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Designation: C 473 ± 03

Standard Test Methods for


1
Physical Testing of Gypsum Panel Products
This standard is issued under the ®xed designation C 473; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.09. 

1. Scope* 
1.1 These test methods cover the physical testing of
gypsum panel products. 
1.2 The test methods appear in the following
order: 

Flexural Strength (Method A)


Core, End and Edge Hardness (Method A)
Nail Pull Resistance (Method A)
Flexural Strength (Method B)
Core, End and Edge Hardness (Method B)
Nail Pull Resistance (Method B)
Humidi®ed De¯ection
End Squareness
Nominal Thickness
Recessed- or Tapered Edge Depth
Width
Length
Water Resistance of Core-Treated Water-Repellent
Gypsum Panel Products
Surface Water Resistance of Gypsum Panel Products
with Water-Repellent Surfaces

1.3 The text of these test methods references notes
and footnotes that provide explanatory material.
These  notes  and footnotes,  excluding those in
tables  and   ®gures,  shall  not  be   considered   as
requirements of these test methods. 
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of
the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this
standard   to   establish   appro­priate   safety   and
health   practices   and   determine   the   applica­
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 

2. Referenced Documents 
2.1 ASTM Standards: 
C 11 Terminology Relating to Gypsum and 
Related Build­ing Materials and Systems2
D 3285 Test Method for Water 
Absorptiveness of Nonbibu­lous Paper and 
Paperboard (Cobb Test)3

1
These   test   methods   are   under   the   jurisdiction   of   ASTM
Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and
Systems   and   are   the   direct   responsi­bility   of   Subcommittee
C11.01   on   Speci®cations   and   Test   Methods   for   Gypsum
Products. 
Current edition approved June 10, 2003. Published August
2003.   Originally   approved   in   1961.   Last   previous   edition
approved in 2000 as C 473 ± 00. 
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.01. 
relative humidity of 50 6 
2 %  (Note  1).  Test  specimens  individually  after
E 4  Practices for Force Veri®cation of  constant  weight  is reached and within 10 min
Testing Machines4 upon removal from the conditioning chamber. 
3. Terminology  NOTE  1ÐLaboratory   test   results   indicated   that
conditioning tempera­tures may range from 70 to 100°F
3.1 De®nitions   used   in   these   test   methods   are   in (21 to 38°C) without signi®cantly affecting the results.
accordance with Terminology C 11.  However, relative humidity is critical. This is the reason
3.2 De®nitions   of   Terms   Speci®c   to   This for testing specimens within 10 min upon removal from
Standard:  the conditioning chamber.
3.2.1 edge, nÐthe paper­bound edge, or long
edge, as manufactured.  Method AÐConstant Rate of 
3.2.2 ends,  nÐthe   end   perpendicular   to   the Loading
paper­bound edge or long edge. 
INTRODUCTION
4. Sampling  The   following   procedures   are   applicable   to
4.1 For   use   in   these   test   methods,   a   sample   shall so­called   ªshot   machinesº   that   utilize   lead   or
consist of not less than 0.25 % of the number of steel shot that applies a load to the specimen at a
gypsum panel  products in a shipment, but not constant   stress   rate   or   any   other   device   that
less   than   three   gypsum   panel   products.   Test applies the load at a constant stress rate.
specimens shall be taken from the sample lot as
indicated in each method. 

5. Conditioning 
5.1 Condition   specimens   to   constant   weight   at   a 4
 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
temperature   of   85  6  15°F   (29.5  6  8.5°C)   and

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
C 473 ± 03

6. App Method
arat ÐFlexu
ral
usÐ
properti
Met es   of
hod gyp­
A  sum
6.1 Testing panel
Machin product
eÐAppl s   are
y   the evaluat
test ed   by
load   at support
a ing   the
uniform specim
rate  of en   near
1   lbf/s the
(4.45 ends
N/s) and
610   %. applyin
Apply g   a
the load transver
with   a se   load
device midway
indepen betwee
dent   of n   the
manual support
control s. 
of   the 7.2 Signi®
rate   of cance
loading and
during UseÐT
an his   test
individ method
ual covers
sample a   pro­
test (see cedure
Fig.   1). for
The evaluati
deform ng   the
ation of ability
the of
specim gypsum
en panel
controls product
the s   to
cross withsta
head nd
speed.  ˉexural
stresses
7. Flex during
ural handlin
Stre g or use
ngth of   the
(Met materia
hod l.   This
A)  test
method
7.1 Summa
is   used
ry   of
to
Test
determi be   true,
ne shall
complia engage
nce the   full
with width
gypsum of   the
panel test
product specim
speci® en,
cations. shall be
The of   such
degree strength
of they
correlat will not
ion deform
betwee under
n   this the   test
test and load,
service and
perform shall be
ance rounde
has   not d   to   a
been radius
fully of
determi 0.125
ned.  in.   (3.2
7.3 A mm).
p The
p specim
a en
r support
a s   shall
t be
u spaced
s 14  6
Ð 0.016
S in. (356
e 6 0.41
e mm) on
S centers
e measur
c ed   at
t the
i points
o of
n surface
6 contact
. with the
1 specim
.  en.   The
7.3.1 support
Specim s   shall
en be
Suppor attache
tsÐAll d   to   a
specim plate
en that
bearing shall be
support rigidly
s   and attache
load d to the
surface test
s   shall apparat
us.   The parallel
support to   the
s   shall bearing
be surface
parallel of   the
to   each specim
other en
and support
perpend s.   The
icular specim
to   the en   and
long support
dimensi s   shall
on   of be
the   test located
specim so   that
en.   The the
bearing vertical
surface axis
of   the through
end the
support center
s   shall of   the
be   on load­
the bearing
same surface
plane to passes
ensure through
contact the
along specim
the en   at
entire one half
bearing of   the
surface specim
s. en
Support width
s   shall and one
be   not half   of
less the
than   12 distanc
in. (305 e
mm)   in betwee
length. n   the
When a support
load   is s.
being 7.4 S
applied, a
the m
loading p
bar l
shall be i
in n
contact g
with the Ð
full S
width a
of   the m
specim p
en.   The li
load­ n
bearing g
surface s
shall be h
a in.
l dimensi
l on
b parallel
e to   the
i edge
n
a
c
c
o
r
d
a
n
c
e
FIG. 1 Apparatus Schematic for
w
i Core,
t End,
h and
S Edge
e Hardn
c ess
­ Test
tion 4. 
7.5 T
e
s
t
S
p
e
c
i
m
e
n
s

7.5.1
Cut four
specime
ns,   each
12   in.
(305
mm)   by
approxi­
mately
16   in.
(406
mm)
from
each
gypsum
panel
product
in   the
sample,
two
having
the   16­
and two7.6.1
having Use   the
the   16­ apparat
in. us   in
dimensi 7.3,
on support
perpend ing
icular each
to   the specim
edge. en
Cut   the centrall
specime y   on
ns   not the
less ®xed
than   4 parallel
in. (102 bearing
mm) s,   14­
away in. (356
from mm) on
the centers,
ends and
and apply
edges the load
of   the on   a
gypsum similar
panel bearing
product midwa
except y
where betwee
the n   the
product support
is 24­in. s.
or   less Positio
in n
width, perforat
where it ed
is gypsum
impossi lath   so
ble   to the load
do so. is   not
7.5. applied
2  over
perforat
Co
ions. 
ndit
ion  7.6.2
For
spe
specim
cim
ens
ens 
with
in  the
acc long
ord dimensi
anc on
e  parallel
wit to   the
h  edge,
Sec test one
tion specim
5.  en from
7.6  each
Pr gypsum
oce panel
dur product
e: face   up
and   the the
other bond
face betwee
down. n   the
For surfacin
specim g   and
ens the core
with before
the transver
long se
dimensi failure
on of   the
perpen gypsum
dicular panel
to   the product
edge, .   If   a
test one single
specim specime
en from n   fails,
each test two
gypsum addition
panel al
product specime
face   up ns   from
and   the the
other same
face
sample,
down. 
and,   if
7.6.3 either
For   gypsum one   of
panel the   two
product specime
s   with n   fail,
surfacin the
g sample
material has
,   the failed.
load   is For
determi gypsum
ned   at panel
the time product
of s
transver without
se surfacin
failure g
of   the material
surfacin ,   the
g load   is
material deter­
and mined
core at   the
through time   of
the transver
thickne se
ss   of failure
the through
specime the
n.   The thickne
specime ss   of
ns   shall the
not specime
show   a n. 
break in
7.7 Report
ÐCalcu (Met
late and hod
report A) 
the
average 8.1 Summa
breakin ry   of
g   load Test
in Method
pound­ ÐThe
force or core,
newton end,
s   for and
each edge
test hardnes
conditi s   of
on, gypsum
rounde panel
d to the product
nearest s   is
1   lbf evaluate
(N). d   by
The test determi
conditi ning the
ons are: force
(1) required
parallel
to   push
,   face
a   steel
up;   (2)
punch
parallel
into   the
,   face
down; area   of
(3) test. 
perpen 8.2 Signi®
dicular, cance
face up; and
and, (4) UseÐT
perpen his   test
dicular, method
face covers
down.  a   pro­
7.8 Precisi cedure
on   and for
BiasÐT evaluati
he ng   the
precisio ability
n   and of   the
bias for gypsum
this test panel
method product
has   not core,
been ends,
determi and
ned.  edges
to resist
8. Cor crushin
e, g
End, during
and handlin
Edg g or use
e of   the
Har materia
dnes l.   This
test
s
method
is   used the steel
to punch
determi to   the
ne moving
compli­ head   of
ance the   test
with apparat
gypsum us,
panel position
product ed   so
speci® that   its
cations. center
The axis   is
degree parallel
of eith   the
correlat line   of
ion travel
betwee and   so
n   these that   the
test punch is
method inserted
s   and into   the
service core
perfor­ equidist
mance ant
has   not from
been the
determi surfaces
ned.  of   the
8.3 Appara specime
tusÐSee n. Use a
6.1. steel
Clamp punch
or 0.099  6
secure 0.003
the in.
specime (2.515
n to  the 6  0.076
base   of mm)   in
the   test diamete
apparat r   and
us more
shown than  1¤2
in Fig. 1 in. (12.7
with the mm)
face   of long
the with the
specime bearing
n surface
perpend machin
icular to ed   to   a
the base 90°
of   the angle in
test referenc
apparat e   to   the
us   and punch
parallel center
to   the line (see
movem Fig.   1
ent   of for   test
the steel setup
punch. schemat
Secure ic). 
2
C 473 ± 03

8.4 S Core
a Hardne
m ssÐUsi
p ng   a
l table   or
i band
n saw,
g cut   one
Ð specim
S en from
a the
m center
p of   each
li of   the
n three
g gypsum
s panel
h product
a samples
ll approxi
b mately
e 12   by
i not   less
n than   3
a in. (305
c by   76
c mm),
o
with the
r
12­in.
d
dimensi
a
on
n
perpend
c
icular
e
w to   the
it edges
h of   the
S product
e s,   for   a
c total   of
­ not   less
tion 4.  than
three
8.5 T
e specim
s ens.
t The
S smaller,
p not   less
e than   3
c in.,
i dimen­
m sion
e will
n vary
s dependi
:  ng   on
8.5.1 the
Specimens speci®c
for punch
length 8.5.1
and from
opening one
in   the mill­cut
testing end   of
machin the
es. gypsum
Place panel
the product
sample ,   with
in   the the   12­
tester, in.
with the (305­
loading mm)
arm   in dimensi
a on
horizon perpend
icular
tal
to   the
position
edges,
and
for   a
with the
total   of
punch
not   less
resting
than
on   the three
specim specim
en. Saw ens,
cuts and   run
along tests
the   12­ only   on
in. the
dimensi mill­cut
on shall end   of
be the
smooth specim
and ens. 
square 8.5.3
with the Specimens
smaller for
(not Edge
less Hardne
than   3­ ssÐCut
in.) specim
dimensi ens   the
on,   as same
well   as size and
with the method
specim as
describ
en. 
ed   in
8.5.2 8.5.1
Specimens from
for End the
Hardne opposit
ssÐCut e   edges
specim of   each
ens   the gypsum
same panel
size and product
method ,   with
as the   12
describ in. (305
ed   in mm)
dimensi
on   of the next
the two test
specim areas
ens approxi
parallel mately
with the 4   in.
edges, (102
for   a mm)
total   of apart. 
not   less 8.5.4
than six Conditi
specim on
ens. For spe
gypsum cim
panel
ens
product
in
s   with
acc
surfacin
g ord
materia anc
l,   cut   a e
1
¤4  to wit
1 h
¤2­in.
Sec
(6   to
tion
13­mm)
5. 
strip   of
surfacin 8.6
g Proced
materia ureÐUs
l   from ing   the
the apparat
edge   of us   in
the   test 8.3,
specim clamp
ens or
expos­ secure
ing   the the
core for specim
test. en   in   a
Remov ®xed
e   as vertical
little   of position
the core on   its
as 12   in.
possibl (305
e   when mm)
removi dimensi
ng   the on edge
surfacin (see
g Fig.   1
materia for   test
l. setup
Prepare schema
the ®rst tic.   If
test necessa
area 2 6 ry,
1
¤2  in. modify
(51  6 the
13 mm) ˉexural
from strength
one test
edge   of equipm
the ent   to
specim conduct
en, with the
core, push
end, the
and steel
edge punch a
hardnes distanc
s   test). e of  1¤2
Place in.   (13
this test mm)
surface into   the
not   less core   of
than   1 the
in.   (25 specim
mm) en.
above 8.6.1
the grip Procedure
of   the
for
specim
Core
en
Hardne
holder.
ssÐTest
Conduc
either
t   three
tests of   the
spaced 12­in.
approxi (305­
mately mm)
4   in. saw   cut
(102 edges,
mm) for   a
apart on total   of
each not   less
specim than
en, with nine
the ®rst tests
test (three
area 2 6 per
1
¤2 in. specim
(51 6 en). 
13 mm) 8.6.2
from Proced
one ure
edge   of for
the En
specim d
en. Ha
Positio rdn
n   the ess
steel ÐT
punch est
over the the
test 12­
area in.
and
(30
apply
5­ 
the
load. am) mill­cut
Report end, for
as   the a   total
core, of   not
end,   or less
edge than
hardnes nine
s   the tests
load (three
require per
d   to specim
en). 
8.6.3 8.7Report
Procedure ÐRepor
for t   the
Edge core,
Hardne end,
ssÐTest and
areas edge
along hardnes
the  12­ s   indi­
in. vidually
(305­ as   the
mm) average
edge, load   in
for   a pounds­
total   of force or
not   less newton
than s
eightee rounded
n tests ( to   the
three nearest
per 1   lbf
specim (N).
en). For Discard
product any
s   with single
surfacin test
g value
materia that
l,   test varies
where from
the the
surfacin average
g by
materia more
l   has than   15
been %   and
remove repeat
d.  the   test
on   the
same
sample
to
obtain a
new
value. 
8.8 Precisi
on   and
BiasÐT
he
precisio
n   and
bias   of
this   test
method
has   not
been
determi
ned. 

9. Nail
Pull
Resi
stan
ce a
(Met standard
hod nail
A)  head
through
9.1 Summa
the
ry   of
product.
Test
This test
Method
method
ÐThe
ability is   used
of to
gypsum determi
panel ne
product complia
s   to nce with
resist gypsum
nail panel
pull­ product
through speci®c
is ations.
evaluat The
ed   by degree
determi of
ning the correlati
load on
require between
d   to these
push   a test
standar methods
d   nail and
head service
through
perform
the
ance has
product
not been

determi
9.2 Signi®c
ned. 
ance
and 9.3 Appara
tusÐSe
UseÐTh
e   6.1.
is   test
This
method apparat
covers a us   shall
pro­ be   used
cedure with
for either
evaluati of   the
ng   the specime
ability n
of support
gypsum plates
panel in   9.3.1
products or
to   resist 9.3.2. 
nail 9.3.1
pull­ Fig.   2
through shows   a
by schemat
determi ic   of   a
ning   the nail pull
load resistan
ce
required
apparatu
to   force
s
adaptabl vertical
e   to   a axis
typical through
ˉexural the
strength center
apparatu of   the
s nail
commo shank
nly used passes
in   the through
gypsum the
industry center
.   The of   the
specime hole   in
n the
support support
plate plate.
shall The   test
have   a nail
3­in. shank
(76­ shall   be
mm) 0.099  6
diamete 0.003
r hole in in.
the (2.515 6
center. 0.076
The mm)   in
support diamete
plate r   and
shall   be the   nail
not   less head
than   6 shall   be
by   6   in. 0.2506
(152   by 0.005
152 in.
mm).   It (6.350 6
shall   be 0.127
attached mm)   in
to   the diamete
apparatu r.   The
s   as nail
necessar shall   be
y   to attached
maintai at   the
n   the head   to
surface the
of   the movable
plate cross
perpend head   of
icular to the   test
the apparatu
travel of s.   This
the   test attachm
nail. ent shall
The not
support exceed
plate the
must diamete
also   be r   of   the
located nail
so   that head
the and
shall   be nail   is
placed not
directly attache
over   the d at  the
head.   It head   to
shall the
also   be movabl
attached e   cross
so   that head   of
the the   test
vertical apparat
axis us.   The
through alternat
the   nail e
shank   is apparat
parallel us
with   the utilizes
travel.  a
9.3.2 machin
Fig.   3 ed
shows a plunger
schemat with the
ic of an nail
alternat head
e   nail and
pull shank
resistan incorpo
ce rated   as
apparat an 
us
adaptab
le   to   a
typical
ˉexural
strength
apparat
us
commo
nly
used   in
the FIG.
gypsum 2
industry App
.   This arat
appa­ us
ratus Sch
mirrors em
all   of atic
the for
require Nail
ments -
of Pull
9.3.1, Res
except ista
that   the nce
Test

3
C 473 ± 03

FIG. 3 Nail Pull Specimen Support Plate


perpendicular to
the test 
integral part of  specimen.
the plunger. The 9.4 
plunger ®ts into SamplingÐSam
a bushing that  pling shall be in 
keeps the nail  accordance with
aligned  Sec­tion 4.
the   width   of
each   48­in.
9.5  Test  (1220­mm)
Specimens: gypsum   panel
9.5.1 Cut ®ve product   starting
specimens   6   by not   less   than   4
6   in.   (152   by in. (102 mm) in
152 mm) from a from the
strip   cut   across

4
C 473 ± 03

edge. in
Cut   a acc
total   of ord
®ve anc
specime e
ns   from wit
more h
than Sec
one   full tion
width 5. 
strip 9.6 Proced
from ureÐUsi
gypsum ng   the
panel apparatu
product s in 9.3,
s   less center
than   38 the
in. (965 specime
mm) n   face
wide. up   on
Do   not the   base
cut   the plate
specime and
n closer manuall
than   3 y   lower
in.   (76
the   test
mm)
nail,
from
insertin
the
g   the
product
edges. nail
shank in
9.5.2
Drill   a  7¤64­ the pilot
in. hole,
(2.778­ until the
mm) nail
diamete head   is
r   pilot ˉush
hole with   the
through
the surface
thickne of   the
ss   of specime
the n.
gypsum Apply
panel the   load
product
in   the until the
center maximu
of   each m   load
test is
specime achieve
n   and d.
perpend Normall
icular
to   the y,   this
surface. will
9.5.3 occur as
Conditi the   nail
on head
spe breaks
cim through
ens the
gypsum on
panel st
product an
surface.  t 
9.7 Report R
ÐCalcu at
late   the

average
of 
maximu
m   load Cr
in os
pounds­ s 
force or H
newton ea
s, d 
rounded Sp
to   the ee
nearest
d
1   lbf
(N).
Discard
any
single
test that
varies
from
the
average
by
more
than   15
%.   If
more
than   15
%   of
the   test
values
are
discard
ed,
repeat
the test.
9.8 Precisi
on   and
BiasÐT
he
precisio
n   and
bias   of
this  test
method
has   not
been
determi
ned. 

M
et
ho

B
Ð
C
correlat support
ion s   shall
betwee be
n   this spaced
test   and 14  6
service 0.016
perform in. (356
ance 6  0.41
has   not mm) on
been centers
fully measur
determi ed   at
ned. the
11.3   points
Appa of
ratus surface
ÐSee contact
Secti with the
on  specime
10. n.   The
support
11.3.
s   shall
1
be
Specim
attache
en
d   to   a
Support
plate
sÐAll
that
bearing
shall   be
support
rigidly
s   and
attache
load
d to the
surfaces
test
shall   be
apparat
true,
us. Test
shall
specime
engage
n
the   full
support
width
s   shall
of   the
be
test
parallel
specime
to   each
n,   shall
other
be   of
and
such
perpen­
strength
dicular
they
to   the
will   not
long
deform
dimensi
under
on   of
the   test
the   test
load,
specime
and
n.   The
shall   be
bearing
rounded
surface
to   a
of   the
radius
end
of
support
0.125
s   shall
in.   (3.2
be   on
mm).
the
The
same
specime
plane to
n
ensure
contact n
along support
the s.   The
entire specime
bearing n   and
surfaces specime
. n
Support support
s   shall s   shall
be   not be
less located
than   12 so   that
in. (305 the
mm)   in vertical
length. axis
When   a through
load   is the
being center
applied, of   the
the load­
loading bearing
bar surface
shall   be passes
in through
contact the
with the specime
full n at one
width half   of
of   the the
specime specime
n.   The n   width
load­ and one
bearing half   of
surface the
shall   be distance
parallel betwee
to   the n   the
bearing support
surface s   (see
of   the Fig. 4).
specime
and data
INTRODUC
acquisiti
TION
on
The
equipm
followin
ent   to
g
gather
procedu
informa
res   are
tion
applicab
about
le to so­
the
called
specime
univer­
n   being
sal   test
tested.
machine
The
s. These
instrum
instrum
ents
ents
generall
often
y in use
use
move
electron
the
ic   load
cross
cells
head   at m   of
a the   test
constant equipm
speed, ent
as shall be
opposed of
to sufficie
having nt   size
the to
deforma accept
tion   on the
the specim
en
specime
holder
n
and
control
load
cross
applyin
head
g
speed, apparat
which us.   The
would testing
be   a machin
true e   shall
constant be
rate   of power
strain operate
instrum d   and
ent. shall
apply
10. Ap the load
par continu
atu ously
s  and
without
10.1Testing
shock. 
Machin
e,   of 10.2The test
any apparat
type us   shall
that   is be
of veri®e
sufficie d
nt accordi
capacit ng   to
y   and Practice
that   is s   E   4,
capable the
of three
providi sections
ng   a titled
rate   of ªBasis
loading of
at   a Veri®c
strain ation,º
rate   of ªCorrec
1.0 tions,º
in./min and
6  5   s ªTime
(25 Interval
mm/mi Betwee
n  6  5 n
s).   The Veri®c
load ations.º 
platfor 10.3Load­
Indicati
ng transver
Equipm se   load
ent, midway
capable betwee
of n   the
reading support
to  1­lbf s. 
(4.45­ 11.2Signi®
N) cance
increme and
nts, UseÐT
shall be his   test
provide method
d   for covers
the   test a
apparat procedu
us.   A re   for
means evaluati
shall be ng   the
provide ability
d   to of
indicate gypsum
the panel
maxim product
um load s   to
attained withsta
during nd
the test. ˉexural
stresses
11. Fle during
xur handlin
al g or use
Str of   the
eng materia
th l.   This
(M test
method
eth
is   used
od
to
B)  determi
11.1Summa ne
ry   of complia
Test nce
Method with
ÐFlexu gypsum
ral panel
properti product
es   of speci®
gyp­ cations.
sum The
panel degree
product of 
s   are
evaluat
ed   by
support
ing   the
specim
en   near
the
ends
and
applyin
g   a
11.4S m
a e
m n
p :
l  
i11.5.1
nCut   four
g specime
Ð ns, each
S 12   in.
a (305
m mm) by
p approxi
l mately
i 16   in.
n (406
g mm)
  from
s each
h gypsum
a panel
l product
l in   the
  sample,
b two
e having
  the   16­
i in.
n dimensi
  on
a parallel
c to   the
c edge
o and two
r having
d the   16­
a in.
n dimensi
c on
e perpend
  icular
w to   the
i edge.
t Cut   the
h specime
  ns   not
S less
e than   4
c in. (102
­ mm)
  away
tion 4.  from
the
11.5T ends
e and
s edges
t of   the
  gypsum
S panel
p product
e except
c where
i the
product is   not
is 24­in. applied
or   less over
in perforat
width, ions. 
where it11.6.2
is For
impossi specime
ble   to ns   with
do so.  the long
11.5.2 dimensi
Conditio on
parallel
n
to   the
speci edge,
men test   one
s   in specime
acco n   from
rdan each
gypsum
ce
panel
with product
Secti face   up
on 5. and   the
11.6 other
Proc face
down.
edur
For
e:  specime
11.6.1 ns   with
Use   the the long
apparat dimensi
us   in on
11.3, perpend
supporti icular
ng   each to   the
specime edge,
n test   one
centrall specime
y on the n   from
®xed each
parallel gypsum
support panel
s, 14­in. product
(356­ face   up
mm) on and   the
centers, other
and face
apply down. 
the load11.6.3
on   aFor   gypsum
similar panel
bearing product
midway s   with
betwee surfacin
n   the
g
support
material
s.
,   the
Position
load   is
perforat
determi
ed
ned   at
gypsum
the time
lath   so
the load of
transver al
se specime
failure ns   from
of   the the
surfacin same
g sample,
material and,   if
and either
core one   of
through the   two
the specime
thickne ns   fail,
ss   of the
the sample
specime has
n.   The failed.
specime For
ns   shall gypsum
not panel
show   a product
break in s
the without
bond surfacin
betwee g
n   the material
surfacin ,   the
g   and load   is
the core deter­
before mined
transver at   the
se time   of
failure transver
of   the se
gypsum failure
panel through
product the
.   If   a thickne
single ss   of
specime the
n   fails, specime
test two n. 
addition

5
C 473 ± 03

FIG. 4 Testing Machine


r
11.7ReportÐ e
Calculat c
e   and i
report s
the i
average o
breakin n
g  load  
in a
pounds­ n
force   or d
newtons  
for  each B
test i
conditio a
n, s
rounded :
to   the 11.8.1
nearest PrecisionÐT
1   lbf he 95 %
(N). The repeatab
test ility
conditio limit   of
ns   are: the   Par­
(1) allel,
parallel, Face Up
face   up; (Method
(2) B)   test
parallel, is   the
face test
down; result
(3) 64.796
perpend lbf
icular, [21.33
face   up; N].   The
and,   (4) 95   %
perpend reprodu
icular, cibility
face limit   of
down.  the
11.8P Parallel,
Face Up 95   %
(Method reprodu
B)   test cibility
is   the limit   of
test the
result Across,
68.992 Face Up
lbf (Method
[40.00 B)   test
N].  is   the
11.8.2 test
PrecisionÐT result
he 95 % 613.368
repeatab lbf
ility [59.46
limit   of N]. 
the   Par­ 11.8.4
allel, PrecisionÐT
Face he 95 %
Down repeatab
(Method ility
B)   test limit   of
is   the the
test Across,
result Face
65.087 Down
lbf (Method
[22.63 B)   test
N].   The is   the
95   % test
reprodu result
cibility 611.704
limit   of lbf
the [52.06
Parallel, N].   The
Face 95   %
Down reprodu
(Method cibility
B)   test limit   of
is   the the
test Across,
result Face
67.370 Down
lbf (Method
[32.78 B)   test
N].  is   the
11.8.3 test
PrecisionÐT result
he 95 % 619.429
repeatab lbf
ility [86.42
limit   of N]. 
the 11.8.5
Across, BiasÐNo
Face Up informat
(Method ion   can
B)   test be
is   the presente
test d on the
result bias  of
610.290 the
lbf procedu
[45.77 re   in
N].   The these
test and
methods UseÐTh
for is   test
measuri method
ng   the covers a
Flexural procedu
Strength re   for
(Method evaluati
B) ng   the
because ability
there   is of   the
no gypsum
material panel
having product
an core,
accepte ends,
d and
referenc edges to
e value.  resist
crushing
12. Cor
during
e,
han­
En dling   or
d, use   of
and the
Edg material
e .   This
Har test
dne method
ss is   used
(Me to
tho determi
ne
d
complia
B) 
nce with
12.1 Summar gypsum
y of Test panel
Method product
ÐThe speci®c
core, a­tions.
end,   and The
edge degree
hardness of
of correlati
gypsum on
panel between
products this   test
is method
evaluate and
d   by service
determin perform
ing   the ance has
force not been
required fully
to push a determi
steel ned. 
punch
into   the
area   of
test. 
12.2Signi®c
ance
position
12.3   ed   so
Appa that   the
ratus punch is
ÐSee  inserted
Sectio into   the
n 10. core
equidist
12.3.1
ant from
A   means   of
the
securing
surfaces
the
of   the
specime
specime
n   to   the
n.   The
base   of
steel
the   test
punch
apparatu
shall   be
s   shall
be 0.099  6
provide 0.003
d.   The in.
face   of (2.515  6
the 0.076
specime mm)   in
n   shall diameter
be and
perpend more
icular to than  1¤2
the   base in. (12.7
of   the mm)
test long
apparatu with   the
s   and bearing
parallel surface
to   the machine
moveme d   to   a
nt of the 90°
steel angle   in
punch. referenc
The e   to   the
steel punch
punch center
shall   be line (see
secured Fig.   5
to   the and   Fig.
moving 6). 
head   of 12.4S
the   test a
apparatu m
s.   It p
shall   be l
position i
ed   so n
that   its g
center Ð
axis   is S
parallel a
with   the m
line   of p
l
travel. It
i
also
n
shall   be
g n   not
  less
s than   12
h by 3 in.
a (305   by
l 76   mm)
l from
b the
e center
  of   each
i gypsum
n panel
  product,
a for   a
c total   of
c not   less
o than
r three
d specime
a
ns.   The
n
12­in.
c
(305­
e
mm)
 
dimensi
w
on   shall
i
t be
h perpend
  icular to
S the
e edges of
c the
­ gypsum
  panel
tion 4.  product.
Cuts
12.5T
along
e
s the   12
t in.   (305
  mm)
S dimensi
p on   shall
e be
c smooth
i and
m perpend
e icular to
n the   face
s of   the
: specime
12.5.1 n. 
Specimens 12.5.2
for Specimens
Core for   End
Hardne Hardne
ssÐUsi ssÐCut
ng   a a
table   or specime
band n   not
saw, cut less
a than   12
specime by 3 in.
(305   by speci­
76   mm) mens.
from Cut   the
one 12­in.
mill­cut (305­
end   of mm)
each dimensi
gypsum on
panel parallel
product, to   the
for   a edge   of
total   of the
not   less gypsum
panel
than
product.
three
For
specime
gypsum
ns.   Cut
panel
the   12­ products
in. with
(305­ surfacin
mm) g
dimensi material
on ,   cut   a
perpend 1
¤4  to
icular to 1
¤2­in.
the
(6 to 13­
edges of mm)
the strip   of
gypsum surfacin
panel g
product. material
12.5.3 from the
Specimens edge   of
for the   test
Edge specime
Hardne ns
ssÐCut expos­
a ing   the
specime core   for
n   not test.
less than Remove
12   by   3 as   little
in.   (305 of   the
by   76 core   as
mm) possible
from when
each removin
edge   of g   the
each surfacin
gypsum g
panel material
product, .
for   a Prepare
total   of the   ®rst
not   less test 
than   six

6
C 473 ± 03

FIG. 5 Test SetupÐPunch for Hardness and Nail Pull Resistance

FIG. 6 Test SetupÐSample Holder for Hardness Test


ProcedureÐUsing   the
apparatus   in   12.3,  clamp
area 2 6 1¤2 in. (51 6 13  or 
mm) from one edge of the  secure the specimen in a 
specimen, with the next two ®xed vertical position on 
test areas spaced  its 12 in. (305 mm) 
approximately 4 in. (102 dimension edge. If 
am) apart.  necessary, modify the 
12.5.4 Condition ˉexural
specimens   in   accordance
with   Section   5.   12.6
load indicator. Conduct three
tests spaced approximately 4
strength   test   equipment   to in.   (102   mm)   apart   on   each
conduct   the   core,   end,   and specimen,  with  the   ®rst  test
edge hardness test. Place this area 2 6  1¤2 in. (51 6 13 mm)
test surface not less than 1 in. from   one   edge   of   the
(25 mm) above the grip of the specimen.   Position   the   steel
specimen   holder.   After   the punch over the test area and
specimen is in place, zero the apply

7
C 473 ± 03

the load. Report as the core, end, or edge hardness the load 0.099 6 0.003 in. (2.515 6 0.076 mm) in diameter and the nail
required to push the steel punch a distance of 1¤2  in. (13 mm) head  shall  be  0.250  6 0.005  in.  (6.350  6 0.127  mm)  in
into the core of the specimen. diameter. The nail shall be attached at the head to the movable
12.6.1  Procedure  for  Core  HardnessÐTest  either  of  the cross  head  of  the  test  apparatus. This  attachment  shall  not
12­in. (305­mm) saw cut edges, for a total of not less than nine exceed  the  diameter  of  the  nail  head  and  shall  be  placed
tests (three per specimen). directly over the head. It shall also be attached so that the
12.6.2  Procedure for End HardnessÐTest the 12­in. (305­ vertical axis through the nail shank is parallel with the travel.
mm) mill­cut end, for a total of not less than nine tests (three See Figs. 5 and 7 for examples of the test setup con®guration.
per specimen). 13.3.2  Fig. 3 shows a schematic of an alternate nail pull
12.6.3  Procedure for Edge HardnessÐTest areas along the resistance apparatus adaptable to a typical ˉexural strength
12­in. (305­mm) edge, for a total of not less than eighteen tests apparatus commonly used in the gypsum industry. This appa­
(three per specimen). For products with surfacing material, test ratus mirrors all of the requirements of 13.3.1, except that the
where the surfacing material has been removed. nail is not attached at the head to the movable cross head of the
12.7  ReportÐReport  the  core,  end,  and  edge  hardness test  apparatus.  The  alternate  apparatus  utilizes  a  machined
individually as the average load in pounds­force or newtons plunger  with  the  nail  head  and  shank  incorporated  as  an
rounded to the nearest 1 lbf (N). Discard any single test value integral part of the plunger. The plunger ®ts into a bushing that
that varies from the average by more than 15 % and repeat the keeps the nail aligned perpendicular to the test specimen.
test on the same sample to obtain a new value. 13.4 SamplingÐSampling shall be in accordance with Sec­
12.8  Precision and Bias: tion 4.
12.8.1  PrecisionÐThe 95 % repeatability limit of the End 13.5 Test Specimens:
Hardness (Method B) test is the test result 68.103 lbf [36.04 13.5.1  Cut ®ve specimens 6 by 6 in. (152 by 152 mm) from
N].  The  95 %  reproducibility  limit  of  the  End  Hardness a strip cut across the width of each 48­in. (1220­mm) gypsum
(Method B) test is the test result 69.725 lbf [43.56 N]. panel product starting not less than 4 in. (102 mm) in from the
12.8.2  PrecisionÐThe 95 % repeatability limit of the Core edge. Cut a total of ®ve specimens from more than one full
Hardness (Method B) test is the test result 64.231 lbf [18.82 width strip from gypsum panel products less than 38 in. (965
N].  The  95 %  reproducibility  limit  of  the  Core  Hardness mm) wide. Do not cut the specimen closer than 3 in. (76 mm)
(Method B) test is the test result 69.668 lbf [43.01 N]. from the product edges.
12.8.3  PrecisionÐThe 95 % repeatability limit of the Edge 13.5.2  Drill  a  7¤64­in.  (2.778­mm)  diameter  pilot  hole
Hardness (Method B) test is the test result 67.730 lbf [34.38 through the thickness of the gypsum panel product in the center
N].  The  95 %  reproducibility  limit  of  the  Edge  Hardness of each test specimen and perpendicular to the surface.
(Method B) test is the test result 623.031 lbf [102.45 N]. 13.5.3  Condition specimens in accordance with Section 5.
12.8.4  BiasÐNo information can be presented on the bias 13.6 ProcedureÐUsing  the  apparatus  in  13.3,  place  the
of the procedure in these test methods for measuring the End, specimen on the specimen support plate so that the drilled hole
Core, and Edge Hardness because there is no material having is aligned with the nail shank tip. After the specimen is in
an accepted reference value. place, zero the load indicator. Insert the nail shank into the
13. Nail Pull Resistance (Method B) specimen hole and apply the load until the maximum load is
achieved. Normally, this will occur as the nail head breaks
13.1  Summary of Test MethodÐThe ability of gypsum panel
through the gypsum panel product surface and is followed by
products to resist nail pull­through is evaluated by determining
a very signi®cant decrease in load.
the load required to push a standard nail head through the
product.
13.2  Signi®cance  and  UseÐThis  test  method  covers  a
procedure for evaluating the ability of gypsum panel products
to resist nail pull­through by determining the load required to
force  a  standard  nail  head  through  the  product.  This  test
method is used to determine compliance with gypsum panel
product speci®cations. The degree of correlation between these
test methods and service performance has not been determined.
13.3  ApparatusÐSee Section  10. The apparatus  shall  be
used with either of the specimen support plates in 13.3.1 or
13.3.2.
13.3.1  Specimen Support Plate, shall be true and have a
3­in. (76­mm) diameter hole in the center. The support plate
shall be not less than 6 by 6 in. (152 by 152 mm). It shall be
attached to the apparatus as necessary to maintain the surface
of the plate perpendicular to the travel of the test nail. The
support plate must also be located so that the vertical axis
through the center of the nail shank passes through the center
of the hole in the support plate. The test nail shank shall be FIG. 7 Test SetupÐSample Holder for Nail Pull Resistance

8
C 473 ± 03

13.7Report the
ÐCalc Nail
ulate Pull
the (Meth
averag od   B)
e test   is
maxim the test
um result
load in 65.610
pound lbf
s­force [24.95
or N].
newto The 
ns, 95 %
rounde reprod
d   to ucibili
the ty
nearest limit
1   lbf of   the
(N). Nail
Discar Pull
d   any (Meth
single od   B)
test test   is
that the
varies test
from result
the 68.96
averag 1   lbf
e   by [39.86
more N]. 
than 13.8.2
15   %. BiasÐNo
If inform
more ation
than can be
15   % presen
of   the ted   on
test the
values bias of
are the
discar proced
ded, ure   in
repeat these
the test
test.  metho
13.8Pre ds   for
cisi measu
on ring
an Nail
d Pull
Bia becaus
s:  e there
13.8.1 is   no
PrecisionÐ materi
The   95 al
% having
repeata an
bility accept
limit of ed
referen 14.5.2 
ce Condit
value.  ion 
14. H speci
mens 
u
in 
mi
accord
di ance 
® with 
ed Sectio
De n 5.
ˉe 14.6Procedu
cti reÐSusp
on end each
specime
n   face
down  on
parallel
and level
bearing
edges,
having
1
¤8­in.
(3.2­
mm)
radii,   12
in.   (305
mm)
long,
and   23
in.   (584
mm)
apart   in
the
humidity
cabinet
in   an
atmosph
ere of 90
6  3°F
(32  6
1.7°C)
and 90 6
3   %
relative
humidity
for 48 h.
Measure
the
humidi®
ed
deˉectio
n of each
specime
n,   while
suspende
d   on   the
bearing
edges, as
the
distance
between
a
straighte mm). 
dge 14.7ReportÐ
placed Report
on   the the
top   end humidi®
ed
edges   of
deˉectio
the n   as   the
gypsum aver­age
panel of   the
product specime
and   the ns to the
upper nearest
1
surface ¤8 in. (3
of   the mm). 
product 14.8Precisio
n   and
at   its BiasÐTh
center. e
Take precision
measure­ and   bias
of   this
ments   to test
the method
nearest has   not
1 been
¤16  in. determin
(1.6 ed. 
14.1Summa high
ry   of humidit
Test y for 48
Method h. 
ÐThe 14.2Signi®
humidi cance
®ed and
deˉectio UseÐT
n  of his   test
gypsum method
panel covers a
product procedu
s   is re   for
evaluat evaluati
ed   by ng   the
supporti deˉectio
ng   a n   of
speci­ gypsum
men panel
that   has product
been s   when
cut with horizon
the long tally
dimensi suspend
on ed   and
perpend subjecte
icular d   to
to   the high
machin humidit
e y.   This
directio test
n, method
support is   used
ed to
horizon determi
tally, ne
and complia
subjecte nce
d   to with
gypsum 6
panel 1.7°C)
product and   90
speci®c 6  3   %
ations. relative
Since humidit
job y for 48
factors h. 
other 14.4S
than a
high m
humidit p
y l
inˉuenc i
e   the n
deˉectio g
n   of Ð
gypsum S
panel a
product m
s,   the p
degree l
of i
n
correlat
g
ion
betwee  
n   this s
h
test
a
method
l
and
l
service
 
perform
b
ance
e
has   not
been  
i
determi
n
ned. 
 
14.3Appara
a
tusÐA
c
humidit
c
y
o
cabinet
r
of
d
sufficie
a
nt   size
n
to
c
accom
e
modate
test  
w
specime
i
ns   12
t
by   24
h
in. (305
by   610  
mm) S
capable e
of c
maintai ­
ning   an  
atmosp tion 4. 
here   of 14.5T
90  6 e
3°F   (32 s
t gypsum
  panel
S product
p s   that
e are
c narrowe
i r   than
m 48   in.
e (1220
n mm)   as
s noted in
: Fig. 8.
 
14.5.
1   Cut
two
specime
ns   12
by   24
in. (305
by   610
mm)
from
each
gypsum
panel
product
in   the
sample
so   the
12­in.
dimensi
on   is
parallel
to   the
edges.
Cut
specime
ns   not
less
than
12­in.
away
from
the
ends
and
edges
of
gypsum
panel
product
s 48 in.
(1220
mm)   or
more   in
width.
Cut
specime
ns   from
the
center
of
15. En is   used
d to
Sq determi
uar ne
complia
ene
nce
ss 
with
15.1 Summar gypsum
y   of panel
Test product
Method speci®c
ÐThe ations.
end The
squaren degree
ess   of of
gypsum correlat
panel ion
products betwee
is n   this
evaluate test
d   by method
drawing and
service
a   line
perform
perpen­
ance
dicular
has   not
to   the
been
edge   of determi
a   full ned. 
width 15.3Appara
specime tusÐA
n   to   its T­
opposite shaped
edge or   L­
and shaped
measuri square
ng   the for
length draw­
of   the ing   or
side   of testing
the right
triangle angles.
formed.  The
15.2Signi® long
cance edge   of
and the
UseÐT square
his   test shall   be
method not   less
covers than   48
a in. 
procedu 15.4S
re   for a
determi m
ning the p
end l
squaren i
ess   of n
gypsum g
panel Ð
product S
s.   This a
test m
method p
l ˉush
i against
n the
g edge   of
  the
gypsum
s
panel
h product
a with the
l apex   of
l the
  square
b at   one
e corner
  of   the
i product
.
n
Determi
  ne   the
a distance
c b, to the
c nearest
o 1¤16  in.
r (1.6
d mm)   at
a the
n speci®e
c d
e distance
a.
  Distanc
w e   is
i measur
t ed from
h the
  apex   of
S the
e square
c (see
­ Fig. 9). 
15.7Report
 
tion 4.  ÐRepor
t   the
15.5Test
Specim average
ensÐUs of
e   full­ distance
size b  to the
gypsum nearest
panel 1
¤8  in.
product (3.2
s  with mm). 
undama 15.8Precisi
ged on   and
ends for BiasÐT
test he
specime precisio
n   and
ns.  bias   of
15.6Proced this   test
ureÐPl method
ace   one has   not
edge   of been
determi
the ned. 
square
FIG. 8 Sample
Selection Detail for
Humidi®ed De¯ection
Test

9
C 473 ± 03

product
s, and is
used   to
determi
ne
complia
nce
FIG. 9with
End gypsum
Squarpanel
enessproduct
Deterspeci®c
minatations.
ion The
degree
16. Thi of
ck correlat
nes ion
s  betwee
n   this
16.1Summa test
ry   of method
Test and
Method service
ÐThe perform
nomina ance
l has   not
thickne been
ss   of deter­
gypsum mined. 
panel 16.3 Apparat
product usÐA
s   is microm
evaluat eter
ed   by gage for
measuri determi
ng   the ning the
thickne thicknes
ss   of s
the measure
specim ment   to
en   with 0.001
a in.
microm (0.025
eter.  mm).
16.2Signi® The
cance microm
and e­ter
UseÐT shall   be
his   test a   1­in.
method (25.4­
covers mm)
a hand
procedu microm
re   for eter
determi with
ning the 1
¤4­in.
thickne (6.35­
ss   of mm)
gypsum diamete
panel r   anvils
graduat p
ed   to e
0.01   in. c
(0.25 i
mm).  m
16.4S e
a n
m s
p :
l  
i 16.5.1
n Use
g ful
Ð l­
S siz
a e
m gy
p ps
l u
i m
n pa
g ne
  l
s pr
h od
a uc
l ts
l fo
  r
b tes
e t
  sp
i ec
n i­ 
  mens. 
a16.5.2
cMark   the
c product
o to   be
r tested,
d score
a on   both
n sides,
c and
e break at
  12   in.
w (305
i mm)
t from
h each
  end,
S discardi
e ng   the
two
c
ends
­
prior   to
 
testing.
tion 4.  Retain
16.5T the
e remaini
s ng   part
t of   each
  gypsum
S
panel mm)
product from cut
as a test ends.
specim Take   a
en.  minimu
16.6 m of not
Proced less
ureÐMa than
rk seven
measure readings
ment at   each
points at end   of
approxi­ the   54­
mately in.
equal (1370­
points mm)
across wide
the gypsum
width at panel
each product,
end   of six
the readings
gypsum at   each
panel end   of
product the   48­
excludi in.
ng   the (1220­
tapered, mm)
beveled, wide
or gypsum
recessed panel
edges   if product,
applicab ®ve
le. readings
Engage at   each
the end   of
microm the   32­
eter in.
®rmly, (813­
but   do mm)
not wide
indent gypsum
the panel
surfacin product,
g four
material readings
of   the at   each
gypsum end   of
panel the   24­
product. in.
Measur (610­
e   the mm)
thicknes wide
s   of   the gypsum
gypsum panel
panel product,
product or   three
with the readings
microm at   each
eter   not end   of
less the   16­
than  1¤2 in.
in.   (13 (406­
mm) on   and
wide BiasÐT
gypsum he
panel precisio
product. n   and
16.7 bias   of
Report this test
ÐCalcu method
late   the has   not
nomina been
l determi
thickne ned. 
ss   of
each 17. Re
specim ces
en   as sed
the ­ or
average
of   the Ta
individ per
ual ed­
microm Ed
eter ge
reading
De
taken
on each pth
gypsum 17.1 
panel Summa
product ry of 
. Test 
Calcula Method
te   and ÐThe 
report recesse
the d­ or 
sample
tapered
thickne
ss   as ­edge 
the depth 
average of 
measur gypsum
ed panel 
thickne product
ss of all s is 
the evaluat
specim ed by 
ens   in compar
the ­
sample
to   the
nearest
1
¤64  in.
(0.4
mm)
and
local
variatio
ns   in
any one
specim
en   to
the
nearest
1
¤32  in.
(0.8
mm). 
16.8
Precisi
ing the  mance
thickne has   not
ss near  been
the  determi
edge of ned. 
the  17.3A
specim p
en to  p
the  a
thickne r
ss in  a
the  t
®eld of u
the  s
specim Ð
en. U
17.2Signi® s
cance e
and   
UseÐT t
his   test h
method e
provide   
s   a m
proced i
ure   for c
determi
r
ning
o
the
m
depth
e
of   the
t
recess
e
or taper
r
on   the
edge   of   
gypsum g
panel a
product g
s   board e
and   is   
used   to d
determi e
ne s
compli c
ance r
with i
gypsum b
panel e
product d
speci®   
ca­ i
tions. n
The  
degree 16.3. E
of ngage
correlat the
ion microm
betwee eter
n   this ®rmly
test but   do
method not
and indent
service the
perfor surfaci
ng c
materia ­
l.   Take  
all tion 4. 
reading 17.5Spe
s to the cim
nearest ens
0.001 : 
in. 17.5.1
(0.025 Use   the
mm)   of same
specim specim
en ens
thickne prepare
ss.  d   in
17.4S 16.5, or
a prepare
m another
p set   of
l specim
i ens   as
n indicate
g d   in
Ð 16.5. 
S 17.6
a Proc
m edure
p : 
l 17.6.1
i At   one
n co
g rn
  er,
s de
h ter
a mi
l ne
l th
  e
b thi
e ck
  ne
i ss
n 6
in.
 
(1
a
52
c
c am) fr
o o
r m
d th
a e
n cu
c t
e en
  d
w an
i d
3
t ¤
h 8
in.
 
(9.
S
5
e
m ­edge
m depths,
) as   in
fr 17.5. 
o 17.6.5
m Determine
th the
e variatio
ed n   of
ge any
.  individ
ual
17.6.2
Subtract  the recesse
specim d   or
en   as tapered
determi ­edge
ned   in
17.6.1 depth
from from
the the
average average
specim
en as
thickne determi
ss   as ned   in
determi 17.6.4
ned   in
Section using
16.  the
17.6.3 subtract
Repeat   the ion
proced method
ure   in . 
17.6.1 17.6.6
and Reject   or
17.6.2 discard
on   the any
remaini individ
ng ual
three recesse
corners d­   or
of   this tapered
specim ­edge
en   and depth
on   the calculat
remaini ion,   as
ng   two in
specim 17.6.2,
ens   of if   the
the variatio
sample. n   from
17.6.4 average
Determine ,   as   in
the 17.6.5,
average exceeds
recesse 0.050
d   or in.
tapered (1.27
­edge mm).
depth To
from constitu
all   the te   a
individ valid
ual test   do
recesse not
d   or discard
tapered more
than ed   by
three measuri
individ ng   the
ual edge­
calculat to­edge
ions.  dimen­
17.7 sion   of
Report a   full
ÐRepor size
t   the specim
average en. 
recesse 18.2 Signi®c
d­   or ance
tapered and
­edge UseÐTh
depth is   test
as   in method
17.6.4 provides
after a
any procedu
adjustm re   for
ents for determi
exclusi ning   the
ons   of width of
data   as
gypsum
in
panel
17.6.5
products
or
and   is
17.6.6
to   the used   to
nearest determi
0.001 ne
in. complia
(0.025 nce with
mm).  gypsum
17.8 panel
Precisi products
on   and speci®c
BiasÐT ations.
he The
precisio degree
n   and of
bias   of correlati
this test on
method between
has   not this   test
been
method
determi
and
ned. 
service
18. Wi perform
dth ance has
not been
18.1Summa
ry   of determi
Test ned. 
Method 18.3Appara
ÐThe tusÐAn
width y
of accurat
gypsum e
panel measuri
product ng
s   is device
evaluat capable
of r
d
measuri a
ng   the n
c
width e
of   the  
w
gypsum i
t
panel h
 
product S
to   the e
c
nearest ­
1  
¤32  in. tion 4.
(1 18.5Test
mm).  Specim
18.4S ensÐUs
a e   full­
m
p size
l
i gypsum
n panel
g
Ð product
S s  for
a
m test
p
l specim
i
n ens. 
g 18.6P
  r
s
h o
a
l c
l e
 
b d
e
  u
i r
n
  e
a :
c
c  
o

10
C 473 ± 03

18.6.1 round,
Measure the determi
width ne   the
of   an overall
individ distanc
ual e.   One
gypsum excepti
panel on   is
product tongue
by and
placing groove
the edge
measuri specim
ng ens,   the
device width
perpend of
icular which
to   the is   the
edges distanc
of   the e
gypsum betwee
panel n   the
product rip   of
when the
measur tongue
ements and   the
are bottom
taken. of   the
The groove.
width 18.6.2
of   theThe   width
specim of   an
en   is individ
the ual
gypsum
distanc
panel
e
product
betwee
is   the
n maxim
extremi um   of
ties   of two
the reading
edges, s   taken
so   in not   less
cases than   48
where in.
the (1220 
edge   oram) apart
edges and
are about   6
beveled in. (152
(slope mm)
in   or away
out) from
with the both
face   or ends   of
back   of the
the specim
specim en.   Cut
en,   or off 6 in.
are (152
mm) measuri
from ng   the
both end­to­
ends end
before dimensi
taking on   of   a
measur full size
ements specim
at   ends en. 
of 19.2 Signi®c
tongue ance
and and
groove­ UseÐTh
edge is   test
specim method
ens.  provide
18.7 s   a
Report procedu
ÐRepor re   for
t   the determi
width ning the
as   the length
average gypsum
width panel
of   not product
less s   and   is
than used   to
three determi
specim ne
ens   to complia
the nce with
nearest gypsum
1
¤32  in. panel
(1 mm). product
18.8 s
Precisi speci®c
on   and ations.
BiasÐT
he The
precisio degree
n   and of
bias   of
this test correlati
method on
has   not between
been this   test
determi
ned.  method
and
19. Le service
ngt perform
h  ance has
not been
19.1Summa determi
ry   of
ned. 
Test
Method 19.3Appara
ÐThe tusÐAn
length y
of accurat
gypsum e
panel measuri
product ng
s   is device
evaluat capable
ed   by of
measuri r
ng   the e
width :
of   the  
gypsum 19.6.1
panel Measure the
product length
to   the of   an
nearest individ
1
¤16  in. ual
(2 mm). gypsum
panel
19.4S
a product
m by
p
l placing
i
n the
g measuri
Ð
S ng
a
m device
p parallel
l with the
i
n edges
g
  when
s
h measur
a ements
l are
l
  taken.
b The
e
  length
i
n of   the
  specim
a
c en   is
c
o the
r distanc
d e
a
n betwee
c
e n
 
w extremi
i ties   of
t
h the
  ends, so
S in cases
e
c where
­
  the
tion 4. ends
19.5Test are
Specim beveled
ensÐUs ,
e   full­ determi
size ne   the
gypsum overall
panel distanc
product e. 
s  for19.6.2
test The   length
specim of   a
ens.  specim
19.6P en   is
r the
o maxim
c um   of
e two
d reading
u s   taken
about   3 r
in.   (76 e
mm) ­
away T
from r
both
e
edges
of   the a
specim t
en.  e
19.7Report d
ÐRepor  
t   the W
length a
as   the t
average e
length r
of   not ­
less R
than e
three p
specim e
ens   to l
the
l
nearest
1
e
¤8  in. n
(3 mm). t
19.8Precisi
on   and  
BiasÐT G
he y
precisio
n   and p
bias   of s
this test u
method
has   not m
been  
determi P
ned. 
a
20. W n
a e
t l
e  
r P
  r
R o
e d
s u
i c
s t
t s
a  
n 20.1Summa
c ry   of
e Test
  Method
o ÐThe
f water
resistan
  ce   of
C core­
o treated
water­ 20.2Signi®
repellen cance
t and
gypsum UseÐT
panel his   test
product method
s   is provide
evalu­ s   a
ated   by procedu
immers re   for
ing   the evaluati
specim ng   the
en   in ability
water of core­
for   the treated
speci®e gypsum
d panel
period product
of time. s   to
resist
water
penetrat
ion.
This
test
method
is   used
to
determi
ne
complia
nce
with
gypsum
panel
product
speci®c
ations.
The
degree
of
correlat
ion
betwee
n   this
test
method
and
service
perform
ance
has   not
been
determi
ned. 
20.3A
p
p
a
r
a
t
u
s by   12­
: in. (305
  by   305­
20.3.1 mm)
Water   Bath, test
not   less speci­
than   16 men cut
by   16 from
by 3 in. the
(406   by center
406   by of   the
75 mm) gypsum
capable panel
of product
maintai being
ning the tested
water at by
a scoring
constan and
t breakin
tempera g.   Cut
ture   of specime
70  6 ns
1°F   (21 approxi
6 mately
0.5°C).  centere
20.3.2 d
Glass   Rods, betwee
0.25   in. n   both
(6   mm) edges
in and   not
diamete less
r,   or than   6
other in. (152
support mm)
s from
capable either
of end. Do
keeping not
the treat the
specime edges
ns   off of   the
the specime
bottom n   nor
of   the damage
water any
bath.  surfacin
20.4 g
Sampli material
ngÐSa . 
mpling 20.5.2
shall   beCondition
in the
accorda specime
nce ns   in
with accorda
Sec­ nce
tion 4.  with
20.5 Section
Test 5,
Speci except
mens: at   a
20.5.1 tempera
Prepare a 12 ture   of
70  6 n   from
5°F   (21 the
6  2°C), bath,
and wipe
then excess
weigh water
to from
within the
0.5 g.  surfaces
20.6 and
Proc edges
edure of   the
:  specime
20.6.1 n   and
Position   the weigh
specime immedi
n so that ately   to
it   rests within
ˉatwise 0.5 g. 
on   glass 20.7
rods   or Report
other
ÐCalcu
late   the
supports
gain   in
in   the
weight
water
for each
bath
speci­
with   a men   as
head   of a
1 in. (25 percent
am) of age   of
water the
over the original
top   of weight
the as
specime determi
n. If the ned   in
specime 20.5.2
n   ˉoats, to   the
place nearest
sufficie 1 % and
nt report
weight the
on   the average
specime percent
n   to age   as
keep   it the
in water
contact absorpti
with the on   of
support the
s   under gypsum
the   1­ panel
in.   (25­ product
mm) . 
head   of 20.8
water.  Precisi
20.6.2 on   and
After   2   h BiasÐT
have he
elapsed, precisio
remove n   and
the bias   of
specime this   test
method surfaces
has   not is
been evaluat
determi ed   by
ned.  dammin
g   a
21. Su speci®e
rf d   area
ac on   the
e treated
W surface,
®lling
at
that
er area
Re with
sis water,
ta and
nc allowin
e g   it   to
of remain
G undistur
yp bed   for
the
su
speci®e
m d   time
Pa period. 
ne 21.2Signi®
l cance
Pr and
od UseÐT
uc his   test
ts method
wi provide
th s   a
W procedu
at re   for
evaluati
er
ng   the
­ ability
Re of
pe water­
lle repellen
nt t
Su surfac­
rf ing   of
ac gypsum
es  panel
product
21.1Summa s   to
ry   of resist
Test water
Method penetrat
ÐThe
ion.
surface
This
water
test
resis­
method
tance of
is   used
gypsum
to
panel
determi
product
s   with ne
water­ complia
repellen nce
t with
gypsum ance
panel has   not
product been
speci®c deter­
ations. mined. 
The 21.3Appara
degree tusÐA
of Cobb
correlat Tester
ion conditio
betwee ned to a
n   this tempera
test ­ture   of
method 70  6
and 5°F   (21
service 6
perform 0.5°C). 

11
C 473 ± 03

NOTE e
2ÐFor   a  
descripti w
on of the i
test t
apparatus
see   Test
h
Method  
D   3285. S
The studs e
that c
anchor ­
the metal
crossbar
 
may need tion 4. 
to   be 21.5T
lengthen e
ed   to s
accomm t
odate
gypsum
 
panel S
products. p
e
21.4S
c
a
i
m
m
p
e
l
n
i
s
n
:
g
Ð  
S21.5.1
aCut   three
specime
m
ns 5 in.
p
(127
l
mm)
i square
n from
g the
  ®eld   of
s each
h sample
a piece of
l gypsum
l panel
  product.
b21.5.2
eCondition
  the
i specime
n ns   in
  accorda
a nce
c with
c Section
o 5,
r except
d at   a
a tempera
n ture   of
c 70  6
5°F   (21 21.6.
6  2°C), 2   After
to 2   h
constan have
t weight elapsed
within ,   pour
0.1   % the
and water
then
out   of
weigh
the
to
Cobb
within
ring
0.05 g. 
and
21.6
remove
Proc
the
edure
specim

en from
21.6.1
the
Place   the
Cobb
conditio
Tester.
ned   test
Immedi
specime
ately
ns   in
remove
the
excess
Cobb
Tester water
with the from
side   to the
be specim
exposed en   by
to water blotting
facing and
up.   Fill weigh
the to   the
Cobb nearest
ring 0.05 g.
with tap21.7Report
water ÐCalcu
adjuste late
d   to   a average
tempera differen
ture   of ce
70  6 betwee
1°F   (21 n   the
6 dry  and
0.5°C), wet
resultin weights
g i n a 1 of   the
in. test
(25.4 specime
mm) ns   to
head   of the
water nearest
above 0.1   g
the   test and
area   of report
the this   as
specime the
n. 
surface
water
absorpti
on   of
the
gypsum s
panel testing;
product dimensi
.  on
21.8Precisi measur
on   and ements;
BiasÐT edge
he hardnes
precisio s
n   and testing;
bias   of end
this test hardnes
method s
has   not testing;
been ˉexural
determi strengt
ned.  h;
gypsum
22. Ke panel
yw product
ord s;
s  humidi
®ed
22.1absorpt sag;
ion nail
testing; pull
core testing 
hardnes

APPENDIXE
S

(Nonmandatory 
Information)

X1. 
INTRODUCTION

X1.1  is 
ASTM  referenc
speci®c ed in 
ations  other 
for  industry
gypsum  standar
panel  ds, and 
products is 
therefor
do not 

contain 
retained

as an 
speci®c appendi
ation for x item.
weight. 
The 
procedu
re, 
however
,

X2. WEIGHT
X2.1
Test with the
Specim followi
ensÐA ng
sample equatio
shall n   and
consist table:
of   not
less
than
three
full size
pieces
of   the
gypsum
panel
product
.

X2.2
Proced
ureÐM
easure
the
length
and
width
of   each
specime
n   in
accorda
nce
with
Section
s   17
and   18.
Weight
the
specime
ns   on   a
suitable
scale
and
record
the
weight
to   the
nearest
1
¤4  lb
(0.1
kg).

X2.3
Calcula
tionÐC
alculate
the
weight
in
accorda
nce
weight
as   the
average
calculat
Where: Meaning of Symbol
ed
W = weight of specimen
weight,
L = length of specimen
in
B = width of specimen
lb/1000
P = weight of specimen
ft2(kg/1
K =
00   m2)
X2.4 of   the
Report three
ÐRepor gypsum
t   the specime
ns.

12
C 473 ± 03

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee C11 has identi®ed the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (C 473 ± 
00) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved June 10, 2003.)

(1) Added Precision and Bias information in sections 11.8, (2) Revised section 20.3.1.
12.8, and 13.8.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

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if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional
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(www.astm.org).
13