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DETERMINING

QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH DESIGN
FIVE MOST COMMON TYPES OF
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

•Narrative Research
•Phenomenology
•Grounded Theory
•Ethnographic Research Design
•Case Study
•Qualitative Research is the process
of acquiring data by studying subjects
in their natural habitat. The focus is on
understanding the why and how of
human behaviour in situations, and is
defined as scientific research method
to obtain non-numerical data.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Methods are designed to understand the


lives of participants.
 The process is maintained on neutral lines
without placing judgement on individual
responses.
 Focus areas are cultures, societies, and
individual.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
METHODS:

• Narrative Research – the researcher gathers data or facts from


one or two subjects through interviews, documents, etc. over a
period of time.
• Phenomenology – it is used to study an event or activity as it
happens from various angles, using interviews and videos.
• Grounded Theory – it starts with a question or collection of
data. Through systematic data collection and analysis. New theories
may be formed based on these categories.
• Ethnographic – it involves the researcher embedding
himself into daily life and routine of the subject or
subjects. Either as an active participant or an observer, the
researcher experiences their custom, tradition,
mannerism, reactions to situation etc.
• Geographical such as region or country
• Religious Groups
• Tribal Groups
• Shared experiences
Case Study – it is used to gather in depth and
detailed information about a subject, which
could be an entity, organization, event or
something larger like a country. The nature of
the study can be explanatory or exploratory.
SAMPLING
TECHNIQUES
SAMPLING …

•The process of selecting a number of


individuals for a study in such way that
the individuals represent the larger
group from which they were selected.
SAMPLE POPULATION

A sample is a smaller A population is a larger


collection of units from a group from individuals are
population used to selected to participate in a
determine truths about that study.
population. (Field, 2005)
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF
SAMPLING?
•To gather data about the population
in order to make an inference that
can be generalized to the population
SELECTING RANDOM SAMPLES

• Also known as probability sampling


• 4 techniques
1. RANDOM
2. STRATIFIED RANDOM
3. CLUSTER RANDOM
4. SYSTEMATIC
WHAT IS RANDOM SAMPLING?

•Selecting subjects so that all


members of a population have an
equal and independent chance of
being selected.
WHAT IS STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING

•The population is divided into two or more


groups called strata, according to some
criterion, such as geographic location, grade
level, age, and all the subsamples are
randomly selected from each strata.
CLUSTER RANDOM SAMPLING

• The process of randomly selecting intact groups, not


individuals, within the defined population sharing similar
characteristics.
• Cluster are locations within which an intact group of
members of the population can be found.
• neighborhoods, school district, schools, classroom
SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING

•Selecting every Kth subject from a


list of the members of the
population
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLES

1. convenience sampling
2. purposive sampling
3. quota sampling
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING

•The process of including whoever happens


to be available at the time. It is called as
“accidental” sampling
PURPOSIVE SAMPLING

•The process whereby the researcher selects


a sample based on experience or knowledge
of the group to be sampled called
“judgement” sampling
QUOTA SAMPLING

•The process whereby a researcher


gathers data from individuals possessing
identified characteristics and quotas.
SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

•Select participants according to their:


•A. characteristics
•B. Knowledge
THE PURPOSEFUL
SAMPLING
•It is when the researcher chooses
persons which provide specific
knowledge about the topic of the study.
MAXIMAL VARIATION SAMPLING

•It is when you select individuals that


differ on a certain characteristics.
TYPICAL SAMPLING

•It is when you study a person or a site that


is typical to those unfamiliar with the
situation.
THEORY OR CONCEPT SAMPLING

•It is when you select individuals because


they can help you to generate a theory or
specific concepts within the theory.
HOMOGENEOUS SAMPLING

•It is when you select certain people


because they possess similar
characteristics.
SNOWBALL SAMPLING

• It is when you don’t know the best people to


study because of unfamiliarity of the topic. So, ask
participants during interviews to suggest other
individuals to be sampled.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DATA COLLECTION

• It is the researcher’s ethical responsibility to safeguard


the story teller by maintaining the understood purpose
of the research
• inform the participants of the purpose of the study
• Being respectful of the research site, using ethical
interview practices, maintaining privacy, and cooperating
with participants.