You are on page 1of 2



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

   is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous
administration. Veterinary administration may also be subcutaneous.

Lactated Ringer's solution is abbreviated as "LR", "RL" or "LRS". It is also known as  

     (although Ringer's solution technically refers only to the saline component,
without lactate). It is very similar ² though not identical to ² Hartmann's Solution, the ionic
concentrations of which differ.



iY  Overview
iY G Development of Ringer's solution
iY u Therapy
iY £ See also
iY º References


One litre of lactated Ringer's solution contains:

iY u mEq of sodium ion = u mmol/L

iY   mEq of chloride ion =   mmol/L
iY G mEq of lactate = G mmol/L
iY £ mEq of potassium ion = £ mmol/L
iY u mEq of calcium ion = .º mmol/L

Generally, the sodium, chloride, potassium and lactate come from NaCl (sodium chloride),
NaCuHºOu (sodium lactate), CaClG (calcium chloride), and KCl (potassium chloride).

There are slight variations for the composition for Ringer's as supplied by different
manufacturers. As such, the term Ringer's Lactate should not be equated with one precise

Although its pH is 6.º, it is an alkalizing solution.


Ringer's saline solution was invented by Sydney Ringer,[G] a British physiologist. The solution
was further modified by Alexis Hartmann for the purpose of treating acidosis in children.
Hartmann modified the solution by adding lactate, which mitigates changes in pH by acting as a
buffer for acid. Thus the solution became known as 'Lactated Ringer's Solution' and later,
'Hartmann's solution'.[u]


Lactated Ringer's solution is often used for fluid resuscitation after a blood loss due to trauma,
surgery, or a burn injury. Previously, it was used to induce urine output in patients with renal

Another common use is the treatment of renal failure in small animals, where the solution is
administered subcutaneously instead of through an IV. Administering the fluids in this way
allows the solution to be given to the animal quickly and does not require a vein to be located.
The fluid is then slowly absorbed from under the skin into the bloodstream of the animal.[£]

Lactated Ringer's solution is used because the by-products of lactate metabolism in the liver
counteract acidosis, which is a chemical imbalance that occurs with acute fluid loss or renal

The intravenous dose of lactated Ringer's solution is usually calculated by estimated fluid loss
and presumed fluid deficit. For fluid resuscitation the usual rate of administration is G to u
ml/kg body weight/hour. Lactated Ringer's solution is not suitable for maintenance therapy
because the sodium content (u mEq/L) is considered too high, particularly for children,
whereas the potassium content (£ mEq/L) is too low, in view of electrolyte daily requirement.

Other commonly used intravenous solutions include normal saline and hespan (used in
hypovolemic shock). Lactated Ringer's is also used as a conduit for the delivery of drugs.
Lactated Ringer's is usually given intravenously, but if a suitable vein is not found, it can be
taken orally (although it has an unpleasant taste).