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THE

WRITINGS

OF IMAM

AL-HADDAD

TWO TREATISES

MUTUAL REMINDING

B

GOOD MANN ERS

IMAM 'ABDALLAH IBN 'ALA\rI AL-HADDAD

Translated by

MOSTAFA AL-BADAWI

THE STARLATCH

PRESS

-b

".

J

7i

z

7

JU

I

t

th(')

hrr)

kh(al

A

on''

TRANSLITERATION

r'n'

,

)z

tS

j' sh

.f

s(7r

,.?

l2

t

L

L

d''r

fer

z(i.)

'""

rn"''

KEY

JI .c

j

"ik

Jl

lm

.Jll

,

J

g

qt';r

h(,1)

u,u,w

i't'Y

S-Mentioned after the Prophet Muhammad's ,9 narne and translated as

"may Allah bless him and grant him peace."

ffi-Mentioned after the names of the prophets and translated as "peace

be r.rpon him."

I. A clistinctive glott:rl stop made at the b()ttorn ofthe throat. It is also uscd to indicate the running of tw<r worcls into one,e. g. bisnti'Llah.

z. Shoulcl be pronoLrnced like the tD in think.

l. A hard I sound nradc at the Adarn's apple in thc rniddle of the thro:rt.

4. Pror.rounced

like the cb in Scotttsh loch.

.t.

Should be pronor.rncecl

likc thc lb in this.

6. Aslightlytrilledrrnadebehindthefronttccthwhichistrillednotmore th:rn twice.

7. An emphatic s pronounced behinrl the uppcr frt)nt tecth.

ii. An emphatic d-like sound nraclc by pressing the entirc tongue against the upper

pa late.

.). Anernph:rtic/soundproduccd behirrdthefronttccth.

ro. An cnrphaticlb sound, likethcrDinthis, rnltle bchincl thc frontteeth.

r r. A distinctivc Semitic sound mrcle in thc rnidtllc thxrat and sourrding to x lWestern ear more like i:L vowel than a consonant.

rz. Aguttural souncl maclcattlretopofthethroetrcserrrhlirrutheuntrilleclCicnnarrarrd

French r.

li. A hirrd A souncl produced at the back of the pelett,.

r 4. This sor.rud is like thc Firglish D but hrrs nrort' hotlv. It is rnacle at tlre very bottorn of

thc tlrroat an c1 pronoulccd at the begin n ing, rrr irltlIt , rr rrtl e ntls of worcls.

CONTENTS

TRANSI,ATOR'S IN'IROI)UC:I'ION

MUTUAL REMINDING

PROLOGUE

I

The Meaning o/Taqwe

The RecrnnPense of Works

God's Satisfaction and His Wrdth

4

The Reward of the Pious

5

The Abasement of thc CorruPt

6

Delight in Obedience

7

The Four Obstacles to Obedience

8

Igrutrancc

9

tMaakncss Ltf Fdith

IO

Long HoPes

II

Illicit and SusPect bood

IZ

Sinccrity

r1

Ostent.ltion

r4

Conceit

r5

Loue cf this Wc'rld

CONCI,USION

AFT[,RWORI)

NOTF,S

GOOD MAN N ERS

PROLOGUI

3

6

7

IO

r2.

r4

r5

r6

r7

r8

LO

LI

L1

2.2

2j

zj

36

4I

47

The Begimring of the Pdth: d Powerful Urge of Diuine Origin

rVhich Shctuld be Strengthened,

Protected' antl Respctndad'lo 4c)

Repentdnce: Its Conditictns, dnd Protecting ()neself frttm Sins

5o

()uarding the Hedrt Against Insinuations,

Ailments, and lll:fhinking

51

Guartling the Senscs Against Transgressions

Llnd Agdinst bcing Decciued by This

til/orld

54

5

Remaining in a State of Puri4r and Preferring Hunger to Satiety

6

Directing One's Wbole Attention to (]od

and Deuoting Oneself to His 'Vlorship

Excellence in the Performance of Ritual prayers, I'resence uitb God is the Essence of All Acts of 'Vlorshilt

Caution Against Neglecting the Friday prayer and Other

Congregational Prayers, Exhortation to perform tb e Re gular Sup er er o gatory Pray ers

9

Exhnrtation tut Perseuere in Remembrance

and Reflection

IO

II

IZ

r3

r4

r5

t6

r7

r8

Hou tct Rebuke the Soul from being Lozy in Obedience

and Inclined Touards Disobedience

The Stdtes of the Soul and Patience

Heeding tbe Example of tbe people of Fortitude-

Prouision is Apportioned

Mouing Tou,ard God being Cgmpatible with Earning, Diuesting Oneself <tf the Means of Liuelihood is Not Required

Being Patient uhen Harmed by Others and being'\yary of Tempted by Tbem

Getting Rid of the Need to Obtain Other pec4tle's Approual

Rebuking the Seekers rf IJnueilings and Supernatural Euents

The Seeking of Prouision and Striuing for lt

Keeping the Company of the Best of people, the Gctctd Manners of the Disciltlc ruith His Shaykh, and the

Attributes of the Perfect Sbaykb

CONCLUSION

NOTES

TRaNsreLon's AppENDIx oNE

TRANSLA'T'OR'S APPI,]NDIX TWO

55

56

57

j8

t9

6r

6t

6z

64

o)

(rb

bb

6=

68

7r

75

77

79

TRAN SLATOR,S I NTRODUCTION

In the name of God, the All-Merciful, tbe Compassionate

The Prophet ,9 said, "He who believes in God and the Last Day,

let him speak words of goodness or else remain silent." In another

tradition, we learn what is meant here by "words of goodness." He

said, "The speech of the Son of Adam will be counted against him,

not for hirn, except for enjoining good, forbidding evil, and remem-

bering God." When a Muslim meets another, this should be the

matter of their discourse. Obviously, they must exchange greetings

of peace, inquire about each other's health, family, and other

affairs; for this keeps the bonds of brotherly affection alive. But

having done so, they should turn to reminding each other of that which brings the fragrance of faith in their lives and renders' by

God's will, their life-to-come successful.

As for the learn6d men and women of the Muslim nation' they

are the ones primarily intended by God's command: And remind,

for reminding profits the belieuers (qunax, 5r:5i).\fho is better

qualified than these learn6d and godly people to obey this order

and strive to carry it out with substance, wisdclm, and befitting

ways?

Imam "Abdallah al-Haddad was such a learn6d man. His was a

T\YO TREATISES OF IMAM AI,-HADDAD

life infused with the love of and unrivaled capacity to remind Muslims of God, His Messenger, and the l,ast Day. His very pres-

ence was a constant reminder to those around him, as well as to those who only heard or read about his counsel of how a Muslim

should behave toward his i-ord and his brother Muslim.

The first of the two concise books contained in this volume is

known as The Treatise of Mutual Rentinding dmong Louing

Brothers, People of Coodness and Religion It was the Imam's first

work, dictated in ro69 arr when he was twenty-five years of age. In

it he examines mutual reminding and the exchange of good coun-

sel, and he identifies its chief elements as tdqwd (an active con-

sciousness and fear of God)' and detachment from worlclly things.

He defines tdqtua according to the criteria of Imam al-Ghazali and

delineates both its acrive aspecr of doing good and its passive

aspect of avoiding evil. He then discusses rhc four things that

impair it (ignorance, weakness of faith, long hopes, and illicit and

dubious sustenance). He goes on next to discuss two of the major

obstacles on the path of obedience, namely, conceit and ostenta-

tion, both of which seriously assail one's sincerity. Finally, he

speaks of how the love of this world severs one from God, quoting numerous Quranic verses, Prophetic traditions, and sayings of the virtuous predecessors among the early ancl venerable Muslim gen-

eratl()ns.

Taqwa and detachment from the world naturally lead to seek-

irrg a path to approach the Real, God the Exalted. This path

rcrprircs courtesy, that is, the good manners of the spiritual wayfar-

cr, which

is thc subject of the second treatise contained here. It is

Trctrtise on the Good Manners of the spiritual Disciple's

W,tyf ,rrirrg.

Oood Mdttt,(,/s was clictated by the lrnAm in roTr AH, by

rvlritlr tirrrc, tlcsl.ritc his young age, he was a recognized spiritual nlirst('r'. 1'lrt'lrt':rtisc wrrs clictatcd as a reply to a request by one of

his cru'ly corrrp:rrriorrs tor gLriclelincs on how to follow the path.

-fl.

crrf l.rf

T r an s I at o r' s I ntr ct du ction

Manners are important to spiritual growth. It was God Himself

who taught the Companions how to behave towards their spiritual master, the Prophet S, with utmost respect and reverence:

O you who belieue, do not be forward in the presence of God

and His Messenger. And fear Gctd. Indeed, God is bearing,

knowing. () you who belieue, do not raise your uoices ahctue

the Prophet's voice, nor sbout when spedking to him as yttu shottt ctne to anotber, Iest yowr wtrks be rendered uoid witb-

out yolt knowing it. Those who subdue their uoices in tbe

presence of the Messenger of God are those whose hearts ()od

had tested /or taqwa. For them is forgiueness and a gredt retuard. (qunas, 49t r - 1l

Tdqwa is presented in this passage as the foundation of good

manners and proper comportment that is becorning of a person

who believes in God, the Messenger S, and the Hereafter. But

before learning about good manners, one ought to give some

thclught to what are bad manners and their characteristics. It is bad manners of the most sever degree to be inforn-red that the Hereafter is immensely better than this world and is everlasting,

yet prefer this world and cclncentrate all one's energy therein. It is

bad manners to be informed that it is possible to draw near to God,

yet decide that the effort required to do so is too troublesome and

so settle for the minimum necessary to barely escape the Fire. It is bad manners to be informed that some people ascertain profound

knowledge of God through contemplation, yet decide that other

things are mclrc important as the objects of your concerns. It is bad

manners to devote time and energy to studying the insignificant

and the ephemeral, yet neglect to devote equal time (at least) in

studying that which helps deliver one from chastisement in the

Hereafter and from moral indifference in this life. The Prophet &

said, "God loathes those who are learn6d of the affairs of this

world but are ignorant of the Hereafter." For it behooves those

who have been gifted by God with intelligence and skills to apply these gifts towarcl what benefits them in the most profound way, to

TWO TREATISES OF IMAM AL-HADDAD

gain knowledge and insight about the Real and the purpose He has created us. This is not to say that one should abandon the world altogether; on the contrary, Islam encourages excellence in things

of this world, but not at the expense of matrers related ro the

Hereafter and religious conduct of one's life. Detachment from the world is a thing of the heart, a mental artitude, an objective view of

prioritization, so that one does everyrhing that is required to do,

but without inordinate preoccupation. As for studying the sciences

of religion, it is a duty that no Muslim can evade. "seeking knowl- edge is an obligation upon every Muslim man and woman," said

the Prophet &. This goes side by side with learning a trade, a crafr, or obtaining higher university degrees.

As for the good manners of spiritual wayfaring, they are meant to shape one's attitudes and behavior towards God the Creator.

Next come good manners with the Prophet S, his Companions,

and family; then the shaykh or spiritual master, other teachers, and

other men of God; then with the brothers on the path, other Muslims, and finally with creation at large. For there are good

manners to be observed with all humanity as well as the creatures of the earth.

Learning spiritual courtesy with one's brothers and fellow

Muslims lends to one's learning of spiritual courtesy with the

shaykh. This in turn will lead to learning spiritual courtesy with the

Prophet &, which will lead to the ultimate goal of mastering the

kind of conduct necessary if one is to be accepted by God, Exalted

and Majestic is He. However, in practice, all these have to be

implemented simultaneously. The result to be expected appears at

each level only when the previous level has been sufficiently mas-

tered.

The Treatise on tbe Good Manners of the Spiritual Disciplc's

'Mayfaringt was cclnceived in such a manner as to be profitable to

all wayfarers, given that it is a manual of behavior that is entircly

basecl on the Quran and Sunna, the theoretical knowledge of thc

Tr anslat or' s Intro duction

Llam, as well as his personal experience. It is priceless in that, as

mentioned above, it is not addressed to the affiliates of a particular path and is capable of being assimilated with ease and implement-

ed without need for clarifications from a master; and it was written

in accordance with the dictates of our time. No shaykh will dis-

agree with its contents or say that in his particular path they do

things differently. On the contrary, all will agree that this pattern

of behavior must constitute the common denominator to which all

tarTqa-specific practices may subsequently be added.

lmam al-Haddad once said, "The path's outward Idimension] is knowledge; its inward is understanding; its yield is a secret; and

its ultimate end is to lose oneself in God." This work has to do with tlre first two of these four.

The English version of this treatise was first published in

llritain in the early

r98o's in a limited edition. The text has been

thoroughly revised for this edition. 'We have omitted some of the

poetry in the first treatise because of the difficulty of rendering it in

lrnglish both accurately and retaining a taste of the original. As

lvith all other translations clf the Imam's works. the chapter numer-

.rtion and titles are ours.

\7e ask God to forgive the flaws in our work, grant us sinceri-

tv in spcech and action, and make it easy for us to enjoy the honor ,I ri:rthering with the Messenger of God s, his Companions, fami-

lr', orrr teachers, and all other men of God in the abode of serenity

,rrrtl t'tcrnal lis.ht. Amtn!

Mostafa al-Badawi

MUTI.JAL REMINDING

Tbe Treatise of Mutual Reminding Among Louing Brothers, People of Goodness and Religion

PROLOGUE

In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the Compassionate "Transcendent are You! We haue no knowledge saue tbat which You

haue taught us; Yow are the Knowing, the'\Yise" (qunaN, z:32).

All praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds, who created man from clay, then made his progeny frorn an extraction of mean

fluid. He rescued the believers who enioin truth and patience

among one another from among those who are in utter loss- excluding them after attributing failure to all of humanity [who do

.onrrnonded His believing servants to assist each

not believel.s H.

other in benevolence and Godfearingness4 and informed them that

the most honorable of them in His sight are those who fear Hin-r most,5 that He is the Protector of the God-fearir-,g,6 and that He

created iinn and humankind for nothing other than to worship

HimT-not to rnake their worldly affairs prosper and to amass

wealth. On the contrary, He warned them against that through His

Trustworthy Prophet $, who said, "[t was not revealed to me, 'Amass money and be a merchant!' Rather, 'Extol the praises of

your Lord, be of those who prostrate themselves, and worship your

Lord until what is certain comes to you!"'o

Therefore, the true happiness and perfection of each person is

rooted in obedience with regard to the [Divine] command and that for which humanity was created. One has to immerse oneself in

this and devote oneself to it by severing everything that holds back

or thwarts one frclm it, whether they are deviations of deceived

fools or the absurdities of the dull and indolent.

May God's blessings be upon our master Mul.rammad-the

TWO't'REATISES OF IMAM AL-HADDAD

Master of all the Messengers and the Seal of all the Prophers,

whom God sent as a mercy to the worlds-and upon his family,

Companions, and those who follow them with excellence until the

Day of Judgment.

Now, to proceed.

That which comprehends all goodness and serves as its founda-

tion is taqua in private and in public, secretly and openly. Taqwa [the fear of God] is the attribute which gathers for its possessor the

good of this world and the next. Because of irs importance in reli-

gion and its great worth in the eyes of the learn6d, scholars begin

their sermons exhorting people to tdqlua, and include it in their

counsels. Because it comprehends all good, it suffices as the obliga-

tory counsel that must be included in the Friday Prayer Sermon fKhutba].e Often, great men of God, when people request formal

counsel from thern, confine their counsel tcl enjoining upon them the fear of God.

Taqwa is also the counsel of God, the Lord of the Worlds, to the first and the last of His servants. God the Exalted has said, We

haue counseled those who were giuen tbe Book befttre you and [We

counsell you to fear God (qunnN, 4:r3r). God the Exalted says, O people! Fear your Lord who created you of a single soul (qunaN,

4:r); O you who belieue! Fear God dnd speak straight words

(quteN, 33170); O you wbo belieue! Fear God as He should be feared (quneN, 3:toz); So fear God ds much as you can! (quneN, 64:16). This means to do everything that is possible in this respec,

fctr Cod does nctt charge a person with more than what He hds g,iuen him (QURAN, (r5:z). There are many more v(rses enjoining

the fear of God.

The good of both this world and the nexr were promised by

God to those who fear Him. Examples of this are:

Relief from hardship and bestowal of provision from whence he does not expecr: God the Exalted says, FIe who fears God, He

will mdke d udy out fctr him and prouide him from where he

Mutual Reminding

does not ercpect (euRAN, 65:z-3).

Right guidance: God the Exalted says, T/rls is the Book, no dctubt, containing right guidance for the God-fearing (quneN,

Knowledge: God the Exalted says, Fear God and God will

teach you (qunaN, z:z9z\.

Discernment, expiation of bad actions, and forgiveness of sins:

God, Transcendent and Exalted, says, If yctu fear God, He will giue you discernment, expiate your bad actions, and forgiue you (quxer, 8:29). Certain commentators have stated that discern-

ment is a guidance in the heart which discriminatcs between

truth and falsehood.

Protection: God the Exalted says, God is the Protet:trtr of the

Gctd-fearing (quneN, 4 5t 9).

Being with God: God the F,xalted says, Know that God is with

the God-fearing (quneN, z:t.)4\. This means that God is with

His support, succor, and protection.

Salvation and deliverance: God the Exalted says,Then'X/e shall deliuer those who are God-fearing (qunaN, r9:72\.

The promise of Paradise: (iod says-and August is the

Speaker-TDe likeness ot' the Garden that tbe God-fearing are promised is sucb that riuers ruill be flowing in it, ttf unpolluted

water, and riuers of milk of uncbanged taste, and riuers ctf wine delicious to the drinkers, and of honey, clear and pure (quneN,

47tr5l and [He said], The garden shall be llrought near for the

God-fearing, not afar (quneN, .5o:3 r ).

There are clther beautiful and good things, immense favors and

generous gifts promised to the God-fearing. It is sufficient honor

with regard to tdqwa that God the Exalted mentions it more than ninety times in His Book. As for enjoining tdqwtt and its merits, the

Messenger of God &,t said:

Fear God wherever you are; follow a bad deed with a good erase it; and behave toward people in a gra-

n:*L Tll

I enjoin upon you the fear of God and to hear and obey, even

-

Two TREATISES oF IMAM AL-HADDAD

if you are given a slave for a ruler.

Fear God, even with half

then with a gracious word.

a date, if you possess nor even that,

O God, I ask of you guidance, Godfcanrrgness, contlnence, and freedom from needs!

There is no superiority for a white rlan over a black

man, nor

for an Arab over a non-Arab, except the fear of God. you are

all from Adam and Adam is frorn dust!

[The most honor:able of people] are rhose who fear Cod r.r.rost.

Eat only the food of those who feer (iocl car your foodl

who fear God, and let only thosc

'A'isha, may God be pleased with her, said, .,Nothing of this

world was pleasing to the Messenger of God, and ,o p.rr.rr, *".

pleasing to him save one who feared God.,,

'Alr, may God honor his countenance, said,

The

crops of a

people never perish

Qat-da said,

in the presence of the fear of Gotl.,,

It

is written in the

Torah: .Fear God, then clie

whose capital is the

his profits.,,Bishr

wherever you wish!"' Al-A,mash said, .,He

fear of God, tongues grow weary in describing

al-Hafi used to recite, "The death of the God-fearing is endless life.

/ Some have died but are still among the living.,,

The merits of taqtua and of thosc

whcl possess it are beyond

a lengthy expo_

enumeration. lmam al-Ghazdli has composed quite

sition of this i'his

treatise Minhaj dr-'Abidtn, and what we rust

quoted is, in fact, extracted from lris wclrk.

ONE

The Meaning <tf ll-ttqwa

Imdm al-Ghazah has said, "Taqwa in thc euran has three mean-

ings' First is fear and a sense of dwe. Trrc scc.rrcl i'clucres obedience

and worship. Thir:d is freeing the heart fr-.r si's, which is the real-

Mutudl Reminding

ity and essence of taqwd. In summary, tdqwd is to guard oneself

against the anger of God and His punishment by fulfilling His com-

mandments and abstaining from what He has made prohibited. The reality of taqwA is that your Lord never sees you where He has

forbidden you to be, nor does He miss you where He has com-

manded you to be.to May peace be upon you.

TWO

The Recompense of \X/orks

Those possessed of sound hearts and upright minds know that they

will be requited for what they do in this life, that they will reap

what they sow, that they will be judged just as they judge others, and that they are heading toward that which they have forwarded

for themselves. How can such people not know this or fail to be

certain of this when what they believe and trust in comes from

what they hear in the perfect revelation of God and the utterances

of His Prophet &? They are sources that impart conviction and

certitude in one whose heart God illuminates and whose breast He

dilates. So be present of heart and attentive of ear and listen to what may awaken you from your heedlessness and rouse you frorn your slumber. Act well for your own good, and save yourself "ctn a

day when no weahh shdll auail, nor children, saue those wbo come

to Cod with a sound hedrt" (qunaN, z6:88-89). God the Exalted says, To God belongs what is in tbe heauens and what is in the edrth, th(tt He may recompense those who haue

done wrong utith their doings dnd recompense those wbo haue done

good with good (quntN, 5J:3r). And He says, Exalted isF{e, And

there is nothing for man except what he has striuen for, and his

striuings sball surely be seen; tben he will be recomltensed for it to

the full. and to your Lord is the final cnd lqunnN, 53:3u-42). Anc

He says, Exalted is He, 1/ is not by your wishes, nor the wisbes of

TWO TREATISES OF IMAM AL-HADDAD

tbe People of the Book. He who does wrong will be recompensed

acatrdingly, dnd he uill find neitber protector nor aily other tban

artd be

God. And he who does good, wbether he be male or

female,

is a belieuer, sucb uill enter the GdrcJen, and they will not be

wronged lso mucb asl the thread of a date_store

(qunaN, 4:.-z3_24).

weight of good

And He says, Exalted is He, He tubo does 6n atom,s

will see it, and be ubo does an atom's ueight of euir wiil see it

(qunaN, 99:7-8). Ancl He says, Exalted is He, God charges no soul

except that whicb it can bear. rt will be requited for wbateuer

goctd

and uhateuer euil it has earned (quneN, z:zg6). And He says,

Exalted is He, He who does good, it is for bis own self, and he who

does wrong it is against it; and your Lctrd ts not unrust to His ser-

Day

uants (quxl'N, 4r:46). And He says, Exalred isHe,

fiudgment

sball bel a day wben each sctul will find the good it has dr,tne

brougbt nedr; ds for the euil it has done, it will wish that tbere uc.tuld

be d migbty distance between them. God warns you to beware of

Him, and Cod is kind to the seruants (qun,LN,

3:3o). And He says,

Exalted isHq Fear d day wben yow shdll be returned to God, then each soul shall be recompensed for what it bas earned, and they sbdll not be wronged (quneN, z:zgr).lt is said that this verse was

the last verse of the Quran