicious, however, one can well imagine that the serious
and conscientious observers in this field have just located as close to the grounds of
suspicion against the like, as the non-observers, which are characterized by the
suspicion the same as the thing accept that they have been taken into account but also
of them. What it is not possible to push all the deliberate deception on the part of the
media or hallucinations of the observer. Whatever the case, or so says the way how to
design the séances, against too precarious character of the same, and if I add that the
health of the media is not sustainable to suffer through such meetings, if they are not
excessive, seems - although that still would require a closer zusehens - so should be
scientific determination of his facts and circumstances on the part appointee nothing
against observations and experiments in the field of spiritualism, and even no one can
ever be suspected when for an opportunity observation in this field are taking to
themselves to form an opinion, or to control the judgment of others. Beyond these
purposes but exploiting spiritualism to mere satisfaction of curiosity, should always
keep a lot against him.
The spiritualists themselves to spiritualism promise a bright future and the future of
even greater things from spiritualism. But my opinion is for the future not so much a
development of spiritualism to be desired than just finding its actuality and clarify its
circumstances, because as far as spiritualism is so far advanced, the knowledge
gained by him only one more riddle whose further continuation difficult to will help
its solution, but the practice ever won anything by him, also wot I not, what are the
chances they would have won by him.
First though is the following idea has dar. long as the language had not yet been
invented, there was no spiritual intercourse between men, they could not talk to each
other, were like each other sealed houses, how open they are now against each other,
it is only on on how open they want to be against each other. So there was no traffic
between this world and hereafter spirits before the spiritualism had commanded the
language means to do so;, now that is the case, sometimes it happens now and then
that deceased parents with their left-behind children entertained, otherworldly and
this-worldly Friends greet each other on this side researchers in teaching and
otherworldly place. But this is only a beginning, so to speak, a first babbling, because
the whole spiritualism is still in its infancy but, if will be reached with his
unstoppable progressive development of the spiritualistic language between this
world and the same development as the current human language in this world, so also
the traffic between this-worldly and otherworldly spirits is just as freely, easily and
developed than it is now between the worldly spirits, and emerge an as yet
unimagined enrichment and enhancement of life on both sides of it.
And why not everything when spiritualism is truly a gift, why keep it the
spiritualists, which represents a step forward in the world and promises. But
otherwise, if it is an abnormality that what I think it, their growth and development to
be feared rather than to promote. Has the Day with her, only to the normal
relationship between this world and the hereafter directed looks pretty, the spiritual
movement has between not only the mediation of a this-worldly medium to wait is
rather and has always been so close that the worldly keeps spirit of his property,
which also owned the otherworldly spirit 5) is, and the Zwischeneinschiebung of the
medium, rather than creating traffic only, can only steer it from the right direction,
and if not quite translate into a deceptive nature, but with deceptive elements move
by purely can not shine through in the here and the hereafter by the strange middle
5) From d Büchl. v. Leb. n the death pp. 8
"During his lifetime, each person grows with its effects into others by word,
example, and writing practice. Already as Goethe lived, contributed millions
Mitlebende spark of his spirit in themselves, where new lights flared, already
lived as Napoleon invaded his mental power in most of the world around one,
an individual, and the growth of these, taken out of an individual in their
entirety; died as both these branches of life, which they pushed into the
contemporary world died, not, only the driving force of new branches went out.
re-forming, spawns happening now with the same indwelling of us certainly
not to be detected, consciousness, than before their first emergence bustle. Yet
Goethe, a Schiller, a Napoleon, a Luther live among us, in us as self-conscious,
even higher than developed in her death, thinking in us and acting, ideas
compelling and continue developing individuals, no longer trapped in a narrow
body, but poured by the world they were in his lifetime, enjoyed, dominated,
and far reaching out with her self on the effects we feel them. "
"The greatest example of a powerful mind, the visible lives on in posterity and
continues to act, we have in Christ is not an empty word that Christ lived in his
confessors,. Every true Christian to wear it not only comparatively, but truly
alive in themselves , everyone is partaker of his acting in his senses and think,
for just only the Spirit of Christ working in him by this act and think he has
spread through all the members of his congregation, and all hang together
through his mind, like the apples through. Branches Of A tribe, the vine as a
vine. "
"" For as one body, and hath many members, and all the members of that one
body, being many, are one body, but so also is Christ. '"(L Cor. 12, 12)
"But it is not only the greatest minds, but every efficient man awakens in the
next world with a self-created, bodies responsible for such a unit of infinite
spiritual creations, effects, moments in themselves, organism, meet a larger or
smaller area and have more or less continued development force is , according
as the spirit of man in his lifetime and even more powerful took hold. "

But it really is so, it may in particular address the following remark.

From the outset, one would think the ghosts that play a role in spiritualism would,
also can provide the safest and most unambiguous information on the conditions and
circumstances of the afterlife in which they live. But in fact this is so little the case,
although they (l for by knocking sounds expected a, 2 for b, etc.) psychographs,
writing, and inform themselves directly under circumstances by speech fortune, that
from this side to a very natural doubt is caused if you really have to do it with spirits
of the afterlife, they would give you for it and do not even know just what they think
otherwise, as appropriate, to all the circumstances, there can be only intelligent
beings but according to their releases. But the followers of spiritualism profess
probably saying that the indefinite part, some meaningless, contradictory in part and
fantastic statements about the conditions of the afterlife, which are sometimes gain
from the spirits, nothing to build 6) , and excuse it mostly so that it must be hard to be
of one, the here and quite foreign, state clearly to talk with expressions of this world,
but besides the Spirits largely do not want to have the ability to do so by means of
their crossing into the afterlife a climbed higher level of intelligence, and there even
enough lies and deceit spirits among them, which of course just to get their character
and accurate information. Since it however it wants to be to have been placed with
the spirits of renowned scholars, philosophers and physicists, so nothing would have
prevented this questioning quite thoroughly, after the manner of their future existence
and control their data through one another, but it is not known to me that it has
happened, or has led to something, and you'd think that an adult from the worldly
state condition, as is the otherworldly, the worldly might not be so very strange, not
by clever Spirits for similarities and to differences between the two expressions are
the here and still understood can find.
6) A comparative compilation of the current in this respect information and
elicit further information with regard to the influences which could affect
determining factors roughly the same would you want in spiritistischem
interest, it should also lead to nothing more than the uncertainty of all of this
information more surely demonstrate.
For my part, I confess, however, that with what I know of spiritualistic messages at
all, is usually so appeared to me as if the spirits of the presumption of any known or
unknown name and the world mimicked with messages that they read out instead of
the here and now, into a carry from the beyond. Because if already which, through the
medium of answers to questions that are asked of the Spirits, undoubtedly often a lot
more and andres contain, as the medium could know, they seem no longer to contain,
in general, as the questioner or Present at the meeting who know, but if questions are
asked for something that they themselves do not know, without that it is more
difficult knowable, the spirits remain with an answer or go missing. Such facts are
really going anyway, and it would apply to reproduce the observations
above. However, but are also sometimes occur spiritualist distant views, which would
not be living on this side or as a composition explain it by a reading of thoughts, and
fully on pure is not easy to get into the thing.
After this is close to the following idea. Since the spiritualistic manifestations ever
come about only through the mediation of a worldly medium, and the ability to read
of other souls, is expected to spiritualist assets themselves, so do not just ideas of the
medium itself, but also to the séances co-venturers on the Hereafter is the messages
about fuel or form the main content of it, so you either learn nothing clear or new, and
even the interest, as evidenced by the Spirits in the promotion of spiritualism, can
easily be interpreted to mean that the interest of those with whom they operate in the
sessions, reflected in the spiritualistic messages. Some media agree on almost
obsessed with this or that spirits; reversed these spirits are to be regarded as
possessed by the medium. We compared the spiritualist relationship between this
world and with a sort of madness, as it occurs in this life itself. Of crazies can also
Zulängliches nothing about their condition than the craziness and no truth at all, is
relied upon for experience.
Finally could be thinking about the following point. The somnambulist remembers
well what is going on except his somnambulist state with him, but returned to the
normal state is not what happened to her in somnambulism. How could spirits of the
afterlife if they abnormerweise return to the conditions of this world, lose the clear
memory of the worldly conditions, hereby but so much easier on this side views or
fantasies in which such play forfeited, and it is not talking to that they but in their re-
entry into this world forces which do not fall into the normal this world, continues to
keep, since the manifestations of these forces nor fall into the normal afterlife,
because otherwise they would be commonplace if the afterlife so not separated from
this world exists.
Now saves you, however all such precarious consistent conjectures when the whole
desert essence of spiritualism - and anything else it has not yet - overboard throws,
and can do so everyone who is not comfortable to deal with it and only one is saying
that you do it subjectively, not objectively wrong spiritualism.
If the relationships in which to publican astute observations certain, experimental
him exactly stated, spiritualistic phenomena, the adoption of a fourth spatial
dimension are to be truly regarded as strictly proving it, so would undoubtedly also
the otherworldly existence with this fourth dimension and reversed them with that
have to do and opens up new prospects with it, but I think it is still too risky to enter
into a discussion here about who has also the representative of the view of the fourth
dimension itself yet withdrawn. In fact, should the success and the zulängliche
interpretation of some of the question important experiments (reversal left turned into
quite twisted forms, interpretation of certain heat phenomena) have yet to be seen to
address the still existing possibility of another hypothesis to explain the same
phenomena more effective , a hypothesis, but for the miracle of the fourth spatial
dimension just something different to questionable whether more likely miracle
would take 7) . For my part, I confess that from a mathematical as metaphysical
aspects of course highly interesting question of the fourth dimension of space for
myself so far neither priori nor empirically sufficiently decided to find, and therefore
will do without so dear a more detailed Inbetrachtnahme same as this issue either
from the general point win the day view from an educational, yet its decision in one
or another sense might interfere considerably changing in the established points of
view here, just beyond the margin of existence would grow with them for adoption of
a fourth spatial dimension 8) .
7)The result of the acceptance of a fourth spatial dimension so beautiful in
connection declared node and ring experiments and phenomena of penetration
of bodies locked rooms and disappearance it would namely by temporary
separation and reunion of material continuity, some looking also a continuity of
matters by themselves (under heat generation) can be thought depends,
however, I did not know how such explanations to the above (as reclosure)
mentioned reversal phenomenon should be applicable.
8)long ago I was even in the small text: "Four Paradoxes" (thereof in Mises
"small fonts"), represented the existence of a fourth dimension of space, but
this happened more in jest and one that differs from the tax collector's form of
the hypothesis that the fourth dimension not imagine even the time, but will go
through in time. But it fits this type of hypothesis as far as the Zöllnersche the
Declaration of spiritualistic phenomena, and I put no weight on it.

2 Position of spiritualism to religion.

Much to the detriment of the character spiritualistic phenomena also saying in the
previous, so it remains the principal merit of a spiritualist spiritualism, belief in the
future continuance did not only support, but to be able to justify itself only
mandatory. Also like ten theoretical and practical arguments for a future life to many
a real ghost or message from the spirit world, or what he thinks of how ten sparrows
appear on the roof against a in his hand. And why should the facts of nature, to the
extent they are facts, do not count on the question of the afterlife as moments for it, it
would just not abnormal, occurring only occasionally, not arbitrarily produced,
therefore always the doubt or the thought of a murky source the same - and he does
not remain after all a dull! - Accessible permanent cases, rather than to be based
firmly on it, so to speak even require all effort to be determined. So I have avoided
even with diligence to seek support of religious belief in the day view, sorry, rather,
that there is a time for which such support, however, still seems desirable.
Now the Spiritualist makes in this regard claimed as general advantage of
spiritualism, particularly emphasizing the fact that spiritualism is the most effective,
if not sole, means had ever taken drive out the rampant materialism of the time. But if
he can help it, there will still only be like a drug can help against an evil which in
itself an evil as a food, and not found in the transition into life is to
continue. Materialism contradicts all religion, since neither of God is still beyond the
talk, now wants to overcome spiritualism with tangible evidence for the afterlife him,
it appears but as an ambiguous advantage if the afterlife thereafter incorrect, this
world erring, representing aspects of what is in fact the case, if it spiritualistic out
from its normal conditions this occurs. Now, although the abnormal proportions are
kept something in common with the normal dispute, but the question is what and how
much, and a reliable criterion to distinguish both, is not available. Suppose you want
to know what goes into a locked cabinet in which secret things going on and makes a
hole in the cabinet so that the secret things come to light, because we think that it
outdoors as well as indoors still open in secret proceed and you can safely conclude
from the outside to the inside, though one can safely conclude that something is going
on inside it. But in fact the whole of the manifestations, into summoned from beyond
the here and now, Spirits reasons including their statements about the afterlife itself,
only confused ideas of the afterlife, the lack of all edification, clarity and
strength. And while she hereby the main piece of a religion spread just a confusing
note, leave the other, the top one, concerning the relationship of the human to the
divine spirit, in complete darkness. So is one that is built on spiritualism, religion, it
may still be preferable to none at all, always just a half and more than half remain in
essence rooting the night side of things. Better yet hereafter than to simply keep faith
in the highest and last things in the scriptures to the writing slate of Spirits and their
palpable appearance. As the dim seance room with a medium inside, which is half or
not, in itself, and thereby mediated spook the day light church with the preacher in
the pulpit and the devout choir singing the community behaves, the spiritualist to the
Christian religion, their beliefs at the same time of the day view may be in terms of
highest and last things 9) .
9) Cf Section VI and VII Incoming is the ratio of the daily view to Christianity
in Zendavesta Section XIII and XXX and discussed in the three motives and

Now the spiritualism is supplied to the credit of that faith would put the more
reliable the sources of Christian doctrine itself in them: what are the work done by
Christ, miracles and manifestations of the same after his death else but spiritualistic
manifestations. Due to the fact that there now give such manifestations, the
incredibility'll lifted from those and win the Christianity herewith an actual
foundation. And einstreitig is generally speaking no reason the reality of the Christian
miracles, to use these short term to deny if it must be admitted that the spiritualist,
and some may actually be converted by the faith of the latter to believe in the former,
only can see a gross perversion of the conversion to the Christian miracles than to
spiritualist again. Because there is such a contrast between the two in character, that it
seems like blasphemy, bringing both under the same heading and want to help up to
Christianity so that one Christ explains for the most gifted medium. There is a
difference, as born out of the light and out of the night as abnormally increased
abnormally healthy and crazy power.Christ threw himself into accomplishment of his
miracles, not restlessly, not fell into full or half unconscious, not summoned foreign
spirits, declared himself not by such obsessed, took no darkness or semi-darkness to
help, as our media do today, but went in bright around its days as a healthy sense of
his mental and physical strength completely powerful man, and healed. He did not lift
tables, not throwing chairs around, did not make art pieces that can be confused with
legerdemain, was not to pay for it, but made just healthy with a force that has not yet
been proven medium. He did not write platitudes of Spirits on slates, but living words
were out of his mouth, which have overcome the world of paganism and Judaism,
and wanted to be doubted all during his life work done by him, miracles are not
sufficiently guaranteed as historically, this miracle of a superhuman effect, with
which it projects today after his death in the story, can not be doubted. But probably
can believe himself that the small community of his disciples, from which the
Christianity in space and time into it has spread, would not have gone with him
through life, and after him to death for his teaching, Paul is not one of a Saul would
have been, if not really exceptional acting forces and phenomena of Christ would
have him credible in their eyes, but in another sense it is exceptionally forces acting
appearances have been exceptional, as today the play 'in spiritualism.
In fact, even the appearances of Christ after his death, of which the biblical
narrative report can not be interpreted as a spiritualist. Should Christ have been a
medium, so it is not the media itself, which appear after death as spirits, they merely
convey the spiritualist apparitions, but Christ did not need a medium to appear after
his death, he appeared from his own absolute power, appeared in broad daylight,
however, require the spiritualist apparitions of darkness or semi-darkness. So you
believe in the apparitions of Christ after death, so one can not believe in it as a
Spiritualist, even if it still remains true that the fact of the latter faith in the former
After this I think the relationship between the Christian miracles, or I would rather
say the miracles of Christ and the Spiritist miracles so without being able to certainly
find a very clear expression of this and safe. But who is able to find such in these
things at all, if he has in there only an imperfect show.
Exceptionally, the relationships that normally exist between man and God, here and
beyond, through the agency of an exalted personality one, the ordinary measure
excess, experienced expansion and growth, without at the same time to find a fault,
and of these also depend on effects, which exceed the usual effects in a circle both
this world and the hereafter pious manner. So with Christ and his miracles. But
exceptional cases, even those relationships through the agency of an individual, in
which the normal balance of forces is lifted, be disturbed in such a way as we now
just in the media and mediated by them whimsical, for this world and the undisputed
equally worthless observe manifestations. The exceptions of the first kind are secular
and secular effects, exceptions second kind thing on a whim and curiosity of the day,
Christ is an exception to all exceptions whose essence can meet up any more than had
been the essence of spiritualistic exceptions down.
Even some Spirits is nachzurühmen that they, rather than to engage in mechanical
Spooky looking to promote religiosity in that they just like to do it in edifying
reflections, Christian exhortations, references to Christ's teaching, our devotional
books, and as if they themselves were drawn from those that endure. Often it is of
course only twaddle whose source you need nowhere but in the spirit of the medium
to look for themselves. But is it that you want to considerations of the type dependent
and keep mediated only through the medium of otherworldly spirits, the question
arises of what we gain with it, the same thing that we can directly from books that are
accessible to everyone, bringing, from séances pick. Experience we would rather by
those Spirits, after passing in the afterlife with Christ and his disciples into closer
relationship, a little more information on their earthly life, suffering and death, about
the origin and authenticity conditions of the gospels and epistles, the correct version
and interpretation of the parable of the unjust steward, etc. Thus, an actuality of our
knowledge to be gained, and also performed the proof that by means of spiritualism
anything to win for the spiritualism so far remained guilty. Has the Day quite so must
for all those and so many other historical issues, the path of knowledge in the
spiritual Life Memories of ghosts really be open, but only to those who have
converted to the afterlife without the possibility of this realization ways back forward
into this world, and spiritualism has not changed anything in this regard.
3 Personal remarks.
To the previous general considerations about the spiritualism I find myself
compelled to add the following more detailed explanation of my personal
observations on the recognition of its actuality.
Tax collector in the reports, which he in his "Scientific. Abh" given by the Leipzig
held with the American medium Slade séances, except the testimony of Weber and W.
Scheibner also thought of my testimony this, and I am not withdrawing this evidence,
only that it goes much much less, and even less for myself it is significant as the
publican of himself and his other co-observers. Because I'm only a couple of first of
the those sessions that were not among the most critical, have been present, and the
rather as a spectator than as experimenter, which would have not been sufficient, even
for myself, on suspicion of legerdemain opposite to be of resounding evidence. But
I'll take what I yet even seen without being able to discover a deception with
sharpened most attention, with the results of continued observations and real
experiments of my scientific friends in the later sessions, and with which the British
researchers together, I also take added that the same phenomena that we here suspects
a fraud and sleight of hand, are elsewhere stated by teaching media, who were
relieved from all suspicion in this regard, of good observers, shall exercise the a force
of conviction on me that I am not going to deprive able, as much as I would like it in
respect to certain phenomena.
Yes, incredible as like the spiritualistic facts appear from the outset, it would be but
in my opinion, belief in people and the ability to be stated facts by observations ever
give up, hereby disclose all empirical science, they wanted to the mass and the weight
of the evidence, the spiritualistic phenomena exist for the actuality, not soft. Without
the mass of votes into account, I will speak only of a few votes, to which reference is
not only to take me even the next, but also the time interest is likely to meet most
If one publican who can apply in Germany as the main representative of the
actuality spiritualistic phenomena, as well as myself, who takes no independent
authority as observers in this field to complete, but his observations represent with,
declared a visionary who sees what he want to see, so you want to watch but only
where he has ever proved in observation areas as such, and whether his beautiful,
fertile for exact science inventions and discoveries are fantasies. If you still insist the
boldness with which he builds conclusions on facts to be confused with poor
observation of facts, and the personality of his criticism I do not want to represent, to
meet with condemnation of his person, which means return blow with manslaughter
so yes that is what he has reported spiritualistic facts, not merely to his authority, but
also on the authority of a man, so to speak, in the spirit of exact observation and
modes of reasoning has embodied, W. Weber, whose fame in this respect has never
experienced a challenge to the moments where he spiritualistic phenomena occurs for
the actuality.But if you leave him out of this moment in a bad observer who has gone
from a sleight dupe or a dreamer who has seduced by a bias in favor of mystical
things, holds, so that's a bit strong or rather weak, yet solidarity with the rejection of
his testimony. For my part, I confess that after seeing one of the sharpest and most
rigorous mathematician, the experiments produced by Slade not merely just watched
a whole series of meetings with tax collectors and usually Scheibner, but put those
into their own hands and all means had and measures to in the hand, a word of his
testimony on the reality of spiritualistic phenomena weighs more to me than anything
that has been part of such contrast, spoken or written, which itself saw nothing in this
field, or have only once as watched as you watch jugglers, and consider themselves
entitled hereafter to speak of objective legerdemain. But W. Weber is just one
achtbarster under a number researchers who stand for the same careful consideration
for the reality of these phenomena, compared to the amount of such, the throw as it
were from afar stones at them, ie all possible vague suspicions against them
accumulate, to think or even after the situation is unthinkable, and thus think they
have done something. The superficiality in this field is in any case much more on the
side of disputers as representatives of spiritualism, of course, I include only those
representatives who are outside of spiritualism. Yes, spiritualism would be a
perversion, as would be the funds that you need against him, even perverse, and that
one is better but not against him, speaks for itself that there is absolutely no against
Otherwise, one draws conclusions only to the successful trials, discarding the
unsuccessful precisely because they are failed, in relation to spiritualism is drawn
from the Antispiritisten conclusions only from failed attempts and discards the
successful precisely because they are successful. Would be, employed under the
sicherstellendsten measures Zöllnersche nodes attempt in Leipzig and Breslau failed,
it would be something out, and then he has succeeded, he is nothing but sleight by
which anyone can imitate him who knows the trick, just do not among those being
secured through conditions apply. So with all that successful under the hand of good
observer attempts in this field. - Otherwise we examined in a new field of
observation, the conditions under which successful attempts, here to write them
before the conditions are given from the outset, and if, for example, an attempt has
succeeded in locking precautions in darkness or semi-darkness 10) , it shall nothing,
because he has not succeeded in daylight, but it is possible under favorable
conditions, in the light, as he is nothing, he is far ever succeeded. - Otherwise, keep to
maturity of the experience and judgment of each investigation cheap, here it is as old
age, when the investigation is favorable of spiritualism, and eggs stay here for
smarter than hens. - Or you can see if it is pointed fingers at things, then make sure
they are even there, where to hack the same finger from that point afterwards, so one
does not need to look after it, and writes essays about the fact that nothing to see.
10) That dark the success spiritualistic experiments is low, may not be so very
strange, if the interference by a this-worldly charm omitted here, but in general
but it has been shown that succeed with a stronger effect of the medium the
same experiments also in the light, which at weaker the darkness or semi-
darkness request.

Why now you propose does not take such a way that only the faint, the get at
spiritualism prove, in fact, to oppose a one, which alone could be enough to di the
observations submitted on spiritualism made last really even against speaking, with
same prudence, care, diligence, impartiality, are employed under circumstances as
amended, with non-professional as with professional media as the best of the talking
for it. And there is nothing of the kind? But! Only that this way where you can also
struck him, but led to the forced recognition as intended refutation of
spiritualism. Probably because none of the physicists who have declared after
thorough and serious investigation of spiritualism is likely to have intended from the
outset something else than its refutation.
The speaking and writing against spiritualism goes his way and spiritualism goes
his way, the former way but not actually runs against the latter, but only incidentally,
and by opposing screams from there to the spiritualism in progress does not inhibit,
the has been proved, and will also prove.
I have accepted me in the last factuality of spiritualism, as it happened, as no less
from the previous visible, not out of sympathy for him, but because of the thing and
the people is to give it right; around because so much is all the spiritualism would
eliminate any cost, but the price is too high for the truth. The day view can exist with
or without the spiritualism, but stocks would rather not as the same, because, though
they in important respects meets with him and might seek a support herein, yes I
believe, up to certain limits is really in it (as ), but it interferes with his abnormalities
not only in them, but the entire system into our previous findings, and only just so I
know I am come to terms with its actuality, that I also carry this abnormal character
of his account, which he found neither in the healthy life nor the science to the
healthy life fits appropriately. Now there is no joy for the representatives of the daily
view, the need to take a more dark side to the world account. That I add do not
willingly mystical phenomena, my pamphlet "On the last day of Odlehre" could
prove, now I count 78 years, have the Zend-Avesta and this book is written, what it is
for opponents, who reject spiritualism in the above manner require more.
XXIV Additional comments in support of the day view.

From the outset is granted, it was basically just a hypothesis, of which Day has
taken the output here that the vibrations of light, sound vibrations beyond the people
and animals glow, tones, and that the lights, sounds, and only from the outside people
Animals hineinerstrecke, while it is no less a hypothesis, and then the night view is
based, that the light and sound vibrations outside neither light nor sound, but only
have the ability to arouse light and sound sensation in our nervous system. Favor the
first hypothesis over the other but did assert itself, first, that the natural conception of
man from himself prefers the first, second, that for her the world a more pleasant
sight immediately granted as to the second, third, that they on can further build a
world view that is satisfactory to all sides than the one for which the second leads. To
show this was the main task of this book, and it can not be the task of a short sentence
to show it again. That the scientific abstraction no lack of qualitative determination of
the mean sensible qualities of illumination, sounding when considering the
quantitative movement conditions of light and sound to it, was in a special section
(XX) are discussed.
Let us confess further: it is not a strict conclusion that if there is a lights and sounds
on people and animals out, it also about cross, more general, seeing and must be
listening beings to in which the sensation of illumination, sounding falls. Can not
shine the light out for themselves, drown the sound for yourself? Well it was said
(section V.1): "The sensual sensation can not float in the void, it requires a subject of
an overarching consciousness for it", and who can think of it the other way, he looks
into himself, but he confuses not the case with subjective fact an objective
necessity. Is there still really a view to the sensual sensation can float in a void, an
atom that is needed to get only vibration to give a simple sensual sensation for
yourself, without the need of a, this sensation bodies responsible for such subject to
( Section XXII) as such, but we called in to the sensual sensation was capable of
thinking for themselves have not. But what is then hung from the whole God of Day,
whose claim to this requirement, or at least connected with it.
In fact, if the assumption of God had to rely only on those demands, it would
appear supported yet weak enough. But first is true, first, that the conceivability of an
independently existing for us to sensuous sensation indeed difficult, if at all catchy,
while the earlier (Chapter XXII) discussed view, which nevertheless takes in it, also
discussed earlier objections subject, secondly, that the physical movements , what
light and sound hanging out in an analogous manner from the general system of the
world are overlapped, when what they hang us from the subsystem of the world, what
makes each of us even and thirdly, that the general material system presents to our
partial such circumstances the analogy of the relationship and causality, in order to
make an inference from one to the other in respect to the spiritual capacity to what in
earlier writings more than in the current of is executed me. But if you want all these
theoretical reasons not yet found a resounding enough to take the other historical and
practical reasons, which, according to section a Mitrücksicht due IX added to the
belief in God with such supreme power as one particular in the "three motives and
reasons "is pointed out that all of these reasons, we can not escape without added into
rates in a theoretical, practical and historical at the same time stoppable world view.
The previous two first concerned the basic points of the Day (Chapter III), but the
third depends not so much with the previous two together, a development that the day
view only its concurrence is possible. The divine mind can not grasp in connection,
without access to the people with the world.
XXV. Conclusion.

I conclude with the wish that you may not both recognized the presumption of a
person as the right thing in the attitude of this book and that the decisiveness with
which it may proclaim the dawn of a brighter world view and represents even help to
fulfill the Annunciation .