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BAHIRDAR UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF CIVIL & WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING


POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING STREAM

FIELD EXPLORATION & SOIL TESTING (CENG-6023)

ASSIGNMENT-I

Submitted By:

Ephrem Bizuneh ID No. BDU1200454

Submitted To:

Prof. R.K Verma (Ph.D.) Date of Submission: 3rd January, 2020


1. Discuss about correlations between N60 value and other soil properties.

Several correlations were made between SPT N60 values and other soil parameters by different
investigators (researchers). These correlations being utilized in practice were made separately for
cohesive soils and granular soils as illustrated as follows.
i) Correlations for N60 in Cohesive Soil
a) Correlation of N60 with Consistency Index (CI) and Unconfined Compression Strength (qu)

Besides compelling the geotechnical engineer to obtain soil samples, standard penetration tests provide
several useful correlations. For example, the consistency of clay soils can be estimated from the
standard penetration number, N60. In order to achieve that, Szechy and Vargi (1978) calculated the
consistency index (CI) as:
𝐿𝐿 − 𝑤
𝐶𝐼 =
𝐿𝐿 − 𝑃𝐿
Where: w = Natural Moisture Content
LL = Liquid Limit
PL = Plastic Limit
The approximate correlation between CI, N60, and the unconfined compression strength (qu) is given
in Table 1.

b) Correlation of N60 with Undrained Shear Strength (Cu)


Hara, et al. (1971) also suggested the following correlation between the undrained shear strength of
clay (cu) and N60:

Table 1: Approximate Correlation between CI, N60 and qu

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c) Correlation of N60 with Overconsolidation ratio (OCR)

The overconsolidation ratio, OCR, of a natural clay deposit can also be correlated with the standard
penetration number, N60. On the basis of the regression analysis of 110 data points, Mayne and Kemper
(1988) obtained the relationship,

It is important to point out that any correlation between Cu, OCR and N60 is only approximate.

ii) Correlations for N60 in Granular Soil

a) Correlation of N60 with Relative Density of Granular Soil

An approximate relationship between the corrected standard penetration number and the relative
density of sand is given in Table 2. The values are approximate primarily because the effective
overburden pressure and the stress history of the soil significantly influence the N60 values of sand.
Kulhawy and Mayne (1990) modified an empirical relationship for relative density that was given by
Marcuson and Bieganousky (1977), which can be expressed as:

Table 2: Relation between the Corrected (N1)60 Values and the Relative Density in Sands

Meyerhof (1957) developed a correlation between Dr and N60 as shown below and provides a
reasonable estimate only for clean, medium fine sand.
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Cubrinovski and Ishihara (1999) also proposed a correlation between N60 and the relative density of
sand (Dr) that can be expressed as:

Kulhawy and Mayne (1990) correlated the corrected standard penetration number and the relative
density of sand as follows:

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b) Correlation of N60 with Angle of Friction

The peak friction angle,Ø′ of granular soil has also been correlated with N60 or (N1)60 by several
investigators. Some of these correlations are as follows:
 Peck, Hanson, and Thornburn (1974) give a correlation between N60 and ,Ø′ in a graphical form,
which can be approximated as (Wolff, 1989)

 Schmertmann (1975) provided the correlation between N60, 𝜎𝑜′ , and Ø′ . Mathematically, the
correlation can be approximated as (Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990)

 Hatanaka and Uchida (1996) provided a simple correlation between Ø′ and (N1)60 that can be
expressed as

The following qualifications should be noted when standard penetration resistance values are used in
the preceding correlations to estimate soil parameters:

o The equations are approximate.


o Because the soil is not homogeneous, the values of N60 obtained from a given
borehole vary widely.
o In soil deposits that contain large boulders and gravel, standard penetration
numbers may be erratic and unreliable.

Although approximate, with correct interpretation the standard penetration test provides a good
evaluation of soil properties. The primary sources of error in standard penetration tests are inadequate
cleaning of the borehole, careless measurement of the blow count, eccentric hammer strikes on the drill
rod, and inadequate maintenance of water head in the borehole.

c) Correlation of N60 with Modulus of Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity of granular soils (Es) is an important parameter in estimating the elastic
settlement of foundations. A first order estimation for Es was given by Kulhawy and Mayne (1990) as
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𝐸𝑠
= 𝛼𝑁60
𝑃𝑎

2. Discuss about correlations between cone resistance (𝒒𝒄 ) and other soil properties.
Several correlations that are useful in estimating the properties of soils encountered during an
exploration program have been developed for the point resistance ( 𝑞𝑐 ) and the friction ratio (𝐹𝑟 )
obtained from the cone penetration tests. The friction ratio is defined as:

In a more recent study on several soils in Greece, Anagnostopoulos et al. (2003) expressed 𝐹𝑟 bothfor
electric cone as

Where 𝐷50 = Size through which 50% of soil will pass through (mm).

𝐷50 for soils based on which the above equations have been developed ranged from 0.001 mm to
about 10 mm.

As in the case of standard penetration tests, several correlations have been developed between 𝑞𝑐 and
other soil properties. Some of these correlations are presented here under.

(a) Correlation between Relative Density (𝑫𝒓 ) and 𝑞𝑐 for Sand


Lancellotta (1983) and Jamiolkowski et al. (1985) showed that the relative density of normally
consolidated sand, 𝑫𝒓 and 𝑞𝑐 can be correlated according to the following formula and the relationship
shown on Figure-1 below.
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Figure-1: Relationship between, 𝑫𝒓 and 𝑞𝑐 (Based on Lancellotta, 1983, and Jamiolski et al., 1985)

The preceding relationship can be rewritten as (Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990)

Where, 𝑃𝑎 = Atmospheric Pressure (≈ 100 KN/m2)


𝜎0′ = Vertical Effective Stress

Baldi et al. (1982), and Robertson and Campanella (1983) recommended the empirical relationship
shown in Figure-2 between vertical effective stress 𝝈′𝟎 , relative density (𝑫𝒓 ) and cone resistance (𝑞𝑐 )
for normally consolidated sand.

Kulhawy and Mayne (1990) proposed the following relationship to correlate 𝑫𝒓 ,𝑞𝑐 and the vertical
effective stress 𝝈′𝟎 :
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Figure-1: Variation of 𝑞𝑐 , 𝜎0′ , and 𝐷𝑟 for normally consolidated quartz sand (Based on Baldi et al.,
1982, and Robertson and Campanella, 1983)

Where, OCR = Overconsolidation Ratio


𝑃𝑎 = Atmospheric Pressure
𝑄𝑐 = Compressibility Factor
The recommended values of 𝑄𝑐 are as follows: → For highly compressible sand, 𝑄𝑐 = 0.91
→ For moderately compressible sand, 𝑄𝑐 = 1.0
→ For low compressible sand, 𝑄𝑐 = 1.09
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(b) Correlation between 𝒒𝒄 and Drained Friction Angle (∅′ ) for Sand

On the basis of experimental results, Robertson and Campanella (1983) suggested the variation of 𝑫𝒓 ,
𝝈′𝟎 , and ∅′ for normally consolidated quartz sand. This relationship can be expressed as (Kulhawy and
Mayne, 1990)

Based on the cone penetration tests on the soils in the Venice Lagoon (Italy), Ricceri et al. (2002)
proposed a similar relationship for soil with classifications of ML and SP-SM as

In a more recent study, Lee et al. (2004) developed a correlation between ∅′ , 𝑞𝑐 , and the horizontal
effective stress (𝜎ℎ′ ) in the form

(c) Correlation between 𝒒𝒄 and N60

𝑞𝑐
Figure-3 shows a plot of (where, 𝑞𝑐 is in KN/m2 and 𝑁60 = standard penetration resistance)
𝑁60
against the mean grain size (D50 in mm) for various types of soil. This was developed from field test
results by Robertson and Campanella (1983).

Anagnostopoulos et al. (2003) provided a similar relationship correlating 𝑞𝑐 , 𝑁60 , and D50 as follows:

Where, 𝑃𝑎 = Atmospheric Pressure (Same unit as 𝑞𝑐 )

Correlations of Soil Types

Robertson and Campanella (1983) provided the correlations shown in Figure-4 between 𝑞𝑐 and the
friction ratio to identify various types of soil encountered in the field.
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𝑞𝑐
Figure-3: General range of variation of for various types of soil
𝑁60

Figure-4: Robertson and Campanella’s correlation (1983) between 𝑞𝑐 , 𝐹𝑟 and the type of soil
(Robertson and Campanella, 1983)
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(d) Correlations for Undrained Shear Strength ( 𝑪𝒖 ) Preconsolidation Pressure ( 𝝈′𝒄 ) and
Overconsolidation Ratio (OCR) for Clays

The undrained shear Strength (𝑪𝒖 ) can be expressed as:

Where, 𝜎0 = Total Vertical Stress


𝑁𝑘 = Bearing capacity factor

The bearing capacity factor, 𝑁𝑘 , may vary from 11 to 19 for normally consolidated clays and may
approach 25 for overconsolidated clay. According to Mayne and Kemper (1988). 𝑁𝑘 = 15 (for electric
cone) and 𝑁𝑘 = 20 (for mechanical cone).

Based on tests in Greece, Anagnostopoulos et al. (2003) determined 𝑁𝑘 = 17.2 (for electric cone) and
𝑁𝑘 = 18.9 (for mechanical cone). These field tests also showed that,
𝑓𝑐
𝐶𝑢 = (for mechanical cones) and 𝐶𝑢 = 𝑓𝑐 (for electrical cones)
1.26
Mayne and Kemper (1988) provided correlations for Preconsolidation pressure (𝝈′𝒄 ) and overconsolidation
ratio (OCR) as:

and

Where 𝜎0 and 𝝈′𝟎 = Total and Effective stress respectively

3. Discuss about correlations between Menard Modulus and other soil parameters.

The pressuremeter test is an in situ test conducted in a borehole. It was originally developed by
Menard (1956) to measure the strength and deformability of soil.

Menard pressuremeter test is used in practice by correlations developed to find out bearing capacity.
The pressuremeter modulus (Menard Modulus) 𝐸𝑝 , of the soil is determined with the use of the theory
of expansion of an infinitely thick cylinder. Thus obtained as:
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The limit pressure (𝑃𝑙 ) is usually obtained by extrapolation and not by direct measurement.

Correlations between various soil parameters and the results obtained from the pressuremeter tests have
been developed by various investigators. Kulhawy and Mayne (1990) proposed the following equation
for clays,

Where 𝜎𝑐′ = Preconsolidation Pressure

On the basis of the cavity expansion theory, Baguelin et al. (1978) proposed that:

Where, Cu = Undrained Shear Strength of Clay


𝐸𝑝
Np = 1 + ln(3𝐶 )
𝑢

Typical values of 𝑁𝑝 vary between 5 and 12, with an average of about 8.5. Ohya et al. (1982) (see also
Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990) correlated 𝐸𝑝 with field standard penetration numbers (𝑁60 ) for sand and clay
as follows:

0.63
For Clay: 𝐸𝑝 (KN/m2) = 1930𝑁60

0.66
For Sand: 𝐸𝑝 (KN/m2) = 908𝑁60
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