Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 73



Standards of high Rise buildings- Indian Standards and Global Standards on
High Rise Buildings;
Introduction to various services; their significance with regards to High Rise
Buildings; Some
examples of Buildings and services used in them A brief on evolution of High
Rise Buildings. Aspects
and Integration of services- Concepts of Intelligence Architecture and Building
Water supply and waste water collection systems- water storage and
distribution systems- Planning
and Design- Selection of pumps- rain water harvesting – Sewage collection
systems and recycling of
water- solid waste disposal . “Some latest Trends Observation, NBC’s
recommendations. in these
areas can be included.
Natural and Mechanical Ventilation systems- Air conditioning systems and load
estimation- Planning
and design for efficiency-Basic concepts- Automation and Energy
Management- concepts. Natural
lighting systems- Energy efficiency in lighting systems- load and distribution-
Planning and Design for
energy efficiency- Automation- basic concepts , Glass and Glazing system for
natural lighting. Types
of elevators, systems and services- Lobby design- Escalators- safety
principles, Some latest Trends,
NBC’s recommendations
Security systems- Access Control and Perimeter Protection- CCTV Intruder
alarms- Passive fire
safety- Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems- Planning and Design- NBC-
Some latest Trends
Case Studies of High Rise buildings and skyscrapers through appropriate
examples- Norman Foster;
Ove Arup; Ken Yeang, etc.

What is a high-rise building

Tall buildings cannot be defined in specific terms just considering their height or the
number of floors
- “a bldg. whose height creates different conditions in the design, construction
and use when compared to common buildings of a certain region and period” –
by CTBUH(Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat)

- “a structure affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake, because of its

height, to such an extent, that they play an important role in the structural
High-rise design comes into play when a structure’s slender nature makes it dynamically
sensitive to lateral loads, such that a premium is associated with its lateral system


 High land cost and limited urban space to match population growth
 Technological advancements – Innovations in structural systems
 Economic growth
 To promote tourism – hotels, commercial city centres, etc. act as distinct landmarks &
prestige symbols
 Increasing demand for business & residential space
 Desire for urban aesthetics – concept of city skyline
 Intense pressure on the available land space
 Increased risk & safety hazards
 An easy target during war or in the event of terrorism
Scarcity of land in urban areas
Increasing demand for business and residentialspace
Economic growth
Technological advancements
Innovations in Structural Systems
Desire for aesthetics in urban settings
Concept of city skyline
Cultural significance and prestige
Human aspiration to build higher

Evolution of high-rise is directly related to the development of Structural systems.

Evolution of Structural Systems

• Resists lateral deformation by joint rotation
• Requires high bending stiffness of columns
and beams
• Rigid joints are essential for stability
• Not effective for heights over 30 stories


• Lateral forces are resisted by axial
actions of bracing andcolumns
• Steel bracing members or filled-in bays
• More efficient than a rigid fram


• Lateral and gravityloads supported

bycentral core
• Eliminates columnsand bracing elements
• Core is inefficientbecause it is not
deepin respect to bending
• Moment supportedfloors are inefficien


• 1-or 2-story deeptruss connects coreto
• Increases thebending rigidity
• Dependent of rigidcore for shearresistance

• Majority of structural elements around the
• Sides normal to lateral load resist bending
• Sides parallel to lateral load resist shear
• Minimize number of interior columns
• Closely spaced exterior columns

Combine advantages of different structural and material systems
Composite material system
Concrete super columns
Steel encased concrete columns
Composite floor system
Steel truss and outrigger System




SKYSCRAPERS – News paper
& FORESTS, India
 Height of buildings
 Road width

 Adequacy of fire fighting facilities
 Distance from the fire station


The skyscraper projects should avail the following :

 Clearance for skyscraper projects to be given by the EAC

(Environmental Appraisal Committee) – the state appraisal committee is aware
of this
 Mandatory disaster drills (mock-up drills) as stressed by EAC by the fire
department at least once a year.
 A NOC from the fire department before the start of construction and before the
occupancy of the building.
 Height Clearance from civil aviation ministry
 The provisions and the guidelines of the State Depts. and National/State
Disaster Management Authority should be strictly followed
 The State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authorities
(SEIAAs) may decide to have more stringent guidelines for projects within their
jurisdiction, if the local circumstances so warrant after a transparent and inclusive
Minimum standards for high-rise buildings is the Seattle amendments to the
International Fire Codes
To improve the fire and life safety of existing high-rise buildings – so that public
health, safety & welfare is promoted

Hazards and design features
When the Fire dept. chief identifies a condition in a high-rise building which
would make fire escape or fire fighting unusually difficult, it will be declared as a
hazard and the owner will be notified of the condition & ordered its correction
in a manner consistent with the minimum safeguards
When there are conflicts in codes & ordinances the one adopted later would
Recent developments -The local fire codes of cities in the US are amended and
the International Fire code 2012 is adopted
CENTRAL STATION – A fire alarm reporting service authorized by the chief to report
alarms to the City’s fire alarm Department
- The chief would approve & train staff to monitor the Fire alarm annunciator
panel & report alarm signals to the fire dept. via 911
- At least one staff to monitor the annunciator panel all 24 hrs. sitting in
direct vicinity of the panel

DEAD END CORRIDOR – A corridor that permits only one direction of travel from
a unit to an exit or which intersects an exit corridor on one end & does not
provide an exit path on the other end. A corridor that has fire escapes
accessible from it is not a dead end corridor

FLOOR USED FOR HUMAN OCCUPANCY – Floors used by people for all uses
including roof garden & active storage area. An area permanently unoccupied &
areas for service equipment do not come under this

HIGH-RISE BUILDING – Buildings more than 75 feet in height above the lowest
level of fire department vehicle access
All exits in high rise buildings will be illuminated as per codes and enclosed with a
minimum of 1hr. fire-resistive construction. Every high-rise will have a minimum of
one such exit. Where existing, exterior fire escapes are used for additional exits they
shall be tested as per code.
Smoke proof enclosure – A high-rise building with a single enclosed exit will
open out to the exterior of the building. The exit shall be smoke proof by
mechanical ventilation or shall be mechanically pressurized by fresh air in an
Exceptions –
 Pressurization may be omitted if the building has an approved automatic
sprinkler system, all corridor openings self-closing, all occupied areas have a
second means of fire escape & omission approved by the chief
Fire escapes
Exterior fire escapes will be accessible & structurally sound at all times
Fire escapes will be load tested every once in 5 years by the owners and the results
submitted in writing to the fire chief. Those that are found structurally unsafe or the ones
that are not required will be removed immediately
Doors - Locked doors or windows are prohibited between public corridors
and fire escapes.
All exit doors in the path of exit travel will be self or automatic closing
and self- latching in accordance to the Code. Doors held open by
fusible links, sliding or vertical doors are prohibited on exit-ways
Stairway doors between floors and roof shall not have locks or shall
automatically unlock whenever a fire alarm is activated in a high-rise bldg.
or in the event of a power failure
If the only locked door in a stairway is the one that leads to the roof –
it may be locked by panic hardware
Egress from stairways - Enclosed stairways serving
- more than 6 floors shall have 2 means of egress from the stairway
- 10 or more floors will have reentry into the bldg. for every 5 floors
Re entry signs shall be posted in the stairway
Dead- end corridors are limited to a length of 75ft. in offices & 30ft. in all
other occupancies. Where such limits are exceeded automatic sprinklers shall
be provided as per fire and building Codes
Any space larger than 140sq.m. shall be separated from building stair
& elevator shaft, air handling shafts by non-combustible smoke resistive
separation and equipped with smoke detectors connected to the
bldg. fire alarm system.
Spaces having approved sprinkler systems & approved smoke control
system including shaft pressurization & automatic smoke removal.
Building spaces that have non-combustible interiors & furniture
throughout (except the carpet)
Spaces that are separated by 1hr. fire rating construction with openings
Protected by 1hr. self-closing doors
All openings that connect 3 or more floors shall be enclosed with a
minimum of 1hr. fire resistive construction


Air moving systems – Air moving systems that serve more than the floor
where they are located shall automatically shut down on any high-rise
fire alarm or shall be provide with a manual shut-down switch located in
the fire alarm panel in the main lobby
Every high-rise will have an electrically operated fire alarm & detection
system approved by the fire chief as follows
• A manual pull station shall be located at every floor exit door except
office occupancy
• The alarm system shall be monitored by a central station
• The alarm system shall be electrically supervised and have battery
emergency power sufficient to operate for 24 hrs. and sound the
alarm for 10 min. at the end of the period
Automatic smoke detection
There shall be an electrically supervised automatic smoke detection in
elevator landings, public corridors and on the corridor or floor side of
each exit stairway. The same shall be provided within 50ft. of building
perimeter walls and at standard spacing to the center of the floor


Building services are the systems installed in buildings to make them comfortable,
functional, efficient and safe.
A building must do what it was designed to do - not just provide shelter but also be an
environment where people can live, work and achieve. Building services are what
makes a building come to life.
They include:
• energy supply - gas , electricity and renewable sources
• water supply , drainage and solid waste disposal
• day-lighting and artificial lighting
• escalators and lifts
• communications, telephones and IT networks
• security and alarm systems
• fire detection and protection
• facade engineering

High-rise building - Building Management Systems

Computer technology and automated systems have been increasingly relied

upon for bettering the functioning of tall buildings.
The Building Management System (BMS) is a centralized control system to
manage the operation of the various building systems like
 fire protection,
 security,
 communication networks,
 elevators,
 HVAC systems, etc.
with incorporated data
collection functions and
also the possibility to
control other more passive
building features such as
window opening and
shading devices.

A Building Management System (BMS) is a computer-based control system

installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and
electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems,
and security systems.
A BMS consists of software
and hardware; the software
program, usually configured
in a hierarchical manner, can
be proprietary, using such
protocols as C-bus, Profibus,
and so on. Recently, however,
new vendors are producing
BMSs that integrate using
Internet protocols and open
standards such as DeviceNet,
LonWorks and Modbus. BMS
offers total building solutions

Total building solutions increases the buildings value and efficiency over its entire
• Saves time as it provides support 24X7 anywhere in the world so that people
can focus on core business
• Comfort by optimizing room & environmental conditions for bldg. users
• Minimizes risks - The security of building users and assets inside the building
is enhanced thro’ predefined scenarios and automation in the event of a
danger. This avoids outages and makes the bldg. more productive.
•Cost reduction – The optimization measures help lower the operating and
energy costs making the building green – a welcome measure from the
customers and general public
•Flexibility – BMS makes the building-use flexible both now and in future as
its structure is modular so that it can be easily customized to meet specific

Concepts of Intelligence Architecture and Building Automation

Intelligent buildings are buildings that through their physical design and IT installations
are responsive, flexible and adaptive to changing needs from its users and the
organizations that inhabit the building during it's life time. The building will supply
services for its inhabitants, its administration and operation & maintenance. The
intelligent building will accomplish transparent 'intelligent' behaviour, have state of the
art memory, support human and installation systems communication, and be equipped
with sensors and actuators.

Building intelligence starts with monitoring and controlling information services
known as Smart Building Automation System (SBAS).
Smart building automation project is an integrated building solution system that
facilitates lighting control, heating, air conditioning (HVAC) and access control to
share information and strategies with an eye to reduce energy consumption,
improve energy efficiency management, provide value-added functionality and
make the building easier to operate.
An integrated system can not only increase energy and operational efficiency, but it
can also provide a level of occupant control unmatched by single-purpose, non-
integrated system

Air flow control: When occupants in the room increase, the thermostat will sense
the increase in the room temperature. Control unit will open its damper allowing
more air to the room, which will cause a drop in the duct static pressure sensed by
the duct static pressure sensor
Temperature and fan control system: When the control unit is not functioning,
the SBAS detects and communicates the ‘OFF’ status of the unit, thus shutting it
down. For example, if the room temperature is fixed at 25 degree Celsius, but the
actual room temperature is 27 degree Celsius,Once the temperature falls below 25
degree Celsius, the SBAS will shut the valve.
Lighting System: The Lighting System can be controlled using motion and
detection sensors that detect occupancy and motion. On/Off switches can be
configured based on pre-defined time schedules. Daylight-linked automated
response systems can also be incorporated in to the system.


High-rise buildings are not only a challenge to build architecturally, but there are
also many other challenging factors that go into each one’s design, such as pumping

Few people ever think about how the water gets to the top floors of these buildings
for everyday living purposes such as drinking, bathing and mechanical uses such as
cooling towers and supplying HVAC equipment.

We should understand that each high-rise building's plumbing design is just as

important as any other aspect of construction.

No matter how big and beautiful the building, it is not habitable without water.

Water systems:

High-rise plumbing usually uses

vertical piping systems in terms of
water distribution

High-rise plumbing has several

specificities in comparison to
other type of buildings

Water supply in tall buildings

need to be boosted to relatively
high pressures in order to
overcome static pressure.


In tall buildings some of the fixtures at the lower level may be subjected to
excessive pressure. The sanitary appliances and fittings in tall buildings shall not be
subjected to greater than 350 kpa. This shall be achieved by one or combination of
the following two methods:

a. Zoning floors by intermediate tanks:

An intermediate tank shall be provided on different floors so that plumbing fixtures
are not subjected to excessive pressure.

b. Using pressure reducing valves:

The excessive pressure suffered by different fixtures shall be minimized by pressure
reducing valves.

Recirculation of cooling water

Recirculation of cooling water and/or waste water from wash basin to the cistern of
water closets and urinals in the lower floor may be provisioned through a separate
tank. No connection between the potable water supply line and the recirculated
waste water line shall be allowed with or without any nonreflex or nonreturn valves.

Water boosted from a Breaker Cistern • Pneumatic Pressure Vessel

Other considerations for water

distribution system
is the building height,
available municipal water pressure,
pressure requirements at different
floor throughout the building and at
the upper floor, flow demand,
booster pump capacity and control,
pipe and valve materials,
• Duplicate Pumps - to provide easier service riser locations, pressure zones,
pressure-regulating stations,
water heater storage capacity and
recovery,water heater locations,
domestic hot water circulation or
pipe temperature maintenance,
space requirements in the building,
economics, energy efficiency, and


1. Single booster system
A water tank is placed in front of the pump system and
filled with water from the mains. This allows the capacity
of the mains to be lower than the building’s peak
demand, ensuring constant pressure even in peak flow
situations. The break tank is filled with water during
low consumption periods and ensures a uniform water
supply to the booster pumps at all times.
The supply system is split into several zones
supplying a maximum of 12 floors each. This ensures
adequate water pressure on all floors without using
pressure relief valves.
The minimum pressure on the upper floor in each
zone is kept at 1.5 - 2 bar. The maximum pressure on
the lowest floor in each zone does not exceed 4 - 4.5

ensure both water pressure and water supply in
case of power failure.
This solution requires pressure reduction valves on
each floor in order to avoid undesired high static
pressures at the tap, which creates unacceptable
noise while tapping.

4. Series-connected systems with intermediate break
draw on several other systems, utilising centrally-placed break
tanks to supply both the taps in its own boosting zone and all
the zones above it. With this system, a building is divided into
smaller and more manageable pressure zones of 12 floors each.
Every zone is then served by its own booster set.

No pressure reduction valves are required and in case of

electrical breakdown the tanks will be able to supply pressure
and water for up to 12 hours. However, the tanks take up
valuable space within the building, reducing the room available
for revenue generation.


Water harvesting in its broadest sense can be defined as the “collection of runoff for its
productive use”.

Runoff may be harvested from roofs and ground surfaces.

Water harvesting techniques which harvest the runoff from roofs or ground surfaces fall
under the term: Rainwater Harvesting,
whereas all systems which collect discharges from the water courses are
grouped under the term: Floodwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) primarily
consists of the collection, storage and subsequent use of captured rainwater as a
supplementary source of water.
Both potable and non-potable applications are possible.

Examples exist of systems that provide water for domestic, commercial, institutional and
industrial purposes as well as agriculture, livestock, groundwater recharge, flood control,
process water and as an
emergency supply for fire fighting.
Different modes of Rain Water Harvesting
The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional technique and the structures used
were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc.
Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rain water harvesting.

The techniques of rain water harvestings can be classified as

•Roof top rain water harvesting system

•Surface runoff rain water harvesting system

• Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting,

conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area – for
beneficial use.
• Storage – in tanks, reservoirs, underground storage-
• Hydrological Cycle

There are two such simple systems.

One is based on a simple manually operated arrangement whereby, the down pipe is
moved away from the tank inlet and replaced again once the first flush water has
been disposed.
In another simple and semi automatic system, separate vertical pipe is fixed to the
down pipe with a valve provided below the T junction. After the first rain is washed
out through the first flush pipe the valve is closed to allow the water to enter the
down pipe and reach the storage tank.
Multi-storied building uses
Percolation Pit with Bore

Construct one unit for 300 sq.ft.

area (approx.)
Construct a chamber of size
1 m x 1m x 1m
A bore hole is to be drilled at
the bottom of the percolation pit
Borehole size 150 - 300mm dia
with 10 - 15 ft. depth (approx.)
Filled with broken bricks/blue
Suitable for clay area

 Rainwater harvesting first of all increases water security.

 It is the perfect solution to meet water requirements especially in the areas which do
not have sufficient water resources.
 It helps in improving the quality of the ground water and increasing the level of the
ground level.
 It also helps in improving the overall floral system.
 It reduces the loss of top layer of the soil.
 If we capture the water directly we need not to depend much on the water storage
 It is the good solution to the increasing water crises.
 Rain water harvesting reduces the flooding on roads and further prevents it from
 And in the last it decreases the menace of floods on regional scale

Soil pipe: A soil pipe is a pipe Through which human excreta flows.
Water Pipe: it is a pipe which carries only the liquid waste. It does not carry human
Vent pipe; it is a pipe which is provided for the purpose of the ventilation of the system. A
vent is open at top and bottom, to facilitate exit of foul gases. It is carried at least one
meter higher than the roof level.
Rain water pipe: it is a pipe which carries only the rain water.
Anti-siphonage pipe: it is pipe which is installed in the house drainage to preserve the
water seal of traps.

A trap is depressed or bent fitting that,
when provided in a drainage system,
always remains full of water, thus
maintaining water seal. It prevents the 1. ‘P’ TRAP
passage of foul air or gas through it, 2. ‘Q’ TRAP
though it allows the sewage or waste 3. ‘S’ TRAP
water to flow through it. The depth of ACCORDING TO USE:
water seal is the vertical distance between
the crown and dip of a trap. The depth of
water seal represents its strength or
effectiveness. Greater the depth of water 2. GULLY TRAP
seal more effective is the trap. The depth 3. INTERCEPTING TRAPS
of water seal varies from 25mm to 75mm. 4. GREASE TRAPS



The waste stack received the discharge
In the system all soil and waste water ablutionary fitments and conveyed this to the
discharge into one common pipe and all ground level where it was delivered above
branch ventilating pipes into one main
ventilating pipe. This system largely the water seal in a trapped gully connected
replaces the two pipe system and lent to the drainage system.The soil stack receives
itself very well to use in multi storey the discharge from soil appliances and
developments. It is far more economical delivered it direct to the underground
than the two pipe system. drainage system.
The waste and soil
water did not
combine until they
reached the below
ground drainage


A large number of sanitary appliances in ranges.

Each trap with an anti-siphon or vent pipe connected to the discharge pipe in direction
of the flow of water at a point between 75 - 450 mm from trap crown.

Vent stack connected to the discharge stack near to the bend to remove compressed air
at this point

The floor of a high-rise building that is dedicated to
where service equipment, utility lines, and various
machinery are located.
An extremely tall building may have multiple
mechanical floors /service floors to accommodate
all of its needs.
High rise buildings need extensive climate control
systems, phone relays, electrical panels, elevator
controls, and other systems to support their
These floors are usually not accessible via regular
elevators and stairwells, because they contain
sensitive systems.
It may be necessary to use service elevators or
stairs, or a special key in a standard building
elevator, to get to the service floor. This limits
access to authorized personnel.

The service floor offers a centralized location for all these systems, which can facilitate
access and maintenance.
This location can reduce losses to floor space in other area of the building.
It also allows the architect to design ventilation systems appropriate to the
environment, a concern with electrical systems, which can get extremely hot while in
Mechanical floors can also include storage of supplies that might be needed by
maintenance personnel, especially for operations on the floor itself.

Considerable care and consideration needs to be given to designing a waste
management system for high-rise buildings.

Due to the large amount of material generated, poor design decisions can have serious
repercussions on the management of the building throughout its lifetime.
Examples of better practice waste management
in high-rise developments are:

Option 1:
Provide room for interim storage of garbage (in
mgbs) and recyclables (in mgbs or crates) on each
floor in an interim storage area.
A caretaker takes garbage and recyclables from
the interim storage area to a communal storage
Mgbs or bulk bins for garbage and recycling used
in a communal storage area, into which waste
Interim storage areas is emptied.
Within the communal storage area, garbage and
recycling may be stored in either bulk bins or
mgbs .

Option 2:

Install a chute system for garbage that leads to a central garbage room at the bottom of
the building.
The chute can empty into either a bulk bin or an mgb carousel. However, there may also
be a requirement for the chute to empty into a compactor
Room for interim storage of recyclables is provided in an interim storage area (which also
houses the garbage chute inlet hopper) on each floor.
A caretaker takes recyclables from the interim storage area to a communal storage area
where recyclables may be stored in either mgbs or bulk bins


Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems play a vital role in
the successful operation of a facility. They are responsible for maintaining comfort
conditions day in and day out.

HVAC systems are of great importance to architectural design efforts for four main

1.First, these systems often require substantial floor space and/or building volume for
equipment and distribution elements that must be accommodated during the
design process.

2. Second, HVAC systems constitute a major budget item for numerous common
building types.

3. Third, the success or failure of thermal comfort efforts is usually directly related to
the success or failure of a building’s HVAC systems.

4. Last, but not least, maintaining appropriate thermal conditions through HVAC
system operation is a major driver of building energy consumption.


•The first step in selecting a HVAC system is to determine and document constraints
dictated by performance, capacity, available space, budgets and any other factors
important to the project.

•This usually starts with a formal meeting with an architect/owner and understanding
his or her requirements.
The choice of an HVAC system, whether central or compact floor-by-floor is a critical
decision required to be undertaken during preliminary or conceptual phase HVAC
systems are available in a wide variety such as:

•Chilled water central system (central systems)

•Direct expansion systems (which are also called compact units or local units or unitary
units of floor by floor units such as heat pump, package, split or roof top units)

HVAC system components may be grouped into three functional categories: source
components, distribution components, and delivery components.

1. Source components provide or remove heat or moisture. This includes refrigeration

chiller for cooling and boiler or hot water generator for heating.

2. Distribution components convey a heating or cooling medium from a source location

to portions of a building that require conditioning. This includes air-handling units (AHU),
fan coil units, radiators etc.

3. Delivery components serve as an interface between the distribution system and

occupied spaces. This includes diffusers, grilles, registers etc.
Most facilities use variations and combinations of a few basic approaches, and their
HVAC systems are frequently described according to how they use air, water or both to
distribute heating and cooling energy to the space; i.e., all-air, all-water or air-water
Systems accomplish cooling and heating by varying the supply air temperature and
keeping the air volume constant.
VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) and VAV with Terminal Reheat system changes the quantity
of air supplied to a zone rather than the temperature of cool air in response to changes in


Mechanical ventilation systems circulate fresh air using ducts and fans rather than relying on airflow
through small holes or crack’s in a home’s wall, roof or windows. Homeowners can breath easier
knowing their home has a good ventilation.
Benefits of using mechanical ventilation:
1. Better indoor air quality –can remove pollutants, allergens, and moisture that can cause mold
2. More control – provide proper fresh air flow along with appropriate locations for intake and
3. Improved comfort – allow a constant flow of outside air into the home and can also provide
filtration, dehumidification, and conditioning of the incoming outside air

Energy management is doing more with the same amount of energy or less energy.

Energy management saves money and makes buildings more comfortable, healthy, and


Proper ventilation is a critical consideration for homes and buildings. Poor

ventilation can cause a buildup in indoor air pollutants like dust, pollen, mold,
and household chemicals.

An efficient and reliable ventilation system works to remove polluted air while
continuously introducing fresh, clean air. While natural ventilation may be a
viable option, there are a number of variables and reliability issues that should
be considered.

Instead, many energy-efficient builders and homeowners opt for the efficacy and
reliability of a mechanical ventilation system such as an energy recovery
ventilator (ERV) or heat recovery ventilator (HRV).

What Is Natural Ventilation?

Natural ventilation can occur through air infiltration or open doors and windows.
Air infiltration occurs most often in less airtight homes as air “leaks” through
small openings and cracks in the building’s envelope.

The practice of opening doors and windows typically provides more adequate
ventilation than infiltration leakage, but still falls short when it comes to optimal
indoor air quality.
The benefits of natural
ventilation include:-
1. Improved Indoor
air quality (IAQ)
2. Energy savings
3. Reduction of
greenhouse gas
4. Occupant control
5. Reduction in
occupant illness
associated with
Sick Building
6. Increased worker

Day lighting is the controlled admission of natural light, direct sunlight, and diffused-
skylight into a building to reduce electric lighting and saving energy.

The components of a day lighting system are designed to bring natural light into a
building in such a way that electric lights can be dimmed or turned off for a portion
of the day, while preventing occupant discomfort or other building loads from
An Integrated Natural lighting System consists of-
Daylight-optimized building footprint
Climate-responsive window-to-wall area ratio
High-performance glazing
Day lighting-optimized fenestration design
Skylights (passive or active)
Daylight redirection devices
Solar shading devices
Daylight-optimized interior design (such as
furniture design, space planning, and room
surface finishes).
Benefits of Natural Lighting
Occupant Satisfaction
Occupant Comfort Principles of Effective Natural Lighting
Occupant Health-Circadian rhythm 1. Orientation of the Building
Time orientation 2. Form of the Building
Colour rendition 3. Glazing Ratio and specifications
Colour Temperature 4. Window Height and location
Reduced electrical load 5. Overhead day lighting
Reduced internal heat gain 6. Daylight Redirection

Types Of Technology
Daylighting is an energy-efficient strategy that incorporates many technologies and
design philosophies. It is not a simple line item, and can vary tremendously in scope and
cost. Many elements of a daylighting implementation will likely already be part of a
building design or retrofit (e.g. windows and light fixtures), but a successful daylighting
system will make use of the following technology types and construction methods:
•Exterior shading and control devices. In hot climates, exterior shading devices often
work well to both reduce head gain and diffuse natural light before entering the work
space. Examples of such devices include light shelves, overhangs, horizontal louvers,
vertical louvers, and dynamic tracking of reflecting systems.

•Glazing materials. The simplest method to maximize daylight within a space is to

increase the glazing area. However, three glass characteristics need to be understood in
order to optimize a fenestration system:
•U-value: represents the rate of heat transfer due to temperature difference
through a particular glazing material.
•Shading coefficient: a ratio of solar heat gain of a given glazing assembly
compared to double-strength, single glazing. (A related term, solar heat gain
coefficient, is beginning to replace the term shading coefficient.)
•Visible transmittance: a measure of how much visible light is transmitted through
a given glazing material.
Glazings can be easily and inexpensively altered to increase both thermal and optical
performance. Glazing manufacturers have a wide variety of tints, metallic and low-
emissivity coatings, and fritting available. Multi-paned lites of glass are also readily
available with inert-gas fills, such as argon or krypton, which improve U-values. For
daylighting in large buildings in most climates, consider the use of glass with a moderate-
to-low shading coefficient and relatively high visible transmittance.
•Aperture location. Simple sidelighting strategies allow daylight to enter a space and can
also serve to facilitate views and ventilation. Typically, the depth of daylight penetration
is about two and one-half times the distance between the top of a window and the sill.
•Reflectances of room surfaces. Reflectance values from room surfaces will significantly
impact daylight performance and should be kept as high as possible. It is desirable to
keep ceiling reflectances over 80%, walls over 50%, and floors around 20%. Of the various
room surfaces, floor reflectance has the least impact on daylighting penetration.
•Integration with electric lighting controls. A successful daylighting design not only
optimizes architectural features, but is also integrated with the electric lighting system.
With advanced lighting controls, it is now possible to adjust the level of electric light
when sufficient daylight is available. Three types of controls are commercially available:
•Switching controls: on-and-off controls that simply turn the electric lights off
when there is ample daylight.
•Stepped controls: control individual lamps within a luminary to provide
intermediate levels of electric lighting.
•Dimming controls: continuouslyARCHANA
electric lighting by modulating the power
input to lamps to complement the illumination level provided by daylight.
Any of these control strategies can, and should, be integrated with a building
management system to take advantage of the system's built-in control capacity. To take
full advantage of available daylight and avoid dark zones, it is critical that the lighting
designer plan lighting circuits and switching schemes in relation to fenestration. The
following figure shows control scheme types.

Control Scheme Types

•Other lighting control schemes. In addition to daylight controls, other electric lighting
control strategies should be incorporated where they are cost effective, including the
use of:
•Occupancy controls: using infrared, ultrasonic, or micro-wave technology,
occupancy sensors respond to movement or object surface temperature and
automatically turn off or dim down luminaries when rooms are left unoccupied.
Typical savings have been reported to be in the 10% to 50% range depending on
the application.
•Timers: these devices are simply time clocks that are scheduled to turn lamps or
lighting off on a set schedule. If spaces are known to be unoccupied during
certain periods of time, timers are extremely cost-effective

Direct solar Illuminance and sky illuminance According to the NBC, the light
received by the earth from the sun consists of 2 parts- Direct solar illuminance and sky

For purposes of daylighting design, only sky illuminance will be considered. The relative
amount of sky illuminance depends upon on the position of the sun defined by its
altitude, which in turn depende on the latitude of the place. The external avilable sky
illuminance values which are exceeded for about 90% of the daytime working hours may
be take as outdoor design illuminance values for ensuring adequacy of the design.

The recommended design by illuminance values are6800 lux for cold climate 8000 lux
for composite climate 9000 lux for temperate climate and 10500 for hot-dry climate For
integration with the artificial lighting during day time working hours an increase of 500
lux in the recommended sky design illuminance for

Design Considerations
The components of a daylighting system are designed to bring natural light into a
building in such a way that electric lights can be dimmed or turned off for a portion of
the day, while preventing occupant discomfort or other building loads from increasing.
For example, direct sun in the eye of a building occupant can cause disability glare,
which interferes with the occupant's ability to see and perform work and should be
avoided. Depending on the building construction and prevailing climate, excessive
window area could also increase the cooling load in summer or accelerate heat loss in
An optimized building footprint is a foundational element of a daylit building design.
Maximizing the amount of south- and north-facing facade area and minimizing east and
especially west exposure allows for the easiest controllable daylight fenestration.
Restricting the floor plate depth (north-to-south) also helps to daylight as much floor
area as possible, as there are practical limitations to how far one can transmit daylight in
sidelighting applications.
As daylight penetration is limited by the siting and facade design, the circuiting of the
electric light fixtures is critical in gauging success of a daylighting strategy. Ideally, the
light fixtures should be circuited in groups, or zones, that relate to the predominant
daylight distribution in the space. In general, the first 10 to 15 feet from the building
perimeter receives adequate daylight illumination to allow for light dimming or
switching. By zoning the lighting accordingly, there's a greater chance of ensuring
maximum dimming of the lights.
Additionally, it is important for the daylighting design process to involve the integration
of many disciplines including mechanical, electrical, and lighting. Design team members
need to be brought into the process early to ensure that daylighting concepts and ideas
are carried throughout the project.
1.Awareness of basic visual acuity and performance issues is essential to an effective
daylighting design, including:
•Veiling reflections. Veiling reflections of high brightness light sources off
specular, or shiny, surfaces obscure details by reducing contrast. They should be
avoided, particularly where critical visual tasks occur.

•Distribution.Introduce as much controlled daylight

as deep as possible into a building interior. The
human eye can adjust to high levels of luminance as
long as it is evenly distributed. In general, light
which reaches a task indirectly (such as having
bounced from a white wall) will provide better
lighting quality than light which arrives directly from
a natural or artificial source.
•Glare. The aim of an efficient daylighting design is not only to provide illuminance
levels that are sufficient for good performance, but also to maintain a comfortable
and pleasing atmosphere. Glare, or excessive brightness contrast within the field
of view, is an aspect of lighting that can cause discomfort to occupants. The human
eye can function quite well if extreme levels of brightness are present in the same
field of view.
•Variety. Some contrast in brightness levels may be desirable in a space for visual
effectiveness. Dull uniformity in lighting can lead to tiredness and lack of
attention-neither of which is compatible with a productive environment. Often, a
good daylighting solution will integrate a "blast" of beam daylight in a circulation
area for visual interest and to help lead occupants through a building. The human
eye is naturally attracted to this bright area and can be useful in guiding people
down an otherwise dull corridor.
2.Good daylighting requires attention to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of
design. Make sure the combination of natural and artificial sources provides adequate
light levels for the required task.
•The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) publishes an industry standard method
for determining recommended illuminance levels (expressed in units of
footcandles) for various tasks.
•For office spaces, the U.S. General Services Administration has interpreted the IES
method to recommend a minimum of 50 footcandles on an imaginary desk-height
horizontal "work surface." Nevertheless, when used in conjunction with an indirect
ambient lighting system and direct task lighting, a high-quality daylighting design
can be achieved with ambient lighting levels of 30 footcandles or less.
3.To be effective, daylighting must be integrated with electric lighting design. In
particular, daylighting must be coupled with efficient electric lighting controls if net
energy savings are to be realized. As part of a daylighting design, consider the use of
continuously dimming fixtures controlled by luminous sensors.

What is Energy Efficient Lighting?

Lighting is necessary for visibility of objects in dark places or situations. Efficiency refers to how
well the light is produced for a given input power.
In conventional lamps like incandescent and gas discharge lamps, most of the electricity is
wasted in terms of heat and also since ballast requires high voltage at the time of starting these
consumes more power.
Energy Efficient Lighting

Energy efficient lighting includes the use of more illumination from less power lights by replacing
high power consumption lights like incandescent, high discharge lamps, etc. This is also used in
various control technologies like GPRS or GSM or SCADA based controls. It is also replacing
high power lighting accessories by low power devices such as electronic ballasts, fixtures, etc.

Electric lighting is a major energy consumer. Enormous energy savings are
possible using energy efficient equipment, effective controls, and careful design. Using
less electric lighting reduces heat gain, thus saving air-conditioning energy and
improving thermal comfort.

Electric lighting design also strongly affects visual performance and visual comfort by
aiming to maintain adequate and appropriate illumination while controlling reflection
and glare.
Lighting is not just a high priority when considering hotel design; it is also a highreturn,
low-risk investment. By installing new lighting technologies, hotels can reduce the
amount of electricity consumed and energy costs associated with lighting.

There are several types of energy efficient lighting and affordable lighting technology.
The following are a few examples of energy-saving opportunities with efficient lighting.

Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating,
ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building
management system or building automation system (BAS). The objectives of building
automation are improved occupant comfort, efficient operation of building systems,
reduction in energy consumption and operating costs, and improved life cycle of
Building automation is an example of a distributed control system – the computer
networking of electronic devices designed to monitor and control the mechanical,
security, fire and flood safety, lighting (especially emergency lighting), HVAC and
humidity control and ventilation systems in a building

BAS core functionality keeps building climate within a The advanced

specified range, provides light to rooms based on an functionality provided
occupancy schedule (in the absence of overt switches to the by the control system of
contrary), monitors performance and device failures in all a building
systems, and provides malfunction alarms to building
maintenance staff. E.g., security & access
control, fire detection &
A BAS should reduce building energy and maintenance costs alarms, HVAC, lighting
compared to a non-controlled building. Most commercial, control, air quality,
institutional, and industrial buildings built after 2000 include smoke detection,
a BAS. Many older buildings have been retrofitted with a intrusion detection,
new BAS, typically financed through energy and insurance environmental control,
savings, and other savings associated with pre-emptive asset location
maintenance and fault detection management
A building automation system generally consists of the following five
The controllers are the components that gather the data from the system’s
sensors and determine how the system should respond. Think of the controllers
as the building automation system’s brain.
The sensors are the devices that collect data throughout your building, from
temperatures and humidity, to CO2 output and even room occupancy.
Output Devices
Once the controllers have gathered the data and determined what course of
action your system should take, the commands are carried out by the system’s
output devices, such as the relays and actuators.
Communication Protocols
Communication protocols refer to the language used by the various components
of the building automation system to communicate with one another
User Interface
The user interface is how you would interact with the building automation system
by monitoring the data reported as well as accessing systems remotely to
change settings if desired. The user interface is generally accessible remotely via
a mobile device such as a smartphone, tablet or laptop.

Reasons to Implement a Building Automation System

Building automation systems are growing in use even though the initial costs
may cause some hesitation on first glance. However, once the benefits of the
investment come clear, implementing a building automation system often
becomes a no-brainer. Especially for owners of larger buildings, such as
warehouses, office buildings, schools and government buildings.

The three main benefits that a building automation system will provide:

Reduce Building Expenses

Building owners can expect to save a substantial amount of money over the
long run with a BAS. Building automation systems especially help save
on utility bills, including energy costs:
•A building automation system can predict the building or room occupancy by
gathering data about the demand for lighting, heating or cooling. It can then
meet that demand more effectively by dialing back the output when demand is
lower. Even this basic occupancy range monitoring function can cut energy
usage by as much as 10 to 30 percent. For larger buildings, that could amount
to thousands of dollars.
•A building automation system can sync up with the outdoor environment. For
example, during the summer and spring, there’s more daylight. A building
automation system can adjust the lighting in areas where daylight is coming in to
reduce the use of unneeded energy.
•A building automation system can report failures within building features
immediately. Without such notification, you could go days or longer without
realizing something was wrong.
•Because a building automation system helps to optimize the operations of a
building’s facilities, it can extend the lives of your equipment. This reduces the
potential maintenance and replacement costs.
The amount of money you can save due to these functions will typically offset the
installation and implementation of the building automation system within a
short time!

Improve Comfort and Productivity

By improving the control of your indoor environment, you’ll have more control over
the comfort of the building’s occupants. Not only will the building be heated and
cooled more effectively and efficiently, air ventilation and quality will improve as
well, which is likely to have a big impact on the productivity of employees or
Studies have shown that better air quality and improved comfort can have a direct
impact on the bottom line of a business. Employees and students will take fewer
sick days and increase individual productivity.

Reduce Environmental Footprint

Because a building automation system reduces energy usage, its implementation

will immediately make your building more environmentally friendly. By
reducing energy consumption, you will reduce your building’s output of greenhouse
gases. This is one of the reasons air quality will improve.

Glazing provides natural daylight but also allows unwanted summer solar gains and
winter heat losses.
The larger the windows the more daylight and solar gain will enter - but the larger
the heat losses will be.

Recommended glazing ratios are generally between 25- 50% of the external wall of
the daylight space (Duxbury, 2013).

The optimum glazing ratio may vary due to individual factors such as orientation,
location, obstructions (View of sky) and activity/user requirements.

The type of glazing has a direct influence on thermal performance and daylight

Triple glazing gives greater thermal comfort because its internal temperature is
closer to the internal air conditions.

Triple glazing, tinted or reflective glass can result in reduced daylight levels


•A low-rise building might be described as one where the able bodied do not need a
lift to reach their floor, but, if one is available, they invariably use it. This would imply a
building of three to five floors.
•A mid-rise building is one where there may be eight to 10 floors and the lift becomes
essential, in order for occupants to use the building.
•A high-rise building might be one which contains 15-16 floors and may be equipped
with lifts serving two zones.

•Tall buildings might be defined as those buildings over 30-40 floors high. This height
can be related to nature, as the tallest tree ever measured was 132.6 meters.

•Generally, if service can be provided from the access level (main terminal floor) to
every floor in the building, this is a tall building.
•A building could be called very tall, once shuttle lifts serving sky lobbies are required.
Fortune (1997) defines a tall building as a "skyscraper," i.e., "A high-rise building with
more than one zone of elevators," and a very tall building as a "mega-high-rise
building," i.e., "A building with one or more sky lobbies and in excess of 75 floors."

Elevators in high rise buildings

Tall high rise buildings are tremendously influenced in their core dimensions
by the number and layout of the elevators.

High rise buildings, where elevators, starting at ground floor, can serve all
other floors and we know high rise buildings where the people, to reach the
upper floors have to transfer from an express group to an regional elevator

The comfort is higher at high rise buildings, where all floors are reachable from
ground floor without transfer.

Due to an increasing travel height the handling capacity will be reduced, in

consequence that for the upper areas of high rise buildings more and more
elevators are required.

Limits of these elevator layout are costs and the needed large hoist way areas
at the entrance level.

•Passenger lifts - Designed to carry persons.

•Hospital lifts – used in hospitals to carry a stretcher, with attendant.

•Service lifts (dumb waiter) – small and used exclusively to carry goods or food
with the serving level usually above the floor.

•Goods lifts – serves primarily to transport materials, but may carry an


•Platform lift – used for transporting materials on a platform or floor; unlike a

car, it has neither sides nor door.

•Fireman’s lifts

•An elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves
people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel or other

• Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction
cables or counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a
cylindrical piston like a jack.

•A passenger elevator is designed to move people between a building's floors.

•Passenger elevators capacity is related to the available floor space.

•Generally passenger elevators are available in capacities from 1,000 to 6,000

pounds (450–2,700 kg) in 500 lb (230 kg) increments.

• Generally passenger elevators in buildings eight floors or less are hydraulic or

electric, which can reach speeds up to 200 ft/min (1.0 m/s) hydraulic and up to
500 ft/min electric.

• Sometimes passenger elevators are used as a city transport along with



•The lift lobby should be designed appropriately since this has bearing on the
traffic handling especially when more number of lifts are involved.

•In a dual line arrangement (lifts opposite to each other) the lobby can be
between 1.5 times to 2.5 times the depth of one car.

•Typically, the more the number of lifts the bigger the multiple to be used.

•For in-line (single line) arrangements, the lobby can be typically half of
the above recommendations.

•It is preferable that the lift lobby is not used as a thoroughfare but in such
cases the lift corridor shall take into account space for people who are

•The architect/engineer should advise the lift manufacturer, if the Authority has
any special requirements regarding lifts in buildings in the administrative area


To optimize the energy performance of an electro-hydraulic type lift, the designer could
consider the following:

•Efficient drive systems such as frequency controlled hydraulic drives

•Digital control of electronic valves

•The use of lightweight materials for lift car superstructure finishes.

•No over design of lift car and frame

•No over sizing of lift motor or pump

•Use of mechanical anti creep device rather than an electric one


It is the latest in elevator technology and will used by thousands of people every

China is currently building the world’s tallest skyscraper. The Shanghai Tower will
stand 2,073 feet high, or 128 stories.

To shuttle passengers to the sky, Mitsubishi has the contract to build 106
aerodynamic elevators unlike anything the world has ever seen.

These elevators will travel at a rate of 3,281 feet per minute, more than twice as
fast as those at the World Trade Centre.

And there will be no need to stop at a sky lobby to break up the trip that was
necessary in the WTC.

Ultra-high-speed elevators require the latest technology in both mechanics and

personal comfort.

Use of super high-rise cable mechanics and safety along with …. technicalities like
“advanced plunger” and “exceptional shock absorption.”

Lifts were designed to ensure that riders won’t leave their lunch on the 50th floor
or have their eardrums explode.

Inside each car the air pressure will be controlled to avoid erupting earaches due to
rapid changes in altitude.

NBC – 2005
Building codes are a series of ordinances enacted by a state or local governmental
entity, establishing minimum requirements that must be met in the construction and
maintenance of buildings”


Ensure public health and safety throughout a building.

Most have come into play “after-the-fact” as a learning experience from a major

They are primarily concerned with

Construction requirements
Hazardous materials or equipment used in the building
75% of all codes and standards deal with fire
Energy conservation Accessibility

A building code is a document containing standardized requirement for the design &
construction of most types of building. Codes regulate building construction &
building use in order to protect the health, safety & welfare of the occupant.

The National Building Code of India (NBC), (a comprehensive building

Code), is a national instrument providing guidelines for regulating the building
construction activities across the country.

It serves as a Model Code for adoption by all agencies involved in building

construction works be they Public Works Departments, other government
construction departments, local bodies or private construction agencies

The Bureau of Indian Standards was established with the objective of harmonious
development of standardization activity in India.

The first version of the NATIONAL BUILDING CODE was published in 1970. Since the
publication in 1970 version of the NATIONAL BUILDING CODE a large number of
comments and useful suggestions for modifications and additions to different parts
and sections of the code were received.

The revised version of NATIONAL BUILDING CODE of India was therefore, brought out
in 1983

Based on the changes effected in the:
• Steel Code, • Masonry Code • Loading Codes • to update Fire Protection

It is the third revision compiled under the aegis of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
It provides guidelines for regulating building construction activities across the country.
It has the basic codes for construction materials, services, systems and processes


• The development control rules and general building requirements for proper planning
and design at the layout and building level to ensure health safety, public safety an d
desired quality of life.
• Provides provisions for covered area, plinth area, FAR, amenities, land use
classification, height/ size of rooms, kitchens etC


It covers the requirements for fire prevention, life safety in relation to fire, and fire
protection of buildings. The code specifies planning and construction features and fire
protectio n features for all occupancies that are necessary to minimize danger to life
and property.
The code categorizes the buildings as follows:
Group A - Residential
Group B - Educational
Group C - Institutional
Group D - Assembly
Group E - Business
Group F - Mercantile
Group G - Industrial
Group H - Storage
Group J – Hazardous

BUILDING MATERIALS It covers the requirements of building materials and

components, and criteria for accepting new or alternative building materials and

STRUCTURAL DESIGN This part through its seven sections provides for:
• structural adequacy of buildings to deal with both internal and external environment,
• provide guidance to engineers/ structural engineers for varied usage of material/
technology types for building design.

Steel It covers the use of structural steel in general building construction including the
use of hot rolled steel sections and steel tubes
• The constructional practices in buildings;
• storage, stacking and handling of materials and
• safety of personnel during construction operations for all elements of a building and
demolition of buildings.

The objective can be best achieved through proper coordination and working by the
project management and construction management teams

BUILDING SERVICES This part through its five elaborate sections on utilities
provides detailed guidance to concerned professionals/ utility engineers for meeting
necessary functional requirements in buildings.

LIGHTING AND VENTILATION It covers requirements and methods for lighting and
ventilation of buildings


• The essential requirements for electrical installations in buildings to ensure efficient
use of electricity including safety from fire and shock.
• General requirements relating to lightning protection of buildings.


• The design, construction and installation of air conditioning and heating systems and
• equipment installed in buildings for the purpose of providing and maintaining
conditions of air temperature, humidity, purity and
• Distribution, suitable for the use and occupancy of the space


It covers, requirements and guidelines regarding planning against noise, acceptable
noise levels and the requirements for sound insulation in buildings with different


It covers the essential requirements for the installation, operation, maintenance and
also inspection of lifts (passenger lifts, goods lifts, hospital lifts, service lifts and dumb-
waiter lifts) and escalators so as to ensure safe and satisfactory performance

PLUMBING SERVICES This part through its two sections gives detailed guidance to
concerned professionals/ plumbing engineers with regard to plumbing and other
related requirements in buildings
Management) It also covers
• The design, layout, construction and maintenance of drains for foul water, surface
water and subsoil water and sewage;
• Together with all ancillary works, such as connections, manholes and inspection
chambers used within the building and from building to the connection to a public
sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-disposal system, cess-pool, or to other
approved point of disposal/ treatment work.
• It further includes the provisions on solid waste management.


Inclusion of a complete philosophy and direction for successfully accomplishing the

building projects through integrated multidisciplinary approach right from conceptual
stage through planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance stages.
• A series of reforms in building permit process.
• Provision for ensuring safety of buildings against natural disaster& certification of
structural sufficiency by engineer & structural engineer.
Permission of two stage permit for high rise residential and special buildings.
• Provision for periodic renewal certificate of occupied buildings from structural, fire,
electrical, health safety point of view
• Provision for empowering engineers/architects for sanctioning plans for residential
buildings up to 500 sqm.
• Revision of parking requirements for metro & mega cities. (mega cities are metros
with population more than 50 lacs)
• Up gradation of special requirements for low income housing for urban areas.
• Inclusion of special requirements for low income housing for rural habitat planning
• Inclusion of latest provisions for earthquake resistant design & construction
• Inclusion of details on multi-disaster prone districts
• Chapter on pre-fabricated & composite construction for speedier construction
• Up gradation of provision of safety in construction.
• Complete revision of provision on building & plumbing services in line with
applicable international practices.
• Provision on Rain Water Harvesting
• Inclusion of new chapter to cover landscaping needs

Codes set the minimum criteria. You can follow stricter requirements at any time. They
are not always perfectly clear. When two requirements are similar, go with the strictest
requirement Not all of them will apply to every design situation. Work with the code
official to resolve discrepancies.

Security systems- Access Control and Perimeter Protection

Perimeter Security and Access Control systems protect the external perimeter of a
facility, control access to restricted areas, and detect and monitor anomalies. Access
control includes the control of persons, vehicles, and materials through entrances and
exists in a controlled area or premises.

Perimeter detection, in contrast, is the detection of access to the outer limits of a

detection area by means of physical barriers, sensors on physical barriers, or exterior

A Complete Range Of Perimeter Protection Solutions:

Automobile barriers and access systems
Personnel access systems
Card-based and Biometric access
K-rated gates
Fiber-based security fences
Photo-electric solutions
Outdoor video surveillance and recording
Monitored alarm systems
Ground-based radar systems
Maritime-based systems
Solutions to meet Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

Building safety and security management, the focus has shifted toward premptive
security and safety measures like structural fire protection. When you identify the
risks, you will be better equipped against them.

Versatile services and well-functioning systems contribute to a high level of security

and safety. We provide security and safety advisory services to ensure good overall
security and safety management.

Regular maintenance ensures functionality

Good and regular maintenance ensures that the security and safety systems of a
building or facility operate as they should. In security and safety matters, one must be
sure that the systems are operational and that they can be monitored.

Increased security with access control
A properly implemented access control system enhances business security. It prevents
unauthorised access to business premises while allowing access to employees and
other authorised persons. We can integrate access control system to other automated
building systems, such as lighting, air-conditioning and lift control systems.

Automatic control reduces the energy consumption of the property as equipment and
devices are not running unnecessarily while the premises are empty.

CCTV (Closed-circuit television) monitoring is essential in ensuring the security

of a property. Having CCTV cameras or even signs that warn about CCTV monitoring in
visible places prevents vandalism and burglary.

CCTV monitoring can also improve the safety of the people working in the premises.
Typical CCTV-monitored premises include lobbies, entrances, IT rooms, loading bays
and parking lots.

When making plans for a CCTV monitoring system, one has to take into account the
technical requirements in terms of lighting and other conditions as well as the
relevant regulation.

Energy efficiency and cost savings by automation

Automation has great importance for energy efficiency, since it makes it possible to
control the property and the conditions prevailing in industrial plants. Automation is
the brain that controls and regulates all the circumstances.

The most critical automation decisions are made at the design phase, including in
there modernisation and repair phase, in which automation should be focused on as
it has great importance for energy efficiency, cost savings and firewall & data safety

By the help of an automation system, we or our clients can manage, for example,
HVAC control systems, energy consumption control, access control and fire alarm
systems via a single integrated interface.

Security Threats
Security threats in tall buildings may be grouped into three broad categories:


Theft and burglary in particular, from private spaces, car parks, and delivery

Property damage including graffiti and sabotage, most likely in common areas or
car parks, may be politically motivated. Offenses against persons including general
violence, domestic violence, elevator assaults, and confrontations in common
areas, including angry interchanges with doormen or receptionists.

Unauthorized access to utilities including theft of telecommunications or electricity,

with the possibility of commercial espionage.


Behavioral issues including drug dealing from the building, hostage-taking,

trespassing, suicide risks, protests, and drunk or drug-affected behavior.


Human-caused or related crises including fire, infrastructure and elevator failures,

electricity blackouts, biochemical attacks, terrorist attacks.

Natural disasters including severe weather events such as earthquakes, floods,

tsunamis, hurricanes, tornados, and snowstorms.

The accepted security approach is to identify a location’s security threats or risks and
then put in place measures to prevent those incidents. Some events cannot be

Many of the security threats faced in tall buildings are the same as ground-level
buildings or campus-style locations. However, tall buildings have specific characteristics
that influence the threats they face. In particular, a tall building:

Has limited entries and exits (making Has vital utilities concentrated in a service
evacuation more difficult). core (making it easier for offenders to find
and disturb telecommunication links).
Requires the use of elevators (lengthening
response times for security teams). Houses large numbers of people (enabling
offenders to blend in with tenants)
Passive fire protection (PFP) is an integral component of the components of
structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain
fires or slow the spread, such as by fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors. PFP
systems must comply with the associated listing and approval use and
compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes.

The aim for fire protection systems is typically demonstrated in fire testing the ability
to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 °C (for walls,
floors and electrical circuits required to have a fire-resistance rating) or ca. 550 °C,
which is considered the critical temperature for structural steel, above which it is in
jeopardy of losing its strength, leading to collapse.


Fire-resistance rated walls

Firewalls not only have a rating, they are also designed to sub-divide buildings such
that if collapse occurs on one side, this will not affect the other side. They can also be
used to eliminate the need for sprinklers, as a trade-off.
Fire-resistant glass glass using multi-layer intumescent technology or wire mesh
embedded within the glass may be used in the fabrication of fire-resistance rated
windows in walls or fire doors.
Fire-resistance rated floors
Occupancy separations (barriers designated as occupancy separations are intended to
segregate parts of buildings, where different uses are on each side; for
instance, apartments on one side and stores on the other side of the occupancy
Closures (fire dampers) Sometimes firestops are treated in building codes identically to
closures. Canada de-rates closures, where, for instance a 2-hour closure is acceptable
for use in a 3-hour fire separation, so long as the fire separation is not an occupancy
separation or firewall. The lowered rating is then referred to as a fire protection rating,
both for firestops, unless they contain plastic pipes and regular closures.
Spray fireproofing (application of intumescent or endothermic paints, or fibrous or
cementitious plasters to keep substrates such as structural steel, electrical or
mechanical services, valves, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vessels, vessel skirts,
bulkheads or decks below either 140 °C for electrical items or ca. 500 °C for structural
steel elements to maintain operability of the item to be protected)
Fireproofing cladding (boards used for the same purpose and in the same applications
as spray fireproofing) Materials for such cladding include perlite, vermiculite, calcium
silicate, gypsum, intumescentepoxy, Durasteel (cellulose-fibre reinforced concrete and
punched sheet-metal bonded composite panels),

A FIRE is a voluntarily advancing process:
Combustion of one or more inflammable materials & releasing energy
•Fire is a chemical reaction between oxygen and carbon (or even hydrogen and carbon)
in which heat and light energies are also released.
•Combination which may be defined as a chemical reaction of rapid oxidation
accompanied with evolution of light & heat.
Fuel + heat energy + oxygen/ air = fire

•Three basic elements - producing fire:

Presence of FUEL VAPOUR.
Presence of oxygen .
Presence of heat/ source of ignition.
•This combination causing combustion is referred as fire triangle and illustrated in
adjoining figure.

There are three fire extinguishing methods :

Starvation :- by removing fuel from fire.
- By cutting of fuel supply
[ Most effective for gas fire ]
Smothering :- blanketing of fuel by coating material,
- by inserting of gas,
steam/vaporizing liquid
Cooling : -natural cooling ( water spray is the
most commonly used)
[ effective for oxidizing chemicals, tank
fires, etc.,]
Breaking chain reaction – fourth method

Class A Fires. Fires in ordinary combustible materials,
such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and
many plastics.

Class B Fires. Fires in in-flammable liquids, combustible

liquids, petroleum greases, oils, oil-based
paints, solvents, and
flammable gases.
Class C Fires. Fires that involve GAS & energized
electrical equipment where the
electrical non conductivity of the
extinguishing media is of importance. (When electrical
equipment is de-energized, fire extinguishers for Class A or Class B
fires can be used safely.)
Class D Fires. Fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium,
sodium, and potassium.

Types of Fire Extinguisher:

1) DCP Extinguisher

DCP Extinguisher is of 5 kg & 10 kg capacity gas cartridge type, and of 25 & 50

kg capacity trolley mounted type.
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B,C &D
DCP Extinguisher contains sodium bi carbonate as extinguisher media.
(white colour) Duration time is around 1 min.

2) C02 Extinguisher

CO2 Extinguisher is of 2.0 kg, 4.5 kg & 9 kg capacity and of 22.5 kg capacity
trolley mounted type.
This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B & C
CO2 Extinguisher contains Carbon Di-oxide as extinguisher media.
Duration time is around 25 to 60 sec..

3) ABC Extinguisher

Generally available in 5Kg

This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class A, B & C
Nitrogen Gas is filled at 15 kg/cm2 pressure on Light Yellow DCP.
Duration time is around 45 to 60 sec..

4) Mechanical Foam Type

Generally available in 9 lit & 50 lit

This type of Extinguisher is suitable for Class B. Synthetic Foam is filled in it.
CO2 Gas Cartridge is fitted for operation.


FO Storage Tank
Melting Furnace & Molten Metal
Welding Operation
Gas Cutting Operation
Diesel Drums
Oil Spillage
LPG Cylinder

Electrical hazards are the cause of numerous workplace fires each year. Faulty
electrical equipment or misuse of equipment produces heat and sparks that serve as
ignition sources in the presence of flammable and combustible materials.
Examples of common ignition hazards:
overloading circuits
use of unapproved electrical devices
damaged or worn wiring

Extension cords
Extension cords are only approved for temporary use. They may only be used for
a period of three days or less. Instead of using extension cords contact FP&M to
install permanent wiring.
Never place extension cords in high traffic areas where they can be damaged by
being stepped on or run over by equipment.

Multi-plug strips
Should only be used for office equipment such as computers, printers, and fax
Other common items such as microwaves, refrigerators, and copy machines
must be plugged directly into wall outlets. This is a requirement of the State Fire

1. Standards of High Rise Building

A multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown

height from 12–39 floors." According to thebuilding code of Hyderabad, India,
a high-rise building is one with four floors or more, or 15 to 18 meters or more in


Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating,

ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building
management system or building automation system (BAS).

The objectives of building automation are improved occupant comfort, efficient

operation of building systems, reduction in energy consumption and operating
costs, and improved life cycle of utilities.


The concept of intelligent architecture started as an interest in the latest

integrated building systems operating a single building or facility, so that systems
can communicate and exchange information.

The communication among these systems allows the right responses and
decisions to operate buildings in a productive, economical and convenient way.


Roped Hydraulic Residential Elevators.

Pneumatic Vacuum Elevators for the Home.
Traction Drive Elevator Systems.


energy management deals with already existing sources and actual consumption.
It includes planning and operation of energy-related production and consumption

The main objectives of energy management are resource conservation, climate

protection and cost savings.

Intruder alarms detect attempted intrusion or unauthorised entry into a building,

room, site or secure installation and trigger a response.

Well-fitted and maintained intruder alarms can make organisations and individuals
less likely to become victims of burglary, vandalism and other forms of attack


A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn
people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or
other emergencies are present.
Conventional Fire Alarm
Addressable Fire Alarm


Norman foster – 30 St Mary Axe, London

Canton Tower – Arup Designs

9. Recycling of water in a building

recycled water is the process of converting wastewater into water that can
be reused for other purposes. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens and
agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater

The water recycling process utilizes very basic physical, biological and chemical
principles to remove contaminants from water. Use of mechanical or physical
systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment.

10. Evoloution of high rise

The cost of land creates effect that raises the per-floor cost of a buildingof a given
height and creates the incentive to build taller buildings to spread the land cost over
a larger number of floors.

Lower rates of interest also reduce the cost of capital which facilitates the desire to
build taller.

11. Four Factor influencing the high rise building

12. Chute in the building and its effiency

A chute is a vertical or inclined plane, channel, or passage through which objects are
moved by means of gravity.
The chute is a fabric (or occasionally metal) tube installed near a special exit on an
upper floor or roof of a building, or a tall structure. An escape chute is a special kind
of emergency exit, used where conventional fire escape stairways are impractical.

13. Mechanical ventilation

Artificial ventilation where mechanical means are used to assist or replace

spontaneous breathing.[1] This may involve a machine called a ventilator, or the
breathing may be assisted manually by a suitably qualified professional, such as
an anesthesiologist, respiratory therapist, or paramedic, by compressing a bag valve
mask device.


A dry riser is a normally empty pipe that can be externally connected to a

pressurized water source by firefighters. It is a vertical pipe intended to distribute
water to multiple levels of a building or structure as a component of the fire
suppression systems

15. Express Elevator

A high-speed elevator that does not serve all floors

16. Tallest skycrapper

Burj Khalifa – 829 m

Shangau tower – 629 m



The concept of intelligent architecture started as an interest in the latest integrated

building systems operating a single building or facility, so that systems can
communicate and exchange information.

The communication among these systems allows the right responses and decisions
to operate buildings in a productive, economical and convenient way.

Communication and information sharing prevents decisions from interfering with

other systems’ responses or operation. Systems’ decisions and responses form the
responsive architecture that is represented by systems outputs

If intelligent buildings need to receive, analyze, and react according to such

processes, responsive ones are required only to receive and react to only one input

Technology and communication systems make it possible to combine several

parameters by using system integration and computerization.

Introduction Since the 1970s, computer and telecommunication technology have

been changing human life. These changes have outpaced the theories guiding such
technologies. In the1990s, social and personal life has been affected by computers
and telecommunication by making distance irrelevant.

Physical spaces and their definitions, as human aspects, have also been affected;
meeting rooms, for example, have become virtual as their physical elements have
been computerized. This is simply integration between the computer’s abilities and
the physical world. Through this integration, physical objects and spaces considered
as intelligent.

Integrating computer to the physical world gives the physical world computer
thinking ability. Computers have the abilities to receive information (input),
communicate with other machines, transfer information, process information,
calculate, and produce results (output); in short, computers can “think

Buildings are technology, they accommodate technology, and they use technology.
Buildings as objects become intelligent in the moment of gaining computer ability.
The first intelligent building used technology to provide a comfortable, secure, and
energy-conscious environment. The intelligent building concept offers the
connection and integration of HVAC, access, lighting, security, monitoring,
management, and telecommunication. Integration gives these systems the ability to
communicate and transfer information
Definitions of Intelligent and Smart buildings

The concept of intelligent building presents the strongest level of communication

among a building’s systems. The term “building systems” refers to all systems that
operate a building like HVAC, mechanical, structural, access control, safety and
security, building management, lighting, maintenance, local networking, and energy

The intelligent building concept presents control and management by a building’s

systems and users using computer abilities to achieve users’ needs, which may
include productivity, efficiency, energy savings, entertainment, delight, and
comfort, return investment, and low life cost. The evolution of telecommunications
and electronics has expanded the capabilities of intelligent building systems.

Accordingly, the basic criteria by which the building needs to have to be considered
as intelligent are:
• Input system that receives information by means of information receiver.
• Processing and information analysis
• Output system that reacts to the input in form of a response.
• Time consideration that makes the response happen within the needed time.
• Learning ability The definition of intelligent architecture should therefore include
all of these criteria and systems.

These criteria are considered in order to clarify their contribution to intelligent



Each system in the intelligent building should have a means of collecting input
information. Systems can obtain information in four different ways: sensors (real
time), internal backup and restored information, manually entered information
(programming and reprogramming) by users, and by being connected online


Whenever we discuss intelligent architecture, we should start with sensors. They

are the means of getting all type of data and information to systems.

Sensors are simply detection devices that collect information and data internally
and externally. Internally where they allow system to perceive even its condition
and externally where they detect and receive information from out of system
environment in real time ARCHANA ANAND
Sensors are divided into three groups that cover both interior and exterior
environment. Detection solar radiation, security and surveillance, noise pollution, and
façade optics and colour change, for example, are some of exterior sensors controlled
Systems like energy, air control, lighting system, and air-condition controlling use
interior sensors to reach intelligent architecture goals.

The three groups are:

1. Security and Safety Sensors Security, safety and surveillance sensors serve interior
and exterior environment.
a. Fire and smoke detection
b. Photo optics
c. Access
d. Acceleration, shock, and vibration
e. Motion and human presence

2 Weather and Space Quality Sensors

f. Temperature
g. Humidity
h. Solar Radiation
i. Pressure
ii. Light
k. Flow (Liquid and Gas)
l. Air Contents
m. Moisture
n. Chemical measurement

3 System Monitoring Sensors

o. Structural system monitoring
p. Mechanical system monitoring like (HVAC system)
q. All other systems that require monitoring Sensors work as a nerve system for a
building so it can feel and determine the reaction to internal and external conditions.


Any system within intelligent package should have the ability to back up and restore
cases and information. Restore covers, for example, scheduling scenarios in meeting
room where the room needs to be connected online and air-conditioning needs to be
set at 75 degrees Fahrenheit at a specific time, so the system should be able to able
to recall previous settings and reset them. Internal backup system should work as
memory in the intelligent system.


Systems are supposed to accept manual programming by users. At

any time, a user (authority/administrator) should have the ability to
reprogram the main system according to new circumstances.


Connecting all systems to internet gives them the ability to be

updated and get online information from different companies. Most
computer systems and drives have updates and companies provide
these updates online, so for system to be updated and perform well,
it should be able to communicate with different companies to
update their drives. All data collected will be delivered to the data
processing application

An intelligent building is
therefore a building that
has the ability to respond
(output) on time according
to processed information
that is measured and
received from exterior and
interior environments by
multi-input information
detectors and sources to
achieve users’ needs and
with the ability to learn
Having specific achievements in mind to reach by intelligent building is very important
to know before programming the system. The actual need of intelligent building can
clear by looking to the result and requires needs that can be accomplished out of such
system. Productivity, for example, is essential need for all companies; the environment
in the office spaces can determine large factor of being productive as employee or not.

The achievements that can be reached by having intelligent system cover most human
life aspects. Productivity, efficiency, energy savings, entertainment, delight, and comfort,
return investment, low life cost, and increase building life are some examples of these
achievements. ARCHANA ANAND
In case of fire in commercial building (Malls, Hotels, Departmental Stores), safe
evacuation of its occupants may present serious problems unless a plan for orderly
and systematic evacuation is prepared in advance and all occupants are well drilled
in the operation of such plan. These guidelines are intended to assist them in this

1. From the history of Fire Emergencies and Causalities thereby, it is established

that the lack of knowledge of ―what to do‖ when fire breaks out has been the
cause of more loss of life and property then the actual damaged caused by the
fire itself. In view of these past experiences and facts this note is prepared for
general understanding of the purpose of Fire Exit Drill and principles to be
followed while formulating
2. Fire Exit Drill procedure for different types of establishments and occupancies.

A. Smoke: - Smoke is nothing but ―airborne solid and liquid particulate‖ in gases
released during a fire. Smoke is the greatest single factor in increasing loses which
occur in fire.
B. Heat: - This is a combustion product in the form of energy, which is mostly
responsible for the spread of fire in the building by way of its transmission process.
C. Flame: - The burning of material in the presence of normal oxygen concentration
is accompanied by seat of fire reaction. The flames can be Non luminosity cold
flame. It is non luminous or luminous.

Luminosity is due to presence of solid matters in the cases cited above this consists
of minute carbon particles. The luminosity is in-creased by raising the temperature
of the flame.

3. ALARMS Any person discovering fire, heat or smoke shall immediately report
such condition to the fire brigade, unless he has personal knowledge that such a
report has been made.

No person shall make, issue, post or maintain any regulation or order, written or
verbal, that would require any person to take any unnecessary delaying action prior
to reporting such condition to the fire brigade.

4. DRILLS Fire & emergency drills shall be conducted, in accordance with the Fire
Safety Plan, at least once every three months for existing buildings during the first
two years.

Thereafter, fire & emergency drills shall be conducted at least once every six

5) FIRE ROUTINE DETAILS : A fire routine as a general rule should be based on a sequence
of events. Details will be as listed below :
a) Alarm Operation : Type – single or Two stage – Audible or otherwise – total or partial
– Notification to central point.
b) Power : Stopping central A. C., isolating power supplies.
c) Call the fire brigade : Precise instructions – watchman’s or receptionists instructions.
d) Evacuation : (i) Two stage instructions – closing of Doors and windows, search of
toilets etc. (ii) Responsible persons for carrying out the patients by various rescue
e) Assembly – Away from premises – under cover – mutual arrangement with nearby
f) Roll Call - Registers – Responsible person – Reports to Fire Brigade Officer about any
missing employees/inmates.

g) Attacking the Fire - Circumstances will dictate whether fire fighting operations should
be attempted.
6. DEMONSTRATIONS It may be ensured to conduct demonstrations at periodic intervals
so that all the inmates are familiarized with the usage / working of Fire Extinguishers,
Hose Reel, Wet riser , Fire alarm System (manual and automatic) and Sprinkler System.
7. SIGNS AND PLANS Signs at Lift Landings i) A sign shall be posted and maintained in a
conspicuous place on every floor at or near the lift landing in accordance with the
requirements, indicating that in case of fire, occupants shall use the stairs unless
instructed otherwise.
The sign shall contain a diagram showing the location of the stairways except that such
diagram may be omitted, provided signs containing such diagram are posted in
conspicuous places on the respective floor.
8. PREPARATION OF FIRE SAFETY PLAN It is essential to prepare fire safety plan according
to Clause C-8 (Annex - E) of part4 of National Building Code of India,2005 duly
incorporating the following important components.
i) Fire Safety Director.
ii) Deputy Fire Safety Director.
iii) Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens.
iv) Building Evacuation Supervisor.
v) Fire Party.
vi) Occupants Instructions.
vii) Fire Command Station viii) Signs