Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

Hallmarks of Effective

Teaching in Nursing
NCM 121 - Health Education
Maria Katrina L. Costiniano, RN, MAN
“Teaching is neither a routine nor a
rule of thumb procedure but
genuine intellectual adventure
when properly carried out.”
Characteristics of an Effective Teacher in
1. Professional Competence
2. Interpersonal Relationship with Students
3. Personal Characteristics
4. Teaching Practices
5. Evaluation Practices
Qualities of an Effective Nurse Educator
q Personal Qualities
1. Respects her student’s maturity and sense of responsibility.
qShows respect for his or her students by coming to class on time and
qSpeaks politely and gently.
qAvoids useless repetitions and interspersion of irrelevant topics when
qGives her students freedom to choose their own topic of interest when
selecting a term paper.
2. Psychologically secure in her own abilities.
qConfident with the accuracy of her knowledge and skills.
qDoes not minimize, exaggerate or deny his or her grasp of the subject matter
or her experiences in the field.
qDoes not resort to the use of identification, rationalization or any other
obvious defense mechanism to camouflage any weakness.
3. Has a sense of humor
qExpresses appropriate emotions with levity when the same is appropriate to
the subject matter discussed.

4. Has a well- balanced personality.

qKnows when to laugh or be serious.
qHas the ability to make her teaching truly meaningful to her students.
qIs enthusiastic in teaching the subject matter
5. Is tolerant and fair to all her students.
6. Shows no partiality and is available to listen to students’ problems.
7. Approachable, kind and patient.
8. Sincere in her efforts of educating the young and has passion for
both nursing and the learners.
9. Has leadership abilities.
10. The image of an ideal nurse with interest in each student.
“Nursing as both a profession and a scholarly discipline is
rooted in knowledge of nursing practice. Today nursing has
evolved clearly as the discipline that focuses on developing
an understanding of the human processes that promotes
health, and a caring profession that incorporates an
understanding of human experiences into health practice.”
-Sister Callista Roy
Professional Qualities
1. Teaches lessons that stimulate students to think and learn
2. Give clear and concise assignments
3. Encourages student feedback on assigned lessons and activities done.
4. Presents a well- organized subject matter for students’ easy understanding.
5. Provides her students with relevant clinical learning experience.
6. Possesses mastery of the subject matter.
7. Speaks clearly, audibly and fluently.
8. Shows professional decorum, well- groomed, properly dressed and poised.
9. Shows broad interests aside from teaching.
10. Evaluates objectively student’s performance.
Essential Teaching Skills
1. Skills in planning and preparing the lessons.
2. Skills in presenting the lessons.
3. Skills in the organization and management of learning activities.
4. Skills in creating a positive climate in the classroom.
5. Skills in evaluating student performance.
6. Skills in evaluating teaching performance.
7. Skills in the practice of appropriate authority.
“Teachers are leaders who must be very clear about their own beliefs before they
are able to lead others. To be an effective leader, educator and influential role
model, one must clarify his or her values and goals and be aware of their
influences on future teachers or leaders.”
-Billy Jean Brown
Roles and Functions of the Teacher or Nurse
qInstructional Roles
qFaculty Roles
qIndividual Roles
Instructional Roles
q Planning and organizing courses.
q Creating and maintaining desirable group climate.
q Adapting teaching and preparation of instructional materials to
varying interests, needs and abilities of students.
q Motivating and challenging students to pursue and to sustain
learning activities.
Teaching involves a series of complex
q Supplying needed information or telling students where these information
may be obtained.
qExplaining, clarifying and interpreting.
qDemonstrating and explaining a procedure, process or exhibiting
qServing as a resource person for group projects or to individual students
qSupervising student’s performance in the classrooms, the laboratory in
their RLE and other settings.
qEvaluating all the planned teaching and learning activities and student
outcomes related to the courses assigned.
Faculty Roles
q Chairman, secretary or member of one or more committees.
q Counselor of students in academic or non- academic matters.
q Researcher, as a principal investigator or member of a research team.
q Resource person to groups inside or outside the institution, other schools
and health agencies.
q Representative to professional nursing organizations and other agencies.
q As public relations agent, she interprets the objectives and the policies of
her institution and helps in the recruitment, and support groups.
Individual Roles
• A faculty member assumes personal roles such that he or she is a
member of a:
q Family
qCommunity, and
qCountry as a citizen.
Principles of Good Teaching
Principles of Good Teaching Practices
q Facilitates student- teacher interaction.
q Encourages cooperation among students.
q Initiates active learning
q Gives prompt feedback
q Emphasizes the use of time in each task
q Communicates high expectations
q Respects diverse talents and ways of learning
Teaching Principles
q Hereditary Endowments' Principles
qRefer to the nature of the child, his or her psychological and physiological
qualities such as reflexes, instincts, capacities, impulses and temperaments
among others.
q Teaching Process Principles
qRefer to techniques used through which student and teacher may work
together toward the accomplishment of goals or objectives of education.
q Outcome Process Principles
qRefer to the educational aims, goals, objectives, outcomes, purposes, or
results of the educational scheme to which teaching and learning are
Guidelines in the Choice of Teaching and
Learning Methods
ü Suited to the objectives and the content of the course.
üAdapted to the capability of the student.
ü In accordance with sound psychological principles.
ü Used creatively.
ü Suit the teacher’s personality and capitalize on his or her special
Approaches to Teaching Skills
q Independent Learning
qThe teacher initiates an active self- regulated learning process among her
qThis includes the use of skills laboratory which the teacher should be
prepared for.
qA syllabus is developed with clear instructions on how learners should
proceed with the lesson.
qBackground reading materials are identified and made available.
qHardware and software must be selected and prepared for use.
qSupplies must be requested for and be made available beforehand.
q Demonstration
qIt is a method by which the teacher makes a direct display of the skills to be
q Simulations or exercises
qIt is meant to duplicate the real situation that requires the use of skills
laboratory to give students a realistic feel of the situation without subjecting
them to risks that might be involved.
Elements of Effective Skill Demonstrations
1. Assemble all equipment ahead of time.

2. Make sure all equipment are in working order.

3. Do a “dry run” of the procedure and time of the demonstration.

4. Arrange the environment to be as realistic as possible.

5. Perform the procedure in an orderly sequence.

6. When appropriate, give the rationale for your actions.

7. Refer to the handouts or textbooks to show fine points that may not be visible to the audience.

8. Be sure to adhere to all relevant principles of good nursing care.

9. Consider performing the skill a second time or having a learner perform a demonstration without
any explanation, to show the flow of the skill.
Evidence Based- Practices
Related to Health Education
Activity- Based Teaching Strategies
1. Cooperative Learning
2. Simulations
3. Writing to Learn
4. Problem- Based Learning
5. Concept Mapping
6. Self- Learning Modules
7. Debates
Cooperative Learning
q Involves structuring small groups of learners who work together
toward shared learning goals.
q This may be done through brainstorming activities, demonstrations
and return demonstrations and group projects.
q The following strategies are examples of cooperative learning.
qThink- Pair- Share
qNumbered – Heads Together
q Talking Chips
q Murder Script
• A cooperative learning strategy that
enables each student of a "home" group
to specialize in one aspect of a topic (for
example, one group studies habitats of
rainforest animals, another group studies
predators of rainforest animals).
• Students meet with members from other
groups who are assigned the same
aspect, and after mastering the material,
return to the "home" group and teach the
material to their group members.
• With this strategy, each student in the
"home" group serves as a piece of the
topic's puzzle and when they work
together as a whole, they create the
complete jigsaw puzzle.
Think- Pair- Share
• Think-Pair-Share (TPS) is a cooperative
learning strategy in which students work
together to solve a problem or answer a
question about an assigned reading.
• T : (Think) Teachers begin by asking a
specific question about the text. Students
"think" about what they know or have
learned about the topic.
• P : (Pair) Each student should be paired
with another student or a small group.
• S : (Share) Students share their thinking
with their partner. Teachers expand the
"share" into a whole-class discussion.
Number- Heads Together
• Numbered Heads Together is a
cooperative learning strategy
that holds each student
accountable for learning the
Talking Chips
• Each member of a team receives
an equal number of chips (or index
cards, tokens, etc.).
• When a team member wishes to
talk during the group discussion,
that person tosses a chip into the
center of the table.
• When individuals run out of chips,
they cannot talk anymore.
• The discussion continues until all
members of the group have used
all of their chips.
Murder Script
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cooperative
• Advantages
• Group members learn to function as part of a team
• Teaches or enhances social skills
• Inculcates the spirit of team- building
• Disadvantages
• Students who are fast learners may lag behind
• Learning gap may exist between the fast and slow learners
q Practical exercises for the students representing controlled
manipulation of reality.
q Used to evaluate students’ learning and competence.
q There are four types of simulation techniques:
qSimulation exercises
qSimulation game
qRole- playing
qCase Study
Simulation Exercise
q A controlled representation of a piece of reality that learners can
manipulate to better understand the real situation.
Simulation Game
q A game that represents real- life situations in which learners
compete according to a set of rules in order to win or achieve an
Role- playing
q A form of drama in which learners spontaneously act out roles
through interaction involving problems or challenges in human
Case Study
q An analysis of an incident or situation in which characters and
relationships are described, factual or hypothetical, events transpired
and problems that need to be resolved or solved.
Writing to Learn
q Actively influences students’ dispositions toward thinking and takes
active participation in learning.
qWriting serves as stimulus of critical thinking by immersing students
in the subject matter for cognitive utilization of knowledge and
effective internalization of values and beliefs.
q These activities include
qJournal writing
qJournal papers
qCreative writing assignment
qResearch articles
qPaper critique
Problem- based Learning
q An approach to learning that involves confronting students with real
life problems which they are meant to solve on their own.
q It provides stimulus for critical thinking and self- taught content.
q It is based on the premise that students, working together in small
groups, will analyze a case, identify their own needs for information
and solve problems.
Differences between Problem Based Learning
and Simulation
PBL Simulation

q Conducted in small groups. q May be used by individuals or groups.

q Students using PBL have little q Students using simulation have most
background knowledge of subject of the background knowledge they
matter. need to apply to the case.
q Cases are usually brief and problems q Cases are often long and detailed and
are ill structured. problems are fairly well defined.
Concept Mapping
q Lends visual assistance to students when asked to demonstrate their
thinking in a graphic manner to show interconnectedness of concepts
or ideas.
qHelps students see their own thinking and reasoning of a topic, to
depict relationship among factors, causes and effects.
Self- learning Modules
q The student is provided with the materials needed for the learning
process without the intervention of the teacher.
q They are also called self- directed learning modules, self- paced learning
modules, self- learning packets, and individual learning activity packages.
qComponents of a self- learning module consists of:
qIntroduction and instructions
qBehavioral objectives
qLearning activities
qSelf- evaluations
q Post test
q A strategy that fosters critical thinking which requires in- depth recall
of topics for supporting evidence and for developing one’s position in
a controversial issue.
q it encourages analytical skills, recognizes complex issues or
concerns, permits students to consider alternative options with
freedom to change one’s mind based on information, data and
enhances communication skills and listening skills.
New Technologies, New Settings
and Environment Linkages
Computer Teaching Strategies
q Used to communicate information to students and nurses in a time-
saving way and to teach critical thinking and problem- solving
q These provide simulations of reality, educate from a distance where
students can study without going to the school.
Computer Assisted Instructions (CBI)
q Refers to virtually any kind of computer used in educational settings
including the following:
qDrill and practice
qTutorials, simulations
qInstructional management
qSupplementary exercises
qProgramming and other applications
qDatabase development
q Writing using word processors
q A worldwide and publicly accessible series of interconnected
computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the
standard Internet Protocol (IP).
q It is a “network of networks” that consists of millions of smaller
domestic, academic, business and government networks which
together carry various information and internet based services, such
as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked
webpages, networking and other resources of the World Wide Web
or www.
Virtual Reality
q A technology which allows the user to interact with a computer-
simulated environment, real or imagined.
q Often used to describe a wide variety of applications, commonly
associated with its immersive, highly visual, 3D environments.
Distance Learning
q This method includes computer learning and other ways of
giving instructions to students without the usual classroom
setting such as teleconferencing or use of telephone
q It encompasses correspondence courses and courses
delivered by satellite, television and broadcasting or
telephone lines.
q It involves two-way audio and video technology.
Advantages and Disadvantages
q Advantages
qPeople from the rural areas or those who are homebound can have greater access to
information and even educational degrees.
qA larger variety of courses are accessible.
qAbility to learn on one’s own time frame, the self- directed nature of the learning
experience and the opportunity to learn more about technology.
q Disadvantages
qThere is lack of face-to-face contact or non-interactive process with the teacher.
qTechnology problems which may be similar to systems shutting down and being
qSome may not learn well with less structured educational experience.
qOthers may struggle to use technology while learning the content at the same time.
Clinical Teaching
Related Learning Experience (RLE) or
• Requires learning by doing.
• Teachers guide students in acquiring knowledge and learning nursing
• The teacher also guides students in the formulation of nursing care
plans and expectations upon completion of the activity.
Traditional Model
• The oldest and common model of clinical teaching where the teacher
selects clinical activities that best meet the students’ needs and are
consistent with course goals and objectives.
• The clinical instructor has the primary responsibility for instruction,
supervision, and evaluation for a small group of nursing students,
usually 8-10 students, and is on site during the clinical experience.
(the CI has maximum control of both learning and evaluation,
concepts and skills)
Faculty- Directed Independent Experience
q This model is used in community-based settings and to minimize the
number of students requiring direct faculty supervision in acute or
varied settings. this is situated in large geographic area and the
faculty are miles away from their students. (school nursing,
orphanages, healthcare agencies, day care centers)
Collaborative Model
• Address the fiscal issue concerning cost associated with clinical
instruction when student-faculty ratio is very high.
• Hospital staff and clinical faculty share nursing practice. Hospital staff
and clinical faculty share the teaching role.
• Following are three ways of collaborative teaching:
• Clinical teaching associate (CTA)
• Clinical teaching partner (CTP) model
• Clinical Educator/paired model
Preceptor Model
• An expert nurse in the clinical setting works with the student on a
one-on-one basis.
• Preceptors are staff nurses and other nurses employed by the clinical
agency who can provide onsite clinical instructions for assigned
• The preceptor guides and supports learners and serves as a role
Other Teaching Strategies
• Peer review assignments • Previous discussions
• Informal socializing • Special interest groups
• Student presentations • Exercise in communication
• Structure seminar • Brainstorming
• Public tutorial • Real World references
• Reflective Journals • Guest Lecturers
• Peer learning groups • Authentic tasks
• Role playing • Socratic dialogue
• Small groupworks on comparative
Classroom Management
• Refers to the operation and control of classroom activities, the
mechanical aspects of handling classes such as classroom policies and
regulations for seating arrangement, attendance, handling
instructional materials and equipment, and discipline during class
period. The teacher who can manage the classroom well provides
students with opportunities for mental growth and development
Principles of Classroom Management
1. Design classroom activities appropriate to the course content or
subject matter
2. Orientation of students on the first day of class regarding the
internal policies on punctuality, behavior, course requirements, and
criteria for grading and evaluation
3. Compliance with the administrative policies on handling of teaching
aids or materials and equipment.
4. Adequate student-teacher interaction to arouse enthusiasm.
5. More positive and optimistic in dealing with students particularly in
citing practical examples of learning principles.
6. Sanctions for misbehavior should be more constructive rather than
7. Come to class with resource unit or clinical focus.
8. Presents the learning expectations or do’s and don'ts of learning
9. Demonstrate to students’ desired behavior which she wants her
students to imitate.
10. Develops a sense of familiarization in order that everyone in the
class has a feeling of belongingness in sharing the same values and
Teaching Psychomotor Skills
• Another aspect of teaching which, in the nursing environment, is vital
considering the hands-on nature of the nursing practice.
• This is action-oriented and requires neuromuscular coordination. It
promotes patient healing and/or comfort.
Vital considerations in teaching psychomotor
• Appropriate for the objective of the course
• Adapted to the capacity of students
• According to sound psychological principles, motivation and interest
of the students
• Appropriate to the teacher’s personality and capitalize on her special
• Creative and stimulates students interest to learn
Assignment: Evidence- based Report (EBR)
I. Title/ Topic
I. Topic must be related to the subject Health Education
II. Research Findings
I. Findings must be synthesized;
III. Conclusion
I. Direct statement of the outcome of the study
IV. Analysis
I. How would the study affect the nursing profession
V. Reference
I. APA style; website address if taken from internet
II. Can be taken from journals, magazines and internet