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## Lecture 29 : Aerobic Secondary Treatment Of Wastewater

(Contd.)

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19.2.2 Design of Trickling Filters

Organic loading rate and recirculation ratio are main consideration in design of trickling
filter. The early performance equations for trickling filter were empirical as proposed by
National Research Council (1946), Rankine (1955) and based on biochemical kinetics Velz
(1948).

Rankine’s formula

For single stage filters: the BOD of influent to the filter (including recirculation) shall not
exceed three times the BOD required for settled effluent. Hence referring to the Figure 19.13
and using following notations, we have

## where, S2 = BOD of settled influent, S4 = BOD of TF effluent after SST, R1 = Recirculation

ratio, and if E = efficiency, then

## Where Q1 is total flow including recirculation and Q is sewage flow.

For second stage filter: The BOD of the wastewater applied to the second stage filter
including recirculation shall not exceed two times the effluent BOD. Therefore,

## Or S6 = S4 / (R2 + 2) and efficiency = (1 + R2)/(2 + R2) (43)

Where S4 = BOD of influent to second stage filter, S6 = BOD of TF effluent after SST, R2 =
Recirculation ratio.

Eckenfelder (1970) has developed performance equation based on the specific rate of
substrate removal for a pseudo-first-order reaction.

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- = K.S (44)

Where = Specific rate of substrate utilization,

## = rate of substrate utilization,

K = rate constant,

S = Substrate concentration,

t
= -K X (45)
o

t . .
= (46)
o

X ≈ As m (47)

## Where, As is the specific area of the packing media

The mean contact time ‘t’ for a filter is given by Howland (1950) (Reynolds & Richard,
1996).

.
t= (48)

## D = Depth of filter bed

C and n = constant

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Substituting equation 46 & 47 in equation 48
m
s
t
= (49)
o

## (Elimination of constant C as it is taken into account in K)

m = experimental constant

The value of ‘n’ depends on flow characteristics through packing and usually about 0.5 to
0.67. For specific wastewater and filter media equation 49 may be simplified by combining
m
s to give

(50)

## K= 0.01 to 0.1 for various wastewater and media

For Surfpac, Dow chemical (89 m2/m3), K = 0.088 and n = 0.5 (Reynolds & Richard, 1996)

When D- feet, QL = gal/(min-ft2 ). Actual K values can be determined from the pilot
performance. With temperature variation the value of K can be converted as below:

## K20 = rate constant at 20˚C

T= temperature, ˚C

One of the most common kinetic equations for filter performance while treating municipal
wastewater was developed by Eckenfelder, 1961 as

t
= 0.67 (52)
o
.

## D = filter depth, ft (or m)

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The above equation is obtained from second order kinetics equation,

= KS2 (53)

Integrating

t
= (54)
o 0. . .
0.67
Substituting, t =C and combining constant So, K, X & C for the same wastewater
Q0.5
L

## treatment under steady state performance results, the equation becomes:

t
0.67 (55)
o
.

Example: 2

Design low rate trickling filter for secondary treatment of sewage generated from 10000
persons with rate of water supply 170 LPCD. The BOD5 after primary treatment is 110 mg/L
and BOD5 of final effluent should be 20 mg/L. Consider C=5.358.

Solution

t
= 0.67
o
.

Now, = . 0.67
. .

.
0.182(1+ )=1
Q0.5
L

0.5
∴ QL = 1.562

## Plan area = = 557.35 m2

.

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Hence, Diameter of trickling filter = 26.64 m

Example: 3

Design high rate trickling filter for the data given above except effluent BOD5 = 40 mg/l
since polishing treatment is provided after high rate trickling filter. Consider recirculation
ratio of 2 and filter depth of 1.8 m.

TF  SST

## BOD in the effluent,

Q x 110 + 2Q x 40 = (1 + 2) Q.S0
∴ S0 = 63.33 mg/L

= . 0.67
. . .

QL = 186 m3/m2-d
Wastewater flow is 1360 m3/d
∴ Recycle low = 2720 m3/d
and, total flow = 4080 m3/d

## Area of Trickling Filter = = 21.94 m2

∴ Diameter = 5.285 m

Example: 4

Design a single stage Biotower (super rate trickling filter) for the following data:
Average wastewater flow = 500 m3/d,
Influent BOD = 160 mg/L
BOD removal in primary treatment = 30%,
Effluent BOD required = 20 mg/L

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Filter depth = 5.0 m; Recycle ratio R/Q = 2
Pilot plant studies using synthetic packing have shown a removal rate constant K = 2.26 at
200 C, and n = 0.5 (Reynolds & Richard, 1996). The winter wastewater temperature = 150 C.
Provide minimum two filters in parallel.

Solution:

0.5
=
Now, K15 = K20 1.035(T-20)
= 2.26 x 1.035(-5)
= 1.903 per day
BOD5 in incoming wastewater to Biotower = 160 (1-0.30) = 112 mg/L
Recycle flow = 2Q and BOD = 20 mg/L
Therefore, 112 (Q) + 2Q x 20 = 3Q. S0
Hence, S0 = 50.67 mg/L
Substituting values in the equation
. .
0.5

.
Solving we get, QL = 104.8 m3 /m2.d
Wastewater flow = 500 m3/d
Hydraulic load on filter = 500 + 2 x 500
= 1500 m3/d
Area required = 1500/104.8 =14.313 m2
Hence, diameter required for each Biotower when two are provided in parallel = 3.02 m

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