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WATER SUPPLY SOURCES

SANITATION, PLUMBING DESIGN AND INSTALLATION


FUNDAMENTALS OF WATER SUPPLY
PROPERTIES OF WATER KINDS OF WATER

1. PURE WATER
1. HEAT CAPACITY 2. NATURAL WATER
2. SURFACE TENSION 3. PURIFIED WATER
4. CONTAMINATED WATER
3. CAPILLARITY
5. POLLUTED WATER
4. DISSOLVING ABILITY
6. HARD WATER
7. SOFT WATER
8. GREY WATER
9. BLACK WATER
10. STORM WATER
TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN WATER
1. CHLORIDES
• IT CAN ENTER WATER THROUGH GEOLOGICAL DEPOSITS FORMED BY MARINE SEDIEMENT OR
BECAUSE OF POLLUTION FROM SEA WATER, BRINE, OR INDUSTRIAL OR DOMESTIC WATER.

2. COPPER
• IT CAN ENTER WATER THROUGH NATURAL COPPER DEPOSITS OR FROM COPPER PIPING THAT
CONTAINS CORROSIVE WATER.

3. IRON
• IT IS FREQUENTLY PRESENT IN GROUND WATER. CORROSIVE WATER IN IRON PIPES WILL ALSO ADD
IRON TO WATER
TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN WATER

4. MANGANESE
• IT IS NATURAL LAXATIVE AND PRODUCE COLOR AND TASTE EFFECTS SIMILAR TO THOSE PRODUCED
BY IRON

5. NITRATES
• IT CAN CAUSE “BLUE BABY” DISEASES. IN SHALLOW WELLS, NITRATE CONCENTRATION CAN
INDICATE SEEPAGE FROM DEPOSITS OF LIVESTOCK MANURE.

6. PESTICIDES
• IT IS PARTICULAR IN HOMES THAT ARE TREATED WITH PESTICIDES
TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN WATER

7. SODIUM
• IT IS PRIMARILY HARMFUL TO PEOPLE WITH HEART, KIDNEY OR CIRCULATORY AILMENTS. FOR A LOW
SODIUM DIET, THE SODIUM IN WATER SHOULD NOT EXCEED 20MG/L

8. SULFATES
• IT HAS LAXATIVE EFFECTS AND CAN ENTER GROUND WATER FROM NATURAL
DEPOSIT OF SALTS

9. ZINC
• IT IS NOT A HEALTH THREAT BUT CAN CAUSE UNDESIRABLE TASE AT
CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE 5MG/L
WATER SOURCES

1. WELLS
A. DUG WELLS (15M OR 50FT)
B. DRIVEN WELLS 50M OR 50 FT)
C. BORED WELLS (30M OR 100 FT)
D. DRILLED WELLS (300M OR 1000FT)
WATER SOURCES
2. SURFACE WATER
A MIXTURE OF SURFACE RUN-OFF AND GROUND WATER, SURFACE SOURCES INCLUDE
RIVER, LAKES, PONDS AND IMPOUNDING RESERVOIRS.
ACCESS TO WATER SUPPLY FACILITIES
LEVEL 1 –FARTHEST
THE FARTHEST USER IS NOT MORE THAN 250M FROM POINT OF SOURCE
LEVEL 2 –
THE FARTHEST HOUSE IS NOT MORE THAN 25M FROM THE COMMUNAL FAUCET
SYSTEM.
LEVEL 3- NEAREST
THE HOUSE HAS SERVICE CONNECTION FROM THE SYSTEM
WATER SOURCES

LEVELS OF SERVICE
1. LEVEL I (POINT SOURCE)
A PROTETED WELL OR A DEVELOPED SPRING WITH AN OUTLET BUT WITHOUT A
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. GENERALLY ADAPTABLE FOR RURAL AREAS WHERE HOUSES ARE THINLY
SCATTERED.
A LEVEL I FACILITY NORMALLY SERVES AN AVERAGE OF 15 HOUSEHOLDS.
WATER SOURCES

2. LEVEL II (COMMUNAL FAUCET SYSTEM OR STANDPOST)


A SYSTEM COMPOSED OF A SOURCE, A RESERVOIR, A PIPED DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
AND COMMUNAL FAUCETS. USUALLY, ONE FAUCET SERVICES 4 TO 6 HOUSEHOLD.
GENERALLY SUITABLE FOR RURAL OR URBAN FRINGE AREAS WHERE HOUSES ARE
CLUSTERED DENSELY TO JUSTIFY A SIMPLE PIPED SYSTEM
WATER SOURCES

3. LEVEL III (WATERWORKS SYSTEM OR INDIVIDUAL HOUSE CONNECTIONS)


A SYSTEM WITH A SOURCE, A RESERVOIR, A PIPED DISTRIBUTION NETWORK AND
HOUSEHOLD TAPS.
IT IS GENERALLY SUITED FOR DENSELY POPULATED AREAS.
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM


THE WATER SERVICE PIPE, WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES,
AND THE NECESSARY CONNECTING PIPES, FITTINGS,
CONTROL VALVES AND ALL APPURTENANCES IN OR
ADJACENT TO THE STRUCTURE OR PREMISES.
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

RISER
A WATER SUPPLY PIPE THAT EXTENDS ONE FULL STORY OR
MORE TO CONVEY WATER TO BRANCHES OR TO A GROUP OF
FIXTURES.
WATER SUPPLY
RISER DIAGRAM

The layout in
plumbing where the
elevations of pipes
to the points of
utilization are
shown.
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE


THE PIPES WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OR ON THE
PREMISES WHICH CONVEYS WATER FROM THE WATER
SERVICE PIPE OR METER TO THE POINTS OF UTILIZATION.
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

WATER SERVICE PIPE


THE PIPE FROM THE WATER MAIN OR OTHER SOURCES
OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY TO THE WATER DISTRIBUTION
OF THE BUILDING SERVED.
SERVICE TAP CONNECTION
DETAIL
SERVICE TAP CONNECTION DETAIL

CORPORATION STOP/COCK
A VALVE SCREWED INTO THE STREET WATER MAIN TO SUPPLY
TO THE HOUSE SERVICE CONNECTION
GOOSENECK
THE PART OF PIPE CURVED (USUALLY FLEXIBLE). ALSO THE LEAD
CONNECTION BETWEEN A SERVICE PIPE AND WATER MAIN
SERVICE TAP CONNECTION DETAIL

CURB STOP OR CURB COCK


A CONTROL VALVE FOR THE WATER SUPPLY OF A BUILDING,
USUALLY PLACED IN BETWEEN THE SIDEWALK AND THE STREET CURB.
USED TO SHUT OFF THE WATER SUPPLY IN CASE OF
EMERGENCY OR SHOULD THE WATER SUPPLY OF THE BUILDING BE
DISCONTINUED.
METER CONNECTION DETAIL
METER CONNECTION DETAIL

WATER METER
A MECHANICAL DEVICE USED TO MEASURE THE
VOLUME OF WATER PASSING THROUGH A PIPE
METER STOP
A VALVE PLACED AT THE STREET SIDE OF THE WATER
METER AND SERVES AS A CONTROLLING DEVICE FOR THE
BUILDING INSTALLATION
TYPES OF WATER METER

1. DISK TYPE WATER METER


A DISK TYPE WATER METER IS USED FOR MEASURING THE
FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SMALL WATER SERVICES; ALSO
CALLED AS DISPLACEMENT METERS
2. TURBINE METER
A TURBINE METER IS USED IN BUILDINGS WHICH WATER IS
USED IN LARGE AND CONSTANT VOLUME
TYPES OF WATER METER

3. COMPOUND METER
A COMPOUND METER IS A METER THAT UNITES A DISK AND
TURBINE METER IN ONE BODY
MATERIALS USED IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

1. WATER PRESSURE PIPES SHALL BE OF


A. BRASS
B. COPPER
C. CENTRIFUGAL CAST IRON (CCI)
D. DUCTILE CAST IRON (DCI)
E. GALVANIZED WROUGHT IRON
F. GALVANIZED STEEL
G. APPROVED PE
H. PVC
MATERIALS USED IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

2. CAST IRON FITTINGS UPTO AND INCLUDING 51MM DIAMETER IN SIZE,


WHEN USED IN CONNECTION WITH POTABLE WATER PIPING SHALL BE
GALVANIZED

3. PIPINGS AND TUBINGS, WHICH WHERE PREVIOUSLY USED FOR ANY


PURPOSE OTHER THAN FOR WATER SUPPLY SHALL NOT BE USED

4. WATER PIPES AND FITTINGS WITH A LEAD CONTENT OF EIGHT (8)


PERCENT SHALL BE PROHIBITED AND NOT BE USED IN POTABLE PIPING
SYSTEM
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION


1. DIRECT (UPFEED)
2. INDIRECT
A. DOWNFEED OR GRAVITY SYSTEM
B. HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM (AIR PRESSURE SYSTEM)
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

DIRECT (UPFEED)
WATER IS
PROVIDED BY THE
CITY WATER
COMPANIES USING
NORMAL PRESSURE
FROM PUBLIC WATER
MAIN
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
HYDRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
/ AIR PRESSURE SYSTEM
WHEN PRESSURE SUPPLIED
BY THE CITY WATER SUPPLY
IS NOT STRONG ENOUGH.
COMPRESSED AIR IS USED
TO RAISE AND PUSH WATER
INTO THE SYSTEM
DOWNFEED SYSTEM
VENTILATION SYSTEM
VENTILATION

THE PORTION OF THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM INSTALLATION


DESIGNED TO MAINTAIN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WITHIN IT

ARE SYSTEM OF PIPES INSTALLED TO PROVIDE FLOW OF AIR


TO OR FROM DRAINAGE SYSTEM OR TO PROVIDE A CIRCULATION
OF AIR WITHIN SUCH SYSTEM TO PROTECT TRAP SEAL FROM
SIPHONAGE AND BACK PRESSURE
EFFECTS OF INSUFFICIENT VENTILATION SYSTEM

1. TRAP SEAL LOSS


2. RETARDATION OF FLOW
3. DETERIORATION OF PIPES AND FITTINGS
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM
MAIN VENT
THE PRINCIPAL ARTERY OF
THE VENTING SYSTEM TO WHICH
VENT BRANCHES ARE
CONNECTED.
A.K.A “COLLECTING VENT
LINE”.
SERVES AS SUPPORT TO
MAIN SOIL AND WASTE VENT.
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM
MAIN SOIL AND WASTE VENT
THE EXTENSION (TO OPEN
AIR) OF A SOIL OR WASTE STACK
ABOVE THE HIGHEST
HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN.
THE BACKBONE OF THE
ENTIRE SANITARY SYSTEM
THE PORTION WHERE
WASTE DOES NOT TRAVEL
THROUGH
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM
INDIVIDUAL/BACK VENT

A VENT INSTALLED IN A
PIPE TO VENT A FIXTURE TRAP
CONNECTED TO THE VENT
SYSTEM ABOVE THE FIXTURE IT
SERVES
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM

UNIT/COMMON/DUAL/DU
PLEX VENT
AN ARRANGEMENT
OF VENTING SO
INSTALLED THAT ONE PIPE
WILL SERVE TWO TRAPS
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM

RELIEF VENT
A BRANCH FROM
THE VENT STACK,
CONNECTED TO A
HORIZONTAL BRANCH
BETWEEN THE FIXTURE
BRANCH AND THE SOIL
OR WASTE STACK.
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM
CIRCUIT VENT
A GROUP OF VENT PIPE
WHICH STARTS IN THE FRONT OF
THE EXTREME HIGHEST FIXTURE
CONNECTION ON A HORIZONTAL
BRANCH & CONNECTS TO THE VENT
STACK.
A.K.A. LOOP VENT
SERVES TWO OR MORE TRAPS
TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEM

WET VENT
THE PORTION
OF A VENT PIPE
THROUGH WASTE
WATER ALSO FLOWS