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You are on page 1of 23

AT HIGH VOLTAGES

Autumn Sem 2010 Report submitted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for

the degree of

Master of Technology

In

Power System Engineering

Submitted by:

Saswata Sekhar Roy

(09EE6314)

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

KHARAGPUR

Nov 2010

Abstract

sphere-to-sphere, rod(square)-to-sphere gaps under 50-Hz ac voltages. The

Breakdown Voltage increases if the Gap Distance increases. The equations of

Breakdown Voltage as a function of Gap Distance are obtained from the Curve

fitting method.

1

Contents

Abstract..................................................................................…………………..1

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Types of Mechanism for Breakdown………………………………………………………………………………………………3

1.1.1 Townsend Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3

1.1.1.1 Current Growth in the Presence of Secondary Processes…………………………………………………………4

1.1.1.2 Townsend’s Criterion for Breakdown……………………………………………………………………………………….5

1.1.2 Streamer Theory of Breakdown in Gases…………………………………………………………………………………….5

1.2 Paschen’s Law………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7

1.3 Paschen’s curve………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

2 Experimental Techniques 2

2.1 Circuit Diagram……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8

2.2 Test procedures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9

2.3 Air Density Correction factor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

2.4 Humidity Correction Factors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………9

2.5 Standard Reference Atmosphere……………………………………………………………………………………………………9

2.6 According to IEC 60052 (2002) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

3.1 Calculation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

3.2Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13

3.2.1 Breakdown voltage in respect to gap distances of SPHERE-SPHERE…………………………………………….13

3.2.2 Breakdown voltage in respect to gap distances of SPHERE-POINT………………………………………………14

3.2.3 Breakdown voltage in respect to gap distances of POINT- SPHERE………………………………………………16

3.2.4 Breakdown voltage in respect to gap distances of ROD(SQUARE)- SPHERE…………………………………18

3.3 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

4 Future Work 4

4.1 Future Work…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21

2

1

Introduction

Various phenomena occur in Air dielectric when a voltage is applied. When low

voltage is applied, small current flows between the electrodes and the insulation

retains its electrical properties. If the applied voltage is large, the current flowing

through the insulation increases very sharply and an electrical breakdown occur. A

strongly conducting spark formed during breakdown, practically produces a short

circuit between the electrodes. The maximum voltage applied to the insulation at

the moment of breakdown is called the breakdown voltage. For a uniform gap, the

effect of humidity on the breakdown voltage is negligible. For non-uniform gaps

such as rod-sphere, sphere-sphere like gaps the influence of humidity is found to

be of significant. A correction procedure recommended by IEC is commonly used

for converting the measured voltage or the test voltage from non-standard to

standard reference atmosphere. So the result in analysis is then corrected into the

standard reference conditions [in STP].

There are two types of mechanism for Air breakdown i. Townsend Theory

ii. Streamer Theory

1.1.1 Townsend Theory

breakdown under d.c. voltage conditions, and he proposed a theory to explain the

phenomenon named as Townsend’s Current Growth Equation.

3

Assuming n0 electrons are emitted from the cathode and when one electron collides

with a neutral particle, a positive atom and electron formed. This is called as

ionization by collision.

centimeter travel in the direction of the field where it depends on gas pressure p

and E/p, and is called the Townsend’s first ionization coefficient. At any distance x

from the cathode when the number of electrons, nx , travel a distance of dx they

give rise to ( n x dx ) electrons. Then, the number of electrons reaching the anode at

x=d, nd will be n0 n x x 0

………………………………....1

dn x

n x or n x n 0 e x ……………………….2

dx

nd n0

e d 1 …………………………….4

n0

Therefore the average current in the gap, which is equal to the number of electrons

traveling per second is

I I 0e d ………………………….5

When the initial set of electrons reach the anode the single avalanche process is

completed. Townsend’s secondary ionization coefficient in the same way as ,

as the net number of secondary electrons produced per incident positive ion,

photon, excited particle or metastable particle and the total value of due to the

three different processes is 1 2 3 and is a function of gas pressure p and

E/p. Following Townsend’s procedure for current growth, it may be assumed that

n0' Number of secondary electrons produced due to secondary processes.

Let, n0'' total number of electrons leaving the cathode.

4

Then

n0'' n0 n0' …………………………………..6

The total number of electrons n reaching to the anode becomes,

n n 0'' e d (n0 n0' )e d ……………………….7

And n 0' [ n ( n0 n0' )] …………………………..8

n 0 e d I 0 e d

Eliminating n0' , n or I …………..9

1 (ed 1) 1 (e d 1)

Eqn. 9 give the total average current in a gap before the occurrence of breakdown.

As the distance between the electrode d is increased the denominator of the

equation tend to zero and at some critical distance d=ds

1 (ed 1) 0 ………………………………..10

For values of d<ds, I is approximately equal to I 0 and if the external source for

the supply of I 0 is removed, I becomes zero. If d=ds, I and the current will

be limited only by the resistance of power supply and the external circuit. This

condition is called Townsend’s Breakdown Criterion and can be written as

(ed 1) 1 Normally, ed is very large, and hence the above equation reduces to

ed 1 …………………………………….….11

For a given gap spacing and at a given pressure the value of voltage V which gives

the values of and satisfying the breakdown criterion is called the spark

breakdown voltage V, and the corresponding distance d is called the sparking

distance.

Townsend Mechanism explains the phenomena of breakdown only at low

pressures, corresponding to p d values of 1000 torr-cm and below.

For the high pressure breakdown Streamer Theory is to be used.

The theory predicts the development of a spark discharge directly from a single

avalanche in which the space charge develop by the avalanche itself is said to

transform the avalanche into a plasma steamer. In fig 1, a single electron starting

at the cathode by ionization builds up an avalanche that crosses the gap. The

electrons in the avalanche move very fast compared with the positive ions. By the

time the electrons reach the anode the positive ions are in their original positions

and form a positive space charge at the anode. This enhances the field, and the

secondary avalanches are formed from a few electrons produced due to the photo-

5

ionization in the space charge region. This occurs first near the anode where the

space charge is maximum and a further increase in the space charge. This process

is very fast and the positive space charge extends to the cathode very rapidly

resulting in the formation of a streamer.

Fig. 1

Ionization proces

called streamers. As soon as the streamer tip approaches the cathode, a cathode

spot is formed and a stream of electrons rush from the cathode to neutralize the

positive space charge in the streamer; the result is a spark and the spark breakdown

occurs.

A simple quantitative criterion to estimate the electric field E r which is produced

by the space charge, at the radius r and that transforms an avalanche into streamer

ex V

is given by Er 5.27 10 7 …………………………..12

x cm

p

where is the Townsend’s first ionization coefficient, p is the gas pressure in torr

and x is the distance to which the streamer extends in the gap. When E r E and

x d the equation above simplifies into;

d ln p 14.5 ln E p 0.5 ln d p . ……………..13

This equation is solved for p and E p at a given p and d that satisfy the equation.

The breakdown voltage is given by the corresponding product Ed .

It is generally assumed that for pd values below 1000 torr-cm and gas pressures

varying from 0.01 to 300 torr, The Townsend mechanism operates, while at higher

pressures and pd values the streamer mechanism plays the dominant role in

explaining the breakdown phenomena.

6

1.2 Paschen’s Law

The breakdown criterion

1 (ed 1) 0 ……………………….14

where and are functions of E p , i.e.

f 1 E

p p

and f 2 E p . Also E V Substituting for E in the expressions

d

and and rewriting equation 14 we have

f 2 V e pd f (V pd ) 1 1 …………………..15

1

pd

This equation shows a relationship between V and pd, and implies that the

breakdown voltage varies as the product pd varies. Knowing the nature of

functions f1 and f 2 we can write the equation V f pd known as Paschen’s law

and has been experimentally established for many gases.

Fig. 2 is shows the “Paschen Curve” for air, between two flat parallel copper

electrodes, separated by 1 inch, for pressures between 3x10-2 torr and 760 torr.

Fig. 2

Paschen’s curve

7

2

Experimental Technique

2.1 Circuit Diagram

The test circuit is shown in Fig. 3. It consists of AC voltage source 220 V, Auto

Transformer (0-220 V), 220V/300 kV transformer, water resistor (RW)=560 kΩ.

Fig. 3

Circuit diagram

In the Fig 3 adjust the gap distance to an initial value from 5mm to 80mm.220V

Power Frequency is applied to the Low Voltage side by a Auto Transformer.

Slowly raise the voltage till faint hissing audible sound is heard. This is the

beginning of corona. Hence the Corona Inception Voltage. Raise the Voltage

further till such time there is a faint visible glow at the high voltage electrode. This

is the Visible Corona Inception level. Then slowly reduce voltage further till such

time the hissing sound subside i.e., dies down or becomes extinct. This voltage is

called Corona Extinction Voltage. Once again raises the voltage till such time there

is a Break Down. This voltage is called Breakdown Voltage. Then the measured

8

voltage has been corrected by the Air density correction factor and Humidity

Correction factor. Reduce the voltage completely and open the circuit breaker.

Then further breakdown has been obtained for different gap distances.

2.3 Air Density Correction factor

The air density correction factor, kd is given by:

…………………16

Where,

p = atmospheric pressure under test

t = temperature (in 0C) under test conditions

The humidity correction factor, kh is given by:

…………………………………17

The constant k is given in Fig 3 as a function of absolute humidity, curve a or b

being applicable according to the type of voltage. The exponents m, n, and w

depend on the type and polarity of the voltage and on the flashover distance d as

given in Table 1 and Fig 5. Lacking more precise information, m and n are

assumed to be equal.

The standard reference atmosphere is :

Temperature to = 20°C

Pressure po = 101.3 kPa(760 mmHg)

Humidity ho.= 11 g water vapor per cubic meter

The breakdown voltage values v (kV) measured under actual conditions with the

temperature t(oC), the pressure p (mmHg) and the absolute humidity k (g/m3) are

reported to standard reference atmosphere as defined by Eq.

V0 =

×

………………….18

9

Fig 4

Humidity Correction Factor k as a Function of Absolute Humidity

Fig 5

Values of the Exponents m and n for Air Density Correction and w for Humidity Corrections, as a

Function of Spark over Distance, in Meters.

10

Table 1

Fig 6

Absolute Humidity of Air as a Function of Dry and Wet-Bulb Thermometer Readings

11

3

WORKDONE SO FAR

3.1 Calculation

Wet condition temperature, Tw= 26 oC

Dry condition temperature, Td= 27 oC

Atmospheric Pressure, p = 76.45 Cm of Hg.

Standard Temperature, to = 20°C

Pressure , po = 101.3 kPa(760 mmHg)

Measured Voltage=V in kV

Humidity , ho= 11 g water vapor per cubic meter.

We are using m=n=w

Air density correction factor, kd = ( ) × ( )

.

kd = ( )×( )

kd=0.9824

From the Fig 2 and Fig 4, we get Absolute Humidity, k= 0.865.

Therefore, kh = 0.865

×

12

3.2RESULTS

The gap configuration of Sphere to Sphere is shown in the fig 7. The electrodes are

used of two spheres. One sphere put into HV arm and another is grounded. Now

the gap distance vary from 5mm-80 mm and obtained the characteristics of corona

inception voltage, visible corona, corona extinction voltage and Breakdown

Voltage.

Fig 7

In table 2 shows the measured values of Sphere to Sphere are obtained and

corrected by Air density correction factor as well as Humidity Correction factor

w.r.t standard temperature and pressure.

Table 2 of sphere-sphere

Measured and Corrected value with respect to gap distances

13

Curve of Sphere to Sphere is shown in the fig 8. The corrected values are put in

the graph w.r.t Gap distance.

Fig 8

Curve fitting of SHPERE-SPHERE

The curve equation has been obtained by Matlab. This curve of Sphere to Sphere is

fitted with 5th degree of polynomial equation. The solution of this equation is

followed by

Coefficients (with 95% confidence bounds):

p1 = -6.222e-008 (-1.331e-007, 8.673e-009)

p2 = 1.413e-005 (-1.265e-007, 2.838e-005)

p3 = -0.001267 (-0.002289, -0.0002442)

p4 = 0.04431 (0.0131, 0.07553)

p5 = 1.382 (1.009, 1.754)

p6 = 0.1895 (-1.139, 1.518)

Goodness of fit: 4.492

The gap configuration of Sphere to Point is shown in the fig 9. The electrodes are

used of one spheres and one point. The Sphere put into HV arm and the point is

grounded. Now the gap distance vary from 5mm-80 mm and obtained the

characteristics of corona inception voltage, visible corona, corona extinction

voltage and Breakdown Voltage.

14

Fig 9

gap distances are vary from 5mm-80mm of SPHERE-POINT

In table 3 shows the measured values of Sphere to Point are obtained and

corrected by Air density correction factor as well as Humidity Correction factor

w.r.t standard temperature and pressure.

Measured and Corrected value with respect to gap distances

15

Curve of Sphere to Point is shown in the fig 10. The corrected values of Sphere

to Point are put in the graph w.r.t Gap distance.

Fig 10

Curve fitting of SHPERE-POINT

The curve equation of Sphere to Point has been obtained by Matlab. This curve is

fitted with 5th degree of polynomial equation. The solution of this equation is

followed by

Coefficients (with 95% confidence bounds):

p1 = -1.147e-007 (-1.949e-007, -3.451e-008)

p2 = 2.628e-005 (1.015e-005, 4.241e-005)

p3 = -0.002038 (-0.003195, -0.0008812)

p4 = 0.05771 (0.02238, 0.09303)

p5 = 0.3095 (-0.1123, 0.7313)

p6 = 0.5417 (-0.9621, 2.045)

Goodness of fit: 5.752

The gap configuration of Point to Sphere is shown in the fig 11. The electrodes are

used of one spheres and one point. The Poin is put into HV arm and the Sphere is

grounded. Now the gap distance vary from 5mm-80 mm and obtained the

16

characteristics of corona inception voltage, visible corona, corona extinction

voltage and Breakdown Voltage

Fig 11

gap distances are vary from 5mm-80mm of POINT-SPHERE

In table 4 shows the measured values of Point to Sphere are obtained and

corrected by Air density correction factor as well as Humidity Correction factor

w.r.t standard temperature and pressure.

Table 4 of POINT-SPHERE

Measured and Corrected value with respect to gap distances

17

Curve of Point to Sphere is shown in the fig 12. The corrected values are put in

the graph w.r.t Gap distance

Fig 12

Curve fitting of POINT-SPHERE

The curve equation of Point to Sphere has been obtained by Matlab. This curve is

fitted with 5th degree of polynomial equation. The solution of this equation is

followed by

Coefficients (with 95% confidence bounds):

p1 = -1.607e-008 (-2.587e-007, 2.265e-007)

p2 = 1.59e-007 (-4.861e-005, 4.893e-005)

p3 = 0.0002603 (-0.003239, 0.003759)

p4 = -0.01329 (-0.1201, 0.09353)

p5 = 0.9657 (-0.31, 2.241)

p6 =-0.6048 (-5.153, 3.943)

Goodness of fit:52.61

3.2.4 Breakdown voltage in respect to gap distances of ROD(SQUARE)-

SPHERE

The gap configuration of Rod(square) to Sphere is shown in the fig 13. The

electrodes are used of one Rod of square cross section and another is Sphere. The

Rod is put into HV arm and the Sphere is grounded. Now the gap distance vary

from 5mm-80 mm and obtained the characteristics of corona inception voltage,

visible corona, corona extinction voltage and Breakdown Voltage

18

Fig 13

gap distances are vary from 5mm-80mm of ROD(SQUARE)-SPHERE

In table 5 shows the measured values of Rod (square) to Sphere are obtained and

corrected by Air density correction factor as well as Humidity Correction factor

w.r.t standard temperature and pressure.

Table 5 of ROD(SQUARE)-SPHERE

Measured and Corrected value with respect to gap distances

Curve is shown in the fig 14. The corrected values of Rod(square) to Sphere are

put in the graph w.r.t Gap distance

3.2.4.2 Curve fitting of rod(square)- sphere

Fig 14

Curve fitting of ROD(SQUARE)-SPHERE

19

The curve equation of Rod(Square)-Sphere has been obtained by Matlab. This curve is

fitted with 5th degree of polynomial equation. The solution of this equation is

followed by

Coefficients (with 95% confidence bounds):

p1 = 7.955e-008 (-2.334e-007, 3.925e-007)

p2 = -1.491e-005 (-7.43e-005, 4.447e-005)

p3 = 0.0009651 (-0.002919, 0.004849)

p4 = -0.02699 (-0.1293, 0.07535)

p5 = 1.021 (0.06245, 1.979)

p6 = 0.03645 (-2.406, 2.479)

Goodness of fit: 0.03829

3.3 Conclusion

In the experiment the Corona Extinction voltage is less than the Corona Inception

voltage. Among four set-up, point-to-sphere, sphere-to-point, sphere-to-sphere,

rod(square)-to-sphere the low breakdown voltage occurred in the set-up of sphere-

to-point. If the air gap is present between the high voltage electrodes is very

small, the Corona Inception, Visible Corona and Corona Extinction voltage

measuring is not possible in physically.

20

4

Future Work

4.1FutureWork

electrodes as Point-Point, Point-Rod(square), Rod(Square)-Rod(Square),

Rod(circular)-Rod(circular), Rod(circular)-Point.

• To find out the common Model Equation of Breakdown Voltages with respect to

various gap distances.

21

References

1. IIEE Paper “High Frequency Breakdown Voltage”; by Thanh Duy Chu; March 1992.

Feser, Dr.-lng; Reprinted from PROC. IEE, Vol. 118, No. 9, SEPT. 1971.

of Standard Sphere Air Gaps”;by Osamu Fujii, TakahiroHayakawa, YukioMizuno,

KatsuhikoNaito; EEJTrans 2008; 3:100–105.

electric fields” by N.L.Allen, D.S.K.Lam and D.A.Greaves,in 2nd February 2000.

Altitude”by P A Calva Chavarria and A Robledo-Martinez;in San Franicisco, October 20-

23, 1996.

6. IEEE Paper “Corona Inception and Breakdown in No uniform Field with Insulating

Support in Air”;by V. Navinchandra Maller and Krishan D. Srivastava; in January 16,

1987.

7. IEEE Paper “Dielectric Breakdown in Nonuniform Field Air Gaps”;by N. L. Allen and

M. Boutlendj, H. A. Lightfoot; in 1993.

8. IEEE Transactions on “Power Apparatus and Systems”, Vol. PAS-97, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1978.

26,1982.

10. Book “High Voltage engineering”;M.S Naidu and V.Kamaraju,4th edition, Tata McGraw

Hill Education Private Limited.

22

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