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EOMAN PUBLIC LIFE

BY

A. H. J. GREENIDGE, M.A.

LECTURER AND LATE FEI,LOW OF HERTFORD COLLEGE, AND

LECTURER IN ANCIENT HISTORY AT ERABENOSE COLLEGE, OXFORD

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

URISDBRAK '

AUG \

1987

922

PREFACE

The object of this work is to trace the growth of the Eoman

constitution, and to explain its working during the two phases

of its maturity, the developed Republic and the Principate.

The title selected perhaps expresses more succinctly than any

other could do the nature of the plan which I wished to under-

My desire was to touch, however briefly, on all the

important aspects of public life, central, municipal, and pro- vincial ; and, thus, to exhibit the political genius of the Eoman

in connexion with all the chief problems of administration which it attempted to solve. This design, like many other comprehensive plans which have to be adapted to the limits of

a single volume, was necessarily subjected to modifications in

take.

detail ; and, since one of these modifications has affected the whole scope of the book, it requires some mention in a preface.

I had intended to carry the treatment of my subject beyond

confines of the Principate, and to describe the political

the

organisation of the later Empire as elaborated by Diocletian

I found, however, that a discussion of this

and his successors.

period would cause my work to exceed the reasonable limits

which can be conceded to a handbook, and I was forced to

abandon the enterprise much against my will. I was somewhat

comforted in this surrender by the suggestion that the constitu-

tion of, the later Empire was perhaps not strictly "Eoman."

This is a verdict with which I agree in part. The organisation which had Constantinople as its centre was certainly the

organisation of an Empire which was permeated with the social

vm

ROMAN PUBLIC LIFE

ideals of later Eome, which had adopted a Latin code, and which employed an administrative system whose origin was to be found

in Italy ; but in the forms of rule which the monarchy presented

The absolutism was

no new thing, but the guise assumed by this absolutism was

the break with the past was remarkable.

startlingly novel.

It is not only that classic traditions were

forgotten, that, as Gibbon says, " the purity of the Latin language was debased by adopting, in the intercourse of pride and flattery,

a profusion of epithets, which Tully would have scarcely under-

stood, and which Augustus would have rejected with indignation,''

but that, even where the continuity in public institutions can be traced, it is one of names rather than of ideas. In the Principate

we see a perverted Republic ; in the monarchy a Bes publica only

in the narrowest etymological sense of those words. Perhaps the accession of Diocletian does, after all, mark the close of a true " Eoman " public life.

The task, even as thus limited, has been a long one, and

would have been still longer had it not been for the kindly

assistance rendered me by a former pupil. Miss Muriel Clay, of

The help which she has given in the

Lady Margaret Hall.

reading of the proofs, and in the verification of the references to original authorities, has not only facilitated the production of the

book, but has materially improved it by the removal of errors

and obscurities.

I have also to thank her for the Index of

subjects and the Index of Latin words which accompany the

volume.

OxFOED, April 1901.

A. H. i. a.

CONTENTS

( The references are to the pages)

CHAPTER I

the earliest constitution of rome

The Growth of the City

SECZl

1.

Early Italian associations ; the pagus, vicus, gens, 1.

city of Rome, 2.

Foreign influences on Eoman life, 3.

Growth of the

The Elements op the Population—Patrwians, Plebeians, Clients

2. Origin of the Patricians, 4 ; of the Plebeians, 5.

Clientship, 7.

Roman Family Organisation

3. The gens, 9.

The familia, 18.

The nexus, 24.

Slavery, 24.

Trans-

mission of property and forms of testament, 26. Caput, 31. Capitis deminutio, 32.

The Citizens and the Political Subdivisions of the State

4. The populus Bomamus, 33. Rights of the citizen, 35. Auspicium, 36.

The tribes, 40.

The army, 41.

The curiae, 41.

The Monabohioal Constitution

5. Relation of the king to the people, 42.

Titles and vnsigma of the king,

44. Mode of appointment of the king, 45. Religious character of the

monarchy, 51. The rule of/as, 52. Civil powers of the king, 67. The Senate of the monarchy, 58. Consilia of the king, 61. Delegates of the king, 61. Jurisdiction of the monarchy, 62.

X

KOMAN PUBLIC LIFE

The Servian Constitution

BECT.

6. Social changes that led to the Servian reform, 65. The Servian tribes,

66. Registration for military purposes ; the new organisation of the

Transference of political rights to the new

army, 68.

The census, 69.

assembly of the centuries, 75.

The close of the monarchy, 76.

CHAPTER II

THE GROWTH OF THE BEPUBLIOAN CONSTITUTION

Institution of consuls and limitation of the impervum,, 78.

Appoint-

ment of quaestors, 80. The Senate of the early Republic, 81. Creation

of the dictatorship, 84. Government of the patrician aristocracy, 85. Rights of the plebeians, 87. Social struggles of the plebs, 89. Creation

of the tribunate, 93.

cilium plebis, 96. The aediles of the plebs, 97. The sacroscmditas of

the plebeian magistrates, 99. The coneiliv/m plebis meets by tribes,

100. Creation of a comiHa tributa, 102. Agitation for the publication

The powers of the tribuni plebis, 94.

The coti-

of a code, 102.

The Twelve Tables, 104. Attempt at despotism made

by the decemvirs, 107. The Valerio-Horatian laws, 108. Intermarriage

permitted between the orders, 111. Institution of tribvmi militum

consulwri potestate, 112. Institution of the censorship, 115. Struggle for the consulship, 118. The Licinio-Sextian laws, 119. Institution

of the praetorship and the curule aedileship, 120. Admission of the

plebeians to office, 122 ;

secured to the plebs by the leges Publiliae and the lex Horlensia, 124.

Results of the tendencies of plebeian emancipation, 127. The new

and to the religious colleges, 123.

Rights

nobility, 129.

Continued distinction between the orders, 131.

CHAPTER ni

THE CLASSES OP THE POPULATION AND THE THEORY OF THE

CONSTITUTION IN THE DEVELOPED REPUBLIC

Tux Glasses of the Population

1. Modes of acquiring citizenship, 132.

Modes of enfranchisement, 134.

Ingetmitaa, 135.

Eights and duties of the citizen, 136. Developed

conception of capitis deminutio, 138.

Changes in the Roman family,

140. The condition of the slave, 141. The freedmen, 144.

TSB Tbeoby of the Constitution

2. Complexity of the constitution, 146.

Theory of the state as revealed in

the interregnum, 147. Separate existence of the plebs, 149. The

CONTENTS

xi

SECT.

weakening of the magistracy and the resulting ascendancy of the

Senate, 150.

CHAPTER IV

the magistracy

Oenebal Chabaotebistics of the Magistract

1. Imperium a.T)A potestas, 152. Administrative powers of the magistrates,

152.

exercised in connexion with the people, 158. The contio and the

Eight of acting with the plebs, 161. The right of con-

comitia, 159.

sulting the Senate, 161.

General powers of the magistrates ; the

Military powers, 153.

The right to triumph, 156.

Powers

auspicia, 162. The coercitio, 167. Conflict between the powers of the magistrates ; the obn/umtiatw, 172. The right of prohibition, 173.

The intercessio, 176. The civil and criminal responsibility of magis- trates, 181. The qualifications for office, 183. The formalities of candidature and election, 187. The insignia of office, 191.

The Individual Maoistraoies

2. The dictator,

191.

The magister equitum, 195.

The consuls, 196.

The praetors, 202.

censors, 216.

trates, 234.

The aediles, 208.

The quaestors, 212.

The

The plebeian magistrates, 233.

The minor magis-

CHAPTER V

THE PEOPLE AND ITS POWIIKS

Legislation, 238.

Form of a lex, 242.

Control of external matters,

Rescission of

sentences by the people, 248.

249. Grounds of invalidity of popular acts, 249. The different comitia ;

the comitia cwriata, 250. The comitia centvHata and its reorganisa- tion, 252. The comitia tributa, 253. The coneilivm, pleMs, 253.

Elections to the religious colleges, 254. Formalities observed in the

meetings of the assemblies, 255.

243.

Elective' powers, 245.

Judicial powers, 245.

Remission of outlawry and amnesty,

CHAPTER VI

THE SENATE

Reasons for the growth of the Senate's power, 261. Method of appoint-

ment of senators, 263. External distinctions of senators, 265. Reforms of Sulla, 266. Rules of initiative and debate in the Senate, 267. The

xu

SECT.

ROMAN PUBLIC LIFE

senatus consuUum and senatus auctoritas, 272.

Powers of the Senate ;

its probouleutic authority, 273.

Suspension of magistrates, 275.

Quasi-legislative power, 275. Power of exempting from laws, 276.

Revising power, 276. Influence on jurisdiction, 277. Appointment

of special commissions, 278. Declaration of martial law, 279. Police

control, 282, Control of foreign policy, 282. Control of finance, 286. Control of religion, 287.

CHAPTER VII

THE INTBKNATIONAL RELATIONS OF ROME AND THE INOORPOBATION OP ITALY

Difference between the Greek and Italian conceptions of international law, 289. International customs of Rome, 290. International relations with foreign states, 292. The jus gentium, 294. The federation of

Latium, 295. Extension of the league and change in its character,

296.

extend the franchise, 310.

The organisation of Italy ; cmes and socii, 299.

Proposals to

In-

Settlement after the social war, 312.

corporation of Cisalpine Gaul, 314.

OHAPTEil VIII

THE OEQANISATION AND GOVERNMENT OP THE PROVINCES

Origin of provincial government, 316. The conception of a promnda,

317. Free and allied cities, 317.

promnciae, 318.

Taxation, 319.

Stipendiariae cimtates ; the lex

The governor and his staff, 322.

The spheres of administration, 324. Jurisdiction, 325. The provincial

edict, 326. General estimate of provincial government, 328.

CHAPTER IX

THE RBVOLtTTION AND THE TRANSITION TO THE PBINCIPATE

Objects of the party of reform, 331. Elements in the party of reform,

332.

struggle, 334. The sole rule of Caesar, 336. The Triumvirate and the establishment of the Priucipate, 338.

The balance of parties ;

the equites, 333.

The issue of the

CHAPTER X

THE PEINOIPATK

The Powers of the PRmasps

1. The chief bases of the Prinoeps' authority ; the proconsulare imperium

Powers

and the tribv/nioia potestas; nature of the imperium, 341.

5E0T,

CONTENTS

connected with the imperium, 344. Powers connected with the tri-

bunicia potestas, 346.

The Princepa as consul, 347 ; as censor, 347.

Extraordinary rights conferred on the Princep.9, 348.

Dispensation

from laws, 350. The Princeps as head of the state religion, 350.

Titles, Insignia, and Honours of the Prinoeps

2. Appellatives and titles, 351.

Insignia, 355.

Other honours, 355. The

domus Caesaris, 356.

Amid and comites, 357.

Creation, Transmission, and Abroqation of the Prinoipate

3. Election of a Prinoeps, 358. Designation of a successor, 360. Hereditary

Recognition of a

succession, 362.

Deposition of a Princeps, 362.

reign, 363.

The other Powers in the State the Magistraoy, the

Cowitia, and the Senate

4. The magistracy, 363.

371. The Senate, 373.

m

The individual magistrates, 367.

The eorrdtia

The Chief Departments of the State; the Dval Control

of Senate and Princeps

The dyarohy, 377. Legislation ; legislative power of the eomitia, 377. Quasi -legislative power of the Senate, 377 ; of the Princeps, 378. Jurisdiction, 381. Division of civil jurisdiction, 382. The civil courts of appeal, 382. The appeal from the provinces, 385. Criminal juris-

diction, 386.

The criminal courts of appeal, 390.

The power of

pardon, 391. The dyarohy in administration, 393 ; in finance, 394 ; in

The extent

the control of euUus, 397 ; in the control of coinage, 397.

to which the dyarohy was a reality, 397.

The Senatorial and the Equestrian Nobilitt

6. The senatorial order, 399.

The equestrian order, 402,

The Functionaries of the Prinoeps

7. The praefeots, 406.

Praefectus v/rbi, 406. Praefeetus praetorio, 409.

Prae/eclus annonae, 411. Praefectus vigilum, 412. The curators, 413. The procurators, 414. Personal assistants ; the imperial secretariate

XIV EOMAN PUBLIC LIFE

CHAPTER XI

ITALY AND THE PKOVINOBS UNDBE THE PRINCIPATE

The ORaANisATiON OP Italy

SECT.

1. Division into regions, 422. The downfall of tlie comAtia, 423. Limita-

Institution of cwratores, 424 ; of

tions on local jurisdiction, 423.

eorrectores, 424. The alimentarmm, 425.

TbE OnGANISATIOJf OF THE PrOVJNCSS

2. General character of the changes introduced by the Principate, 426. The

public and the imperial provinces, 427. Change in the condition of

the free and allied cities, 428. Methods of conferring immunity ; the

jus Italicum, 429. Taxation, 429. Method of government in the public provinces, 432 ; in the imperial provinces, 434. Procuratorial governor-

ships, 432.

Government of the German provinces and of Egypt, 435.

Romanisation of the provinces, 436. Change in the condition of the

provincial towns, 437. decurions, 439.

The mvmera of their citizens and of the

Tbb Worship of the Eupbror

3. Origin and character of Caesar-worship, 440. Its extension, 441. Its

effects, 442,

APPENDIX I

The two Assemblies of the Tribes, 445

APPENDIX II

A Limitation of the Tribunate in the Reign of Nero, 447

(i.) of subjects

(ii. )

of

Latin words

INDEX

-

.

.

,

.

,

,

.

(iii.) of passages from ancient authors referred to in the text

FAOE

453

.457

467

SELECT BIBLIOGEAPHY

1. THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OV EOMB

Hebzoo, E. Geschichte vmd System der romiscAen Staatsverfassung. zig, 1884-91.

Kablowa, 0.

Leip-

Somische Rechtsgesehichte, Bd. I.

("Staatsreoht und

Rechtsquellen "). Leipzig, 1885.

Lanqb, L. Somische AUerthilmer.

Madvxg, J. Die Verfassung UTid Verwaltwng des romisehen Staates. Leip-

Berlin, 1856-71.

zig, 1881-82.

Mispoulet, J. Les imstituHons poUtiques des Romains. Paris, 1882-83.

MoMMSEN, Ta.—Bdmisehes Staatsrecht. Bd. I. ("die Magistratur "), IL Abt. i. ("die einzelen Magistraturen "), II. Abt. ii. ("der Principat"),

III. ("Biirgersohaft und Senat"). Leipzig, 1887-88.

MoMMSEN, Th. Abriss des romisehen Staatsrechts.

Leipzig, 1893.

RuBiNO, J. Untersuchungen iiber rom/ische Verfassimg v/nd Oesehiehte.

Cassel, 1839.

Schiller, H. " Staats- und Rechtsaltertiimer " {Samdluch der Massischen

Altertums-Wissenschaft, herausg. von Dr. Iwan von Miiller, Bd. IV.

Abt. ii.). Munchen, 1893. WiLLEMS, P. Le droit public Bomain.

Louvain, Paris, 1888.

Zobllek, M. Somische Staats- v/nd Rechtsaltertwrner. Breslau, 1895.

2. THE CITY OF ROME, THE MONARCHY AND THE EARLY HISTORY OF ROME

Bernhoeft, F. Staat und Becht der romisehen Konigszeit im Verhaltniss zu verwandten Bechten. Stuttgart, 1882.

Dyer, T. The History of the Kings o/Bome. With a prefatory dissertation

on its sources and evidence. London, 1868.

Gilbert, 0.

GescMchte umd Topographic der Stadt Bom. Leipzig, 1883.

Ihne, W. "Early Rome, from the foundation of the city to its destruction

by the Gauls" {Epochs of Ancient History). London, 1876.

Lanoiani, R. Ancient Bome im, the light of recent discoveries. London, 1888. Lanciani, R. The ruins amd excavations of ancient Bome. London, 1897.

XVI

ROMAN PUBLIC LIFE

Lewis, G. An inqwiry into the credibility of the early Romom history.

London, 1855.

MiDDLBTON, J. The remains of ancient Rome. London and Edinburgh,

1892.

Pais, K—Storia di Roma.

Turin, 1898-99.

PoBHLMANN, E. Die Anfdnge Roms. Erlangen, 1881. KiOHTBK, O.Art. "Rom" (Baumeister, A. Denkmdler des Tclassischen

AltertuTns).

Munchen, Leipzig, 1889.

RiTBiNO, J. Vhtersiichimgen (Abschn. ii. "von dem Konigthume ").

Cassel, 1839.

ScHWBGLKK, A.^ Romischc Geschichte im Zeitalter des Kamipfs der Stdnde.

Tubingen, 1853-58.

3. THE SENATE

MoMMSEN, Th. Rdmische Forschwngen, Bd. I. Berlin, 1879.

Rtjbino, J.

UntersuchwTigen (Absohn. iii. "von dem Senate und dem

Patriciate").

Cassel, 1839.

'

WiLLEMs, P. Ze Sinat de la Bipublique RoTnaine. Louvain, 1883-85.

4. THE EQT7ITES

Bblot, E. Bistoire des chevaliers Rom,ains eonsiderie dans ses rapports ave

les diffirentes constitutions de Rome.

Paris, 1869-73.

Maeqtjardt, J. Sistoriae equitum Romanorum Hiri quattuor.

1840.

Beriin.

5. THE POPULAR ASSEMBLIES

BoKGBATJD, C. Le plebiscite dans Vantiquiti. CfriceetRome. Geneva, 1886.

HusoHKB, P.' Die Verfassung des Kmigs Servius Tullius als Grwndlage zu

einer romischen Verfassungsgeschichte.

Heidelberg, 1838.

MoMMSBN, Th. Rdmische Forschungen, Bd. I. Berlin, 1879. KuBiNO, J. Vhtersuchungen (Absohn. iv. "von den Volksversammlungen ")

Cassel, 1839.

SoLTAU, "W.

Entstehung und Zusammensetzung der altromischen Volks-

mrsammlimgen. Berlin, 1880.

SOLTAU, "W.

Die GiiltigJceit der Plebiscite.

Berlin, 1884.

6. THE STATE DIVISIONS

Beloch, J. Der italische Bund unter Roms Hegemonic.

Leipzig, 1880.

HusoHKB, P. Die Verfassung des KBnigs Servius Tullius. Heidelberg, 1838.

KuBiTSCHBK, J. De Romanarum tribuum origine et propagatione. Vienna,

1882.

KuEiTSCHBK, J. Imperium Romanum iributim discriptum. Vienna, 1889. MoMMSBN, Th. Die romische Tribus m admimistraiiver Beziehung. Altona, 1844.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

xvn

7. ADMINISTKATION TJNDBE THE PEINOIPATB

CuQ, E. " Le oonseil des empereurs d'Auguste k

DiocUtien" {M4moires pre-

sents A I'Acadimie des inscriptions).

Paris, 1884.

HiRSCHFELD, 0. Vhtersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der romisehen Ver-

waltvmgsgeschichte.

Berlin, 1877.

LlBBENAM, W. Forsahungen zv/r Verwaltungsgesehichte des romisehen Kaiser-

reichs.

Leipzig, 1888.

LlBBENAM, W.

Die Laufbahn der Procwratoren Ms auf die Zeit Diocleticms.

Jena, 1886.

8. THE CIVIL AND CRIMINAL OOITRTS

Bbthmann-Hollwbo, M. A. von. " Der romisohe Civilprozess " (,Der Ciml-

prozess des gemeimen Bechts, Bde. I. II.). Bonn, 1864.

Geib, G. Geschichte des romisehen Criminalprocesses bis zum Tode Jus-

tinians.

Leipzig, 1842.

Grebnidgb, A.

The legal procedure of Cicero's time.

Oxford, 1901.

Keller, F. L. von. Der romische Civilprozess und die Actionen. 5te

Ausg. bearbeitet von Adolf Wach. Leipzig, 1876. MOMMSBN, Th. Riimisches Strafrecht. Leipzig, 1899. PuNTSCHART, V. Die EntwicMv/ng des grundgesetzlichen Civilrechis der

Bomer. Erlangen, 1872. RiTDORFF, A. BSmische Bechtsgeschichte, Bd. II. Leipzig, 1859.

Eim, Beitrag zur Geschichte des

Wlassak, M. E'&mische Proeessgesetze.

Formula/rverfahrens. Leipzig, 1888-91.

Wlassak, M. Sdict und Klageform. Jena,

1882.

ZuMPT, A. Das Orvminalrecht der romisehen EepubliTc. Berlin, 1865-69.

9. private and criminal law

Ctrcj, E. Les institutions juridiqu^s des Eomams. Paris, 1891. OzTHLARZ, C. VON. Leh/rbuch der Institutionen des romisehen Bechts.

Prague, Vienna, Leipzig. 1895.

GiRAUD, 0. Sistoire du droit Bomain ou introduction historique a I'Uude

de cetle legislation.

Paris, 1847.

Goodwin, 'P. The Twelve Tables.

London, 1886.

Ihering, R. von. Geist des romisehen Bechts auf den verschiedenen Stufe

seiner UntuncMung.

Leipzig, 1877-83.

Kaklowa, 0.

Bomisehe Bechtsgeschichte.

Leipzig, 1886.

Laboulayb, E. Essai sur les lois criminelles des Bomains concernant la

responsibility des magistrals.

Paris, Leipzig, 1845.

MiTTEis, L.

Beichsrecht und Vollcsrecht in dem ostlichen Provinzen des

romisehen Kaiserreichs.

Leipzig, 1891.

MoMMSEN, Th. Bomisches Strafrecht.

Leipzig, 1899.

MciRHEAD, J.

Historical introduction to the private law of Borne.

edition revised and edited by H. Goudy.

London, 1899.

Second

xviu

ROMAN PUBLIC LIFE

Ortolan, E. Mistoire de la Ugislation JRomaime.

1884.

Ortolan, E. Explication historique des vastituts de I'empereur Justinien.

Paris, 1851.

Rein, W. Das Criminalrecht der Homer von Hamulus bis auf Justimiamus.

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RoBT, H.

An introduction to the study of Justinian's Digest.

Cambridge,

1886.

EuDORFF, A.

SoHM, R.

JRomische Bechtsgeschichte.

TJie institutes of Soman law.

Leipzig, 1857-59.

Translated by J. 0. Ledlie, with

an introductory essay by E. Grueber. Oxford, 1892.

VoiGT, M.

Die zwolf Tafeln.

Oeschichte und System des Civil- und

Criminal -Bechtes, wie Processes der XII. Tafeln nehst deren Fragm^nten.

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VoiGT, M. Somische BechtsgescMchte. Leipzig, 1892. ZuMPT, A. Das Criminalrecht der romisehen Bepublik. Berlin, 1865-69.

10. PUBLIC ECONOMY

Cunningham, W. "An essay on Western civilisation in its economic

aspects" {^Ancient Times, Book III.). Cambridge, 1898.

DuREAU DE LA Mallb, A. Economie politique des Bomains.

Paris, 1840.

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von H. Dessau und A. Ton Domaszewski. Leipzig, 1884.

11. SOCIAL CONDITIONS

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mm August his zum Ausgang der Antoriine.

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Ingram, J.

A history of slavery and serfdom (ch. iii.).

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Mau.

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klassischen Altertums- Wissenschaft, herausg. von Dr. Iwan von MiiUer

Bd. IV. Abt. ii.).

Miinohen, 1893.

Wallon, H. Sistoire de I'esclavage dans I'antiquiti.

CoHN, M.

12. THE GUILDS

Zwm romisehen Vereinsreeht.

Berlin, 1873.

Paris, 1879.

LiEBENAM, W. Zur Geschichte und Organisation des romisehen Vereins-

wesens, drei Untersuchungen.

Leipzig, 1890.

MoMMSEN, Th. De collegiis et sodaliciis Bomanorum. Kiel, 1843.

Waltzing, J.

Etude historique sur les corporations professionelles ehez les

Bomains depuis les origines jusqu'd, la chute de I'Empire d' Occident.

LouVain, 1895-99.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

xix

13. BBLIGIOUS OROANISATION IN ITS POLITICAL ASPECT

Bbueliek, E. Sssai sur h culte rendu aux Empereurs Jioma/ins. Paris,

1890.

BoissiBR, G. La religion Romaino d'Auguste aux Antonins. Paris, 1874.

BoiTCHt-LECLEKCQ, A. Les pontifes de I'ancienne lioine. Paris, 1871. GuiKAUD, P. Les assemblies provinciales dans VEmpire Eomavn. Paris;

1887.

Makquardt, J. "De provinoiarum Eomanarum oonoiliis et sacerdotibus

{Ephemeris Epigraphica, vol. i. pp. 200-14). MouRiOT, F. Essai sur I'kistoire de I'AugustaliU dans I'empire Somain,

Paris, 1895.

,

14. THE MUNICIPAL TOWNS

KuHN, E. Die stddtische wnd bii/rgerliche Verfassung des romisehen Beichs

bis aufdie Zeiten Juslinians.

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LiBBENAM, W.

Stadteverwaltung im romisehen Kaiserreiahe.

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MoMMSEN, Th. ' "Die Stadtreehte der latinischen Gemeinden Salpensa

und Malaca in der Provinz Baetioa" {Abhandlungen der philologiseh-

Mstorisehen Glasse der kdniglich sdchsiscAen Gesellschaft der Wissen- aekaften, Bd. II.). Leipzig, 1857.

15. THE PROVINCES

Arnold, W. The Roman system of provincial administration to the accession

of Constantine the Great.

London, 1879.

Marquakdt, J.

Romische StaatsverUialtung, Bd. I.

Leipzig, 1881.

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cletian. Translated by William P. Dickson. London, 1886.

16. SOURCES AND DOCUMENTS

Bruns, C. Pontes juris Momani Ofntigui. Freiburg, 1893.

KiPP, Th. Quellenkunde des romisehen Bechts.

Leipzig, 1896.

17. INSCRIPTIONS

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin.

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XX

ROMAN PUBLIC LIFE

18. DICTIONARIES OF ANTIQUITIES CONTAINING ARTICLES ON ROMAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

Dakemebrg-Saglio. DicHonnaire des antiquiUs Grecques et Bomaines

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