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RESOURCES: The Material Which Can Be Used To lalkèku : og oLrq tks gekjh vko'drkvksa dks iwjk djus esa
Satisfy Our Needs, Provided, It Is Technologically iz;qDr dh tk ldrh gS vkSj ftldks cukus Qs fy, izkS|ksfxdh
Accessible, Economically Feasible And Culturally miyCèk gS] tks vkfFkZd :i ls laHkkO; vkSj lkaLo`Qfrd :i
Acceptable Can Be Termed As Resource. ls ekU; gS
CLLASIFICATION OF RESOURCE : lalkèkuksa dk oxhZdj.k
1. Basis Of Origin 1. mRifÙk Qs vkèkkj ij µ
2. Basis Of Exhaustibility 2. lekI;rk o svkèkkj ij µ
3. Basis Of Ownership 3. LokfeRo Qs vkèkkj ij µ
4. Basis Of Status Of Development Biotic 4. fodkl Qs Lrj Qs vkèkkj ij
ON THE BASIS OF ORIGIN
mRifÙk Qs vkèkkj ij
Biotic Resources = These Are Obtained From
tSo lalkèku µ bu lalkèkuksa dh izkfIr thoeaMy ls gksrh gS
Biosphere Ex. Flora And Fauna vkSj buesa thou O;kIr gS] tSls &ouLifrtkr] izkf.ktkr
Abiotic Resources = All Those Things Which Are vtSo lalkèku µ os lkjs lalkèku tks futhZo oLrqvksa ls ikzIr
Composed Of Non-Living Things Ex. Rocks And gksrs gSa] vtSo lalkèku dgykrs gSa tSls & pêðkusa vkSj èkkrq,¡
Metals
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ON THE BASIS OF EXHAUSTIBILITY lekI;rk ds vkèkkj ij


Renewable Resources: The Resources Which Can Be uohdj.k ;ksX; lalkèku µ os lalkèku ftUgsa HkkSfrd]
Renewed Or Reproduced By Physical, Chemical Or jklk;fud ;k ;kaf=kd izfØ;kvksa }kjk uoho`Qr ;k iqu%
Mechanical Processes For Example, Solar And Wind mRiUu fd;k tk ldrk gS tSls & ÅtkZ] ty
Energy, Water
vuohdj.k ;ksX; lalkèku :µ bu lalkèkuksa dk fodkl ,d
Non-Renewable Resources: These Occur Over A Very
yacs Hkw&oSKkfud varjky esa gksrk gS [kfut vkSj thok'e
Long Geological Time. Minerals And Fossil Fuels
ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP LokfeRo Qs vkèkkj ij
O;fDrxr lalkèku :µ lalkèku futh O;fDRk;ksa osQ LokfeRo esa
Individual Resources: These Are Also Owned
Hkh gksrs gSa tSls &xk¡o esa cgqr ls yksx Hkwfe Qs Lokeh Hkh gksrs
Privately By Individuals For Example People With
Land Ownership gSa

Community Owned Resources: There Are Resources lkeqnkf;d LokfeRo okys lalkèku :µ ;s lalkèku leqnk; osQ
Which Are Accessible To All The Members Of The lHkh lnL;ksa dks miyCèk gksrs gSa tSls & 'e'kku Hkwfe] rkykc
Community. For Example Burial Grounds, Village
Ponds
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National Resources: All The Resources Belong To jk"Vªh; lalkèku ns'k esa ik;s tkus okys lkjs lalkèku jk"Vªh;
The Nation. The Country Has Legal Powers To gSa A ns'k dh ljdkj dks dkuwuh vfèkdkj gS fd og O;fDRkxr
Acquire Even Private Property For Public Good. lalkèkuksa dks Hkh vke turk Qs fgr esa vfèkxzfgr dj ldrh gS
Inter National Resources: The Resources Which Are vaRkjkZ"Vªh; lalkèkuos lalkèku filis fo’o ds lkjs jk"Vªks dk vfèkdkj gS
Owned By All Country.
ON THE BASIS OF STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT fodkl Qs Lrj Qs vkèkkj ij
Potential Resources: Resources Which Are Found In laHkkoh lalkèku ;g os lalkèku gSa tks fdlh izns'k esa fo|eku gksrs
A Region, But Have Not Been Utilized. For Example gSa ijarq budk mi;ksx ugha fd;k x;k gSA tSls & jktLFkku vkSj
Rajasthan Have A Potential Of Wind Energy But Still xqtjkr eas iou vkSj lkSj ÅtkZ lalkèkuk dh vikj laHkkouk gS]
Not Utilized. ijaRkq budk lgh <ax ls fodkl ugh gwvk gS
Developed Resources: Resources Which Are fodflr lalkèku µ os lalkèku ftudk losZ{k.k fd;k tk pqdk gS
Surveyed And Their Quality And Quantity Have vkSj muosQ mi;ksx dh xq.koÙkk vkSj ek=kk fuèkkZfjr dh tk pqdh
Been Determined For Utilization. gS
Stock: Materials In The Environment Which Have HkaMkj i;kZoj.k esa miyCèk os inkFkZ tks ekuo dh vko';drkvksa
The Potential To Satisfy Human Needs But Human dh iwfrZ dj ldrs gSa ijarq mi;qDr izkS|ksfxdh osQ vHkko esa
Beings Do Not Have The Appropriate Technology To mldh igq¡p ls ckgj gSA
Access These
lafpr dks"k i;kZoj.k esa miyCèk os inkFkZ fiudks Hkfo"; esa
Reserves : Resources Whose Everything Is Known vko';drk iwfrZ ds fy, NksM fn;k x;k gS
But Still Not Utilized To Store For Future
Generation
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Sustainable development: The development without lrr~ iks"k.kh; fodkl lrr~ iks"k.kh; vkfFkZd fodkl dk vFkZ
effecting the environment. gS fd fodkl i;kZoj.k dks fcuk uqdlku igq¡pk, gks

RIO DE JANEIRO SUMMIT: fj;ks Mh tsusjks lEesyu%


1. 100 ls Hkh vfèkd jk"Vªkè;{k czkthy osQ 'kgj fj;ks Mh
1. 100 Heads Of States Met In Rio De Janeiro In tsusjks esa izFke varjkZ"Vªh; i`Foh lEesyu esa ,df=kr gq,
Brazil
2. The Summit Was Convened For Addressing Urgent 2. lEesyu dk vk;kstu fo'o Lrj ij mHkjrs i;kZoj.k
Problems Of Environmental Protection And laj{k.k vkSj lkekftd&vkfFkZd fodkl dh leL;kvksa dk gy
Socioeconomic Development At The Global Level. <Ww<us ds fy;s fd;k x;k Fkk
3. Leaders Signed The Declaration On Global Climatic 3. usrkvksa us HkweaMyh; tyok;q ifjorZu vkSj tSfod fofoèkrk
Change And Biological Diversity And Agenda 21
ij ,d ?kks"k.kk i=k ij vkSj ,tsaMk 21 ij gLrk{kj fd;k
Agenda 21 ,tsaMk 21:
1. Signed By World Leaders In 1992 At The United 1. 1992 esa czkthy osQ 'kgj fj;ks Mh tsusjks esa la;qDr jk"Vª
Nations Conference On Environment And i;kZoj.k vkSj fodkl lEesyu (UNCED) osQ rÙokèkku esa
Development (UNCED) jk"Vªkè;{kksa }kjk LohÑr fd;k x;k Fkk
2. It Is An Agenda To Combat Environmental
Damage, Poverty, Disease Through Global Co- 2. ;g ,d dk;Zlwph gS ftldk mís'; leku fgrksa]
Operation On Common Interests, Mutual Needs ikjLifjd vko';drkvksa ,oa lfEefyr ftEesnkfj;ksa osQ vuqlkj
And Shared Responsibilities fo'o lg;ksx osQ }kjk i;kZoj.kh; {kfr] xjhch vkSj jksxksa ls
fuiVuk gS
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RESOURCE PLANNING lalkèku fu;kstu


There Are Regions Which Are Rich In Certain Types Of Hkkjr Eks ,sls izns'k gSa tgk¡ ,d rjg Qs lalkèkuksa dh izpqjrk
Resources But Are Deficient In Some Other Resources. gS] ijarq nwljs rjg Qs lalkèkuksa dh deh gS
STATE STRONG LACK jkT; izpqjrk deh
Jharkhand Rich In Minerals Lacks In >kj[kaM] eè;izns'k [kfutksa vkSj dks;y fodkl dh deh
Chhattisgarh & And Coal Deposits Infrastructural vkSj NÙkhlx<
Madhya Pradesh Development
Rajasthan Solar And Wind Lacks In Water jktLFkku iou vkSj lkSj mQtkZ ty lalkèkuksa dh deh
Energy Resources gS
Ladakh Rich Cultural Water, yík[k lkaLÑfrd fojklr ty] vkèkkjHkwr
Heritage Infrastructure volajpuk
STEPS OF RESOURECE PLANNING lalkèku fu;kstu ds pj.k%
1. Surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative 1. {ks=kh; losZ{k.k] ekufp=k cukuk vkSj lalkèkuksa dk xq.kkRed ,oa
estimation and measurement of the resources ek=kkRed vuqeku yxkuk o ekiu djuk
2. Evolving a planning structure endowed with
appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up 2. lalkèku fodkl ;kstuk,¡ ykxw djus osQ fy, mi;qDr izkS|ksfxdh]
for implementing resource development plans. dkS'ky vkSj laLFkkxr fu;kstu <kWpk rS;kj djuk
3. Matching the resource development plans with overall 3. lalkèku fodkl ;kstukvksa vkSj jk"Vªh; fodkl ;kstuk esa leUo;
national development plans LFkkfir djuk
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WHY CONSERVATION OF RESOURCE? lalkèku fu;kstu D;ks ?


1. gekjs ikl lhfer ek=k es lalkèku gS
1. We Have Limited Quantity Of Resource
2. lalkèkuksa dk foosdghu miHkksx vkSj vfr mi;ksx Qs dkj.k
2. Irrational Consumption And Over-Utilisation Of dbZ lkekftd&vkfFkZd vkSj i;kZoj.kh; leL;k,¡ iSnk gks
Resources May Lead To Socio-Economic And ldrh gS
Environmental Problems 3. ;g lrr fodkl ds fy, Hkh vko’;d gS
3. It Is Also Required For Sustainable Development
Hkw&lalkèku
Land
 43 izfr'kr Hkw&{ks=k eSnku gS
 43 per cent of the land area is plain
 30 per cent of the total surface area is of Mountains  iwjs Hkw&{ks=k Qs 30 izfr'kr Hkkx ij ioZr gS
 27 per cent of the area of the country is the plateau  27 izfr'kr fgLlk iBkjh {ks=k gS
region
Uses of land Hkw&lalkèkuksa dk mi;ksx
Land resources are used 1. ou
2. Ñf"k Qs fy, vuqiyCèk Hkwfe
1. Forests
3. ijrh Hkwfe
2. Land not available for cultivation
4. 'kq) (fuoy) cks;k x;k {ks=k
3. Fallow lands
5. ijrh Hkwfe Qs vfrfjDr vU; Ñf"k v;ksX; Hkwfe
4. Net sown area
5. Other uncultivated land
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LAND DEGRADATION Hkwfe fuEuhdj.k


1. Mining : Mining Sites Are Abandoned After Excavation Work Is 1. [kuu [kuu Qs mijkar [knkuksa okys LFkkuksa dks xgjh [kkb;ksa
Complete
vkSj eycs osQ lkFk [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gS
2. Deforestation : Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh And
Odisha 2. ouksUewyu Hkwfe >kj[kaM] NÙkhlx< eè; izns'k vkSj mM+hl
3. Overgrazing : Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh And 3. vfr i'kqpkj.k xqtjkr] jktLFkku] eè; izns'k vkSj egkjk"V
Maharashtra 4. vfèkd flapkbZ iatkc] gfj;k.kk vkSj if'peh mÙkj izns'k tSls jkT;ksa
4. Over Irrigation : IN The States Of Punjab, Haryana, Western
Uttar Pradesh, Over Irrigation Is Responsible For Land
esa vfèkd flapkbZ Hkwfe fuEuhdj.k osQ fy, mÙkjnk;h gSA vfr
Degradation Due To Water Logging Leading To Increase In flapu ls mRiUu tykozQkarrk Hkh Hkwfe fuEuhdj.k osQ fy,
Salinity And Alkalinity In The Soil mÙkjnk;h gS ftlls e`nk esa yo.kh;rk vkSj {kkjh;rk c< tkrh gS
5. Industrial Effluents : Ceramic Industry Generate Huge 5. vkS|ksfxd fudkl lsy[kM+h osQ iz;ksx ls cgqr vfèkd ek=kk esa
Quantity Of Dust In The Atmosphere. It Retards The Process
Of Infiltration Of Water Into The Soil After It Settles Down
ok;qeaMy esa èkwy folftZr gksrh gSA tc bldh ijr Hkwfe ij te
On The Land. tkrh gS rks e`nk dh ty lks[kus dh izfØ;k vo# gks tkrh gSA
CONSERVATION MESURES laj{k.k mik;
1. catj Hkwfe Qs mfpr izcaèku] [kuu fu;a=k.k
1. Proper Management Of Waste Lands, Control Of Mining
2. oukjksi.k
Activities
3. pjkxkgksa dk mfpr izcaèku
2. Afforestation
4. jsrhys Vhyksa dks dk¡Vsnkj >kfM+;k¡ yxkdj fLFkj cukus dh izfØ;k ls
3. Proper Management Of Grazing
Hkh Hkwfe dVko dh jksdFkke dh tk ldrh gS
4. Stabilisation Of Sand Dunes By Growing Thorny Bushes
5. vkS|ksfxd ty dks ifj"dj.k osQ i'pkr~ folftZr djds
5. Proper Discharge And Disposal Of Industrial Effluents
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SOIL
e`nk
ALLUVIAL SOIL Tkyks< e`nk
Feature: fo’s"krk%
 The Alluvial Soil Consist Of Sand,Slit And Clay.  vuqikr ik, tkrs gSa
 Contain Adequate Proportion Of Potash,  Tkyks< e`nk,¡ iksVk'k] iQkLiQksjl vkSj pwuk;qDr gksrh gS
Phosphoric Acid And Lime
 Soils In The Drier Areas Are More Alkaline  lw[ks {ks=kksa dh e`nk,¡ vfèkd {kkjh; gksrh gSa
 Two Type – Old Alluvial (Bangar) And New  e`nk nks izkdkj dh gksrh gS iqjkuk tyks< ckaxj u;k
Alluvial (Khaddar) tyks< [kknj
Crops Grown : Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat And Other Cereal Qlyksa dh [ksrh xUus] pkoy] xsgw¡ vkSj vU; vuktksa vkSj
And Pulse Crops nygu dh Qly
Places: Rajasthan And Gujarat . Alluvial Soil Is Also
Found In The Eastern Coastal Plains Deltas Of The The Izkns’k jktLFkku vkSj xqtjkr A iwohZ rVh; eSnku] fo'ks"kdj
Godavari, The Krishna And The Kaveri Rivers. egkunh] xksnkojh] Ñ".kk vkSj dkosjh unh
REGUR/BLACK SOILS jsXkj/ dkyh e`nk
Feature: fo’s"krk%
 It Also Known As Regur Soils.  bUgs jsXkj e`nk,¡ Hkh dgk tkrk gS
 It Is Made Up Of Lava Flows  bl izdkj dh e`nk,¡ ykok tud 'kSyksa ls cuh gS
 The Black Soils Are Made Up Of Extremely  dkyh e`nk cgqr eghu d.kksa e`fÙkdk ls cuh gS
Clayey Material.
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 They Have Good Capacity To Hold Moisture.  bldh ueh èkkj.k djus dh {kerk cgqr gksrh gSA
 They Are Rich In Soil Nutrients, Such As  ;s e`nk,¡ QSfY'k;e dkckZsusV] eSxuhf'k;e] iksVk'k
Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium, Potash And vkSj pwus tSls ikSf"Vd rÙoksa ls ifjiw.kZ gksrh gSa
Lime.
Qlyksa dh [ksrh dikl , rackdw , Tokj , eDdk
Crops Grown : Cotton ,Tobacco , Jowar ,Maize
Izkns’k egkjk"Vª] lkSjk"Vª] ekyok] eè; izns'k vkSj NÙkhlx< vkSj
Places: Maharashtra, Saurashtra , Malwa, Madhya nf{k.k iwohZ fn'kk esa xksnkojh vkSj Ñ".kk ufn;ksa dh ?kkfV;ksa rd
Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south iSQyh gS
east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna
valleys
RED & YELLOW SOIL yky vkSj ihyh e`nk
Feature: fo’s"krk%
 These Soils Develop A Reddish Colour Due To  bu e`nkvksa dk yky jax josnkj vkXus; vkSj :ikarfjr
Diffusion Of Iron In Crystalline And pêðkuksa esa ykSg èkkrq osQ izlkj Qs dkj.k gksrk gSA
Metamorphic Rocks. It Looks Yellow When It budk ihyk jax buesa ty;kstu osQ dkj.k gksrk gSA
Occurs In A Hydrated Form.  bles jsr ikb tkrh gSa
 Coarse Particle  bldh ueh èkkj.k djus dh {kerk cgqr de gksrh gS
 Low Water Holding Capacity And Low Nutrient vkSj ikSf"Vd rÙoksa Hkh de gksrs gS
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Crops Grown : Cotton , Maize , Potato , Pineapple Qlyksa dh [ksrh dikl , eDdk vkyq vukukl
Izkns’k nDdu iBkj Qs iwohZ vkSj nf{k.kh fgLlksa esa vksSj vksfM'kk]
Places: Eastern And Southern Parts Of The Deccan
Plateau. Odisha, & Chhattisgarh NÙkhlx< esa

LATERITE SOIL ysVjkbV e`nk


Feature: fo’s"krk%
 Present High Temperature And Heavy Rainfall.  ysVjkbV e`nk mPp rkieku vkSj vR;fèkd o"kkZ okys
 Low Humus Content {ks=kksa esa fodflr gksrh gS
 Laterite Soils Are Suitable For Cultivation  bl e`nk esa áwel dh ek=kk de ikbZ tkrh Gs
With Adequate Doses Of Manures And
 ysVjkbV e`nk ij vfèkd ek=kk esa [kkn vkSj jklk;fud
Fertilizers.
moZjd Mky dj gh [ksrh dh tk ldrh gS
Crops Grown: Tea And Coffee And Cashew Nut
Qlyksa dh [ksrh pk; vkSj dkWQh vkSj dktw
Places: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Izkns’k dukZVd] osQjy] rfeyukMq] eè; izns'k vkSj vksfM'kk rFkk
Pradesh, And The Hilly Areas Of Odisha And Assam. vle osQ igkM+h {ks=k esa ikbZ tkrh gS
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ARID SOIL e#LFkyh e`nk


Feature: fo’s"krk%
 Colour Range From Red To Brown  e#LFkyh e`nkvksa dk jax yky vkSj Hkwjk gksrk gS
 Salt Content Is Very High  bles ued dh ek=kk bruh vfèkd gS
 Restrict The Infiltration Due To Kankar  Qadj ds dkj.k e`nk esa ty var% L;anu vo#) gks
 Coarse Particle Layer At Bottom Horizon. tkrk gS
Crops Grown : Not Grown  bles jsr ikb tkrh gSa
Places: Rajasthan Qlyksa dh [ksrh dksbZ [ksrh ugh gksrh gS
Izkns’k jktLFkku
SOIL EROSION e`nk vijnu
The Denudation Of The Soil Cover And Subsequent e`nk Qs dVko vkSj mlosQ cgko dh izfØ;k dks e`nk vijnu
Washing Down Is Described As Soil Erosion. dgk tkrk gS
1. Deforestation, Over-Grazing, Construction And
Mining 1. ouksUewyu] vfr i'kqpkj.k] fuekZ.k vkSj [kuu
2. Natural Forces Like Wind, Glacier And Water Lead 2. izkÑfrd rÙo tSls iou] fgeunh vkSj ty e`nk
To Soil Erosion. vijnu djrs gS
3. The Running Water Cuts Through The Clayey Soils 3. cgrk ty e`fÙkdk;qDr e`nkvksa dks dkVrs gq, xgjh
And Makes Deep Channels As Gullies. The Land okfgdk,¡ cukrk gS] ftUgs voufydk,¡ dgrs gSaA ,slh
Becomes Unfit For Cultivation And Is Known As Bad Hkwfe tksrus ;ksX; ugha jgrh vkSj bls mR[kkr Hkwfe
Land (bad land) dgrs gS
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4. When The Top Soil Is Washed Away. This Is 4. {ks=k dh mwijh e`nk ?kqydj ty Qs lkFk cg tkrh
Known As Sheet Erosion. gS bls pknj vijnu dgk tkrk gS
5. Wind Blows Loose Soil Off Flat Or Sloping Land 5. iou }kjk eSnku vFkok <kyw {ks= ls e`nk dks mM+k
Known As Wind Erosion. ys tkus dh izfØ;k dks iou vijnu dgk tkrk gS
6. Soil Erosion Is Also Caused Due To Defective 6. Ñf"k Qs xyr rjhdksa ls Hkh e`nk vijnu gksrk gS
Methods Of Farming.

CONSERVATION MESURES laj{k.k mik;


1. Contour Ploughing. Ploughing Along The Contour 1. leksPp tqrkb% <ky okyh Hkwfe ij leksPp js[kkvksa Qs lekukarj
Lines Can Decelerate The Flow Of Water Down gy pykus ls <ky Qs lkF ty cgko dh xfr ?kVrh gS
The Slopes.
2. Terrace Farming. Steps Can Be Cut Out On The
2. lksiku Ñf"k% <ky okyh Hkwfe ij lksiku cuk, tk, ldrs gS
Slopes Making Terraces. Terrace Cultivation lksiku Ñf"k vijnu dks fu;af=kr djrh gS
Restricts Erosion. 3. iêðh o`Qf"k% Qlyksa Qs chp esa ?kkl dh ifêð;k¡ mxkbZ tkrh
3. Strip Cropping: Large Fields Can Be Divided gSaA ;s iouksa }kjk tfur cy dks detksj djrh gS
Into Strips. Strips Of Grass Are Left To
4. j{kd es[kyk% isM+ksa dks drkjksa esa yxkdj j{kd es[kyk cukuk
Grow Between The Crops
4. Shelter Belts.: Planting Lines Of Trees To Hkh iouksa dh xfr de djrk gS
Create Shelter Also Works In A Similar Way.