Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Sabzazar Farm

Faisal
MICROSOFT
Page 1 of 12

Contents
1. Green Fodder & Silage ................................................................................................................................. 2
2. Wanda (Concentrates). ................................................................................................................................. 3
3. Vitamin & Mineral premix. .......................................................................................................................... 3
4. Precautionary Measures............................................................................................................................... 4
5. Artificial Insemination at Sabzazar Farm: ..................................................................................................... 5
6. Profitability. .................................................................................................................................................. 5
7. Artificial fertilizer versus cow manure.......................................................................................................... 8
8. Silage versus Green crop. ............................................................................................................................. 8
9. Corn versus Multi-cut Sorghum.................................................................................................................... 8
10. Four Generation Milk Production............................................................................................................. 9
11. Expenses of lactating cow per day. ........................................................................................................10
Page 2 of 12

1. Green Fodder & Silage


Sabzazar Farm recognizes the importance of the provision of fresh green fodder. In summers, the corn
is cut when it has reached the stage of 2/3rd milk line which is used as fodder on a daily basis. In
winters, 2 parts of the Egyptian clover (barseen) is mixed with 1 part of corn silage or fresh corn
forage, or cornstalk which is then used as fodder. It is noteworthy that this type of mixed fodder used
in winters, if available, is recognized as an ideal option all over the world.

Moreover, it may be easily noticeable that a mature corn plant, on the basis of dry matter, is made up
of different parts, which are as follows:

Grain 33 %

Cob 8%

Cob Cover 8%

Leaves 22 %

Stem 29 %

All over the year, Sabzazar Farm prefers the use of 20 % of corn silage as and when required, in the
remaining 60 % of fresh corn fodder and 20 % of fresh Egyptian Clover (barseen). The two main
benefits of this preference as observed at the farm are a healthier cattle, increase in birth rate per year,
increased milk production and aflatoxin-free feed. Due to this, the aflatoxin level in the milk at
Sabzazar Farm is within the international standards required for export.

The reason behind the use of silage in small quantity at Sabzazar Farm as mentioned earlier, i.e. 20 %
as and when required in the green fodder, is twofold. Firstly, as it is a necessity for the European
farmers to have something in stock to feed the cattle because of the shortage of the green crops in
winters due to snowfall and the ideal option available to them is the stocking of silage of summer
crops. This is not the same with Pakistani farmers due to the difference in weather system. Secondly,
big scale dairy farmers in Pakistan who do not have land for the purposes of growing green crops and
have to buy it instead, it is much more feasible for them to buy crops for preparing silage in stock.
Moreover, it is much easier for the management of the farm provide with silage as compared to fresh
fodder. The possibility of silage being infected by fungus in humid and warm climate is more as
compared to colder climate like European weather. The use of antifungal agents also inhibits the
availability of salts used for health of cows.
Page 3 of 12

2. Wanda (Concentrates).
The preferred Wanda (concentrates) used for milking cows at Sabzazar Farm:

Ground Corn with


Ground Corn with Cob 615 kg Cob 665 kg Ground Corn Grains 515 kg

Canola meal 200 kg Soya Bean meal 200 kg Canola meal 350 kg

Goar meal 150 kg Goar meal 100 kg Rice polish 100 kg

Vitamin & Mineral 1 kg Vitamin & Mineral 1 kg Vitamin & Mineral 1 kg

5 kg
Common Salt 5 kg Common Salt 5 kg Common Salt

3 Kg
Neem Seeds 3 Kg Neem Seeds 3 Kg Neem Seeds

0.5 kg
Lysine 0.5 kg Lysine 0.5 kg Lysine

Methionine 0.25 kg Methionine 0.25 kg Methionine 0.25 kg

0.5 kg
Yeast 0.5 kg Yeast 0.5 kg Yeast

20 kg
Bone ash 20 kg Bone ash 20 kg Bone ash

Ground Limestone 5 kg Ground Limestone 5 kg Ground Limestone 5 kg

Total 1000.25 kg Total 1000.25 kg Total 1000.25 kg

It is advisable to state here that out of the abovementioned three formulas the second one which
includes the use of Soya Bean meal, has been observed, to have the most effective results. Despite its
greater expense, the most important benefit of this formula is the increase in milk production and
growth of calves and heifers.

The ingredients used in the formula mentioned above do not remain the same throughout the year. In
Pakistan, from January to May, when the cattle are fed with Egyptian Clover (Barseen) the amount of
grain fed should be increased and the amount of protein source (Meals) fed should be
decreased. However, from June to December, when the cattle are fed with Corn Forage (Fodder) the
amount of protein source (Meals) fed is increased and the amount of grain fed is decreased.

3. Vitamin & Mineral premix.


The preferred formula of Vitamin & Mineral premix at Sabzazar Farm:
Page 4 of 12

Magnesium Sulfate 30 kg

Zinc Sulfate 15 kg

Ferrous Sulfate 15 kg

Selenium Premix 2 % 1.25 kg

Potassium Iodide 0.1 kg

Cobalt 0.125 kg

Vitamin D 0.225 kg

Copper Sulfate 1.6 kg

Vitamin E 1.25 kg

Total 64.55 kg

It should be noted that the separate formula for Vitamin & Mineral Premix is given to illustrate that,
in 1000 kg of Wanda (concentrates) only 1 kg out of the total of 64.55 kg of Vitamin & Mineral
Premix is added. This means that the said 64.55 kg of Vitamin & Mineral Premix can be used for 64
tons of Wanda (concentrate).

It is pertinent to mention here that a feed plant for the preparation of poultry feed was established at
Sabzazar Farm in 1985 and since then the said feed has been prepared at Sabzazar Farm. Moreover,
when dairy was started in 2007 the same plant has also been in use for the preparation of the Wanda
(concentrate) and Vitamin & Mineral premix for the dairy at the Farm.

4. Precautionary Measures.
Precautionary measures for healthy animals taken at Sabzazar Farm:
1. Teet dipping is done after each lactation.
 Formaline is sprayed twice a week in the entire cattle shed which works as an anti-virus.
 Cypermethrine is sprayed after every 15 days on the floors, walls and inside of the roof top of
the cattle shed; this works as an insecticide for removal of ticks.
2. Negovan is used as a bathing acto-parasite for the cattle and is used once a month.
3. De-worming of the cattle is done three to four times a year.
4. Foot and mouth disease vaccination done twice a year.
5. Hoof trimming done once a year.
 3 Kg of grinded Neem Seeds added into one ton of Wanda (Concentrate) which is used
normally as cattle feed, this acts as anti-intestinal disorder. Similar procedure is followed in
poultry feed at Sabzazar Farm, which acts as coxidiostate. The same procedure also helps in
Page 5 of 12

preventing E.Coli, Salmonella and any kind of unknown fever in the cattle. It is supposed to be
anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal.
 Lime is used as a disinfectant to white-wash the water tanks and spread over any wet place that
appears in the cattle shed.
 10 Kg Lime and ½ Kg Ammonium Chloride (noshaader) is mixed in 220 liters of water in a
container and when the lime settles down at the bottom of the container, 1 liter of this water is
then added into 200 liters of drinking water for cattle. This works as a drinking water
disinfectant and prevents intestinal disorder disease in the cattle. Similar procedure is followed
in drinking water for the poultry at Sabzazar Farm.

5. Artificial Insemination at Sabzazar Farm:


1. Expert inseminator is hired.
2. Timing of insemination must be closely observed.
3. Motility of straw is checked using microscope.
4. High statured American Bull semen is selected for insemination of cross-breed cows.
5. Calving ease quality in Sire is selected for heifers.
6. 80 % of the cows conceive within 150 days after giving birth to a calf.
7. Heifer’s pregnancy rate is reported to be 41 % in years 2011 and 2012 with sexed semen i.e 2.5
doses of sexed semen per heifer.
 Cow’s pregnancy rate is reported to be 25 % in years 2011 and 2012 with normal and sexed
semen i.e. four doses for each conception.
8. Pregnancy drugs are sometimes utilized in milking cows.
Insemination is not done between the months of August to November every year, except for repeater
cows to avoid calving from June to August.

6. Profitability.
Profitability of dairy at Sabzazar Farm:
In 2007, Nestle Pakistan introduced imported cows into the dairy industry, but at Sabzazar Farm cross-
breed cows were bought instead. Thereafter, buffaloes at the farm were sold and cows were bought in
return, but in small numbers. This cow herd was being maintained on a test basis in order to determine
the feasibility of maintaining dairy at Sabzazar Farm. Upon visibility of a successful maintenance and
return, around June 2008 all the buffaloes at the farm were sold and only cows were bought, hthe sale
ence, dairy was started on a commercial basis.

Investment made up to date Investment

30th June, 2008 Rs. 38,81,710/-

30th June, 2009 Rs. 65,47,665/-


Page 6 of 12

30th June, 2010 Rs. 69,48,248/-

30th June, 2011 Rs. 74,35,228/-

30th June, 2012 Rs. 62,42,224/-

The process between the abovementioned dates include, the selling of B-grade cows, bulls and male
calves, the buying of A-grade cross-breed cows, the addition of heifers, the sale of milk and the
exclusion of all other expenses i.e. for example feed, labour, insemination, etc. The total that is spent
from 30th of June, 2008 to 30th of June, 2012 is Rs. 62,42,224/-. By comparison, the assets that are
available against the said amount are as follows:
1. 76 milking cows which are mostly pregnant.
2. 16 dry cows which are mostly pregnant.
3. 45 heifers (75 % Friesian) which are pregnant with sexed semen.
4. 15 heifers (75 % Friesian) which are about to conceive.
5. 35 female calves which are 2 to 9 months old.
6. 32 male calves which are 2 to 9 months old.
7. 1 bull aged 3.5 years.
8. 30 acres of corn crop for cows.
9. Approximately 140 ton of silage.
 Machinery which includes: tractor, trawler, scrapper, rotavator, power tiller, semen cylinder,
semen straws, 5 forage cutting machine, etc.
10. Approximate price of total assets?

It must be noted that the yearly profit is no less than 50 % in four years time period mentioned above.
This profit consists of a 20 % margin and 30 % gain. The margin e.g. is a cow purchased for Rs.
2,00,000/- in one particular year, next year the same cow in the same position is worth Rs. 2,40,000/-
i.e. a 20 % margin over the said cow. The gain, e.g. is the income generated through milk production
against all expenses such as cow mortality, insemination, feed, labour, etc, which is 30 %. This does
not include the construction cost.

Summary in percent for June 2011- June 2012, Sabzazar Farm:

Abortion Rate 4%

Culling 10.64%

Mortality 1.32%

Calf Mortality 5.71%


Page 7 of 12

Heifer’s and cow’s confirmation rate with 3


seeds per cow 78.8%

Summary of average herd milk Expenses against milk price for June 2011-June 2012, Sabzazar Farm:

Yearly herd milk average 15.5 kg per day sold at


Rs. 50/kg, total price of milk Rs. 775, feed cost
per cow per day is Rs. 309 39.87%

Labour expenses per day 16.73%

Insemination expenses per day 1.69%

Doctor and Medical expenses per day 2.4%

Diesel for tractor and generator per day 0.96%

Electricity per day 0.28%

Price of mortality of animals per day 0.7%

Miscellaneous per day 1%

Total Expenses against price of milk 63.63%

Dry Animal, heifers, calves’ expenses 19.67%

Milk Profit 16.7%


Page 8 of 12

7. Artificial fertilizer versus cow manure.


In South Punjab, from Okara to Rahim Yar Khan, three crops of maize or two crops of maize and one
crop of Egyptian clover (barseen) can be cropped yearly for cows. The maize crop is ready to eat for
cows in a period of seventy days. Expenses of each crop of corn, including land rent, is approximately
Rs. 47,000 to Rs. 50,000 per crop in three months. The cost of artificial fertilizers from the above
mentioned cost of each crop is Rs. 17,100, as of year June 2012, which comprises 2 bags Diamonium
Phosphate (DAP), 1 bag of Sulphate of Potash (SoP) and 3 bags of Urea. The crop yield approximately
equals 20 tons/acre.

On the other hand, four tractor loads of cow manure plus 2 bags of Urea are required for a single crop
which yields a minimum of 23 to 25 tons/acre. Whereas, the cost is Rs. 5400 which includes the labour
cost for loading and spreading the manure and diesel. Comparatively, there is increase in yield of 3 to
5 tons/acre with return totaling to Rs. 10,000 for the increased yield based upon Rs. 2.50 per kg.
Moreover, also saving an additional amount of approximately Rs. 10,000 for using natural manure
instead of artificial fertilizer, which rounds off to a profit of Rs. 20,000/acre for each crop.

These figures are based upon a 4-year cropping practice used at Sabzazar Farm. The rounded off profit
of Rs. 20,000 per crop are either equivalent to 4 tractor loads of natural manure, one tractor load costing
Rs, 5000 each; or feed 5 cows instead of 4 cows per acre per year.

8. Silage versus Green crop.


A herd of 50 lactating cows gave 750 liters/day of milk with a feed fresh corn forage at two-third
milk line. Later the cow herd was shifted to silage of same crop for 35 days. The milk output
gradually decreases to 690 liters/day. After this period the silage was again replaced with fresh corn
forage and within 3 days the milk increase to 750 liters/day. Moreover, during the silage feeding
period mastitis cases in the herd also increased due to Aflatoxin.

In winters, the milk output increases due to use of 1 part of corn silage with 2 parts of Egyptian
Clover (Barseen) instead of mixing corn stalks or any hay of wheat or rice with Barseen . Fresh
green fodder acts as an anti fungal agent, when mixed with silage .

9. Corn versus Multi-cut Sorghum.


In 2009, the animals were fed multi-cut Sorghum and its cost was Rs. 0.62/kg. Later, this was
replaced with corn crop and its cost was Rs. 1.26/kg. The cow herd fed upon multi-cut Sorghum
produced 440 liters/day which increased to 488 liters/day in 15 days when the forage was replaced
with the same quantity of corn crop. This increase of 48 liters at that time was sold at Rs. 36/liter.

2000 kg of Corn for forage 2000 * 1.26 = Rs. 2520


2000 kg of Multi-cut Sorghum 2000 * 0.62 = Rs. 1240
Additional cost of corn crop Rs. 1288
Daily price of increase in milk 48 kg * 36 = Rs. 1728
Page 9 of 12

Daily loss due to Sorghum forage Rs. 440

10. Four Generation Milk Production.

(From left to right: mother, daughter, granddaughter and great-granddaughter. 31st March, 2013)

Mother: 6th lactation, 50% Friesian * 50% Cholistani, peak production on 2nd lactation = 20 liters,
3rd lactation = 25 liters, 4th lactation = 28 liters, 5th and 6thlactation = 33 liters each.
Daughter: 75% Friesian, peak production on 1st lactation = 21 liters, 2nd lactation = 37 liters, father’s
name: Emerson
Granddaughter: 87.5% Friesian, peak production on 23rd day after birth = 31 liters, father’s name:
Planet
Great-Granddaughter: age = 23 days, 94.25% Friesian, father’s name: Azure (Son of Oman)

(From left to right: mother, daughter, granddaughter and great-granddaughter. 31st March, 2013)

Mother: approximately 10th lactation, 50% Friesian * 50% Cholistani, peak production on 7th lactation
= 25 liters, 10th lactation = 18 liters.

Daughter: Born in 2007, parentage unknown, 3rd lactation, 75% Friesian, peak production on
1st lactation = 20 liters, 2nd lactation = 29 liters, 3rd lactation = 46 liters .
Granddaughter: 87.5% Friesian, peak production on 1st lactation = 33 liters, father’s name: Blitz
Page 10 of 12

Great-Granddaughter: age = 4 months,94.25% Friesian, father’s name: Sharpie


(The process of above examples takes a period of 5 to 5 1/2 years.)

There are several examples of cows whose peak production is 30 liters and above during the
1st lactation period, which increases to 45 liters and above during the 2nd lactation period. The increase
in milk depends upon the dry period; if the dry period is up to 3 months, the milk increase is greater
than if the dry period is below 1 month.

Cow Tag No. 3/10 12/10 13/10 10/10 10/9 5/10 23/10 8/9 7/11 1/10

Milk
Production in
Liters 19.5 24 21 24 20.5 19 34 27 25 27

Cow Tag No. 4/10 15/11 5/11 21/10 18/10 3/11 7/10 13/11 12/11 8/11

Milk
Production in
Liters 19.5 19.5 32 21.5 25.5 28.5 25.5 30.5 23 30

(Single day milk production, 1st lactation, Average production of 20 heifers = 24.82 liters in March
2013)

Cow Tag
No. 9/9 11/9 15/8 11/10 4/8 2/9 2/8 10/8 8/9 5/7 1/10 1/8 4/7

Milk
Production
in Liters 25 29 28 23.5 46 47 24 47 26 34 29 22 42

(Single day milk production, 2nd lactation, Average production of 13 heifers = 32.5 liters in March
2013)

In imported Friesian cow’s milk increase from the first lactation to fourth lactation is approximately
50%, whereas in crossbred cows the milk increase is approximately 100% from first to fourth lactation.
Similarly, the milk increase is greater in cross-bred cows over the generations as compared to pure-
bred cows. Pakistani cross-bred cows are more adaptable to the environment and less prone to diseases.

11. Expenses of lactating cow per day.


June 2008 – June 2013
Purchased = 99, Sold = 170, Expired = 57, No. of Animals at farm = 243 (June 2013).
The animals sold, mainly comprise of male calves, bulls, or non-productive and old cows.
Page 11 of 12

Lactating cows 105

Dry cows 22

Heifers (15 to 24 months of age, mostly


pregnant) 34

Heifers (8 to 12 months of age) 30

Female calves (below 8 months of age) 19

Male calves (below 9 months of age) 11

Male calves (1 to 2 years of age) 21

Bull (Age 4 years) 1

Total number of animals 243

Expenses of lactating cow per day (%) June 2012 – June 2013
Wanda (Concentrate) = 56.29%
Green forage = 20.59%
Miscellaneous (labour, insemination, doctor, medicine, electricity, diesel, mortality) = 23.11%
Total expense per lactating cow per day (Herd average of 365 days) = Rs. 436.80
Cost of 1kg milk = Rs. 28.19
Cost of 1 kg milk from the average herd including dry cows, heifers and calves = Rs. 42.51

Expenses of 0 to 1 year old heifer per day (%)


Wanda (Concentrate) = 20.30%
Forage = 45.75%
Milk = 18.78%
Miscellaneous (labour, doctor, medicine, electricity, diesel, mortality, etc.) = 15%
Total expense per day = Rs. 164.14

Expenses of 1 to 2 year old heifer per day (%)


Wanda (Concentrate) = 0%
Forage = 76.25%
Milk = 0%
Miscellaneous (Labour, doctor, medicine, electricity, diesel, mortality, etc.) = 23.72%
Total expense per day = Rs. 118
Page 12 of 12

a) Insemination expenses are added to the lactating cows’ expenses.


b) The price of a new born calf is nil.
c) The above expenditure does not include the rent or depreciation of the sheds.
d) The salary of the owner is also not included in the expenditure.
e) The cost of production of milk/kg at the farm is Rs. 28.19/kg.
f) 7300 kg of milk is used for domestic purposes per year.
g) The calves (90) consume approximately 40500 kg of milk in a year.
h) The remaining milk was sold to Nestle’ Pakistan during June 2012 to June 2013.
i) The total number of lactating animals by June 2012 was 75 cows. And by June 2013 it increases
to 105 cows.
j) By the end of 2013, and over a period of 5 years commencing from June 2008, the investment
made on the animals was recovered which made them free of any liabilities. And any remaining
liability is in the form of 40 acres of corn crop and machinery. Accordingly the gain and margin
of profit every year is approximately 40 to 45%.

Оценить