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Two Areas of Statistics

Descriptive statistics consists of the Inferential statistics consists of generalizing
collection, organization and from samples to populations, performing
presentation of data. estimations and hypothesis tests,
determining relationships among variables,
and making predictions.

This area of statistics is used to
describe a situation. INFERENTIAL
The statistician tries to make
inferences from samples to population.
In each of these statements, tell whether descriptive or
inferential statistics have been used.

1. Nine out of ten on-the-job fatalities are men (Source: USA TODAY

2. Expenditures for the cable industry were $5.66 billion in 1996

(Source: USA TODAY ).

3. Allergy therapy makes bees go away (Source: Prevention).

4. The national average annual medicine expenditure per person is

$1052 (Source: The Greensburg Tribune Review).
Population vs. Sample

Population consists of all subjects (human

or otherwise) that are being studied.

Sample is a group of subjects selected from a

population. It can be considered as a portion
of a population.
Variable and Data

A variable is a characteristic or attribute

that can assume different values.

Data are the values ( measurements or

observations ) that the variables can assume.
Types of Variables
Qualitative variables
Variables that can be placed into
distinct categories, according to
some characteristics of attribute.

Quantitative variables
Variables that are
numerical and can be
ordered or ranked.
Types of Variables
Qualitative variables
• Favorite Color
• Perception
• Zip Code

Quantitative variables
• Age
• Height
• Weight
• Body temperature
The grade point averages of five students are listed in the table. Which
data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data?

Student GPA
Sally 3.22
Bob 3.98
Cindy 2.75
Mark 2.24
Kathy 3.84

Qualitative data Quantitative data

Types of Quantitative Variables
Discrete variables
Discrete Variables assume values
that can be counted.

Continuous variables
Continuous Variables can assume an infinite
number of values between any two specific
values. They are obtained by measuring.
They often include fractions and decimals
Types of Quantitative Variables
Discrete variables
• Number of children in the family
• Number of students in the

Continuous variables
• Temperature
• Distance
• Area
• Density
Levels of Measurement
Lowest to highest




Levels of Measurement
Classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-overlapping) categories in
which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data (Identification)

Classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise
differences between the ranks do not exist.
The interval level of measurement ranks data, and precise difference
between units of measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful
zero (or true zero point).
The ratio level of measurement ranks data, precise difference
between units of measure do exist, and a meaningful zero (or true
zero point).
But what is a TRUE ZERO
A true zero point
means that when a
variable has a value
of 0, that means the
variable does not
Examples Levels of Measurement
Nominal ( Identification )
Jersey Number, Student ID No., Gender, Race, Marital Statu

Ordinal ( Ranking)
Positions in the company, Socioeconomic Status, Difficulty of an
exam, Rank in a contest

Interval (no meaningful zero )

Temperature, IQ

Ratio (with meaningful zero )

Distance, Salary, Age
Levels of Measurement

Level of Put data in Precise

Ranking True zero point
measurement categories Difference

Nominal Yes No No No
Ordinal Yes Yes No No
Interval Yes Yes Yes No
Ratio Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sampling Techniques
It is the act, process, or
techniques of selecting an
appropriate sample, or a
representative part of a

Probability Sampling Non-Probability Sampling

(unbiased) (Biased)
Random Convenience
Systematic Quota

• 5 students will be selected using chance methods or

random names.
• Every 5th student will be selected.
• 2 students from each class will be selected.
• One class will be selected.
• 5 students in front.
• 5 students who got low score in quarterly exam.
• Those wants additional points, go in front.
Probability Sampling ( Unbiased )
Simple Random Sampling
All members of the population have a chance of being included in
the sample.
Systematic Sampling
It selects every kth member of the population with starting point
determine at random.
Stratified Sampling
Researchers obtain stratified samples by dividing the population
into groups (called strata) according to some characteristic that
is important to the study, then sampling from each group.
Cluster Sampling
Sometimes called area sampling. Groups or clusters are randomly
Probability Sampling ( Unbiased )
Non-Probability Sampling ( Biased )
Convenience Sampling
This type is used because of the convenience it offers to the

Quota sampling refers to selection with controls, ensuring that
specified numbers (quotas) are obtained from each specified
population subgroup.
Purposive Sampling
This type involves choosing respondents basis of pre-determined
criteria set by the researcher.
Determine the type of sampling technique.

1. The researcher may interview subjects entering a local mall to

determine the nature of their visit or perhaps what stores they will be

2. Suppose a researcher wishes to survey apartment dwellers in a

large city. If there are 10 apartment buildings in the city, the researcher
can select at random 2 buildings from the 10 and interview all the
residents of these buildings.
Determine the type of sampling technique.

3. Suppose the president of a two-year college wants to learn how

students feel about a certain issue. Furthermore, the president wishes
to see if the opinions of the first-year students differ from those of the
second-year students. The president will select students from each
group to use in the sample.

4. Lottery sampling using the table of random numbers

Determine the type of sampling technique.

5. Selecting every 4th member of a population of 100 with 5 random as

a random start gives us: 5, 9, 13, ….

6. To get the most popular noontime show, each field researcher is

given a quota of 200 viewers.

7. The research is all about the level of maturity of teenage parents in

a particular school. Of course, only teenage parents in that scholl will
be the respondents.