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PERIOD PHILLIPINE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IMPACT TO SOCIETY

ADVANCEMENT/BREAKTHROUGHS
I. Ancient Period The Manunggul jar was one of the numerous jars Believed to be a burial site
1. Manunggul Jar found in a cave believed to be a burial site that was
discovered on March 1964 by Victor Decalan, Hans
Kasten and other volunteer workers from the United
States Peace Corps. The Manunggul burial jar was
unique in all respects. Dating back to the late Neolithic
Period (around 710 B.C.),

2. Balangay The Balaghai or Balangay or Butuan Boat is a plank The balangay was used by the people
boat adjoined by a carved out plank edged through during this period from moving
pins and dowels. It was first mentioned in the 16th
Century in the Chronicles of Pigafetta, and is known
as the oldest Pre-Hispanic watercraft found in the
Philippines.
3. Torogan The Igorots built forts made of stone walls that Igorots used this as their fort. Torogan
averaged several meters in width and about two to was a symbol of high social status.
three times the width in height around 2000 BC.
4. Kudyapi The kutiyapi, or kudyapi, is a Philippine three- It is the only stringed instrument among
stringed, fretted boat-lute. It is the only stringed the people of Visayas and Mindanao.
instrument among the Palawano people, and one of
several among other groups such as
the Maranao and Manobo.
5. Palendag Palendag, also called Pulalu is a type of Philippine A flute used by the Filipinos.
Bamboo Flute, the largest one used by the
Maguindanaon.
II. Middle Period As an agricultural society where the Philippines was Aside from providing necessary labor
1. Carabao born out, the carabao holds a special place in the lives for farmers, carabaos are also used as a
of rural farming communities and even considered as mode of transportation.
the National Animal of the Philippines.
2. Horses The first use of horses in warfare occurred over The effectiveness of horses in battle
5,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of was also revolutionized by
horses ridden in warfare dates from Eurasia between improvements in technology, including
4000 and 3000 BC. Europeans used several types of the invention of the saddle, the stirrup,
war horses in the Middle Ages, and the best- and later, the horse collar. Throughout
known heavy cavalry warrior of the period was the history, mules and donkeys as well as
armoured knight. horses played a crucial role in providing
support to armies in the field.

3. Kampilan The Kampilan is a type of single-edged sword, used It was used as a combat weapon back in
on the islands of Mindanao, Visayas and Luzon. A the days.
notable wielder of the Kampilan was Lapu-Lapu and
his warriors, who defeated Spaniards and killed
Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan at the Battle
of Mactan in 1521.
4. Barong The barong Tagalog (or simply baro, but commonly It is usually worn by men during
incorrectly called barong), an embroidered formal weddings, banquets, and other such
garment of the Philippines formal events.

5. Baro’t saya The Baro’t saya (also known as Filipiniana) is an It is usually worn by women during
embroidered dress and is worn by women. The name weddings, banquets, and other such
is a contraction of the Tagalog words barò at saya, formal events.
meaning "dress (blouse) and skirt".

III. Modern Period Locally referred to as a jeepney or jeep, this Jeepneys are stretched long enough to
1. Jeepney interesting-looking vehicle is an affordable mode of accommodate around 15 to 25
Philippine public transport. The history of the iconic passengers, have open ventilation
jeepney bears a resemblance to that of the equally through windows all along their side
iconic Filipino dish, sisig (sizzling chopped parts of and an open backdoor for easy
the pig’s head): both were products of ingenious passenger embarkation and
innovation. Just as sisig was created by making the disembarkation. With designated
most of cheap throw-away cuts of pigs from the US routes, which are usually painted on
Air Base in Pampanga, the jeepney was up-cycled their sides or displayed on their
from leftover U.S. Willy Jeeps used during World windshields, jeepneys stop anywhere
War II. In the early 1950s, jeepneys began making along the way to pick up or let off
their rounds in Manila. Soon, they became a solution passengers
to the post-war public transportation problem.

2. Tricycle Motorized tricycles, or simply tricycles, are an Another popular means of transport in
indigenous form of the auto rickshaw and are a the Philippines, tricycles are used as a
common means of public or private transportation in public utility vehicle either plying a set
the Philippines. It resembles the auto rickshaws of route or for-hire.
India and the tuk-tuks of Thailand and other Asian
countries.

3. Calesa Calesa is the oldest mode of transport that still exists Presently, calesas are used in some
today. It was introduced to the islands of the streets especially in the tourist areas of
Philippines in the 18th century by Spanish colonizers old cities and some rural areas.
and was initially reserved for noble and high-ranking
officials.
4. Motorela A three-wheeled vehicle, it is a smaller version of a Its carriage has two rows that face each
jeepney and is a common mode of transport in small other and can take up eight passengers.
towns and cities. Motorela originated in Cagayan de
Oro City and was invented by Raphael Floirendo in
1964.
5. Pedicab Instead of a motorcycle, pedicab uses a bicycle with a In the Philippines, they are mainly
passenger cab attached to the side. It is known as a used to ferry passengers along smaller,
cycle rickshaw in other countries designed to carry residential streets or often to or from
passengers on a hire basis. The pedicab traces its roots jeepneys or other public utility
to the cycle-rickshaw that was borrowed from Japan, vehicles.
replacing the impractical man-pulled rickshaw. In
Asia, the cycle-rickshaw boom began in the 1920s in
Singapore. Some would believe that the pedicab is the
precursor to the tricycle, but the exact date of the
introduction of both modes of transportation in the
Philippines is unknown.

6. Habal-Habal Known as motorcycle taxis in other parts of the world, It is a common mode of transportation
the habal-habal has extended seats, often sideways but in the mountainous or remote areas of
a T-shaped crossbeam. It also colloquially referred to the Philippines.
as “skylabs”, in reference to the space station
deployed by NASA during the 1970s.
7. Banca Banca boats, also locally known as Bangka, pump It was primarily used by fishermen
boats, baroto, etc., are the primary water before but today, it is used as a faster
transportations of locals in the Philippines. means of transportation. Even resorts
make use of it to ferry guests from port
to resort and back.
8. E-trike A national move to shift to a cleaner, more The e-trike is a battery-powered mode
environment-friendly version of the tricycle has of public transportation that would
surfaced in the past years. The e-tricycle (e-trike) is serve the same purpose as the motorised
seen as the answer to the noisy, energy-wasting and trike but will give more benefits to the
more expensive motorised tricycle. passenger, driver and the environment.