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Formation of elements in the universe.

 During the formation of the universe in the so-called big bang, only the
lightest elements were formed: hydrogen, helium, lithium, and beryllium. ... The other
88 elements found in nature were created in nuclear reactions in the stars and in

huge stellar explosions known as supernovas.

Big Bang Theory

 The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation about how the universe began. At its
simplest, it says the universe as we know it started with a small singularity, then
inflated over the next 13.8 billion years to the cosmos that we know today.Because
current instruments don't allow astronomers to peer back at the universe's birth,
much of what we understand about the Big Bang Theory comes from mathematical
formulas and models. Astronomers can, however, see the "echo" of the expansion
through a phenomenon known as the cosmic microwave background.While the
majority of the astronomical community accepts the theory, there are some theorists
who have alternative explanations besides the Big Bang — such as eternal inflation or
an oscillating universe.The phrase "Big Bang Theory" has been popular among
astrophysicists for decades, but it hit the mainstream in 2007 when a comedy show
with the same name premiered on CBS. The show follows the home and academic life
of several researchers (including an astrophysicist).

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

 In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (or primordial nucleosynthesis)


refers to the production of nuclei other than H-1, the normal, light hydrogen, during
the early phases of the universe, shortly after the Big Bang.It is believed to be
responsible for the formation of hydrogen (H-1 or simply H), its isotope deuterium
(H-2 or D), the helium isotopes He-3 and He-4, and the lithium isotope Li-7.Big Bang
nucleosynthesis begins about one minute after the Big Bang, when the universe has
cooled enough to form stable protons and neutrons, after baryogenesis.From simple
thermodynamical arguments, one can calculate the fraction of protons and neutrons
based on the temperature at this point.This fraction is in favour of protons, because
the higher mass of the neutron results in a spontaneous decay of neutrons to protons
with a half-life of about 15 minutes.

Stellar nucleosynthesis
 is the process by which elements are created within stars by combining the protons
and neutrons together from the nuclei of lighter elements. All of the atoms in the
universe began as hydrogen. Fusion inside stars transforms hydrogen into helium,
heat, and radiation.

Isotopes
 Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number,
and consequently in nucleon number. All isotopes of a given element have the same
number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in each atom.

C-N-O process

 The 'CNO cycle' refers to the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen cycle, a process of stellar


nucleosynthesis in which stars on the Main Sequence fuse hydrogen into helium via a
six-stage sequence of reactions. This sequence proceeds as follows: A carbon-12
nucleus captures a proton and emits a gamma ray, producing nitrogen-13.

Triple alpha

 A nuclear fusion reaction in which three helium nuclei (alpha particles) fuse to form a
carbon nucleus, thereby releasing energy. Two helium nuclei fuse to form an unstable
isotope of beryllium, which under conditions of sufficient temperature and pressure
fuses with a third helium nucleus to form carbon before it decays. Triple alpha
processes take place in stars in which large quantities of helium have accumulated as
the product of proton-proton chain and carbon cycle reactions.

Neutron capture

 Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or


more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus. Since neutrons have no
electric charge, they can enter a nucleus more easily than positively charged protons,
which are repelled electrostatically.