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A albedo the proportion of light reflected by a Archaea one of the two domains of
surface (for example, ice or the Moon) prokaryotes, often living in extreme
abdomen the section of the body of an
alcohol fermentation the breakdown of
environments. They are structurally similar
insect located just behind the thorax
glucose in the absence of oxygen to form to bacteria, but have genes and metabolic
abiotic pertaining to the physical and non- pathways closer to those of eukaryotes
ethanol (an alcohol) and carbon dioxide;
living components
two molecules of ATP are also produced arid describing a place or climate having
abiotic factor non-living features; physical little or no rain
algae a group of photosynthetic organisms
and chemical factors (for example,
that lack true stems, roots and leaves (for artefact something introduced into the
temperature, rainfall, salinity)
example, seaweed) image in the preparation of samples for use
abscission the detachment of leaves or fruit in an electron microscope
allelochemical a chemical released by an
from a plant
allelopathic organism arteriole a small branch of an artery that
absolute dating a process determining the leads into a capillary
allelopathic having characteristics of
age of a fossil or rock strata
allelopathy artery a type of blood vessel that carries
abundance the number of individuals in a blood away from the heart; it has thick,
allelopathy the inhibition of growth in one
population elastic walls to assist in the movement of
species of plants by chemicals produced by
accurate having the true value another species blood pumped by the heart

acid rain any form of rain that has a pH less atmosphere the layer of gases surrounding
allopatric speciation also known as
than 7 geographic speciation; it occurs when the Earth

activation energy the minimum amount of biological populations of the same species atrium a blood collection chamber in the top
energy required to start a reaction become isolated from each other to an part of each side of the heart (plural: atria)
extent that prevents them from exchanging autotroph ‘auto’ self; ‘troph’ feeding; an
active site that part of the surface of the genetic material
enzyme with a specific shape that the organism that produces its own nutrition,
substrate binds to alveoli air sacs in the lungs through which through either photosynthesis (a plant) or
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged chemosynthesis (bacteria)
active transport the movement between the blood and the air (singular:
of substances from a region of low autotrophic organism an organism that
alveolus) produces its own nutrition through either
concentration to a region of high
concentration (against the concentration ambient relating to the surrounding photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
gradient), which requires the input of energy environment axon a long extension of the neuron (nerve
adaptation an inherited characteristic amino acid an organic molecule that is the cell) along which the electrical impulses
(could be structural, physiological or building block (monomer) of polypeptides. move to be passed onto other neurons
behavioural) that allows an organism to It contains the elements carbon, hydrogen,
be better suited to surviving in its natural oxygen, nitrogen and at times sulfur, B
environment phosphorus and other elements Bacteria one of the two domains of
adaptive radiation the diversification of amylase an enzyme that catalyses the prokaryotes, living in a wide variety of
organisms into different forms to occupy breakdown of starches environments. They are structurally similar
many different niches anaerobic oxygen-poor
to Archaea, but have circular chromosomes
and unique genes and metabolic pathways.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) an energy analogous having different structures but Sometimes called Eubacteria
storage molecule the same function
ballast material used to provide stability to
adhesion protein a protein that links cells anthelmintic something that destroys something (for example, a boat or ship)
together parasitic worms
banded iron formation a layer of sedimentary
adhesive able to stick two surfaces anthropogenic originating in human rock containing iron oxide deposits
together (for example, water and the walls activity (for example, climate change)
of the xylem) behavioural adaptation a certain behaviour
antibiotic a medication used in the of an organism that allows the organism to
adipose tissue a type of connective tissue treatment of bacterial infections be better suited to surviving in its natural
(for example, fat storage cells) environment
antigen a marker molecule
aerobic oxygen-containing benthic relating to the lowest level of the
anus the external opening of the rectum
aesthetic concerned with beauty or the from which faeces are eliminated or egested water column near the bottom of an ocean
appreciation of beauty or lake
apoptosis programmed cell death
aestivation the dormancy of certain species bile a fluid produced by the liver and stored
aquaporin a ‘water pore’ or channel in the
during hot and dry conditions in the gall bladder until its release into the
cell membrane through which water moves
duodenum where it emulsifies fats
in and out of the cell

9780170407281 407
bioaccumulation the accumulation of a capillary a tiny blood vessel that has a wall chlorophyll a green pigment that traps
substance such as a pesticide within an only one cell thick and makes a network sunlight and enables its use in the process of
organism through the tissues to bring blood into close photosynthesis
biochemistry the study of the chemicals and
contact for the exchange of substances chloroplast an organelle containing
chemical reactions that occur in the body capsule the outer layer of a bacterial cell, chlorophyll
biodiversity the number, relative abundance
composed of complex carbohydrates chromatin the material in the nucleus
and genetic diversity of organisms in an area carbohydrate a biological molecule made up of proteins and nucleic acid
or on Earth containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; chromosome a rod-shaped structure made
biofilm a group of micro-organisms that
includes sugars and starches up of DNA and protein
exist as a colony on a surface carbon-14 a radioactive isotope of carbon chyme a thick semifluid composed of partly
biogeography a branch of biology that looks cardiac muscle a muscle fibre with digested food and digestive juices that
at the distribution of plants and animals striations, present in the heart moves from the stomach to the duodenum
biological control the introduction of a cardiovascular system the transport cladode a flattened leaf-like stem
known predator species to control the system in mammals composed of the heart, cladogram a diagram to show the
numbers of a prey species blood and blood vessels relationships between organisms
biomacromolecule a naturally occurring carnivorous meat-eating climate a sustained pattern in temperature
substance having a large molecular weight carrier protein a protein that carries out and rainfall over an extended period in
biomagnification the increasing facilitated diffusion of large molecules by a region
concentration of a substance as it moves binding to the molecule to be transported, climate change change in long-term
upwards through the food chain (for changing shape and then releasing the weather patterns
example, a pesticide) molecule on the other side of the membrane
closed circulatory system a circulatory
bioresource a resource from agriculture, cartilage a type of connective tissue that system in which the transport medium
forestry and biological waste is composed of dense fibres with lots of remains enclosed in a system of vessels at
biosphere those parts of the Earth that
collagen fibres for strength and providing all times
contain living things flexibility and cushioning (for example, at
cohesion sticking together
the end of a bone)
biostratigraphy a tool used in geology to collagen the main structural protein found
determine the age of rock strata using fossils catalyst a chemical that controls the rate of
in connective tissue
biota the flora and fauna of a given habitat colon the region of the large intestine from
or region; the sum total of all living things catastrophism a theory that states that the
which water and some salts are absorbed
on Earth changes in Earth’s crust have resulted from a
back into the bloodstream
series of sudden, violent events rather than
biotechnology technology that involves slow, progressive changes colonial relating to cells that are able to
the use of cells or parts of cells to develop form together into a group to survive in a
products to improve life and health cell membrane a structure that surrounds
cooperative manner, but can also survive on
and encloses a cell
biotic relating to living features (for their own
cell sap the watery solution in a vacuole
example, organism abundance, distribution colonial organism a group of single-celled
or interactions) cellular respiration the series of chemical organisms that live in a colony
biotic factor a factor that relates to a living
reactions that occur in the mitochondria,
colony a group of identical single-celled
thing (for example, number, distribution and in which oxygen and glucose are combined
organisms living together
interactions) to produce energy and the waste products
carbon dioxide and water column or bar graph a type of graph used
blood the fluid transport medium in the when items have been counted into unrelated
cardiovascular system of a mammal that cellulose a large molecule made up of many categories; the columns do not touch
contains blood cells and plasma glucose molecules joined together
commensalism a symbiotic interaction
cell wall the rigid outer layer of a cell that
blood vessel a vessel that carries blood between two species where one benefits and
around the body, transporting nutrients, gives the cell support and structure the other is unaffected
gases and wastes centrifuge to spin at very high speed to community the combination of groups
bolus chewed food that has been mixed
separate materials of different densities of different populations in an area or
with saliva and formed into a ball shape by channel protein a protein that facilitates habitat
the tongue the diffusion of charged ions of a particular companion cell a type of cell found
brumation a hibernation-like state in
shape and size by forming a narrow alongside the sieve tubes in the phloem; it
endotherms in response to very cold passageway through the cell membrane has a cell nucleus and other cell organelles
weather chemosynthetic relating to the biological and is thought to assist neighbouring sieve
conversion of carbon-containing molecules tube cells
C into organic matter comparative anatomy the study of the
Cainozoic the current geological era starting chert a microcrystalline quartz-containing similarities and differences in structures of
65 million years ago; means ‘recent life’ sedimentary rock different organisms

408 GLOSSARY 9780170407281

comparative embryology the study of the D disaccharide a complex sugar consisting of
developmental stages of different species; two sugar units (for example, maltose)
dam a barrier designed to hold back water
used to determine relatedness disease a disorder of structure or function
for the purpose of forming a reservoir to
competition an interaction between control flooding, create a water supply or for in a living thing
organisms where both are harmed by hydroelectricity generation distribution where the population of a
requiring the same types of resources species is spread within an ecosystem
deciduous losing leaves in a particular
complementary base pairing the pairing of season diurnal most active during the day
bases in DNA where A always pairs with T
deep vein thrombosis a condition that divergent evolution the process by which
and G always pairs with C
occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein, organisms that are related look different due
complementary strand the chains of a usually in a leg to exposure to different selection pressures
double helix strand that correspond to a
denature to irreversibly change shape and DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid
specific sequence of bases which follow the
structure due to heat or change in pH; in a that contains genetic information
base pairing rule
protein the active site is changed and so an
concentrated solution a solution that enzyme will not function as it should DNA–DNA hybridisation a quantitative
contains a large amount of solute in relation biochemical process used to determine
dendrite the short, branched extension of relatedness
to the amount of solvent the neuron that receives electrical impulses
concentration gradient the difference in from other neurons dormancy a period of time when an
the concentration of a substance from one organism reduces activity and growth in
deoxygenated describing blood that is order to conserve energy
area to the next; substances move from lacking in oxygen
where they are in high concentration to duodenum the first section of the small
where they are in low concentration dependent variable a factor that changes intestine
during an experiment as a result of the
conjugation the transfer of genetic material experiment; it is the observed or measured
between bacterial cells E
outcome that depends on other factors that
connective tissue tissue that provides have been changed in the experiment ecology study of the relationships that living
support and holds various parts of the body organisms have with each other and their
depth study an investigation or an activity
together environment
completed by a student or students to
controlled kept constant explore more deeply a topic from the Year 11 ecosystem a community together with its
Biology course that they find interesting environment; any environment containing
controlled variable a variable that is kept organisms interacting with each other and
constant so that it does not interfere with derived data data that is deduced from raw
with the non-living parts of the environment
the outcome of the experiment data by mathematical manipulation, such as
(for example, a rainforest or a freshwater
graphs, algebraic equations and geometric
convergent evolution the process by pond)
which organisms that do not have a recent ecosystem diversity the variation of
common ancestor develop similar features dermal tissue tissue found on the outer
ecosystems found in a region
in response to similar selection pressures in layers of the stems, roots and leaves; it
their environments protects plant tissues ectoparasite a parasite that lives on the
surface of its host
crista a fold in the inner membrane of the detritivore an animal that eats organic litter
mitochondrion or detritus (a type of degrader) ectotherm an animal that relies on an
external source of heat energy to regulate its
cuticle a waxy coating over the epidermal differentially permeable see selectively
body temperature
layer of the leaf permeable
egest to removal undigested waste material
cyanobacteria photosynthetic eubacteria differentiate when cells develop structures
from the body
that allow them to carry out their specific
cytoplasm the fluid part of the cell outside elastin a protein that contributes to the
of the nucleus that contains dissolved elasticity of the skin
chemical substances, insoluble substances diffusion the movement of any molecules
and suspended organelles; the chemical from a region of high concentration to embryonic cell a young cell that has not
reactions that allow the cell to live are a region of low concentration of that become specialised
carried out here substance, until equilibrium (the same empirical able to be verified by gaining
concentrations in both regions) is reached evidence through observation and
cytoplasmic streaming the process
whereby organelles and cytosol flow digestion the breaking down of large and experimentation
through the cell in a circular movement in complex food particles into much smaller emulsifies breaks down large fat globules
order to maintain a steeper concentration and simpler chemical substances that are into smaller particles, thus increasing
gradient small enough to be absorbed through the the surface area for the action of digestive
walls of the small intestine enzymes
cytosol the gel-like substance enclosed
within the cell membrane and outside the dilute solution a solution that contains a endemic unique to a specific geographic
nucleus small amount of solute in relation to the region; if a species is endemic, it is assumed
solvent to have evolved there

9780170407281 GLOSSARY 409

endocytosis ‘endo’ into, inside; ‘cyto’ cell; evidence information, gained by the scientific fission track dating a technique for
the process of changing shape of the cell method, that serves to either support or establishing the age of a mineral sample by
membrane to surround a particle and disprove a scientific hypothesis or theory examining uranium fission tracks
engulf it evolution the change in a population over flagellum a whip-like tail that provides a
endoparasite a parasite that lives within a period of time; it implies that organisms cell with locomotion (plural: flagella)
its host were not created independently of each flora plant life
endoplasmic reticulum the network of
other, but may have arisen from a common
form that changed over time in response to fluid mosaic model a model of the
flattened, interconnected membranes that structure of the cell membrane, which is
provides transport within the cell selection pressures
flexible and has a phospholipid bilayer
exocytosis the process by which a
environment the non-living (abiotic) studded with proteins
surroundings of an organism membrane-bound vesicle moves to the
plasma membrane, fuses with it and releases fluorescent giving off visible light
environmental flow an adjustment to the its contents to the external environment fossil the preserved or mineralised
pattern of water flow in a river or stream to remains of prehistoric organisms or traces
maintain healthy ecosystems exopalaeontologist a scientist who searches
for fossilised life forms on other planets of prehistoric organisms (for example,
enzyme a protein molecule that controls all footprints)
metabolic reactions in living cells; enzymes extant presently living
fossil record the total number of fossils
are biological catalysts external environment the environment that have been discovered and the
ephemeral having a very short life cycle
surrounding a cell outside the cell information that they provide about past
membrane life on Earth
epidermal relating to the outermost layers
extinct no longer in existence; there are no
fundamental niche the total range of
epiglottis the flap of skin that closes over remaining members of the species (species
the entrance to the trachea to prevent the possible environmental conditions suitable
has died out) for the existence of a species
entry of food into the respiratory system
extinction occurs when a species or group
fungi eukaryotic, single-celled or
epiphyte a plant that grows on another of organisms has died out or been wiped out
plant for support (not parasitic) multicellular organisms that decompose
of existence and absorb organic matter (for example,
epithelial tissue a covering that lines body extracellular matrix connective tissue mushrooms, moulds, rusts and yeasts)
surfaces and cavities with a web of the protein fibres collagen (for fungicides chemicals designed to kill fungi
equilibrium the state that occurs when strength) and elastin (for flexibility) and cells
concentrations are the same and there is scattered through it G
no net movement of molecules in either exudate cells and fluid that weep out of
direction; the same number of molecules gall bladder the storage organ for bile
tissue, usually from a wound
move in each direction gene pool the stock of genes in a breeding
equilibrium model a mathematical F population
model that attempts to explain changes in facilitated diffusion the diffusion of genetic diversity the total number of
populations charged or large molecules across the cell genetic characteristics in the genetic make-
erosion the action of wind, gravity or water membrane, assisted by proteins up of a population of organisms
to transport material from one location to facultative capable of existing in a variety of genome the complete set of genes present
another environmental conditions in an organism
estuary where the mouth of a river meets fallow when the soil in a field is left bare genotype the genetic make-up of the
the sea after a crop is harvested; unploughed or individual
eukaryote an organism composed of uncultivated geological timescale the timescale
eukaryotic cells falsifiable able to be disproved illustrating the different periods of
eukaryotic relating to a cell containing a
time when different organisms existed,
fauna animal life constructed from fossil evidence
membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-
fecundity the ability to produce an
bound organelles geology the scientific study of the origin,
abundance of offspring history and structure of the Earth as
eukaryotic cell a cell with a membrane-
bound nucleus and membrane-bound fertiliser a substance added to the soil to recorded in rocks
organelles increase its fertility and plant growth; may gill a respiratory organ found in many aquatic
be natural or synthetic organisms; it extracts dissolved oxygen from
Eustachian tube a narrow passage leading
from the pharynx to the middle ear fertility the ability to conceive and have the water and excretes carbon dioxide
offspring gill slit the individual opening to the gills
eutrophication a form of water pollution
fibrous connective tissue a type of
where an overgrowth of algae occurs due to glacial period a period in Earth’s history
increased nutrients such as phosphorus and connective tissue that holds the body when ice sheets covered much of the Earth
nitrogen in the water together (for example, forming a tendon) and the temperature was lower

410 GLOSSARY 9780170407281

glaciologist a scientist who studies glaciers homologous having the same or similar inferior vena cava the large vein that
and ice formations structure, corresponding in origin but not returns blood to the heart from the lower
glycolysis the first step in cellular
necessarily in function and middle part of the body
respiration; the series of reactions that occur host an organism that harbours a parasite infiltration where water enters soils by
in the cytosol, involving the splitting of 6-C hydrophilic able to absorb water or dissolve
moving into and through pore spaces
glucose molecules into two 3-C pyruvate in water (‘water loving’) ingested when things such as food are
molecules; accompanied by the release of taken into the body by the mouth
two molecules of ATP hydrophilic molecule a molecule able to
absorb water or dissolve in water, otherwise inorganic relating to nutrients that are
glycoprotein a type of recognition protein known as ‘water loving’ part of the non-living world and do not
that combines with a sugar molecule and contain carbon and hydrogen in long
acts as a marker molecule to identify a cell hydrophobic water avoiding or unable to
dissolve in water (‘water hating’) chains (for example, carbon dioxide, water
as ‘self ’ and sodium ions)
Golgi body an organelle involved in the hydrophobic molecule a molecule that is
water avoiding or unable to dissolve inorganic compound a chemical compound
secretion and transport of materials that is part of the inanimate, non-living
in water, otherwise known as ‘water
gradualism a type of evolutionary change hating’ world, is not produced by living organisms
proposed by Darwin that is slow and and does not contain hydrocarbon chains
proceeds by the accumulation of gradual hydrosphere all the water on Earth, including (the combined elements of carbon with
changes the water vapour in the atmosphere hydrogen)
grassland habitat where the dominant hydrothermal vent a crack in the Earth’s insecticide a chemical designed to kill
vegetation is grass and there are very surface that releases water at high insects
few shrubs and trees, typically in a low or temperatures; caused by magma under the
Earth’s crust interglacial period a period between ice
sporadic rainfall area ages (glacial periods) where the temperature
greenhouse effect the trapping of the sun’s hypertonic relating to fluid outside the cell is warmer than in the ice ages
warmth by a planet’s lower atmosphere that has a higher solute concentration than
the cytoplasm; water diffuses out of the cell intermediate form a transitional organism
ground tissue all the internal cells of a by osmosis that shows characteristics of more than one
plant other than vascular tissue group
hypotonic relating to fluid outside the cell
guard cell a bean-shaped, specialised cell internal environment the environment
that has a lower solute concentration than
that controls the opening and closing of the the cytoplasm; water diffuses into the cell inside the cell membrane
pores (stomata) of leaves by osmosis interspecific competition competition that
hypothesis a tentative prediction, usually
occurs when individuals of different species
H strive for the same resource that is in limited
based on an existing model or theory; also
habitat the place where an organism lives a tentative explanation of an observation supply
haemoglobin the oxygen-carrying protein based on an existing model or theory interstitial fluid also known as tissue fluid;
present in the red blood cells a solution that surrounds the tissue cells of
haemolymph the transport fluid in an open
I multicellular animals
circulatory system; it is a mixture of blood ice core sample of ice removed from an ice intraspecies diversity those variations in
and tissue fluid sheet that contain clues to past climates traits that occur within organisms of the
halophyte a plant that has adapted to living
and ecosystems same species
in high-salt environments ileum the end region of the small intestine intraspecific competition competition
heart the driving mechanism in a immune system the system in the body
that occurs when individuals of one species
circulatory system that is responsible for the defence of the strive for the same resource that is in limited
body against foreign particles supply
herbicide a chemical designed to kill plants
introduced species a species that is not
independent variable the variable that
herbivore an organism that eats or endemic to a certain location
consumes only plants is controlled or manipulated by the
experimenter irrigation supplying water to pastures and
herbivorous relating to organisms that crops by means of channels or pipes
consume plants index fossil remains of an organism that
lived in a particular geological age that are isolation the effects of separation that
heterotroph ‘hetero’ different; that is, used to identify or date the rock or rock prevent individuals from interbreeding
‘feeding on something different’; an layer in which they are found isotonic when fluids inside and outside the
organism that cannot produce its own food
and has to take in all of its nutrients (for induced-fit model the model that describes cell are of equal concentrations; there is no
example, animals) enzyme action where the shape of the active net movement of water
site is not rigid; when the substrate binds isotope one of two or more forms of a
histogram a graph similar to a column to the active site, it induces the enzyme to
graph but which has columns that do chemical element that have the same
change its shape to fit more tightly around number of protons but a different number
touch each other because they represent the substrate
continuous numerical data of neutrons

9780170407281 GLOSSARY 411

J lipid bilayer a double layer of lipids matrix the central fluid-filled space in
literature review a report and evaluation
jejunum the middle section of the small
intestine of information from secondary sources on a measurand the quantity being measured
topic of interest megafauna extremely large animals, most
L lithified turned into stone of which are extinct today
lacteal the lymphatic vessel in the villi of the lithosphere the crust and upper rigid meristematic tissue tissue with
small intestine that absorbs digested fats mantle; the outer rigid part of the Earth undifferentiated cells in the young,
lactic acid fermentation fermentation (sections of this are also called ‘plate’) growing regions of the root and shoot tips
that is carried out by animals when the lock-and-key model a model that describes
of a plant
body cannot produce enough energy by enzyme action; the active site is a rigid mesophyll cells in the middle layer of the
aerobic cellular respiration; one molecule shape that exactly fits the shape of the leaf that are responsible for photosynthesis
of glucose is broken down in the absence of substrate
oxygen to produce two molecules of lactic metabolism the sum total of all
acid as well as two molecules of ATP logbook the record of an experiment chemical reactions occurring within a
or investigation kept by the scientist living organism
land clearing the removal of native performing the experiment; it is a
vegetation from an area for the purposes of metabolite a small molecule made during
legal record of the experiments and metabolic reactions, having various
agriculture or urban development their results functions in the body
large intestine the last part of the digestive loose connective tissue a type of connective
tract, consisting of the colon and the rectum microclimate the climate of a very
tissue that holds the body together (for restricted, small area (for example, under a
laser a device that produces a narrow, example, it is found under the skin) tree)
intense beam of light lymph the fluid that circulates throughout
microevolution small changes within a
lenticel a raised pore in the stem of a woody the lymphatic system; it is composed of species over a short period of time
plant that allows gas exchange between the tissue fluid, white blood cells and the end
atmosphere and the internal structures of products of lipid digestion microfossil fossil of single-celled anaerobic
the plant prokaryotes
lymphatic system the part of the
lichen an organism arising from a symbiotic transport system in mammals through microparasite a parasite that is invisible to
relationship between two or more fungi and which lymph drains from tissues back into the naked eye
an alga or cyanobacterium the blood microscopic so small that it can be seen
light-dependent stage (photolysis) stage 1 lymph system a part of the circulatory only with a microscope
of photosynthesis, which occurs in the grana system that transports a number of midrib the central main vein of the leaf that
of chloroplasts and involves the use of light substances around the body including runs along the length of the leaf
energy to split the water molecule, releasing tissue fluid; it also plays a major role in the
mimicry the resemblance of an organism to
oxygen as a waste product, hydrogen ions immune system
another organism or its surroundings for the
and ATP lymph vessel a thin-walled vessel with purpose of concealment
light-independent stage (carbon fixation) valves that transports the lymph
mining the process of obtaining minerals
stage 2 of photosynthesis, which occurs in lysosome an organelle within a cell that and ores from the crust
the stroma of the chloroplast, using the ATP contains digestive enzymes
to combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen mitosis the process of cell division where
ions to form glucose; no light is required identical copies of the original cell are
lignin an organic compound that adds macroevolution major evolutionary change
strength to plant tissues by binding to model a representation of a system or
over a long period of time
cellulose fibres phenomenon that explains the system
macroparasite a parasite that is visible to or phenomenon; a model may be
limit of reading the smallest unit of the naked eye (for example, a tick) mathematical equations, a computer
measurement on a measuring instrument
magnification the degree to which the size simulation, a physical object, words or
line graph a type of graph used to show of an image is larger than the image itself another form
the relationship between continuous
marine relating to saltwater environments monomer a small, repeating molecule that
(the ocean or sea) makes up a polymer
line of best fit a straight line that is fitted to
marsupial a type of mammal that is born monosaccharide a simple sugar composed
a graph of data points
at an undeveloped stage and then is suckled of one sugar unit (for example, glucose)
lipase an enzyme that catalyses the and carried in a pouch monotreme an egg-laying mammal
breakdown of fats
mass extinction an extinction that has MRI magnetic resonance imaging; this
lipid a large hydrocarbon molecule, such occurred on a large scale (for example, that method uses strong magnetic fields and
as in fats, oils and waxes; an important of the dinosaurs) radio waves to generate images of structures
component of cell membranes and certain
hormones maternal derived from the mother (female MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
parent) aureus

412 GLOSSARY 9780170407281

multicellular relating to organisms nucleolus the structure in the centre outlier a data point that is distant from the
composed of many specialised cells of the nucleus, made up of mostly RNA; other data points in the sample
organised into different levels; these cells manufactures ribosomes oxic having oxygen
cannot live independently of each other nucleoplasm the liquid material in the
oxygenated blood that contains oxygen
multicellular organism an organism made nucleus that contains the chromatin
up of many eukaryotic cells ozone a molecule consisting of three oxygen
nucleotide the monomer that makes up atoms. Ozone is generated and accumulated
muscle tissue tissue composed of muscle nucleic acids; each contains a simple in the stratisphere
cells called muscle fibres that are highly sugar, a base and a phosphate group
specialised for contraction nucleus the membrane-bound structure in P
mutation change in the genetic a cell that contains the genetic material of palaeo-atmospherics the use of evidence
material that results in new heritable an organism in ice, rocks and fossils to reconstruct past
characteristics climates and infer the composition of the
mutualism the symbiotic interaction O atmosphere before written records began
between two species where both benefit obligate describes species that are compelled palaeomagnetism a branch of geophysics
from the association (for example, lichen) or restricted to a single mode of life concerned with the magnetism in rocks
oesophagus the soft-walled, muscle-ringed that was induced by Earth’s magnetic field
N tube that leads from the mouth to the during the formation of the rocks
natural selection the process by which stomach palaeontology the scientific study of fossils
certain members of a population that open circulatory system a circulatory and all aspects of extinct life
are more suited than others to prevailing system in which the transport fluid leaves
environmental conditions survive and palisade cell a type of mesophyll cell that
the vessels, enters cavities in the body and is elongate in structure and contains many
reproduce (their chances of survival comes in direct contact with the organs
are influenced by how successfully chloroplasts; it is the main photosynthetic
their genetic make-up enables them to ore a naturally occurring rock or mineral cell in the plant and is located just below the
withstand changes in the environment) that has economic value upper epidermal layer of the leaf

Neolithic literally ‘new stone age’; organ a group of different types of tissues pancreas an organ that produces pancreatic
when stone weapons and implements that perform a particular function juices containing digestive enzymes that are
were abundant (approximately 10 000–2000 released into the duodenum
organelle an internal structure or part of
years ago) the cell that is enclosed by a membrane and parasite an organism that lives and feeds on
nervous tissue nerve cells that are highly has a particular function or in another organism (the host), which is
specialised for communication between all usually larger than the parasite
organic relating to substances that are
parts of the body synthesised by living things and contain parasitic characteristic of a parasite
neuron a nerve cell that makes up nervous carbon and hydrogen atoms in chains (for parasitism the symbiotic relationship
tissue example, glucose and amino acids) between two species where one benefits
organism a thing that is or once was alive (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)
niche the place of a species within a
community, involving relationships with and can carry out most of the functions that passive movement movement that
other species characterise being alive; plants, animals, requires no input of energy
microbes and fungi are all organisms
nitrogen fixation the process by which pathogen a disease-causing organism such
nitrogen from the air (N2) is converted into organ system a system of different organs as a bacterium or virus
other nitrogen-containing molecules that grouped together that are responsible for a
pelagic that part of the ocean that is neither
can be used by living things particular bodily function
near the bottom nor close to shore
non-target a species that is not intended to osmoregulatory relating to osmoregulation,
pentadactyl a vertebrate limb containing
be a target of pesticides or a component of which is the maintenance of the salt and
five fingers or toes
trapping/sampling water content of the body, within certain
limits, to protect cells from too much water peptide a polymer containing up to 10
non-vascular a plant that does not have a entering or leaving them amino acid monomers
transport system
osmosis movement of a solvent from a peristalsis muscular contractions that
NT neutron tomography; this method move the food through the digestive tract
region of high concentration of the solvent
creates a three-dimensional image by to a region of low concentration of the perennial a plant that lives for 2 or more
reconstructing a series of two-dimensional solvent through a selectively permeable years as opposed to an annual, which lives
photos as the object is rotated 180o membrane for a year
nuclear membrane the structure that
osmotic pressure the pressure created by permeable allowing liquids or gases to pass
surrounds and encloses the nucleus water moving across the cell membrane; the through
nucleic acid a large organic molecule such more water moving across the membrane
PET positron emission tomography; an
as DNA and RNA; it allows the transfer the higher the osmotic pressure
imaging technique that uses radioactive
of genetic information from parents to ostia tiny holes in the side of the heart tracers to follow the pathway of substances
offspring chamber in an open circulatory system in an organism

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phagocytosis endocytosis of a solid particle platelet (thrombocyte) a crescent-shaped prokaryotic autotrophic cell a cell lacking
pharyngeal slit also known as a gill
fragment of cells produced in the bone a membrane-bound nucleus and that
slit; used in embryology to determine marrow; has a function in the clotting of produces its own nutrients
relatedness the blood prokaryotic cell a cell that neither has its
polar relates to molecules that have a DNA enclosed by a membrane nor forms a
phenotype the detectable physical or
behavioural characteristics or traits of an slightly different charge, positive or negative, proper nucleus; it has no membrane-bound
organism on each end organelles within the cell; prokaryotic
pollen the collective term for pollen grains
organisms are usually unicellular (for
phloem vascular tissue that transports the example, bacteria)
products of photosynthesis pollination the transfer of pollen from the
male to female reproductive organs of a prokaryotic heterotrophic cell a cell
phospholipid part of the structure of the cell lacking a membrane-bound nucleus
membrane; each molecule has a ‘head’ with flowering plant
and that obtains its energy from organic
two fatty acid chains connected to it polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a molecules in its environment (for example,
photic zone the surface layer of the ocean
technique used to multiply a small number bacteria)
that receives sunlight of copies of a DNA segment to generate
thousands or millions of copies of that DNA prophylactically by any measure used
photosynthesis ‘photo’, light; ‘synthesis’, segment to prevent or protect from infection by a
manufacture; a series of reactions occurring pathogen
in the chloroplast by which plants, some polypeptide a polymer containing more
than 10 amino acid monomers protoplasm the living content of a cell 
bacteria and some protists use light energy that is surrounded by the cell membrane;
trapped by the chlorophyll to produce polysaccharide a complex polymer composed of the nucleus and the
glucose from carbon dioxide and water composed of many single sugar monomer cytoplasm
phylogenetic tree an evolutionary tree
units joined together (for example, starch)
proxy data the data that
showing inferred relationships population a group of organisms of the palaeoclimatologists use to interpret past
phylogeny a branch of biology that deals
same species living in the same area at a climates, such as fossil pollen, ice core gas
with evolutionary relationships particular time readings, ocean sediments and tree rings
pore hole pulmonary artery the blood vessel through
physiological to do with the functioning of
an organism poverty severe deprivation and need at the which blood is pumped from the right
family level ventricle to the lungs
physiological adaptation a functional
feature (how the organism works) of an precipitation rain, hail and snow that falls pulmonary circulation the pathway of
organism that allows an organism to be to the ground or condenses on the ground blood from the heart to the lungs and back
better suited to surviving in its natural to the heart
precise what measurements are called
environment when they are close to each other pulmonary vein the blood vessel through
phytoplankton photosynthetic prokaryotes which blood is transferred from the lungs to
predator an organism that catches and kills
that grow abundantly in the oceans the left atrium
another organism for food
pili hair-like structures on the surface of a punctuated equilibrium a type of
predator–prey relationship the
cell evolutionary change that is marked by
relationship between a predator and its prey
isolated episodes of rapid speciation
pilus a structure used by bacteria to
prey something that is hunted or caught between long periods of stability and no
exchange genetic material for food change
pinocytosis endocytosis of a liquid
primary data data that you have measured pyloric sphincter a valve composed of a
placental relating to a type of mammal that or collected yourself ring of smooth muscle that regulates the
has a placenta and develops internally principle of uniformitarianism the passage of chyme from the stomach to the
planTIS a PET scanner for plants scientific understanding that the geological duodenum

plasma the yellow, watery, fluid part of

processes and natural laws that currently
modify the Earth's crust have behaved in the Q
blood consisting of about 90 per cent
water and 10 per cent proteins; carries same manner and with the same intensity quadrat a frame of known dimensions used
many substances in either dissolved or throughout geological time to estimate populations of a species in a
suspended form producer a plant that makes its own given area

plasmid the circular ring of genetic material

nutrients through the process of qualitative descriptive data; the quality of
in a prokaryotic cell photosynthesis (an autotroph); constitutes results can be described or drawn (non-
the first trophic level in a food chain numerical)
plasmolysis the process by which cells lose
prokaryote unicellular organism that lacks quantitative relating to results that are
water in a hypertonic solution, causing the
cytoplasm to shrink away from the cell wall membrane-bound organelles such as a measured and recorded as numbers
nucleus, mitochondria or chloroplasts (quantities)
plastid a small organelle in the cytoplasm
prokaryotic relating to cells with no quarantine the separation and isolation
of plant cells; it contains either pigment or
dissolved nutrients membrane-bound nuclei or membrane- of living things to prevent the spread of
bound organelles infectious disease

414 GLOSSARY 9780170407281

R resolution the degree to which it is possible secrete produce or discharge
to distinguish between two objects that are sector or pie graph a circular graph that
radiation (adaptive) the rapid diversification
very close to each other shows fractions of a whole
of an ancestral species into many new forms
respiration a chemical reaction in the
radiation (from radioactive materials) sedimentary rock rock formed from the
mitochondria of cells whereby energy accumulation of sediments (for example,
energy emitted in the form of waves or
is released from organic compounds sandstone, shale, conglomerate)
(especially carbohydrates)
radioactive unstable; emitting particles selection pressure a factor, often in the
respiratory system the system involved in environment, that affects the survival and
(known as radioactive decay)
the exchange of gases between an organism reproduction of an individual within a
radioactive tracer a chemical compound and its environment population (usually by acting on a variation)
in which one or more atoms have been
rhizobia soil bacteria that fix nitrogen
replaced by a radioisotope selective breeding breeding where humans
ribosome a very small, spherical structure choose particular animals or plants for their
radioisotope unstable form of an atom that
found in the cytoplasm that contains favourable traits to mate and have offspring
emits radiation
both RNA and proteins; its function is to selectively permeable describing a
radiometric dating a method of estimating manufacture the proteins required by the cell membrane that will let certain substances
the age of objects or material using the
riparian relating to the banks of a river through and not others
decay rates of radioactive components
root hair the extension of a root epidermal semipermeable describing a membrane
rainforest a type of ecosystem
cell to increase absorption of water and (usually synthetic) that allows material to
characterised by a dense canopy of trees,
mineral ions pass across it, but is unable to select which
ferns and other plants in enormous variety;
root pressure pressure caused by water
found in a high rainfall area
entering the roots by osmosis; causes the septum the muscular wall that separates
raw data original data taken directly from a
water in the xylem to flow in an upward the left- and right-hand sides of the heart
measurement system
direction sieve plate the perforated cell wall on the
realised niche that part of the fundamental
rumen the ‘first stomach’ of an animal end of a sieve tube cell
niche that the species actually occupies at a
such as a cow or sheep (ruminant) where sieve tube cell a long, thin phloem cell that
certain time
fermentation of grass takes place by bacteria has large pores through the cell walls at
real-time radioactive imaging system
each end; it has no nuclei, mitochondria or
(RRIS) a non-destructive imaging system S vacuoles and is arranged end-to-end into
using radioisotopes; can be used to visualise
salinisation increasing salt content within sieve tubes
the movement of substances in the phloem
soils or waterways siltation when water becomes dirty because
receptor protein a membrane protein that
salinity the amount or concentration of of fine particles of mud or silt
binds hormones and other substances
dissolved salt sink 1: the low-pressure region where the
recognition protein a membrane protein
sampling technique an ecological glucose is required in the plant; 2: a natural
that allows the body to recognise it as ‘self ’
technique used to estimate species or artificial reservoir (for example, the ocean
rectum the region of the large intestine populations by the collection and/or is a carbon dioxide sink)
where the remaining waste material, known counting samples of the population sinus a space in the body cavity of an insect
as faeces, is stored before it is removed from
saturation point the point at which all skeletal muscle muscle with long fibres
the body
available enzymes are being used to catalyse and striations (light and dark areas);
red blood cell (erythrocyte) a very small reactions attached to bones; contraction causes
biconcave cell containing haemoglobin that
scatter plot a graphical representation of movement in the organism
is formed in the bone marrow
the relationship between the individual data smooth muscle muscle with fibres without
relative dating determining the relative points of two variables striations that contracts and pushes
order or chronology of past events
scavenger an animal that feeds on dead substances through specialised organs, such
reliable giving the same results within organisms as the gastrointestinal tract
experimental uncertainty
scientific method a systematic process soil structure the arrangement of the solid
reproducibility able to give the same of observation, experimentation, parts of a soil into units called aggregates,
result, within uncertainty, when repeated measurement and analysis to either support allowing for pore spaces between them
measurements are made or disprove a hypothesis solute a substance that dissolves in a
reproducible giving the same result, within sclerophyll a type of vegetation typically solution
uncertainty, when repeated measurements found in Australia, consisting of plants solution the product formed when a solute
are made with spiky, hard leaves with an orientation dissolves in a solvent
research question the specific question parallel to direct sunlight, hence reducing
moisture loss solvent the substance that the solute
that a particular experiment or investigation
dissolves in (usually water)
is designed to answer secondary data data or information that has
been collected by someone other than you source where something is produced
resistant able to withstand the effects

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specialised cell a cell that has structures sucrose the form in which the glucose timeline a linear representation of
that allow it to carry out a particular produced in photosynthesis is carried important events in the sequence in which
function around the plant in the phloem they occurred, whereby each event is drawn
speciation the formation of a new and superior vena cava the large vein that
on the line to a scale that reflects the time
distinct species in evolution returns blood to the heart from the head, that has elapsed between successive events
neck and upper limbs tissue a group of specialised cells that
species a group of organisms of similar
appearance within a population, the sustainable (in ecosystems) able to remain
perform a similar function
members of which can interbreed to diverse and productive in the future topography the shape and features of the
produce fertile offspring symbiogenesis the evolutionary theory
land (often called ‘relief ’)
species diversity a measure of the diversity that eukaryotic cells evolved from topsoil the upper layer of soil with the
of species in an ecological community prokaryotic organisms highest concentration of organic matter;
spiracle a small pore in the body of an symbiosis the group of interactions in
where plants generally concentrate their
insect that is connected to internal air tubes which two organisms live together in a close roots
called tracheae through which gases are relationship that is beneficial to at least one tracheal system the system in insects
exchanged of them where the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide
spongy cell a type of mesophyll cell that symbiotic interaction see symbiosis
are exchanged by a system of tubes (called
is located between the palisade cells tracheae) that open to the outside through
sympatric relating to a process through small holes (called spiracles)
and the lower epidermis; they carry out which species evolve in the same geographic
photosynthesis and are loosely packed to region tracheal tubes branching air tubes that
allow gases to move between them carry gases to and from the cells of an insect;
systematic error an error that results in a part of the tracheal system
statutory written into law (for example, consistent, predictable offset from the ‘true
legal restrictions on air pollution by cars) value’ (for example, a zero error) tracheole a small air tube branching from
stem cell an undifferentiated cell that
the tracheal tubes
systemic circulation the pumping of
divides and develops structures that allow it transect a method used in population
oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
to become specialised and the return of deoxygenated blood to the sampling in which observations are made
stoma a pore in a leaf through which heart across a narrow strip that crosses the entire
gases are exchanged and water is lost by area being studied
evaporation (plural: stomata) T transitional form an organism or fossil that
stratigraphy a branch of geology concerned terrace a form of landscaping used to
shows characteristics intermediate between
with the chronological order of fossils reduce soil erosion and surface run-off of its ancestral form and its descendants
water translocation the movement of the
stratosphere a layer of Earth’s atmosphere
above the troposphere; contains the ozone terrestrial on the land
products of photosynthesis from the leaves
layer to all parts of the plant
theory a substantiated explanation based
transpiration the evaporation of water
striations light and dark areas in muscle on a body of facts and evidence
tissue from the leaf to create a ‘pull’ that assists the
therian belonging to a group of mammals movement of water in the xylem tissue
stroma the liquid part of the chloroplast that comprises marsupials and placental
transpiration stream the movement of
stromatolite a concentrically layered rock,
water from the roots of a plant to the leaves,
the layers being formed by the successive thorax the middle section of the body of caused mostly by the evaporative pull of
growth of thin mats of cyanobacteria an insect between the head and the transpiration
structural adaptation a physical feature
transport protein a protein embedded in
of an organism that allows the organism to thromboplastin an enzyme released by the cell membrane to allow movement of
be better suited to surviving in its natural platelets that starts the process of blood certain substances through it
environment clotting
triglyceride a lipid molecule composed of
stubble the cut stalks of plants such as thylacine a large, carnivorous Australian three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol
cereals in the ground after the grain is marsupial now thought to be extinct molecule
harvested Thylacoleo an extinct genus of carnivorous tropical referring to an area of hot and
substrate the reactant that binds to the marsupial lions, including Thylacoleo humid climate
active site carnifex
trypsin an enzyme produced by the
substrate–enzyme complex the complex thylakoid a membrane in the chloroplast pancreas that catalyses the breakdown of
formed when the substrate binds to the that has chlorophyll on it; each stack of protein in the duodenum
active site of the enzyme and the reaction thylakoids forms a granum
proceeds turbidity cloudiness of a fluid (for example,
tilling (the soil) to prepare the soil for a river) caused by particles such as mud
succulent one of a group of plants that store growing crops or pastures
water in their leaves turgid firm, full of fluid

416 GLOSSARY 9780170407281

U vector an organism that carries parasites white blood cell (leucocyte) an irregularly
and transmits them from one host to shaped cell, produced in the bone marrow,
ultraviolet (UV) radiation a type of
another that carries out the role of defending the
radiation produced by the Sun
vein a type of blood vessel that returns the
uncertainty an estimate of the range of
blood to the heart; it has thin walls, and woodland a habitat with a sparse canopy of
values within which the ‘true value’ of a
valves to prevent the backward flow of blood trees, usually with less rainfall than that of a
measurement or derived quantity lies
ventricle the bottom chamber on each side
unicellular made up of a single cell
of the heart that pumps to expel blood out
of the heart X
venule a small branch of a vein that leads xerophyte a plant that is adapted to survive
vaccine a serum or plasma that is in dry environments
from a capillary to a vein
administered to people or other animals to
vernalisation the exposure of seeds or bulbs X-ray computed microtomography a
produce an immune reaction to disease-
to low temperature to initiate germination technique that uses X-rays to create cross-
causing organisms
or flowering sections of a physical object that can be
vacuole a large, fluid-filled storage sac in the used to recreate a visual model without
cytoplasm of a cell vestigial relating to a structure that has destroying the original object
degenerated or is functionless due to
valid relating to results that are affected by xylem vascular tissue in plants that
a single independent variable and hence are transports water and dissolved mineral ions
reproducible villus a small projection lining the surface up the plant as ascending sap
of the small intestine that provides a large
valve a structure lining the internal surfaces xylem tracheid non-living xylem elements
surface area for the absorption of food
of the lymph vessels and veins preventing formed from a single cell, with strong,
(plural: villi)
the backward movement of lymph and tapered, elongated ends and pitted walls
blood thickened with lignin (also see xylem)
vascular plant a plant that has a transport xylem vessel continuous tube of xylem,
weir a barrier across a river designed to
system to move substances around the originally formed by cells stacked end to end
alter flow
plant and provide support that lost their end walls (also see xylem)
wetland an area saturated by water during
vascular tissue transport tissue which is
certain seasons or all the time; a type of
organised into vessels (such as xylem and
phloem in plants)

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