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Go-Go international is privately owned company being managed by the

promoters. The company was started in 1983 by Mr. .s s Goenka who hails from
a family of entreprenreneurs. Mr.Geonka single-handedly managed his business
for many years and strived to put GO-GO international amongst well
Established exports

Some years later Mr. Rajeev Goenka, the elder son joined hands in the business
with his father.Mr. Rajeev mechanical engineer gave a new outlook to the
business. His engineering Background helped in look at new and better
technology for improving quality of product, improving design and reducing
time. he personally supervises the production process and ensures a smooth and
unbroken flow.

A company that started off modestly started increasing its business across the
globe and is presently doing a turnover of over six million garments every year
and increasing constantly. In the increasing and thriving business. Mr. s s
Goenka have also joined hands in running the ever expanding demands.

GO-GO international has won different kind of awards. Some even presented by
the president of India, Almost every year from its inspection.



GO-GO exports garments to EU countries like Italy, france,spain, Denmark and

Germany. Outside Europe GO-GO exports to the united states of America,
United Kingdom and Australia


GO-GO has invested heavily in infrastructure not only for manufacturing of

garments but also to streamline the entire production and marketing process.

GO-GO has made Bangalore its hub for manufacturing facilities as well as its
support department shipping, quality controls, designing, sampling ,
embroidery, computer systems and accounts , it also has sourcing , marketing
and manufacturing offices at Delhi, Ludhiana , tuticorin thirpur.

In the main branch employs around 3000 employees which include over 350
administrative staff. In this three branch nearly 1750 Employees are working
more than four departments are working excluding the HR department


GO-GO’s commitment to specialization extends to the fabric used to

manufacture garments. The main range is of garments made from knitted fabric.

The company caters to men’s, ladies and children’s knitted garments. The
range includes outer wear, sport wear, party wear, nightwear, and active wear
recently. GO-GO has also ventured into ladies Faison garments in woven
fabrics. This was mainly due to consistent insistence from our existing buyers.
Now, we are in the verge of Expanding over dimensions in woven garments

The fabric for manufacture is mostly acquired locally. At times it is sourced
from Taiwan, honkong, , Singapore or Korea to meet individual requirement
GO-GO has computerized embroidery machines which are capable of producing
10000 pieces per day, GO- GO also in house facilities for hand embroidery.


In this organization, the employees have a special medical facilities,

wising doctors, and nurse on premise. On call ambulance, day-carte centre need
based loans, educational oppernatuty for their families etc.the directors are also
involved with several social causes and mental enrichment through yoga and


 Backward integration into knitting and spinning of yarn.

 Domestic foray a small start through opening of their first shop Sam and
 Almost doubling of capacity from 20000 pcs per day to 40000 pcs per
 Home textiles.
 Jv’s for specialized clothing like industrial clothing lingerie swimwear.


“Strive to be the best knits manufacturing unit of the industry”


“Truly partner with our customers to deliver business of GO-GO international”

Hazard is a term associated with a substance that is likelihood to cause an injury
in a given environment or situation. Industrial hazard may be defined as any
condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or
loss of product or property Safety in simple terms means freedom from the
occurrence of risk or injury or loss. Industrial safety refers to the protection of
workers from the danger of industrial accidents.

Human factor is the contributing cause of accidents in most situations. For
people who are likely to have accidents, the treatment is divided into three main
Medical assistance- in 13 percent cases
Personality readjustment- in 22 percent cases
Operating defects- the remaining 65 percent cases
Accident reduction

Accident proneness is acceptable to a certain extent it does not mean that

nothing can be done to reduce the number of accidents
Accidents can be reduced by two approaches
Actuarial approach- It involves studying the statistics to determine accidents
based on actual data. The factors related to the accident frequency should be
identified. The violations of safety rules must be clearly identified.
Safety educational campaign -Safety education must be conducted by
management to the employee groups.

Types of Industrial Hazards

1. Chemical hazards
2. Physical hazards
3. Biological hazards
4. Physiological hazards
5. Mechanical hazards
6. Electrical hazards
7. Natural hazards

The identification evaluation and estimation of the levels of risks involved in

situation, their comparison against benchmarks or standards and determination
of an acceptable level of risk
The process of determining the likelihood that a specified negative event
will occur. Investors and business managers use risk assessment to determine
things like weather to undertake a particular venture, what rate of return they
require to make a particular investment and how to mitigate an activity’s
potential losses.


It helps in investigation in taking right decisions that have the potential to

product the greatest improvements in safety, health and environment. It
provides a specific framework to help decisions makers to have choice between
solving or mitigating safety health and environmental problems. Risk analysis
may be used right from construction, operation, generation, disposal to
scrapping, obsolete plant and vacating a site.

An important step in risk analysis is the risk Assessment which provides an

estimate of the severity and likelihood of harm to populations/Eco systems
from Exposure to hazards. It in clues:

 Sources identification(i.e. identification of actual/potential hazards, their

location and probable frequencies of exposure)
 Exposure assessment (identification of actual/probable reshipments on an
Exposure including concentration and times of Exposure ),
 Estimating the quantity of a hazard that may reach organs/tissues and the
percentage of Exposed populations that will be harmed/ injured by

 Risk characterization (calculation of a numerical estimate of risk). It is
important to understand that very few things are completely risk freehand
thus levels of acceptable/tolerable risks need to be specified by
individuals/agencies on basis of comparison of cost, benefit, and
alternative risks.


 Hazard identification
 Cause consequence analysis
 Hazard and operability studies
 Fault/tree/Event Tree analysis for frequency assessment
 Safety audit studies
 Individual and societal Risk assessment
 Risk contour mapping

Machine designed to join pieces of fabric or leather by means of either a
lockstitch or a chain stitch which is used in most modern Machines. Is
formed from two threads and the chain stitch from a single thread.

Stitching section

Over/lock Machine: An over lock is a kind of stitch that

sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging,
hemming, or seaming. Usually an over
lock sewing machine will cut the edges of the cloth as they are
fed through (such machines being called "serge’s" in North
America), though some are made without cutters

Health and safety for using the over locking machines...

 It has a cutting blade that trims the edges of the fabric as it sews.
Keep your fingers away from the blade to avoid cutting yourself.
 Make sure you close both the side and lopper covers while over locking.
The covers should only be opened while threading or cleaning.

 Ensure the needle cover is in the correct position when over locking
because a broken needle could fly up and hit you in the face.
 The over locker should be powered down and turned off at the
power socket whenever you need to change the cutting blade.
 Always take your time when over locking as it can ruin work and
injury yourself or others
 If the needle breaks ask for assistance and put it in the sharp object
bin as can cause injury if left around
 Make sure no bags are around - major trip hazard
 No food or liquids around the machines
 No mobile phones - can easily be distracted and can result in injury
to yourself or other
 Be aware of other people around
 Always concentrate - can result in injury when getting distracted
 Don't leave anything sharp lying around - can cause injury

The main causes of injuries are:

 slips and trips (nearly a quarter of all injuries)

 manual handling
 struck by moving or falling objects
 contact with moving machinery

Main Health issues:

 Twisting injuries, caused by repeatedly twisting the torso from one

side to the other to perform a task
 Elbow strain, often caused by improper table and/or chair height
 Back strain, caused by poor posture and/or machinery positioning, or
even bad lighting.


Sewing Safety Precautions

1. Keep hands away from the needle when you turn the power switch
on, or while the machine is operating.

2. Do not place your fingers into the thread take-up cover while the
machine is operating

. 3. Always turn the machine off and unplug the power cord to the
electrical outlet before tilting the machine head or removing the V-

4. Never leave the machine running and unattended.

5. During operation, never place your head, hair, or hands in the

proximity of the hand wheel, V-belt, bobbin winder, or motor.

6. Do not operate the machine with any safety guards removed.

Safety Warnings and Precautions:
WARNING: When using tool, basic safety precautions should always be
followed to reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to equipment.
Read all instructions before using this tool!

1. Keep work area clean. Cluttered areas invite injuries

2. Observe work area conditions. Do not use machines or power
tools in damp or wet locations. Don’t expose to rain. Keep
work area well lighted. Do not use electrically powered tools
in the presence of flammable gases or liquids
3. Keep children away. Children must never be allowed in the
work area. Do not let them handle machines, tools, or
extension cords
4. Store idle equipment. When not in use, tools must be stored in
a dry location to inhibit rust. Always lock up tools and keep
out of reach of


1. Machine adjustments should only be performed by a qualified

2. Check the oil level weekly when the machine is used daily. Add
sewing machine oil as required to the high level marking
3. Clean the machine with a clean, damp cloth. Do not use solvents or
4. When not in use, cover the machine and store in a clean and dry

Double needle sewing machine:

A twin needle is actually two needles joined on one shank that's inserted
into the machine like a single needle. The two needles create rows of
parallel stitching lines and can be used in almost any machine with zigzag
sewing capabilities. Be sure your machine has a zigzag foot and a needle
plate with a horizontal hole to avoid needle breakage.
Twin-needle Stitching Double needles can be used for topstitching,
hemming, pin tucking, quilting and other embellishment techniques. Often
used on knit fabrics, twin needles are perfect for mimicking the look of
ready-to-wear topstitching—two perfectly parallel rows of stitches are
created in one pass (2). Because one bobbin is spanning both needles, the
resulting underside zigzag creates inherent flexibility for knit necklines or
hemlines subjected to any stress.

How To use the machine safely
1. Make sure you watch the needle carefully while you are sewing. Do not
touch the hand wheel, thread take-up lever, needle, or other moving parts

.2. Turn off the main power and unplug the cord in the following

• When you have stopped using the machine

• When you are replacing or removing the needle or any other part
• If there is a power failure while you are using the machine
• If you are checking or cleaning the machine
• Leaving the machine unattended

3. Do not store anything on the foot controller

4. Plug the machine directly into the wall. Do not use extension cords.

General safety instructions.

1. The machine must only be commissioned in full knowledge of the

instruction book and operated by persons with appropriate training
2. Before putting into service also read the safety rules and instructions
of the motor supplier
3. The machine must be used only for the purpose intended. Use of the
machine without the safety devices is not permitted. Observe all the
relevant safety regulations
4. When gauge parts are exchanged (e.g. needle, presser foot, needle
plate, feed dog and bobbin) when threading, when the workplace is
left, and during service work, the machine must be disconnected from
the mains by switching off the master switch or disconnecting the
mains plug
5. Daily servicing work must be carried out only by appropriately
trained persons
6. Repairs, conversion and special maintenance work must only be
carried out by technicians or persons with appropriate training.
7. For service or repair work on pneumatic systems, disconnect the
machine from the compressed air supply system (max. 7-10 bar).
Before disconnecting, reduce the pressure of the maintenance unit.
Exceptions to this are only adjustments and functions checks made
by appropriately trained technicians
8. Work on the electrical equipment must be carried out only by
electricians or appropriately trained persons
9. Work on parts and systems under electric current is not permitted,
except as specified in regulations DIN VDE 0105
10. Conversion or changes to the machine must be authorized by us and
made only in adherence to all safety regulations
11. For repairs, only replacement parts approved by us must be used
12. Commissioning of the sewing head is prohibited until such time as
the entire sewing unit is found to comply with EC directives

Flat lock sewing Machine

There are many types of sewing machine some are used for special
purposes such Bar task machine, button Hole machine etc. this types of
machine works in a cycle and so they are called simple automatic machine.
Here we study on such a type of machine that is flat lock machine. Flat
lock stitching is the stitching that looks like over locking on both sides of a
seam and is often used in swimwear, sportswear, on baby’s clothes, or just
as a decorative exposed seam. It creates a seam that is flat and has the
same appearance both inside and out. Elements in Stitching 1. Needle 2.
Loopier 3. Spreader Multi needle machine may have more than three


1. To know about the machine parts.

2. To sketch the thread path.


When using an electrical appliance, basic safety precautions should
always be followed, including the following: Read all instructions before
using this household sewing machine. DANGER - To reduce the risk of
electric shock
: • A sewing machine should never be left unattended when plugged in.
Always unplug this sewing machine from the electric outlet immediately
after using and before cleaning
. • Always unplug before relamping. Replace bulb with same type rated 15
Watt. WARNING - To reduce the risk of burns, fire, electric shock, or
injury to persons
: • This sewing machine is not intended for use by persons (including
children) with reduced physical, sensory or mental capabilities, or lack of
experience and knowledge, unless they have been given supervision or
instruction concerning use of the sewing machine by a person responsible
for their safety.
• Children should be supervised to ensure that they do not play with the
sewing machine
. • Use this sewing machine only for its intended use as described in this
manual. Use only attachments recommended by the manufacturer as
contained in this manual.
• Never operate this sewing machine if it has a damaged cord or plug, if it
is not working properly, if it has been dropped or damaged, or dropped
into water. Return the sewing machine to the nearest authorized dealer or
service center for examination, repair, electrical or mechanical adjustment

. • Never operate the sewing machine with any air openings blocked. Keep
ventilation openings of the sewing machine and foot controller free from
the accumulation of lint, dust, and loose cloth
. • Keep fi ngers away from all moving parts. Special care is required
around the sewing machine needle and blades. • Always use the proper
needle plate. The wrong plate can cause the needle to break
. • Do not use bent needles.
• Do not pull or push fabric while stitching. It may defl ect the needle
causing it to break
. • Wear safety glasses
. • Switch the sewing machine off (“0”) when making any adjustment in
the needle area, such as threading needle, changing needle, or changing
presser foot, etc.
• Always unplug sewing machine from the electrical outlet when
removing covers, lubricating, or when making any other user servicing
adjustments mentioned in the instruction manual
l. • Never drop or insert any object into any opening
. • Do not use outdoors.
• Do not operate where aerosol (spray) products are being used or where
oxygen is being administrated
. • To disconnect, turn all controls to the off (“0”) position, then remove
plug from outlet
. • Do not unplug by pulling on cord. To unplug, grasp the plug, not the

Kaza button Machine:

In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is small faster ,now Most
commonly Made of plastic ,but also frequently of metal ,wood or seashell,
which secures two pieces of fabric together ,in archeology ,a button can
be a significant artifact. A button can be example of folk-art, studio craft
or even a miniature work of art.

The main injuries that may occur while operating kaja button:

Breaking button striking the eyes:

Good quality of eye guard must be used in case of protecting from eye

Risk of kaja button workers being lit by the broken button piece at a
greater velocity, which May cause serious injury to workers eyes

All kaja button workers are provided with visors. All kaja button machine
workers to wear compulsorily the visors provided for them as a safety to
protect their eyes from being lit by the broken pieces.

Awareness on eye protection training to be given frequently

All working working in any industry or factory should be able take care of
themselves from any sharp objects
Especially eyes get’s effected more quickly for that they will be provided
an eye guard.

Cutting Machine:
Cutting Machine is used for cutting out parts of articles from layers of
cloth card webs or knitted fabric. The technically possible depth of cutting
of the layer depends on the design of the cutting machine and on the
thickness and properties of the fabrics. Cutting machines may be movable
or stationary. The machine is shifted manually relative to the layer along
lines drawn on the top card web. The development of apparel sector has
led to the invention of various fabric cutting machines. Industrial cutters
and cutting machines have led to better efficiency and precision in our
work. The invention of these gadgets has reduced considerable efforts in
the cutting process of different types of fabrics

Cutting section:

Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machine:

According to the operating process, the Cutting Machine can be classified

into three types. Such as-

1. Manual
2. Semi- Automatic
3. Automatic / Computerized

1) Manual Cutting Machine:

Hand Scissors.

2) Semi-Automatic Cutting Machine:

 Straight knife of Cutting Machine.

 Round Knife Cutting Machine.
 Band Knife Cutting Machine.
 Die Cutting Machine.
 Notched Machine.
 Drill Machine.

3) Computerized Cutting Machine:

 Knife Cutting Machine.

 Laser Cutting Machine.
 Water Jet Cutting Machine.
 Air jet Cutting Machine.
 Ultrasonic Cutting Machine.
 Plasma Torch cutting Machine

Gerber cutting Machine:

 Robust table construction and oversized X-Y drive system
 T3 modular cutting head with automatic tool recognition
 Cutting/Routing modular tool inserts
 Windows-based user interface
 Light-beam security system
 High tool fork
 Multi-size platforms

 Outstanding accuracy and operational reliability over the long-run
 Plug-and-play management of available tool options, for quicker tool
 Ability to finish a broad variety of flexible and rigid graphic substrates
 Automatic compensation for material and print distortion, ensuring
accurate cutting every time
 Easy-to-use controls; short training time. Operators setup production jobs
quickly and accurately using the intuitive menu controls

 Safe machine operation and unobstructed table access for material unload
and removal of cut parts
 Reliable precision-cutting of even the most demanding rigid materials

Automatic tool identification

The T3 modular head accommodates up to three tools plus a laser pointer

for accurate positioning. The automatic tool identification system allows
for easy plug-and-play management of the various tool options.
Knife cutting, routing, creasing, and other specialized inserts satisfy a wide
range of graphic finishing requirements.

All Gerber cutting machines will have sensor in case of any

The main injury that can be caused in this machine is for hands

Spreader Machine

Fabric Spreading: Fabric spreading is a process by which plies plies of

fabric is spreader in order to get required length and width as per marker
dimension this is a preparatory operation for cutting and consists of lying

It means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layer (plies)
of specified length. The cutting marker is layed on top of most layers. The
maximum width of the cutting marker is considered by the usable width of

fabric. During spreading number of lay should be not more than three
hundreds but it depends on thickness of fabric and the height of the knife.

The spread can be basically two types:

 Flat
 Stepped


1. To place the number of plies of fabric to the length of the marker

plan correctly aligned as to the length and width tension.
2. To cut garments in bulk and saving in fabric through the use of
Multi-garment marker plans and the cutting time per garment that
result from cutting many plies at a time
3. To make every ply plan and flat.

Requirements of fabric spreading:

1.Alignment of fabric plies:

Every ply should comprise at least width of the marker plan, but should
have the minimum possible extra outside those measurements. The natures
of textile measurements vary in width. The marker plan is made of fit the
narrowest width. In Accuracy in this alignment could mean that plies do
not cover the whole area of the marker plan and parts of some pattern
peaces would be missing when cut.

2.Correct ply tension:

The ply tension should be correct if tension is low then there will be ridges
in the plies and if the tension is too high and the fabric may shrink after
cutting and sewing use of spreading machine gives uniform tension.

3.Fabric must be flat:

The fabric must laid on the table should be flat otherwise there will be
ridges in it.

4.Elimination of fabric faults:

Fabric faults [holes, stains and etc] may be identified by the fabric supplier
and additional faults the fabric supplier and additional may be deducted
during examinitation of fabric by the garment manufacturer prior to
spreading. The spreader cuts across the ply at position of fault and pulls
back the cut end to overlap as for back on the next splice mark. Splice
marks are marked on the edge of the spreading table prior to spreading by
reference to the marker and ensure that whenever a slice is created the over
lop of fabric is sufficient to allow complete garments parts rather than
sections only to be cut computerized methods of achieving this are now
available which provide a display of the marker plan on a computer screen
on the spreading machine.

5..Eaisy separation of the cut lay bundle:

Identification marks are used into plies due to color or shade variation of
fabric or other cases for this separation, low volved colored paper is used
to plies.

Safety instructions that can be implemented for safeguarding of

employees/ employers :

 Employees use current resistance mat’s to Avoide electric shocks

 Using of shoes is mandatory of persons operating the machine

 High voltage is one of the prominent aspect in operating spreader
machine because current may fluctuate
 The persons operating the spreader machine should very careful while
operating and he should have complete knowledge about the machine.

Straight Knife Cutting Machine:

It is the most useful cutting instrument in apparel cutting. In apparel

industry, more than 99% cases this knife is used. This machine is
called straight knife cutting machine because its cutter is straight in
shape. It is used for both woven & knit fabric. In this machine different
types of straight knife are used according to the different cutting objects.
This machine provides good efficiency.

Features of Straight Knife Cutting Machine:

1. The main parts of this machine are straight knife, electric motor,
handle, grinder, base plate, stand/ knife holder, lubricating unit,
wheel etc.
2. Could be used to cut higher depth of fabric.
3. Knife height is 10 cm to 33 cm.
4. Knife stroke is 2.5 cm to 4.5 cm.
5. Motor r.p.m. is 3000 to 4000.
6. Auto grinder is used.
7. Auto lubricating unit works for this machine.

8. Different types of knife edge are used for cutting different objects.
Such as, straight edge, wave edge, sews edge & serrated edge.
9. A Handle for the cutter to direct the Knife.
10.Knife guard is attached to the front of the knife.
11.Sharp & heavy corners can be cut.
12.Maximum 70% of knife height is used for fabric lay.
13.Wheels are under the base plate to move the machine smoothly.
14.Machine weight is around 12-15 kg.
15.Knife cut the fabric very fast due to high speed of motor. That increases
the risk of fabric damage.

Advantages of Straight Knife Cutting Machine:

1. A large number of fabric lays can be cut by the machine due to high
length of knife & r.p.m. of the motor. So, productivity is high.
2. Automatic grinding.
3. Automatically lubrication.
4. Comparatively cheep.
5. Can be moved easily by wheel.
6. Suitable for straight line & curve line.
7. Can be cut high curve line than round knife.
8. Fabric can be cut from any angle.

Disadvantages of Straight Knife Cutting Machine:

1. High speed of the machine causes high risk of damage.

2. Faulty knife could damage fabric layer.
3. Motor weight creates knife deflection which may be creates faulty pieces.
4. Risk is high for physical damage of operator.
5. Knife required replacing.

Precaution to avoid blade deflection:

 Reducing Lay height

 The weight of the motor should be light
 The operator should be skilled and conscious

Working principle of straight knife cutter machine:
1. At first fabric spread on the cutting table
2. Then marker is placed on the fabric
3. After that cutting machine is placed at any corner point of fabric
4. Then switch on the machine and continue cutting as per marker
5. Finally cutting is continuing until finish the marker.

So when an operator cut the fabric he should aware about cutting working
procedure. Because wrong cutting operation could cause huge damage on
fabric, so should be careful about cutting operation with straight knife

Person operating straight knife cutting machine will be provided

Metal hand gloves for his safety

Band knife cutting machine:

Band knife cutting machine is an endless and looks like a loop. It is used
for the cutting of fabric rolls without cardboard-inner tube. It is important
instrument of cutting fabrics. This cutting machine works automatically
according to the height of the relevant material. This machine is with
special blower decreases resistance between fabrics and table, which
enables the fabrics be moved easily and be cut precisely. And it could
adjustable speed to fit different fabrics. Band knife cutting
machines have been recognized around the world for many years for their
high quality even when faced with difficult customer-related conditions
and in applications with demanding materials.

Features of Band Knife Cutting Machine::

1. It comprises a series of three or more pulleys, which provide the

continuous rotating motion of the knife.
2. An endless knife is used here.
3. Knife is usually narrower than on a straight knife.
4. A large size of table is used to support the fabric & for cutting.
5. Air blower blows the air to minimize the weight of fabric.
6. Balls in air blower help to move the fabric in different direction.
7. Automatic grinder is used.
8. In this method machine is stationary but fabric is movable.
9. High speed r.p.m. motor is used.
10.Required a large space for it.
11.This is like a saw mill cutter.
12.Knife life time depends on fabric type & uses of machine.

Advantages of Band Knife Cutting Machine:

1. Suitable for any types of line.

2. Very large productivity for limited product
3. Such as collars, cuff, placket etc.
4. Automatic grinder grind the knife instantly
5. Air blower helps to reduce the fabric weight which increases smooth
movement of fabric.
6. Possible to cut 900 angle of the lay.
7. Intensity of accident is low.

Disadvantages of Band Knife Cutting Machine:

1. Not suitable for large component due to the length of the table.
2. Work load is high as machine is stationary & fabric is movable.
3. Running cost is higher.
4. Required fix space.
5. Not possible to cut fabric directly.

Textile finishing:

Textile Finishing is a process used in manufacturing of fiber, fabric, or

clothing. In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber
or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different type of
physical and chemical treatments. For example wash and wear finish for a
cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease free or wrinkle free. In a
similar way, mercerizing, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent,
water proof, antistatic finish, peach finish etc are some of the important
finishes applied to textile fabric.

1.Mechanical Finishing:
Involving the application of physical principles such as friction,
temperature, pressure, tension and many others.

A process of passing cloth between rollers (or "calendars"), usually under
carefully controlled heat and pressure, to produce a variety of surface
textures or effects in fabric such as compact, smooth, supple, flat and
glazed. The process involves passing fabric through a calendar in which a
highly polished, usually heated, steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed
than the softer (e.g. cotton or paper packed) bowl against which it works,
thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contact with the
steel bowl. The friction ratio is the ratio of the peripheral speed of the
faster steel bowl to that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1.5
to 3.0. The normal woven fabric surface is not flat, particularly in ordinary
quality plain weave fabrics, because of the round shape of the yarns, and
interlacing of warp and weft at right angles to each other. In such fabrics it
is more often seen that even when the fabric is quite regular, it is not flat.
During calendaring, the yarns in the fabric are squashed into a flattened
elliptical shape; the intersections are made to close-up between the yarns.
This causes the fabric surface to become flat and compact. The improved
plainness of surface in turn improves the glaze of the fabric. The calendar
machines may have several rollers, some of which can be heated and
varied in speed, so that in addition to pressure a polishing action can be
exerted to increase luster.

Durable finish imparted on man-made fibers and knitted fabrics by
employing heat and pressure to shrink them to produce a creepy and bulky

This particular type of calendaring process allows engraving a simple
pattern on the fabric. To produce a pattern in relief by passing fabric
through a calendar in which a heated metal bowl engraved with the pattern
works against a relatively soft bowl, built up of compressed paper or
cotton on a metal centre.

This process is carried out by means of a roller coated with abrasive
material. The fabric has a much softer hand and an improved insulating
effect thanks to the fiber end pulled out of the fabric surface.

Raising or Napping
The raising of the fiber on the face of the goods by means of teasels or
rollers covered with card clothing (steel wires) that are about one inch in
height. Action by either method raises the protruding fibers and causes the
finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer, makes the cloth
more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in hand or smoother in
feel; increase durability and covers the minute areas between the
interlacing of the warp and the filling. Napped fabrics include blankets,
flannel, unfinished worsted, and several types of coatings and some dress
goods. Other names for napping are Gigging, Genapping, Teaseled, and

Wool Glazing
this is done on a special machine, which is used to perform functional
finishing on wool fabrics after raising.

Shearing is an important preparatory stage in the processing of cotton
cloth. The objective of "Shearing" is to remove fibers and loose threads
from the surface of the fabric, thus improving surface finish.

A term usually referring to fabrics in which the dimensions have been set
by a suitable preshrinking operation

Also called Diarizing. A finishing process applied to fabrics to set the
material, enhance lustre and improve the hand. Fabric wound onto a
perforated roller is immersed in hot water or has steam blown through it.

Steaming and Heat setting

It is done by using high temperatures to stabilize fabrics containing
polyester, nylon, or triacetate but not effective on cotton or rayon. It may
be performed in fabric form or garment form it may cause shade variation
from side-to-side if done prior to dyeing; may change the shade if done
after dyeing

Sanforizing or Pre Shrinking

Sanforizing is a process whereby the fabric is run through a sanforizer; a
machine that has drums filled with hot steam. This process is done to
control the shrinkage of the fabric. The fabric is given an optimum
dimensional stability by applying mechanic forces and water vapors.

The structure, bulk and shrinkage of wool are modified by applying heat
combined with friction and compression.

2.Chemical Finishing
The finishes applied by means of chemicals of different origins, a fabric
can receive properties
Otherwise impossible to obtain with mechanical means.

Softening is carried out when the softness characteristics of a certain fabric
must be improved, always carefully considering the composition and
properties of the substrate.
Elastomeric Finishes
Elastomeric finishes are also referred to as stretch or elastic finishes and
are particularly important for knitwear. These finishes are currently
achieved only with silicone-based products. The main effect is durable
elasticity, because not only must extensibility be enhanced, but recovery
from deformation is of crucial importance. After all stresses and disturbing
forces have been released, the fabric should return to its original shape

Crease Resistant or Crease Proofing
Crease Resistant Finishes are applied to cellulose fibers (cotton, linen and
rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease resistant
finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases and pleats
throughout wearing and cleaning.

Soil Release Finishes

These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning and
help remove soil.

Flame Retardant Treatment

Are applied to combustible fabrics used in children's sleepwear, carpets
and curtains and prevent highly flammable textiles from bursting into

Peach finish
subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels
makes the surface velvet like. This is a special finish mostly used in

Anti Pilling
Pilling is a phenomenon exhibited by fabrics formed from spun yarns
(yarns made from staple fibers). Pills are masses of tangled fibers that
appear on fabric surfaces during wear or laundering. Fabrics with pills
have an unsightly appearance and an unpleasant handle. Loose fibers are
pulled from yarns and are formed into spherical balls by the frictional
forces of abrasion. These balls of tangled fibers are held to the fabric
surface by longer fibers called anchor fibers.

Anti pilling finish reduces the forming of pills on fabrics and knitted

products made from yarns with a synthetic-fibre content, which are
inclined to pilling by their considerable strength, flexibility and resistance
to impact. Anti pilling finish is based on the use of chemical treatments
which aim to suppress the ability of fibers to slacken and also to reduce the
mechanical resistance of synthetic fiber.

Non Slip Finish

A finish applied to a yarn to make it resistant to slipping and sliding when
in contact with another yarn. The main effect of non-slip finishes is to
increase the adhesion between fibers and yarns regardless of fabric
construction, the generic term for these finishes would be fiber and yarn
bonding finishes. Other terms that can be used include anti-slip, non-shift
and slip-proofing finishes.

Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes

Prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics. Such finishes may
be resistant to oil-bourse or water-Bourne soil and stains or both. Stain and
soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and
furniture. Scotchgard is a stain and soil resistant finish commonly applied
to carpet and furniture.

Oil and Water Proofing

Waterproof Finishes -Allows no water to penetrate, but tend to be

uncomfortable because they trap moisture next to the body. Recently,
fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable

Water-Repellent Finishes
Water-repellent finishes resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet,
water will eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats,
all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains.

Absorbent Finishes
Increase fibers’ moisture holding power. Such finishes have been applied
to towels, cloth diapers, underwear, sports shirts and other items where
moisture absorption is important.
Anti Static Finish
Reduce static electricity which may accumulate on fibres. The most
common type of anti-static finishes are fabric softeners.
Anti Mildew

In certain ambient (humidity and heat) conditions, cellulose can be

permanently damaged. This damage can be due to depolymerisation of the
cellulose or to the fact that certain microorganisms (mildews) feed off it. The
situation is worsened, during long storage periods, by the presence of
starch finishing agents. This damage can be prevented by the use of
antiseptics, bacteria controlling products containing quaternary ammonium
salts, and phenol derivatives. Dyestuffs containing heavy metals can also
act as antiseptics. Permanent modification of the fiber (cyanoethylation) is
another possibility.

Mothproofing Finishes
Protect protein-containing fibers, such as wool, from being attacked by
moths, carpet beetles and other insects.

Antibacterial Finish
The inherent properties of textile fibers provide room for the growth of
micro-organisms. The structure and chemical process may induce the
growth, but it is the humid and warm environment that aggravates the
problem further. Antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials with a
view to protect the wearer and textile substrate itself.

Antimicrobial finish provides the various benefits of controlling the

infestation by microbes, protect textiles from staining, discoloration, and
quality deterioration and prevents the odor formation.Anti-microbial
agents can be applied to the textile substrates by exhaust, pad-dry-cure,
coating, spray and foam techniques. The application of the finish is now
extended to textiles used for outdoor, healthcare sector, sports and leisure.
UV Protection Fabric treated with UV absorbers ensures that the clothes
deflect the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, reducing a person's UVR
exposure and protecting the skin from potential damage. The extent of skin
protection required by different types of human skin depends on UV
radiation intensity and distribution with reference to geographical location,
time of day, and season. This protection is expressed as SPF (Sun
Protection Factor), higher the SPF value better is the protection against
UV radiation.

Colorfastness Improving Finish

Color fastness is the resistance of a material to change in any of its color
characteristics, to the transfer of its colorants to adjacent materials or both.
Fading means that the color changes and lightens. Bleeding is the transfer
of color to a secondary, accompanying fiber material. This is often
expressed as soiling or staining meaning that the accompanying material
gets soiled or stained.

The physical and chemical principles involved in the performance of the

fastness improving finishes concern either the interaction with the dyestuff
or with the fiber or both.

The finishes are applied to

a. Improve the colorfastness to washing
b.Improve the colorfastness to crocking
c.Improve the colorfastness to light
d.Improve the colorfastness to weathering
e.Improve the colorfastness to chemicals washes such as mild bleaching ,
dry cleaning and commercial washing.

Diesel generators
A Diesel Generator is used to generate electrical energy. It is the
combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (alternator)
.Diesel generators are used as source of emergency power supply when
there is failure in grid power. Diesel generators are also used in Co-gen
plant in sugar factory, when grid fails Diesel generators are used.

The preventive maintenance tips for the diesel generator that

guarantees uninterrupted power supply

that is innocuous and consistent for all the needs intended for.
They include the following aspects:

Routine General Inspection

During the running of the diesel generator, the exhaust system, fuel
system, DC electrical system and engine require close monitoring for any
leaks that can cause hazardous occurrences. As with any internal
combustion engine, proper maintenance is essential. Diesels are no
exception, and the most important maintenance is oil changes at every 100
hours of operation for a long and trouble-free life assurance.

Lubrication Service

The engine oil must be checked while shutting down the generator at
regular intervals using a dipstick. Allow the oil in the upper portions of the
engine to drain back into the crankcase and follow the engine
manufacturer’s recommendations for API oil classification and oil
viscosity. Keep the oil level as near as possible to the full mark on the
dipstick by adding the same quality and brand of oil.
The oil and filter must also be changed at acclaimed time intervals. Check
with the engine manufacturer for procedures for draining the oil and
replacing the oil filter and their disposal is to be done appropriately to avoid
environmental damage or liability.

Cooling System

Check the coolant level during shutdown periods at the specified interval.
Remove the radiator cap after allowing the engine to cool, and, if
necessary, add coolant until the level is about 3/4 in. Heavy-duty diesel
engines require a balanced coolant mixture of water, antifreeze, and
coolant additives. Inspect the exterior of the radiator for obstructions, and
remove all dirt or foreign material with a soft brush or cloth with caution
to avoid damaging the fins. If available, use low-pressure compressed air
or a stream of water in the opposite direction of normal air flow to clean
the radiator.

Fuel System

Diesel is subject to contamination and corrosion within a period of one

year, and therefore regular generator set exercise is highly recommended
to use up stored fuel before it degrades. The fuel filters should be drained
at the designated intervals due to the water vapor that accumulates and
condenses in the fuel tank. Regular testing and fuel polishing may be
required if the fuel is not used and replaced in three to six months.
Preventive maintenance should include a regular general inspection that
includes checking the coolant level, oil level, fuel system, and starting
system. The charge-air cooler piping and hoses should be inspected
regularly for leaks, holes, cracks, dirt and debris that may be blocking the
fins or loose connections.

Testing Batteries

Weak or undercharged starting batteries are a common cause of standby

power system failures. The battery must be kept fully charged and well-
maintained to avoid dwindling by regular testing and inspection to know
the current status of the battery and avoid any start-up hitches of the
generator. They must also be cleaned; and the specific gravity and
electrolyte levels of the battery checked frequently.

• Testing batteries: Merely checking the output voltage of the batteries is

not indicative of their ability to deliver adequate starting power.

As batteries age, their internal resistance to current flow goes up, and the
only accurate measure of terminal voltage must be done under load. On
some generators, this indicative test is performed automatically each time
the generator is started. On other generator sets, use a manual battery load
tester to attest the condition of each starting battery.

• Cleaning batteries: Keep the batteries clean by wiping them with a damp
cloth whenever dirt appears excessive. If corrosion is present around the
terminals, remove the battery cables and wash the terminals with a
solution of baking soda and water (¼ lb baking soda to 1 quart of water).
Be careful to prevent the solution from entering the battery cells, and flush
the batteries with clean water when finished. After replacing the
connections, coat the terminals with a light application of petroleum jelly.

• Checking specific gravity: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, use a battery

hydrometer to check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each battery
cell. A

fully charged battery will have a specific gravity of 1.260. Charge the
battery if the specific gravity reading is below 1.215.

• Checking electrolyte level: In open-cell lead-acid batteries, verify the

level of the electrolyte at least every 200 hr of operation. If low, fill the
battery cells to the bottom of the filler neck with distilled water.

Routine Engine Exercise

Regular exercising keeps the engine parts lubricated and thwart oxidation
of electrical contacts, uses up fuel before it deteriorate, and helps to
provide reliable engine starting. Engine exercise is recommended to be
executed at least once a month for a minimum of 30 min. loaded to no less
than one-third of the nameplate rating

Keep your Generator Clean

Oil drips and other issues are easy to spot and take care of when the engine
is nice and clean. Visual inspection can guarantee that hoses and belts are
in good condition. Frequent checks can keep wasps and other nuisances
from nesting in your equipment
The more a generator is used and relied on, the more it needs to be taken care
of. However, a gen set that is rarely used might not need a lot of care

Boiler Room safety

Boiler room safety procedures must be exercised at all times by the boiler
operator. Accidents can occur as a result of not following safety
procedures or because of boiler equipment failure. If an accident occurs,
the boiler operator must act quickly. Established emergency procedures
will reduce the possibility of additional injuries and/or damage to
equipment. All boiler room accidents must be reported regardless of their

Fuels used in the boiler room are combustible and present a fire hazard.
The boiler operator is responsible for fire prevention in the boiler room.
Boiler room safety is achieved by following safety rules.

Boiler Room Accidents

Boiler room accidents can occur at any time. Even though safety
precautions are followed, the possibility of an accident still exists. Injuries
resulting from accidents must be handled quickly and intelligently. A
boiler operator who is familiar with the equipment and plant will know
how to react in an emergency.

All injuries no matter how minor should be treated promptly. Serious

injuries require notifying qualified personnel. All accidents should be
reported regardless of their nature. Serious problems can occur regarding
insurance claims if complications arise as a result of an accident that was
not reported or put on file.

Accident reports include the following information: date, time and place of
accident, immediate superior, name of injured person, nature of injury,
what injured person was doing at the time of accident, and cause of
accident. Accident reports are also used to document plant safety records.

Boiler Room Fire Prevention

Boiler room fire prevention procedures are necessary because of the

combustible nature of the materials used in the boiler room. The boiler
operator must know the procedure to be used in sending for the fire
department or sounding the fire alarm. The person who sends for help
should make sure another plant worker is available to direct the fire
fighters to the right location when they arrive. In addition, the boiler
operator must know the location of the fire alarm boxes and stations in or
near the boiler room. Combustible materials burn readily and require
special handling by the boiler operator. The boiler operator must know

what is necessary to start and sustain a fire in order to know how to put the
fire out.

Fuel (combustible material), heat, and oxygen are required to start and
sustain a fire. The fire will go out when any one of these is removed. Fuel
may be fuel oil, wood, paper, textiles, or any other material that burns
readily. If the fuel supply is cut off or the fuel is burned up the fire will go
out. The fuel must be heated to its ignition temperature. If the burning
material is cooled below its ignition temperature the fire will go out.
Oxygen is required to support the combustion process. If the oxygen
supply is cut off by smothering the fire will go out.

Since the main ingredient is the combustible material, waste or oil rags
must be stored in safety containers and volatile liquids in safety cans. By
maintaining careful control of the combustible materials in a boiler room,
the danger of a fire hazard is reduced. Local fire departments have trained
inspectors that inspect buildings and factories for possible fire hazards and
required firefighting equipment. Many insurance companies also have
inspection services that can be useful for preventing fires in the boiler

Classes of Fires

The class of fire is determined by the combustible material burned. The

three most common classes of fire are Class A, Class B, and Class C. Class
A includes fires that burn wood, paper, textiles, and other ordinary

material containing carbon. Class B includes fires that burn oil, gas,
grease, paint or other liquids that convert into gas when heated. Class C
include electrical, motor, or transformer fires.

Class D is a rare, specialized class of fires including fires caused by

combustible metals such as zirconium, titanium, magnesium, sodium, and
potassium. A special powder is applied using a scoop or shovel to put out
this class of fire.

The boiler operator must know where every fire extinguisher is located in
the boiler room and plant. The boiler operator must also know what type

of fire extinguisher is used for each class of fire and how to use different
types of fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers are not meant to take the
place of the local fire department. Fire extinguishers are only meant to put
out small fires or help to contain larger ones until additional help arrives.
The number and type of fire extinguishers needed are determined by the
authority having jurisdiction and are based on how fast a fire may spread,
potential heat intensity, and accessibility to the fire. Additional fire
extinguishers must be installed in hazardous areas. The National Fire
Protection Association lists these areas as light hazard (Low), ordinary
hazard (moderate), and extra hazard (high).

Light hazard areas include buildings or rooms that are used as churches,
offices, classrooms, and assembly halls. The contents in buildings and
rooms of this nature are either noncombustible or not anticipated to be
arranged in a manner that would be conductive to the rapid spread of a
fire. Class B flammables (for example, fluid for duplicating machines)
stores in a light hazard area must be stored in closed containers. Ordinary
hazard areas include shops and related storage facilities, light
manufacturing plants, automobile showrooms, and parking garages. In
addition, ordinary hazard areas include any location where Class A
combustibles and Class B flammables exceed those expected for light
hazard areas. Extra hazard areas are those locations where Class A
combustibles and Class B flammables exceed those expected in ordinary
hazard areas. Extra hazard areas include woodworking shops,
manufacturing plants using painting or dipping, and automotive repair

Safety Rules

The boiler operator is the person responsible for the safe and efficient
operation of the boiler. The boiler operator must develop safety habits to
prevent personal injury, injury to others, and damage to equipment. Safety
rules vary depending on the type and size of the plant. However, the basic
safety rules listed are common to all boiler rooms.

1. Wear approved clothing and shoes in the plant at all times.

2. Wear gloves when handling hot lines or cleaning fuel oil burner tips.
3. Wear appropiate eye protection in all designated areas. Use hand
sheilds when visually inspecting the furnace fire.

4. Wear goggles and respirators when cleaning the fire side of the
boiler, breeching, or chimney.
5. Wear a hard hat when working where there is a possibility of head
6. Do not use hands to stop moving equipment
7. Store all oily rags or waste in approved containers to prevent fires
caused by spontaneous combustion.
8. Only use approved safety cans to store combustible liquids.
9. Check all fire safety equipment on a regular basis to be sure it is in
proper working condition.
10.Check fire extinguishers periodically for proper charge and correct
11.Do not use unsafe ladders or substitutes for ladders.
12.Ladders should never be used as bridges.
13.Do not leave loose tools on ladders, catwalks, tops of boilers, or
14.Do not carry tools in back pockets.
15.Do not throw a tool to anyone at any time.
16.Use the proper tool for the job.
17.Do not use defective tools.
18.Always secure and tag steam stop valves, bottom blowdown valves,
and feed water valves when a boiler in battery is removed from
service for cleaning and inspection.
19.Never start any equipment that has been tagged out for safety
20.Make sure the equipment has been secured and tagged out before
attempting to clean or repair.
21.Always use low voltage droplights when working in boiler steam
and water drums.
22.Precheck all equipment for starting hazards.
23.Clean up liquid spills at once.
24.Move quickly and with purpose in emergencies but do not run.


I got a very good oppurnatity to learn about organization during the

time of training period. As much as possible I tried to utilize the
opportunity to learn about organization. A very good support and co-
operation from organization gave a great chance to complete the
given task successfully. Most of the time I spend myself with
employees and their work experience and their problems. I got a very
good opportunity to to build A good bonding between the
organization and myself. With good support of all employees and
staff. I got a good knowledge about organization and also learned,
about organizational conflicts, problems and how it will be solved,
both organization and workers.

At last, I express my gratitude to GO-GO international pvt.

Ltd. For giving me an opportunity to learn something very useful for
my cheerier