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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Cucumber Bettle is a common name given to number of two genera beetles both in

Chrysomelidae Family.

Heavy infestations of adult cucumber beetles can destroy stems, cotyledons, and

emerging leaves of young adult plants. Cucurbitacinas, which act as feeding stimulants, are

especially elevated in the cotyledons, leaves, stems, blossoms, and fruits of more mature plants

can be damaged, resulting in reduced yield and unmarketable fruit. Excessive feeding damage to

young squash and pumpkin plants can result in reduced yield. More mature plants can tolerate

feeding damage with little effect on yield. Root and lower stem feeding by cucumber beetle

larvae increases the incidence of certain diseases, but the importance of such damage has not

been quantified.

Adult cucumber beetle and some other plant-wounding insects also transmit bacterial wilt

to cucurbits. Cucumber and melon spices are most susceptible to bacterial wilt, squash and

pumpkin less so, and watermelon is not affected by the disease. Observations over the past few

years in New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, however, suggest that this disease

may not be as widespread in the northeastern United States as one perceived. It may also be

cyclic in nature or important within some areas but not others. The bacteria may be transmitted

mechanically between plants through contact with mouthparts or feces of contaminated beetles.

Further study will be required to determine the mechanism by which the bacteria are transferred

and what proportion of beetles carry the bacteria .wilted plantsor their runners may indicate the
presence of bacterial wilt. Affected runners appear dark green at first, then become necrotic as

the wilt during the heat of the day but recover overnight. young pumpkin plants may wilt and die

within two weeks of the first symptoms, whereas summer squash may remain healthy and

productive for weeks following the first symptoms.to determine if a plant is infected with

bacterial wilt, press together two freshly cut sections of a stem and slowly pull them apart. if a

“stringy” sap (bacterial growth and associated resins) extends between the cut ends, the plant has

bacterial wilt. cucumber beetles also vector viruses such as cucumber mosaic but to doso much

less efficiently than aphids.

Cucumber beetles adults over winter protected locations such as in woodland lifter and

under soil. Early in the spring they feed in blossoms and leaves of cultivated and wild host

plants. In new york they invade plantings of cucurbits in about mid-June just as the crop is

emerging, and their numbers remain relatively high through mid-July. One in cucurbits, the

female beetles lay groups of eggs at the bases of plants. These eggs hatch and produce larvae that

develop for 2 to 4 weeks on the roots, pupate in the soil, and appear as adults in early to mid-

August. This generation of adults remains in relatively high numbers until mid-to late September

and then overwinters. The spotted cucumber beetle migrates to the northern United States and

Canada each year; some individuals appear very early in the season in New York, however,

suggesting a portion of the population overwinters in northern latitudes. Typically, spotted

cucumber beetles begin to build in number in cucurbits in mid-August. Their life cycle resembles

that of the striped cucumber beetle, except that most individuals probably do not overwinter in

northern latitudes.

To control this pest, many farmers use pesticides that are expensive and affecting the

non-target organism, including human beings. If farmers keep I n buying commercial pesticide

products still faced the risk of putting yourselves in danger.


“Every year, hundreds of thousands of people are killed due to accidental poisoning by

agricultural chemicals,” says Roy C. Alimoane, Director of the Davao-based Mindanao Baptist

Rural Life Center (MBRLC) Foundation Inc. people who consume chemical-laced vegetables

risk their lives since chemicals are not always dissipated, saysAlimoane. Generally, chemicals

accumulate in the human body (Tacio, 2009).

The Geneva-based World Health Organization report these people are poisoned by

pesticides every minute around the world. All in all, about 10,000 die annually because of

pesticides. Report shows that 62% of pesticides sold in the Philippines are insecticides of these,

46% are applied to rice and 20% to vegetables. Insecticides had become one of the major

expenses of farmers that account for about 40% of total production cost (Tacio, 2009).

“Natural pest controls like the botanicals are safer to the user and the environment

because they break down into harmless compounds within hours or days in the presence of

sunlight,” wrote Eric Vinje of Planet Natural. “They are also very close chemically to those

plants from which they are derived, so they are easily decomposed by a variety of microbes

common in most oils (Tacio, 2009).

Feeding by adult striped cucumber beetles and possibly the other beetle species

predisposes plants to gummy stem blight (causal fungus didymella bryoniae); beetles can also

serve as vectors of gummy stem blight and perhaps powdery mildew.

Tubli is a rambling climber, with branches covered with brown hairs. Leaves are pinnate

and 30 to 50 centimeters long. Leaflets are usually oblong, 9 to 13, when matured smooth above

and subglaucous and silky beneath, 10 to 15 centimeters long, and about half as broad. Racemes

are lax, 15 to 30 centimeters in length with reddish flowers in stalked clusters. Insecticides had
become one of the major expenses of farmers that account for about 40 percent of total

production cost.

But lately, the harmful effects of inorganic pesticides to environment, humans ,and

livestock prompted various countries worldwide to ban the use of this pesticides and look for

alternative replacement that are more environment-friendly and less harmful.

The shift from chemical pesticides to botanical pesticides is no gaining popularity. It

promotes balanced and self-regulated agricultural systems. It also less harmful to the

environment, humans and livestock and cost less to the farmers.

Researchers at the University of the Philippines in the Visayas, West Visayas State

University and Panay State Polythecnic University jointly implemented a project to develop a

product concepts for pest controls using ethnobotanicals.

The product will be produced commercially and sold to farmers at affordable price. The

Philippine council of agriculture , forestry and natural resources research and development , an

agency of the department of science and technology is funded the project.

Potential plants for the project were selected based on availability, high bioactivity and

endecimicity. Selection was also based on the plants whether such ingredients already known

and wether such ingredients can be extracted as soluble in water.

Roots of tubli (Derrissp.), vines of makabuhay/malunggal (Tinospora rumphii) and

tubers of kayos (Dioscorea hispida) were used for the development of the natural pesticides. The

plant materials were collected from Mamburao in Capiz, and Miag-ao town in Ilo-ilo. Most of

compounds isolated from tubli are isoflavonoids. The roots of Derris elliptica , which is closely

related to D. philippinencis contain rotenone , elliptone, deguelin, malacol, d-toxicarol,


tephrosin, dehydroguelin and dehydrotoxicarol. Rotenone is use as an insecticide even before the

advent of organosynthetic insecticides.

The tubers of D. hispida contain a poisonous alkaloid called dioscorine that paralyzes the

nervous system. It also has diosgenin, which generally occurs in combined form as glycoside

(saponin). It is present as rhamno-rhamno-gluocoside called dioscin. Diosgenin is a rich source

of steroids.

Statement of the Problem

This study would like to determine the effectiveness of Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli) root

extract in eliminating cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata).

This study aims to answer the following question:

A.What is the mortality rate of cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) sprayed

by Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli)?

B. Is there a significant difference in terms of the effectiveness of Derris elliptica Benth

(Tubli) root extract in eliminating cucumber beetles?

Significance of the Study

The result of this study is beneficial to the:


Future Researcher:

The future researchers will not have trouble in terms of using Derris elliptica Benth

(Tubli) root extract. They will no longer use the commercial pesticide and this will not affect

their health.

Agriculturist:

This study will give some agriculturist some insights about the use of Derris elliptica

Benth (Tubli) root extract. It is an alternative to chemical pesticides to help eradicate cucumber

beetles. This will also motivate them to promote Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli) root extract to

farmers and consumers as an environmental friendly pest control.

Environment:

The result of this study will help to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. The researcher

did not use synthetic chemicals that can kill non-target organisms.
Scope and Delimitation

This study is only limited to the stem extract of Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli) root extract

applied to eliminate cucumber beetle. This is conducted to know the effectiveness of Derris

elliptica Benth (Tubli) root extract in eliminating cucumber beetles. Other insects and pest are

not included in the study and only Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli) root extract serves as

independent variable.

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Tubli (Derris elliptica Mortality Rate of


benth.) Root Extract Cucumber Beetles

This paradigm will determine the effectiveness of Derris elliptica Benth (Tubli) root

extract in eliminating cucumber beetle. Conceptual framework shows that Derris elliptica Benth
(Tubli) root extract as the independent variable that will contribute to increase the Mortality rate

of Cucumber Beetle as the dependent variable.

Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in terms of the effectiveness of Derris elliptica Benth

(Tubli) root extract in eliminating cucumber beetles (Diabrotica undecimpunctata).

Definition of Terms

Chrysomelidae- the insects of the beetle family chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf

beetles.

Cotyledons- an embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants is more of which are the first leaves to

appear from a germinating seed.

Cucurbitacins- is any of biochemical compounds that same plant s.

Necrotic- the death of tissues from svere injury or disease, especially in alccalized are of the

body.

Synthetic Chemicals- can be made from natural product.


CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature

This chapter shows what is already known about the research topic as a whole.

Locale Literature

The roots of tubli contain rotenoids, a highly potent insecticidal chemical which is widely

used for the control of a variety of insect pest in the home, on domestic animals and on the field.

It also widely used as fish killer. On the field crops, it has a short (3-5 days)residual toxicity and

the residues are non-toxic to man. In recent years, Filipino scientists have found many plants to

have insecticidal properties. One of them is “tibanglan,” known locally in Mindanao as “tubli.”

Government forest researchers found it to be highly effective against lepidopterous and

coleopeterous insects.

According to a study entitled Environmental Friendly Bio-Pesticides Rotenone Extracted

From Derris sp.: A Review on the extraction Method, Toxicity and the Field effectiveness, bio-

pesticides are natural occurring substances that control pest and derived either from plants or

microorganism it play a vital role in coping with adverse effect arise due to massive used of

synthetic pesticides and development of insecticide resistance of some insect groups in crop

production. Thus, Derris species from leguminose (Fabacea) family is a climbing plant of

Southeast Asia that was well-known for its environmental bioactive compound is used one of the

effective insecticides. Rotenone was one of bioactive constituents extracted from derris plant that

was used as agricultural pest control due to its strong paralysis action (knock-down effect) on
cold blooded animals. Moreover, it has a lethal mechanism in inhibiting respiratory enzyme of

insects and easily degrades which makes it environmental friendly.

The test conducted by the Laguna-based Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau

included leaf rollers and fruit worm of okra, stem borers of eggplant, white aphids, corn weevil

and larvae or tussock moth. Result of the study showed that 50%, 25% and 10% of “tubli” sap in

water can kill samples in 20, 45, and 120 minutes, respectively.“Tubli” has an ancient reputation

as botanical pesticide. Ethnic groups in some parts of the country have long been using “tubli” as

fish poison. In Brazil, people use it to eliminate the deadly piranha.

The insecticidal properties of “tubli” were first discovered in 1848 when the plant was

first used against the nutmeg caterpillar. In 1940, the United States was importing 2,700 metric

tons of “tubli” roots from Southeast to formulate pesticides.

Agricultural experts say “tubli” is very effective against aphids, beetles, borers, the

diamond back moth, fruitflies, thrips, cabbage worms, fleas, flea beetles, lice, loopers, mites,

mosquitoes, psyllids and slugs.

According to Philippine Medical Plants, Roots are insecticidal; rotenone from roots is

raw material for insecticides against plant pests. Since early times, the root has been used as fish

poison in the Philippines have used the root decoction as an insecticide. Rotenone has also been

found effective against plant lice, leaf beetles, aphids, flies, caterpillars, ticks, chicken lice, red

spiders and other insects. In the Philippines, cattle have been reported to die after eating the

leaves because of toxicity, rotenone as insecticidal is being phased out in many eco-conscious

countries.
Furthermore, according to a study conducted by Amistad, Mendoza and Sumilhig entitled

the Effectivity of Tubli Plant (Derris Elleptica Benth) root extract as mosquito larvicide

compared to a commercial larvicide, the tubli plant were obtained in one of the researchers

residence at Negros Occidental. The breeding of day-biting household mosquito larvae was done

at the residence of one of the group members located at Marigodon, Lapu-lapu City, the

preparation of the root extract was conducted at Cebu Doctors University. A population of 270

day-biting household mosquito larvae were the subjects of the research study. 90 wrigglers were

randomly allocated into 3 groups for 3 trials: experimental group(30),positive control group(30)

and negative control group of (30).

The researchers collected30 day-biting mosquito larvae per trial. The wrigglers were

randomly selected and were each placed in a transparent plastic container. They were divided

into three groups , each having 3 trials. The negative control group which was treated with the

100% tubli plant(Derris Elleptica Benth.) root extract. The number of dead larvae were counted

and recorded in three time intervals after the treatment. The result shows , the experimental

group treated with 100% tubli (Derris Elleptica Benth)root extract showed a perfect number of

deaths ( 30 wrigglers). The positive control group treated with the commercial larvicide also

showed a great number of deaths (26-29 wrigglers). The negative control group with only rain

water showed no deaths of larvae. Based from the data gathered , the researchers concluded that

extract from tubli plant (Derris Elleptica Benth.) was more effective than the commercial

larvicide.
National Literature

According to a study of Zubairi,Sarmidi and Aziz named “a preliminary study on

mosquito larvacidal efficacy of rotenone extracted from Malaysia Derrissp”. Rotenone is a bio-

active compound extracted from Derris elliptica (locally known a s tuba plant). It has long been

used as bio-pesticide, which is more environmental friendly than the commercially available

pesticides and has the potential to be used in eliminating mosquito larvae. Therefore, the

document of this study is to determine the mosquito larvicidal activity (LC50) through the usage

of liquid crude extract of Derris plant root.

The rotenone liquid crude extract was extracted using normal soaking extraction method.

Two different solvent ratios were used to extract rotenone namely: (A) methyl chloride methanol

(1:1) and (B) methyl chloride: methanol (1:9). The extracts were concentrated using rotary

evaporator at 40 oC with vacuum pressure of 800mbar prior to the reverse-phase high

performance liquid chromathography analysis (RP-HPLC) and biological activity study. Next,

the diluted extracts were subjected to the biological activity (LC50) treatment for 6 hrs. The

results showed that the concentrated liquid crude extracts of methyl chloride: methanol (1:1)

which contained the highest rotenone content produced the lowest treatment concentration of

0.024 mg/ml to achieve 50% mortality within 3 hrs of treatment (p<0.05). The rapid mortality (as

indicated by the LC50) of the mosquitoes’ larvae against rotenone extracted from Derris plant

roots has proven that it has the potential to be used as larvicide to control vector-borne diseases

especially from mosquitoes.


CHAPTER III

Research Methodology

The purpose of this chapter is to explain in detail the research methods and the

methodology implemented for this study. The chapter will explain first the research design,

population and sampling plan and the research locale. This will be followed by the schematic

diagram, research instrument and statistical treatment. It concludes with a brief discussion on the

ethical considerations and data gathering procedure posed by the research methodology.

Research Design

The research makes use of a quantitative research strategy in the sense that it is an

inquiry into social problem, explain phenomena by gathering numerical data that are analyzed

using mathematically based methods(Aliaga and Gunderson 2002). A quantitative research

strategy is particularly applicable for the purpose of the study, where determining the

effectiveness of Tubli (Derris elliptica) root extract to eliminate cucumber beetle (Diabrotica

undecimpunctata).
Population and Sampling Plan

According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:79), population is the group to which the results

of the study are intended to apply. The population in this study was the number of cucumber

beetle(Diabrotica undecimpunctata), in which we followed the standard number of samples

which is 30.

In this study the researchers were no longer look for respondents. The researchers used

cucumber beetle to attain the objectives of the research.

Research Locale

The experimentation and collection of materials needed in the study took placed in the

residence of Rogelio H. Surdiaz Sr. at Purok 3 Lumbangan, Zamboanga City, residencial of one

of the researchers.
Schematic Diagram
Getting of Tubli Roots

Getting of Tubli Root Extract

Getting of Cucumber Beetle

Preparation of Set-Ups

Testing of Set-Ups

Experiment

Observation

Figure 1.The Diagram shows the step by step process of our research. It starts with getting of

Tubli Roots and its extract, then, followed by getting of Cucumber Beetle. Afterwards, the

preparation of set-ups. Then, testing set-ups and lastly, is the observation to get the exact data

needed in the study.


Research Instrument

For the purpose of this study the researchers used observation to attain valid and reliable

result.

Statistical Treatment

The researchers used descriptive statistics as a statistical method because it is applicable

and match to our study. The researchers uses this statistical method to gather and determine the

effectiveness of Tubli (Derris elliptica Benth) Root Extract on eliminating cucumber beetle and

also this statistical method is used to get the exact and valid result of the study.

Ethical Consideration

This research will be done with confidentiality on the data that will be collected. The

researchers will present the research and its approval will grant by the intellectual property of

right given to the researchers and to the Maria Clara Lorenzo Lobregat National High School
Procedure

The researchers collected and get tubli roots at Brgy. Lumbangan, Zamboanga City. After

getting the roots, we undergo the extraction process. Afterwards we come up with a 100ml root

extract and put it in a 100ml bottle spray. On the other hand, we get cucumber beetle and place it

inside the set-ups. Afterwards we do the experiment where, we sprayed the cucumber beetle and

lastly we do observation to get the result.


Chapter IV

Analysis of Data

This chapter discusses the results of the data interpreted, analyzed and treated
statistically.

Table 1.1 Mortality Rate of Cucumber Beetle in First day of experiment

Day 1 Allotted Percentage Mortality


Time Rate

Morning 10 mins. 70% 7


Afternoon 10 80% 8
mins.

Interpretation:

The table shows that the mortality rate of the cucumber beetle is higher when we spray
the Tubli root extract in the afternoon.

Table 1.2 Mortality Rate of Cucumber Beetle in Second day of experiment

Day 2 Allotted Percentage Mortality


Time Rate

Morning 10 mins. 50% 5


Afternoon 10 80% 8
mins.

Interpretation:
Table 1.3 Mortality Rate of Cucumber Beetle in Third day of experiment

Day 3 Allotted Percentage Mortality


Time Rate

Morning 10 mins. 80% 8


Afternoon 10 90% 9
mins.

Interpretation:

Table 1.4 Mortality Rate of Cucumber Beetle in the fourth day of experiment

Day 4 Allotted Percentage Mortality


Time Rate

Morning 10 mins. 70% 7


Afternoon 10 90% 9
mins.

Interpretation:

Table 1.5 Mortality Rate of Cucumber Beetle in the fifth day of experiment

Day 5 Allotted Percentage Mortality


Time Rate

Morning 10 mins. 60% 6


Afternoon 10 100% 10
mins.
Interpretation:
Chapter V

Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter presents the finding and conclusions drawn and the recommendations made
as an outgrowth of this study.

Findings:

 The tubli(derris elliptica benth) root extract is not effective in eliminating cucumber

beetle.

 Solving the average mortality rate of cucumber beetle using z-test, result shows that there

is no significant difference between tubli root extract and cucumber beetle.

 There is no significant difference between tubli root extract and cucumber beetle that

supports our null hypothesis.

Conclusions:

It find out that tubli (derris elliptica) root extract is effective in eliminating cucumber

beetle. It shows that tubli root extract is more and cucumber beetle and it implies that the null

hypothesis is accepted.

Recommendations:

Needs further studies on the amount and content of tubli root extract to achieve the
successful result.

To the future researchers, the following recommendations may be considered:


 Researchers may consider the amount of water that is use to mix with tubli root extract.
 Researchers may consider on the other way of getting the extract of tubli or the extraction
process.
 Researchers may consider the process of getting the roots of tubli plant.
Bibliography

Internet Links:

http://jurnalteknologi.utm.my/index.php/jurnalteknologi/article/view/5942
http://www.herdin.ph/index.php/partners?view=research&cid=52874