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L2 ICT – UNIT 1 : The Online World

Subject Notes Revision

Online Services: Lesson 1 Examples / Notes: Done
Communication websites Email- an email is where you both communicate and send
files from one place to another, this is much easier than
sending mails before the reason for this is that since before
you didn’t have a device you had to write on hand with pen
and paper, what else you had to do is you had to pay money
for a stamp, this means that back then for sending an email
you are losing money for just buying a stamp, this also takes
up time as you need to get up and go to the post office hand it
in and the person you send it to might get it days later. CC
stands for carbon copy, an example for carbon copy is that
you can add someone else’s name so that you don’t have to
rewrite the whole message again. BCC stands for Blind copy,
an example of blind copy is that the message that you sent
that certain person only that person can see it, no one else.

Instant Messaging- Instant messaging is like communication

like whatsapp, snapchat, messenger, and all of the messaging
apps. The message is required and you can tell when the
person you sent the message to has received it. The good
about this also is that you know when they are sending a
message back

Newsgroup- Newsgroup is basically where if you were in a

football group or anything, And something happened you
would know straight away because of that group.

Social Networking- Social networking is basically used for

entertainment and communication. Also the name network
basically means communicating with other people and getting
to know them but social network is totally different.

Online conferencing- Online conferencing is basically where

you communicate with people all around the world
(worldwide). All you need for this is obviously wi-fi connection,
device,camera,mic, all of these things is wat you need. This
saves a lot of time and money as instead of going out and
spending money on travelling you can just sit at home and do
a video call with the people.

Blogs- Blogs is basically a discussion or informational website

published on the world web.
Real time information Train Timetables- A train timetable is basically where you
know when anything has been anything that has happened so
that you can choose a different route to get to places quicker

News Service- This is where either when if you watch any

sport but you can’t watch or hear it, you can check the live
scores and updates on your phone as it is happening

Traffic Reports- Traffic reports is so good because this shows

when there has been a traffic congestion and also tells you
about road conditions that’s happening while you are
E-Commerce E-commerce- e commerce is basically a transaction that is
conducted electronically on the internet

Internet banking- Internet banking is basically where you sort

out all of your transactions on your account on your phone
which is much easier

Online Auction- Online auction is basically like ebay where

you buy stuff online and even sell online, there's also stuff like
amazon and stuff where you can do all of this

Retail sales- is basically the sales of good like where we buy

our clothes and stuff from.

publishing - publishing is basically where you publish books

and stuff like that
Government websites

Online tax- Online tax is basically where you own a business

and the people that look at your bank know how much you
are earning and if they find out that you are lying then your
money can be getting taken away

E-voting- E-voting basically means when you can count how

many votes there are on your phone or on any device

Applications for service/grants- This is basically when you

apply for wheelie bins. This is also where you apply for house

Revenue collection - Revenue collection is basically like

parking fines, tv taxes and all that stuff that you need to pay

Education is basically where you can have a private tutor
online and do some work there if you are unable to get an
education outside of school. The reason why this is good is
that you can still get an education at home

Entertainment is basically where you create something like if
you are in animation and all of that stuff.

Download services
Download service basically means to receive data from
basically a remote system, typically such as a web server

Online Documents: Lesson 2 Examples / Notes:

Compressions (.zip)
Compressions is basically where you shorten down a file so
that it uses less space and help you out as you don’t need a
huge file. An example could be if someone did a crime and it
was on camera you can compress the file of where there was
the person and you can send that to the police so that it is
easier for them to

Levels of access
Level of access is basically where you can only go to a
certain amount of access like where if you have a boss you
cannot see what the information the boss is getting because
you are not on the same level as the boss so the information
will be different

Online Comms: Lesson 3 Examples / Notes:

Netiquette is basically where you conduct yourself online, like
if you respect people online and for you to not swear and all
of that stuff.

Online communities

Online communities is basically where members interact with

each other

Virtual world
Virtual world is basically where you can interact with people
on a computer based environment

Chat & chat rooms

A chat room in networking is basically where on the internet
there is a site where you can exchange message
This is basically something like facebook where you can
communicate with people in a group so it is easier to prepare
stuff and you can all interact with each other

Social networking
Social networking is basically dedicated websites where you
can interact with other users

Instant messaging
Instant messaging is basically whereas soon as you send a
message and it goes straight through so that as soon as you
send it they get it straight away.

VOIP – video conferencing

This is basically where you can get a group call and the
reason why this is good that if you are in a business and you
can not physically get there you can do a group call and do
your work there.
Cloud computing
Cloud computing is basically where you can use it even
without going on it because what the cloud storage does is
that it saves everything automatically without even using it

Ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous computing is basically a concept where it is
supposed to appear anywhere at any time

The Internet: Lesson 4 Examples / Notes:

Cloud computing
Cloud computing is basically data storage. The good thing
about this is that you don’t need to be on it while it is being
used as it does it by itself

POP (Point of presence)

POP is point of presence and this is basically allows users to
connect to the internet with their internet service provider only

NAP (Network Access Point)

A NAP is basically a public network exchange facility where
internet service providers basically connected with one
another in peering arrangements.

A backbone is a part of
computer network that A client server architecture is basically a computer network in
interconnects various pieces which many clients request and receive service from a
of network, providing a path centralized server
for the exchange of
information between different
LANs or subnetworksClient
Server Architecture
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets
between computer networks. The router is a very important
thing because if you don’t have the router then you basically
can not connect to the wi-fi as this is very important

Network backbone The backbone network is basically a part of a computer

network that interconnects some pieces of network which
actually gives a path for the exchange of information

Internet connection types

This is basically a DSL(digital subscriber line) And what the
DSL does is that a type of internet connection that basically
transmits a telephone network

Worldwide Web: Lesson 5 Examples / Notes:

Web servers Websites are stored on web servers. When a user accesses a
website through a web browser it is temporarily downloaded
onto the computer. It is the web servers job to deliver the web
page requested .

Website structure Website structure is basically a structure to show how the

websites are set up. How the individual subpages are linked
to one another. It is important that crawlers can find all
subpages quickly.

Components of the URL

● Path
● A query string
● A scheme
● A host

HTTP HTTP- Stands for hypertext transfer protocol, and what this
does is that the underlying protocol used by the world wide
web, This protocol basically defines how messages are
formatted and also transmitted

HTML HTML- This stands for hypertext markup language. HTML

Is made up from tags, And most of them are in pairs. Pairs of
tags are called HTML elements.

A Browser is where people go to get information and all of
that stuff for it. There are many browsers like google, internet
explorer,safari, firefox and all of that stuff

Search engines Search engines is basically where a website which allows

users to find data on the internet. For example google.com
and bing.com

Email: Lesson 6 Examples / Notes:

Sending an email – how it The Way that emails work is that emails are sent from a
works sender’s outbox and received ina receipts. Email is a method
of communicating by sending messages through an email
Advantages of email
● Easy to share
● Easy to measure
● Easy to get started
● Drive revenue
● Low cost
● Reach a global audience
● Deliver target messages
● Instant impact

Disadvantages of email

● Sucks up your time

● Spam
● Pressure to reply
● No respite
● Emotional responses
● Information overload
● Lacking the personal touch
● Misunderstandings

Email protocols is a communication protocol for electronic mail

transmission. As an Internet standard, SMTP was first
defined in 1982

Differences between POP & POP is point of presence and this is basically allows users to
IMAP connect to the internet with their internet service provider only

IMAP is an Internet standard protocol used by email clients

to retrieve email messages from a mail server over a
TCP/IP connection

Data Exchange: Lesson 7 Examples / Notes:

Network structure Network topology is the arrangement of the elements of a
communication network.

Transmission modes Fibre Optic - glass- instead of sending electric signal it sends
light - in binary- at speed of light in pulses- at the other end is
a receiver. The fibre optic is as thin as a hair. The cables
under the floor need to be careful as they are not coated in
metal, break easily.

Wireless - no wires.
Infra- red - energy in the region of the electromagnetic
radiation spectrum. Can be seen, Out of the visible spectrum.
Is shorter than those of radio waves.
Infrared frequencies higher than those of microwaves.
Eg: car locking remotes, TV remote handset

Can be adversely affected by walls or obstructions.

Real time communication
Real-time communication is a category of software
protocols and communication hardware media that gives
real-time guarantees

Meshing of 2 words - coder and decoder - encoded and
compressed for storage streams of data.
For videos you
Compress- send- decompress at other end.
See diagram on google slides
Changes it from one format into another format so that it can
be used!

Methods of transmission
/cabling/wireless etc SEE ABOVE NOTES

Packet switching
Is a method of breaking data files in small packets or chunks
in order to send them across a network.
Works by broken up into small files and given an IP address
as to where to go, and to know who has sent it. They also
know how many packets have been sent. Puts back together
and ends the file.

Data transfer rates

Speed at which data is transmitted from one device to another
is the data rates

A microwave link - in a communication system uses a beam
of radio waves in the microwave frequency in two fixed
Advantage : no cables required (between 2 buildings)
Multiple channels
Wide bandwidth

Disadvantages: Line-of sight such as obstacle, new building

Weather - atmosphere - lightning
Has to be on a tower - high up

Eg: Repeater - see Slide diagram

Multiple receivers eg:
Multipole channels on one satellite

Atmosphere can affect it

Serial - only one chunk of information at once

and Parallel Transmission - lots of links that run alongside
each other ( fibre optic cables- so 50 pulses at same time)
bursts at the same time at speed of light.

Client vs Server Working on word doc, saves on pc drive.

On an app, you are working on server.

Databases: Lesson 8 Examples / Notes:

Data storage methods Computer data storage, often called storage, is a
technology consisting of computer components and
recording media that are used to retain digital data

A database management system is system software for
creating and managing databases

Database structure – files, An online database is a database accessible from a local

fields, records network or the Internet, as opposed to one that is stored
locally on an individual computer or its attached storage

Online databases An online database is a database accessible from a local

network or the Internet, as opposed to one that is stored
locally on an individual computer or its attached storage

The dbms provides users and managers

SQL Sql is a standard language for accessing databases

Threats to data: Lesson 9 Examples / Notes:

Cyber crimes Cyber crimes basically diverting financial assets: identity
theft/cloning cards and intellectual property theft: illegal
downloading music plagiarism
Malicious damage to data Mainly caused/ enabled by the widespread- loads of stuff are
caused by doing this like
● Viruses
● Trojan horses
● Phishing
● Identity theft

Preventative technologies

Firewalls firewall is a network security system that monitors and

controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on
predetermined security rules

Access control methods Access control is basically a security technique that regulates
who or what can view or use resources in computing
environment, some of these systems incorporate access
control panels to restrict entry to rooms and buildings.

Disaster recovery Disaster recovery is basically where if your place gets burnt
down or anything like that then you will always have a backup
for you files and data because if you don't then that's your
business gone

Business continuity This basically means if th3ere is a disaster in the business

then they should have a plan to see if they can still; carry on
with the business because if they lose stuff like what in stock
after losing out on a lot then that could be them out of
business as they wouldn't know where anything because the
business have just been burnt or anything disastrous

Benefits and dangers of social The benefits and dangers of social networking is that:
networking ● Personal data can be stolen
● People can set up fake personalities
● Your pictures can be stolen and re-used
● You have no idea what is on the other end e.g
age,sex etc
● Good form keeping in touch
● You can leave a message and come back later to see
if it has been answered
● Available via app on your phone/tablet
Managing your E-Reputation This basically means when you manage:
● Stuff you don’t want others to see
● Political views
● Personal comments
● Threats of violence
● Bullying
● stalking

Online monitoring of This basically means that the people like the government
movements & communication know what you are doing wherever you are the reason for this
they will always have access to your device and will listen to
whatever you are saying and the main reason for this your
microphone is on at all times and even if you take your device
off they will still hear you. Also if you have a camera they
could also watch what you are doing

Current legislation : DPA (1), DPA- the data protection act of parliament of the united
CM (1990) kingdom of great britain and Northern Ireland which defines
UK law on the processing data and identifiable living people.

CMA- computer misuse act is al law based by the british

government, it was introduced to try to fight the growing threat
of hackers and hacking