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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND DESIGN

LABORATORY ACTIVITY MANUAL

by:
Engr. Marwin B. Alejo
Engr. Chris Paulo G. Hate
Engr. Menchie D. Miranda
Table of Contents
HISTORY OF AUTOCAD ............................................................................................................... 3
Table I-1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 4
GETTING STARTED ...................................................................................................................... 6
Table I-2. Parts and Functions .................................................................................................... 7
AUTOCAD SCREEN ...................................................................................................................... 8
SHORTCUT KEYS ....................................................................................................................... 10
Table I-3. Keyboard Function Keys ........................................................................................... 10
Table I-4 Keyboard Control Keys .............................................................................................. 11
CREATING A DRAWING PLATE ................................................................................................. 11
LABORATORY ACTIVITIES ......................................................................................................... 13
Activity No. 1 ............................................................................................................................. 14
COORDINATE SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 14
Activity No. 2 ............................................................................................................................. 20
POLY OBJECT...................................................................................................................... 20
Activity No. 3 ............................................................................................................................. 25
OBJECT TRACING ............................................................................................................... 25
Activity No. 4 ............................................................................................................................. 33
MODIFYING TOOLS ............................................................................................................. 33
Activity No. 5 ............................................................................................................................. 39
DIMENSION AND BLOCKING APPLICATIONS ................................................................... 39
Activity No. 6 ............................................................................................................................. 47
FLOOR PLAN........................................................................................................................ 47
Activity No. 7 ............................................................................................................................. 53
TEXTURE APPLICATION ..................................................................................................... 53
Activity No. 8 ............................................................................................................................. 59
ORTHO VIEW ....................................................................................................................... 59
Activity No. 9 ............................................................................................................................. 64
ELEVATION .......................................................................................................................... 64
Activity No. 10 ........................................................................................................................... 71
3 DIMENSIONAL FLOOR PLAN ........................................................................................... 71
Activity No. 11 ........................................................................................................................... 79
Final Laboratory Activity ........................................................................................................ 79

2
HISTORY OF AUTOCAD

During 1980’s the CAD (Computer Aided Drafting) software only runs on a mainframe computers
or, minicomputers, in which each user’s unit is connected to a graphic computer terminals.

December 1982 Autodesk, Inc. the largest design automation company in the world released the
AutoCAD software. In the same year John Walker, Autodesk founder released Autodesk’s Flagship
named AutoCAD.
March 1986 AutoCAD became the most ubiquitous microcomputer design program in the world,
utilizing the functions of polylines and curve fitting. As of 1994 there had been 750 training centers
established across the world for AutoCAD course. Below are the AutoCAD timeline by
http://autodesk.blogs.com/between_the_lines/ACAD_R1.html:
 AutoCAD 1.0 December 1982 (Release 1)AutoCAD 1.2 (2) April 1983 (Release 2)
 AutoCAD 1.3 (3) August 1983 (Release 3)
 AutoCAD 1.4 (4) October 1983 (Release 4)
 AutoCAD 2.0 (5) October 1984 (Release 5)
 AutoCAD 2.1 (6) May 1985 (Release 6)
 AutoCAD 2.5 (7) June 1986 (Release 7)
 AutoCAD 2.6 (8) April 1987 (Release 8)
 AutoCAD R9 September 1987 codename White Album (Release 9)
 AutoCAD R10 October 1988 (Release 10)
 AutoCAD R11 October 1990 (Release 11)
 AutoCAD R12 June 1992 (Release 12)
 AutoCAD R13 November 1994 (Release 13)
 AutoCAD R14 February 1997 codename Sedona and PInetop for 14.01 (Release 14)
 AutoCAD 2000 (15) March 1999 codename Tahoe (Release 15)
 AutoCAD 2000i (16) July 2000 codename Banff (Release 16)
 AutoCAD 2002 (17) June 2001 codename Kirkland (Release 17)
 AutoCAD 2004 (18) March 2003 codename Reddeer (Release 18)
 AutoCAD 2005 (19) March 2004 codename Neo (Release 19)
 AutoCAD 2006 (20) March 2005 codename Rio (Release 20)
 AutoCAD 2007 (21) March 2006 codename Postrio (Release 21)
 AutoCAD 2008 (22) March 2007 codename Spago (Release 22)
 AutoCAD 2009 (23) March 2008 codename Raptor (Release 23)
 AutoCAD 2010 (24) March 2009 codename Gator (Release 24)
 AutoCAD 2011 (25) March 2010 codename Hammer (Release 25)
 AutoCAD 2012 March 2011 codename Ironman (Release 26)
 AutoCAD 2013 March 2012 codename Jaws (Release 27)

Development and improvement of this software never stop until this present time and there is many
other manufacturer of this software application such as Microsoft AutoCAD, MicroCAD, ZWCAD,
etc.


3
Table 1-1 System Requirements
AutoCAD 2013 Microsoft Windows 7 or XP SP 23
Processor
o 32-bit XP: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 1.6 GHz or greater with
SSE2 technology
o 32-bit Vista or 7: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 3.0 GHz or greater
with SSE2 technology
o 64-bit: Athlon 64 or Opteron with SSE2 technology or Xeon or Pentium 4
with EM64T support and SSE2 technology
2 GB RAM
AutoCAD 2012 Microsoft Windows 7, Vista SP2 or XP SP 23
Processor
o 32-bit XP: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 1.6 GHz or greater with
SSE2 technology
o 32-bit Vista or 7: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 3.0 GHz or greater
with SSE2 technology
o 64-bit: Athlon 64 or Opteron with SSE2 technology or Xeon or Pentium 4
with EM64T support and SSE2 technology
2 GB RAM
Disk space
o32-bit: 2.0 GB
o64-bit: 2.0 GB
AutoCAD 2011 Microsoft Windows 7, Vista SP1 or XP SP 2
Processor
o 32-bit XP: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 1.6 GHz or greater with
SSE2 technology
o 32-bit Vista or 7: Pentium 4 or AMD Athlon Dual Core, 3.0 GHz or greater
with SSE2 technology
o 64-bit: Athlon 64 or Opteron with SSE2 technology or Xeon or Pentium 4
with EM64T support and SSE2 technology
2 GB RAM
Disk space
o32-bit: 1.8 GB
o64-bit: 2.0 GB
Operating System with 32-bit computer need only the AutoCAD 2007 version
Reference: http://www.designmaster.biz/products/AutoCADSystemRequirements.html

4
GETTING STARTED
There are basic command tools in AutoCAD software.

Note: Double click the icon to run the AutoCAD software.

Figure 1.1. AutoCAD Desktop Icon


FOUR MAJOR COMPONENTS
1. OPEN a DRAWING
2. START from SCRATCH
3. USE a TEMPLATE
4. USE a WIZARD

Note: Open a drawing is the indication that there


is an existing file to be modify, Start from the
scratch will gives the user a choice to choose
between the metric and imperial measurement
system (Imperial is for feet and inches; Metric is
for millimeter). The Template will show all the
listed .dwt extension; and wizard will help the
user to create a based on quick setup or the
Figure 1.2 Startup Window advanced setup wizard.

POINTERS: Setting this form using the command


This icon shown to the desktop part of the computer can
Figure 1.1. AutoCAD Desktop Icon easily move in to the AutoCAD application window.
When typing “STARTUP” to command line a choices
Figure 1.2. Startup Window indicates that 0-OFF and 1-ON

Figure 1.3. AutoCAD Drawing Editor


5
Table 1-2. Parts and Functions
PARTS FUNCTIONS
It is a representation of Drawing 1 Template. This is the part of the
1. Drawing area AutoCAD software that handles all of the object to be created
It is the part of the AutoCAD software wherein the user can type the
2. Command line command to be executed.
3. UCS icon It is a basic X-Y-Z (Z Is not visible) axis. In which it could be a
Universal
Coordinate System or World Coordinate System.
4. Toolbar It contains all icon tools that can be useful on creating a design.
5. Crosshairs The crosshairs serve as the pointer on giving a direction for every
command specially for the direct distance entry.
6. Ribbon It is a new way of interacting with AutoCad's commands.
7. Drawing tools/status bar This is the part of the AutoCAD wherein the user can turn On or Off the
tools that could help in creating a certain object.
8.Cascading Drop Down Menus It is another way to access commands in AutoCad.
9. Model space tab/mode A layout figure area wherein the user can identify the possible output of
the object.

Note: There are other areas of AutoCAD environment that the coordinate system appear and because
this is a free scaling system that can also use the annotation tools near the lock and clear screen icon
buttons.
AUTOCAD SCREEN
1. APLLICATION BUTTON -This button displays commands for printing, saving, drawing utilities
and other non-drawing tool.

Figure 1.4. Application Button Window

6
Steps in converting a dwg file to pdf
a. Click AutoCAD icon then choose print.
b. Choose plot then change the following setting:
Name: dwg to pdf Paper size: Letter or Ansi 11.5 x 8
Description: Check plot file Plot offset: Check center to plot
Plot scale: Check fit to paper Plot area: window
c. Click preview to check the display output of the created work.
d. If not okay then edit the drawing area if the output is acceptable then click okay to choose a
location where to save the created AutoCAD file then write a file name.

2. QUICK ACCESS TOOLBAR- This is for quick access to common commands like New, Open, Save,
Plot.

Figure 1.5. Quick Access Toolbar

3. RIBBON - The Ribbon has most of the commands/tools that can be use while working in AutoCAD
Environment.

Figure 1.6. Ribbon Window

4. VERTICAL RIBBON-Has been updated to show the tab names along the side.

Figure 1.7. Vertical Ribbon Window

7
5. DASH BOARD PANELS-Converted to new ribbon panels.

Figure 1.8. Dash Board Plane Window


6. COLOR SELECTION- set layer colors and pick from the AutoCAD.

Figure 1.9. Color Section Window

7. DIMENSION TOOLS - Command enables to measure the distance, radius, area, or volume of a selected
object or a sequence of points.

Figure 1.10. Dimension Tools Window

8
SHORTCUT KEYS
Table 1-3. Keyboard Function Keys (Shortcut keys)
KEYS FUNCTION
F1 Online Help
F2 Switch between Graphics Screen to Text Window Screen
F3 Turn ON/OFF Osnap (Object Snap)
F4 Turn ON/OFF Tablet
F5 Change Isometric Planes
F6 Turn ON/OFF Coordinates
F7 Turn ON/OFF Grids
F8 Turn ON/OFF Ortho mode
F9 Turn ON/OFF Snap
F10 Turn ON/OFF Polar Tracking
F11 Turn ON/OFF Osnap Tracking
F12 Turn ON/OFF Dynamic Input
ESC Terminate the existing command

Table 1-4 Keyboard Control Keys


CONTROL KEYS DESCRIPTIONS
CTR+A Turn ON/OFF Group Selection
CTR+B Turn ON/OFF Snap
CTR+C Copy Object to Windows Clip Board
CTR+D Turn ON/OFF Coordinates
CTR+E Change Isometric Planes
CTR+F Turn ON/OFF Osnap
CTR+G Turn ON/OFF Grids
CTR+J Execute the last command
CTR+L Turn ON/OFF Ortho mode
CTR+N Create a new drawing file
CTR+O Open an existing drawing file
CTR+P Display the plot dialog box
CTR+Q Save the content of the Text Window to a Log File
CTR+R Switch Viewports
CTR+S Save Current drawing
CTR+T Turn ON/OFF Tablet
CTR+U Turn ON/OFF Polar mode
CTR+W Turn ON/OFF Object Snap Tracking
CTR+X Cut a clip on a selected object
CTR+Y Redo
CTR+\- Cancel current command
CTR+[- Cancel current command
CTR+1 Turn ON/OFF Property Dialog Box
CTR+2 Turn ON/OFF Design Center Dialog Box
CTR+0 Turn ON/OFF the Ribbon Plane
CTR+9 Turn ON/OFF the Command Line Window

9
CREATING A DRAWING PLATE
1. Run the AutoCAD software
2. Select Metric as the unit of measurement at the start-up window.
3. Create Figure 1.11.
4. Eliminate excess objects such as the outside border.
5. Fill up necessary information using MTEXT command.

Figure 1.11 Drawing Plate

10
LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

11
Activity No. 1
COORDINATE SYSTEM
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
The activity aims to create an object using different coordinate system. This experiment also provides
students‟ knowledge and skills on command manipulation using different coordinate system and input
techniques.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 1.1 Use different tools such as units and limits as an initialized requirement for creating a drawing.
2.2 1.2 Design an object using different AutoCAD different coordinate system.
3. Discussion:

Units – it is an AutoCAD command that will allow the user to change the length type, precision (number of
decimal point), Angle references and the most important measurement setting. Figure 1.1 shows the actual
drawing units window for user reference.

Fig. 1.1 Drawing Units properties

Grids and Snap Spacing – An AutoCAD command that will set the distance of the grid and snap spacing.
Coordinate system – it is an AutoCAD setting on how the user will do their inputs upon creating a certain
object. Table 1-1 shows the different coordinate system that AutoCAD implement.
Table 1-1. AutoCAD Coordinate System
Coordinate System Description Command Format
Absolute Coordinates Focuses in x,y values for 2D objects. x,y (values)
Relative Coordinate An AutoCAD input focus on the different
quadrant signs. This input technique uses a “@”
symbol that will reset the point of origin after the
execution. The recent coordinate value will be the @x,y (values)
new point of origin upon the next point of input.
Polar Coordinate The same as the relative coordinate but with this @distance<angle
command the focus of the user will be much more (values)
for the distance and angle.

Direct Distance Entry - it is an AutoCAD input technique that mouse direction is needed.
12
Dynamic Input - it is an AutoCAD input technique that seems to be like the polar coordinate input but the
format of having “<” symbol will be replaced by “TAB” key.

4. Materials and Equipment:

1. Computer
2. CAD Software
5. Procedure:
1. Run the AutoCAD software
2. Select Metric as the unit of measurement at the start-up window.
3. Create a rectangle with different coordinate system using the command line.

Table 1-2. Different Coordinate System


Absolute Coordinate Relative Coordinate Direct distance Polar coordinate
1. L L L L
2. 1,1 1,1 Right 5 1,1
3. 1,4 @5,0 Up 3 @5<0
4. 6,4 @0,-3 Left 5 @3<90
5. 6,1 @-5,0 C @5<180
6. C C C

4. Initially the second row is the first point of the line while the letter C command is the closing of first point
to the last point of the line.
5. What are the differences of each coordinate system?
6. Create letter T in Times New Roman numeral font.
7. Which coordinate system you prefer to use?
8. Create Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2 TIP dimension length


13
9. Determine and write the equivalent values and directions at Table 1-3 from Figure 1.2.

Table 1-3 Coordinate System Conversion


Coordinate System
Dynamic
Absolute Relative Polar Direct Distance Entry
Command Input
Coordinate Coordinate Coordinate
x Y x Y Distance Angle Direction Distance Distance Angle

10. Save the created output with a file named: Activity_1_Lastname.


14
6. Observation:

7. Conclusion

8. Assessment Rubric:

15
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable to Members are able to set up the Members are able to
set up the materials. materials with supervision. set up the materials
Experimental Set-up
with minimum
supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted process demonstrate targeted
process skills. skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety Precautions
safety precautions. precautions most of the time. precautions at all times.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish Members finish on time with Members finish ahead
Time Management /
on time with incomplete incomplete data. of time with complete
Conduct of
data. data and time to revised
Experiment
data.
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks
their tasks and have no responsibilities most of the time. and have defined
Cooperative and defined responsibilities. Group conflicts are cooperatively responsibilities at all
Teamwork Group conflicts have to managed most of the time. times. Group conflicts
be settled by the are cooperatively
instructor. managed at all times.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly workplace Clean and orderly
Neatness and and after the experiment. with occasional mess during and workplace at all times
Orderliness after the experiment. during and after the
experiment.
Members require Members require occasional Members do not need
Ability to do
supervision by the supervision by the instructor. to be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score


/ 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

16
Activity 2
POLY OBJECT
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
The activity aims to create different poly object figure. This experiment also provides students
knowledge and skills on CAD software command manipulation.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Create a different poly object figure.
2.2 Develop different techniques on creating poly object figures.
3. Discussion:
Polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a
loop to for a close chain. Segments are called as edges or sides, and the point of intersection
meets the two edges are the vertices or corners. Interior of the polygon is its body. A polygon is a
2-dimensional example of more general polytope in and number of dimensions.
Table 2-1. Polygon Names

4. Materials and Equipment:


 Computer
 CAD Software
5. Procedure:
1. Open the drawing plate.
2. Inside the drawing plate create a Poly Object in Figure 2.1.
3. Save as Activity_2_Lastname.

17
Figure 2.1 Poly Object Activity
6. Observation:
Based from Figure 2.1 write the observe distance for the following location:

Table 2-2. Distance Details (mm)


Parts Distance
Paper Size
Upper Right Corner
Lower Left Corner
Column 1 (Name)
Column 2 (Title)
Column 3 (Date)
Drawing Area
Row 1 (Name)
Row 2 (Section)
Date Area

Table 2-3. Polygon


Parts Answer
Command
No. of Sides
Edge
Radius

18
7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

19
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES


RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE
Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________
Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not demonstrate Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills needed skills. demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable to set up Members are able to Members are able to
the materials. set up the materials set up the materials
Experimental Set-up
with supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not demonstrate Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills targeted process skills. demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow safety Members follow safety Members follow
Safety Precautions precautions. precautions most of the safety precautions at
time. all times.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish on Members finish on time Members finish ahead
Time Management /
time with incomplete data. with incomplete data. of time with complete
Conduct of
data and time to
Experiment
revised data.
Members do not know their Members have defined Members are on tasks
tasks and have no defined responsibilities most of and have defined
Cooperative and responsibilities. Group the time. Group responsibilities at all
Teamwork conflicts have to be settled by conflicts are times. Group conflicts
the instructor. cooperatively managed are cooperatively
most of the time. managed at all times.
Messy workplace during and Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
after the experiment. workplace with workplace at all times
Neatness and
occasional mess during during and after the
Orderliness
and after the experiment.
experiment.
Members require supervision Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
by the instructor. occasional supervision to be supervised by
independent work
by the instructor. the instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total
Score / 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

20
Activity No. 3
OBJECT TRACING
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
The activity aims to create an object using different object snap settings. This experiment also
provides students knowledge and skills on adopting different drafting settings for manipulating
CAD software command.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
 Create trusses and cross figure using different object snap settings.
 Determine the equivalent coordinate values of the each given objects.
3. Discussion:
Drafting settings is a useful technique on creating an object. Each created object has its own
parts as shown in Figure 3.1 below.

Figure 3.1 Drafting Setting Window

Using the object snap mode can help the user to automatically select the points of the particular
object or figure they had been doing. The object snap mode can be turned ON/OFF by pressing
F# function key or by using the mouse.

Zoom tool command is also important in order to zoom in or out the object most especially if it is
small and it is also used to omit excess lines around the object.

21
Table 3-1 ZOOM COMMAND

TOOLS DESCRIPTION
Snaps to the closet endpoint of an arc, elliptical arc, line, mline,
ENDpoint pollyline
segment, or ray or the closest corner of a trace, solid or 3D face.

MIDpoint Snaps to the midpoint of an arc, ellipse, elliptical arc , line , mline,
polylines segment, solid, spline, or xline.
INTersection Snaps to the intersection of an arc, circle, ellipse, elliptical arc, line,
mline, polylines, ray, spline, or xline.
EXTension Snaps to the extension point of an object.
Snaps to the apparent intersection of two object that do not
APParent Intersection intersect in
3D space but appear to intersect in the drawing display

Snaps to the center of an arc, circle, ellipse, or elliptical arc, even a


CENter line.

NODe Snap to a point of the object.


QUAdrant Snaps to a quadrant point of an arc, circle, ellipse, elliptical arc.
Snap to the intersection point of an attribute, a block, a shape, or
INSertion text.

TANgent Snap to the tangent of an arc, circle, ellipse, or elliptical arc.


Snaps to the nearest point on an arc, circle, ellipse, elliptical arc,
NEArest line,
mline, point, polylines, spline, or xline.,
PERpendicular Snaps to an extension in parallel with an object.
PARallel Snap to an extension in parallel with an object.
NONe Turns off object snap modes
M2P or MTP Mid between two points

Zoom is a magnification tools that can decrease and increase of the object size in the drawing
are.
Note : It is just a magnification not figure/object pre-scaling.

22
Table 3-2 Zoom Settings
COMMAND NAME SHORTCUT KEY DESCRIPTION

ZOOM WINDOW Z (enter) It magnifies the windowed area


W (enter)
ZOOM DYNAMIC Z (enter) Produces a view window which can
D (enter) be zoomed and panned
ZOOM SCALE Z (enter) It magnifies the drawing based on
S (enter) desired numeric factor

ZOOM CENTER Z (enter) Selecting the point to be displayed


C (enter) at the center while magnification
factor will be the size of the display

ZOOM OBJECT Z (enter) Magnifies the selected object to the


O (enter) extent of the display area
ZOOM IN - Increases magnification to 100%
ZOMM OUT - Decreases the magnification to 50%

ZOOM ALL Z (enter) Shows all the drawing in the entire


A (enter) display
ZOOM EXTENT Z (enter) Shows all the drawing in the entire
E (enter) display is occupied
Right click on the
PAN REALTIME drawing Equivalent of scroll buttons and
area and select
PAN, right moves the view of the drawing
click to exit when
done without magnification effect.
ZOOM REALTIME Z (enter)(enter) Allows zoom-in and out by holding
Or right click on
the drawing the mouse
area and select
zoom, right
click to exit when
done
ZOOM PREVIOUS Z (enter) Display the previous magnification
P (enter)

4. Materials and Equipment:


1. Computer
2. CAD Software

23
5. Procedure:
1. Run the AutoCAD software
2. Select Metric as the unit of measurement.
3. Create Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 Boxes Settings


5. Draw lines as shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 Lines Settings

6. Draw figure 3.4 beside figure 3.3 and save the file.

24
Figure 3.4. Line Setting 2

6. Observation:

Based from figure 3.3 and 3.4 write the value of table 3-3 and table 3-4.

Table 3-3. Step by step procedure


Procedures
Command Answer
Box Upper Right Corner
Box Lower Left Corner

25
Table 3-4. Used Object Snap Settings
Status
Object Snap Settings
Used Unused
Endpoint
Midpoint
Center
Node
Quadrant
Intersection
Extension
Intersection
Perpendicular

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

26
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE


Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________
Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed
skills.
Members are unable to set Members are able to set up Members are able to set
Experimental Set-up up the materials. the materials with up the materials with
supervision. minimum supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety Precautions safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Management / Members do not finish on Members finish on time with Members finish ahead of
Conduct of time with incomplete data. incomplete data. time with complete data
Experiment and time to revised data.
Members do not know their Members have defined Members are on tasks
tasks and have no defined responsibilities most of the and have defined
Cooperative and responsibilities. Group time. Group conflicts are responsibilities at all
Teamwork conflicts have to be settled cooperatively managed times. Group conflicts are
by the instructor. most of the time. cooperatively managed at
all times.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and and after the experiment. workplace with occasional workplace at all times
Orderliness mess during and after the during and after the
experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need to
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score /


20) x 100%

Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

27
Activity No. 4
MODIFYING TOOLS
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
The activity aims to create an object using different modifying techniques. This experiment also
provides students‟ knowledge and skills on CAD software modifying command manipulation.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Create an object using different modifying tool commands.
2.2 Develop an idea on using different AutoCAD modifying tools.
3. Discussion:
The modify commands are used to edit or fix the shapes or forms of the object in which it could be a
techniques on how to lessen the commands that user will use in creating an object at CAD software.

Table 4-1. Modifying tools


1. Array Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard ARRAY AR
2. Copy Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard COPY CP
3. Erase Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard ERASE E
4. Explode Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Explode X
5. Extend Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Extend EX
6. Mirror Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard MOVE Mi
7. Move Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Mirror M

8. Offset Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Offset O

28
9. Rotate Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Rotate RO
10. Scale Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Scale SC
11. Stretch Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Stretch S
12. Trim Command
Toolbar Modify Short-cut
Keyboard Trim Tr

4. Materials and Equipment:


1. Computer
2. CAD Software
5. Procedure:
1. Run the AutoCAD Software.
2. Select Metric as the unit of measurement.
3. Create Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Modifying Tools Activity

4. Fill-in Table 4-2 and Table 4-3.


5. Save the file.

6. Observation:
29
Based from figure 4.1 fill in the following table:

Table 4-2. Polygon


Parts Answer
Command
No. of Sides
Edge
Radius

Table 4-3. Used Modifying Tools


Modifying Tools Status
Used Unused
Array
Copy
Erase
Explode
Extend
Mirror
Move
Offset
Rotate
Scale
Stretch
Trim

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

30
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15
TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES
RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE
Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________
Name: ______________________________________________________________
BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT SCOR
CRITERIA
1 2 3 E
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not demonstrate Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills needed skills. demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable to set Members are able to Members are able to
up the materials. set up the materials set up the materials
Experimental Set-up
with supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not demonstrate Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills targeted process skills. demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow safety Members follow safety Members follow
Safety Precautions precautions. precautions most of the safety precautions at
time. all times.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish on Members finish on time Members finish
Time Management /
time with incomplete data. with incomplete data. ahead of time with
Conduct of
complete data and
Experiment
time to revised data.
Members do not know their Members have defined Members are on
tasks and have no defined responsibilities most of tasks and have
responsibilities. Group the time. Group defined
Cooperative and
conflicts have to be settled by conflicts are responsibilities at all
Teamwork
the instructor. cooperatively managed times. Group conflicts
most of the time. are cooperatively
managed at all times.
Messy workplace during and Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
after the experiment. workplace with workplace at all times
Neatness and
occasional mess during during and after the
Orderliness
and after the experiment.
experiment.
Members require supervision Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
by the instructor. occasional supervision to be supervised by
independent work
by the instructor. the instructor.
Other comments / Observations: TOTAL SCORE
RATING = (Total
Score / 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

31
Activity No. 5
Floor Plan with Scale and Dimension Tools
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
This activity aims to:
1.1 Introduce the use of scale and dimension tools for CAD and Floor Plan design.
1.2 Expound students‟ mastery in CAD through elevating students‟ skills in creating a real-world
floor plan.
1.3 Exercise students‟ analytical-thinking and critical-thinking skills.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Convert real-world floor plans into drawings.
2.2 Apply scale tool and dimension tools in creating CAD, specifically a floor plan.
2.3 Understand the need for use of scale tools in creating a CAD design along with dimension
tools.
3. Discussion:
The Scale Command
Enlarges or reduces selected objects, keeping the proportions of the object the same after
scaling.

To scale an object,
specify a base point
and a scale factor.
The base point acts
as the center of the
scaling operation and remains stationary.
A scale factor greater than 1 enlarges the
object. A scale factor between 0 and 1
shrinks the object.

Select objects
Specifies which objects you want to resize.

Base point
Specify a base point for the scale operation.

The base point you specify identifies the point that remains in the same location as the
selected objects change size (and thus move away from the stationary base point).

Note: When you use the SCALE command with annotative objects, the position or location of the
object is scaled relative to the base point of the scale operation, but the size of the object is not
32
changed.
Scale Factor
Multiplies the dimensions of the selected objects by the specified scale. A scale factor greater
than 1 enlarges the objects. A scale factor between 0 and 1 shrinks the objects. You can also
drag the cursor to make the object larger or smaller.

Copy
Creates a copy of the selected objects for scaling.

Reference
Scales the selected objects based on a reference length and a specified new length.

Dimension Tools

Linear Dimensions
You can create horizontal, vertical, aligned, and radial dimensions with the DIM command.
The type of dimension depends on the object that you select and the direction that you drag
the dimension line.

The following illustration demonstrates one method for using the DIM command. Once you start the
command, press Enter or the Spacebar, select the line (1), and then click the location of the
dimension line (2).

33
For the 8'-0" dimension below, you use another method. You start the DIM command, click two
endpoints (1 and 2) and then the location of the dimension line (3). To line up the dimension lines
point 3 was snapped to the endpoint of the previously created dimension line.

Tip: If points 1 and 2 are not on the same horizontal line, press Shift to force the dimension
line to be horizontal. In addition, if the building or part being dimensioned is at an angle, enter
DIMROTATED for that case.

Use the DIM command to create dimensions that are parallel to an object by dragging the
dimension line at an angle rather than horizontally or vertically.

Tip: Because it is easy to accidentally snap to the wrong feature or to part of a dimension
object, be sure to zoom in closely enough to avoid confusion.

Modify Dimensions
For simple adjustments to dimensions, nothing is faster than using grips.

In this example, you select the dimension to display its grips. Next, click the grip on the
dimension text and drag it to a new location, or click one of the grips at the end of the
dimension line and drag the dimension line.

34
Tip: If the changes are more complicated than this, it might be faster simply to delete and then
recreate the dimension.

Dimension Styles
Dimension styles help establish and enforce drafting standards. There are many dimension
variables that can be set with the DIMSTYLE command to control virtually every nuance of
the appearance and behavior of dimensions. All these settings are stored in each dimension
style.

The default dimension style is named either Standard (imperial) or ISO-25 (metric). It is
assigned to all dimensions until you set another style as the current dimension style.

The current dimension style name, Hitchhiker in this case, is displayed in the drop-down list of
the Annotation panel.

To open the Dimension Style Manager, click the indicated button. You can create dimension styles
that match nearly any standard, but you will need to invest time to specify them completely. For this
reason, you should save any dimension styles that you create in one or more drawing template files.

35
Recommendations
When you save a dimension style, choose a descriptive name. If applicable, check with your
CAD manager regarding existing dimension style standards and drawing template files.

Floor Plan
A floor plan is a scaled diagram of a room or building viewed from above. The floor plan may depict an
entire building, one floor of a building, or a single room. It may also include measurements, furniture,
appliances, or anything else necessary to the purpose of the plan.

Floor plans are useful to help design furniture layout, wiring systems, and much more. They're also a
valuable tool for real estate agents and leasing companies in helping sell or rent out a space.

The Importance of Floor Plan Design


Floor plans are essential when designing and building a home. A good floor plan can increase the enjoyment of
the home by creating a nice flow between spaces and can even increase its resale

What are the key characteristics of a good floor plan when designing your house?
Versatile and flexible. Make sure in the future an office can easily be turned into a child's
bedroom whether for your family or a future buyer's.

Ideal room layout. Make sure bedrooms are far from entertaining spaces. Bathrooms
shouldn't face common entertainment spaces like dining rooms or living rooms. Most people
will like if the kitchen opens to the dining or living rooms so whoever is cooking can still
interact with guests or keep an eye on the kids playing.

Size matters. Whenever designing any room or hallway, think about how many people will be
in that space at one time. Do they have room to move around? Is there room for furniture to
accommodate all the planned activities?
36
Fits your priorities and lifestyle. If entertaining is important, make sure there's a good flow
from the kitchen to an outside space and living room. If you work from home, make sure your
office gets ideal light and is perhaps in a quiet location. When you do laundry, is it ok if you
have to climb three floors to get from your master bedroom to the laundry room?
Find the balance between architectural details and practical considerations. Think about
the safety of kids, cleaning, heating and cooling bill before falling in love with some majestic
staircase or floor to ceiling windows.
Marketing and communicating with floor plans
Floor plans are also key in communicating the flow of your space to potential buyers or
renters.

Rightmove released a study in 2013 that suggests that real estate buyers consider floor plans
not just nice to have, but essential when looking at properties. One in five said they would
ignore a property without a floor plan. They also rated floor plans more important than photos
and the description of the property. On the flip side, when sellers consider hiring a real estate
agent, Rightmove found that 42% wouldn't hire an agent that didn't offer a floor plan.

Adding a floor plan to a real estate listing can increase click-throughs from buyers by 52%.
You can also use a floor plan to communicate with contractors and vendors about an
upcoming remodeling project.
How to Draw a Floor Plan
There are a few basic steps to creating a floor plan:

37
Choose an area
Determine the area to be drawn. If the building already exists, decide how much (a room, a
floor, or the entire building) of it to draw. If the building does not yet exist, brainstorm designs
based on the size and shape of the location on which to build.

Take measurements
If the building exists, measure the walls, doors, and pertinent furniture so that the floor plan
will be accurate. If the layout is being created for an entirely new area, be sure that the total
area will fit where it is to be built. It is advisable to examine buildings built in similar areas to
use as an estimate for this floor plan.

Draw walls
Add walls for each room of the building, taking care to draw them to scale.

Add architectural features


Begin adding features to the space by including the unchangeable things, like the doors and
windows, as well as the refrigerator, dishwasher, dryer, and other important appliances that
must be placed in a specific location.

Add furniture
Add furniture if the floor plan calls for it.

38
References:
www.autodesk.com
www.smartdraw.com
4. Materials and Equipment:
1. Computer: pre-installed with windows 7 64-bit operating system and AutoCAD 2018.
2. Internet Connection
5. Procedure:
Suppose you were hired as a CAD plotter in a small construction company and the company had
received a new job order from a small client. The client had ask your company to design him/her a
floor plan given the following specifications below:

Table 5-1. Floor Plan Specifications


Dimension 100x80 square meters
Type of House Single Floor Bungalow
Living Room 1 unit
Bedroom 3 units
Bathroom 1 main + 2 minor
Dining Room 1 unit
Kitchen 1 unit
Garage 1 unit

Your manager tasks you to create a floor plan that will suit the following requirements above to be
submitted after 2 hours. He also added that your design must fit in an A3 size paper.

6. Observation:
Based from Table 5-1 write the results in Table 5-2:

39
Table 5-2. Activity 5 Floor Plan

Floor Plan
**Insert your house floor plan screenshot here**

House Part Dimension


**Enumerate all the parts of the house here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for the house parts here**

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

40
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative
demonstrate needed demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills.
Skills
skills. skills.
Members are unable to Members are able to set Members are able to set
Experimental Set-
set up the materials. up the materials with up the materials with
up
supervision. minimum supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety
safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
Precautions
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Members do not finish Members finish on time Members finish ahead of
Management / on time with incomplete with incomplete data. time with complete data
Conduct of data. and time to revised data.
Experiment
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks and
their tasks and have no responsibilities most of have defined
Cooperative and defined responsibilities. the time. Group conflicts responsibilities at all times.
Teamwork Group conflicts have to are cooperatively Group conflicts are
be settled by the managed most of the cooperatively managed at
instructor. time. all times.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and and after the workplace with workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. occasional mess during during and after the
and after the experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need to
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. by the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score /


20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

41
Activity No.6
Adding details to floor plan with Block
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
This activity aims to:
1.1 Introduce the Block command to the students.
1.2 Elevate students‟ creativity by means of creating floor plan details through block command.
1.3 Exercise students‟ analytical-thinking and critical-thinking skills.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
After completion of this activity the students should be able to:
2.1 Apply block command in making scale-size floor plan details as such floor plan furniture.
2.2 Make a more complex floor plan with details through scale and block command.
2.3 Understand the function of block command in making floor plan details.
3. Discussion:
The Block Command
A block is simply a collection of objects (or one object) that has a name. Blocks have several
advantages:
1. You can insert them again and again, saving time. If fact, you can insert them into other
drawings as well.
2. A block uses less electronic space than individual object.
Updating block definition, all objects under that drawing will be updated too.
How to create a block?

42
1. Draw the objects that you want in the block.
2. Choose Home tab > Block panel > Create to start the BLOCK command. The Block Definition
dialog box opens.
3. Type a name in the Name text box. The name can have spaces.
4. You need to specify a base point. That‟s the point at which you‟ll insert the block. In the Base
Point section, click Pick Point. Be sure to use an object snap for accuracy. You‟ll immediately
be returned to the dialog box.
5. In the Objects section, click the Select Objects button. Select the objects and press Enter to
return to the dialog box.
6. Below, choose Retain, Convert to Block or Delete. These options control what happens after
you create the block.
7. In the Behavior section, you can make a block Annotative, force it to scale uniformly and
choose whether to allow exploding.
8. In the settings area, choose the block unit. You can choose Unitless but if you choose unit,
AutoCAD will try to scale the block appropriately when you insert it into another drawing. You
can also add a hyperlink if you want.
9. Finally, you can add a description in the Description box. A description is helpful in the
DesignCenter, when you want to insert the block from another drawing.
10. Click OK to complete the box. If you chose Delete, the bjects disappear. You can use the
OOPS command to bring them back.

The BASE COMMAND, The Basepoint Option and Parameter


Blocks and basepoints go hand-in-hand. Knowing how to work with basepoints can make your
life much easier. It‟s so frustrating to insert a block and have it disappear into outer space
because the basepoint is in the wrong location!

The Basepoint Option of the INSERT command


When you insert a block, a Basepoint option appears with the Specify insertion point: prompt.
When you use this option, you can move the insertion base point of the block to anywhere
you want. This option can be really helpful sometimes but I don‟t think it‟s used very often.

The BASE Command


A block library often has one block per drawing. You save each block in its own drawing. By
default, the basepoint of a drawing is 0,0. But unless you put the block right at 0,0, you‟ll want
to change that. (Another option that works is to use WBLOCK and choose to write just the
block. Then, the basepoint is taken from the block and is in the right place.)

Use the BASE command in the drawing containing the block to specify the origin of the
drawing, which is usually on an object snap somewhere on the block. Then, when you insert
the drawing, your basepoint will be right on the block.

43
4. Materials and Equipment:
1. Computer: pre-installed with windows 7 64-bit operating system and AutoCAD 2018.
2. Internet Connection
5. Procedure:

This time, the client is asking for the floor plan to be revised and to include more details onto it. The
client would want the following to be seen onto the following pats of the lot area.

Table 6-1. Parts of the House


Dimension 10x10 square meters
Type of House Single Floor Bungalow
Living Room Sala set, Center table,
Ornaments
Bedroom Bedroom set with King-size
and 2 Queen-size beds,
Cabinets, Couch, TV, Lamps
and Ornaments
Bathroom Bathroom set, Toilet,
Shower Room, Sink,
Ornaments, Bathroom
cabinets
Dining Room Dining set, Dining table with
chairs, Ref, Cabinets and
Ornaments
Kitchen Kitchen set, stove, Fridge,
Center table, Oven,
Ornaments
Garage 2 cars
Garden Tea table and seats, Pool
area with pavement.

Given the above specifications, your manager instantly assign to you the new job order and tasks you
to revise the floor plan on an A3 bond paper (480x297 square mm). He also added that the deadline is
up for only 2 and a half hour else, the client will withdraw the order on the company.

44
6. Observation:
Place the results in table 6-2.
Table 6-2.
Floor Plan
**Insert your revised house floor plan screenshot here with details and measurements.**
House Part Dimension
**Screenshot of Living Room here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for living room here**
**Screenshot of Bed Rooms here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for bed rooms here**
**Screenshot of Bath Room here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for bath room here**
**Screenshot of Dining Room here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for dining room here**
**Screenshot of Kitchen here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for kitchen here**
**Screenshot of Garage here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for garage here**
**Screenshot of Garden here** **Specify the dimension that you had
allocated for garden here**

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

45
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative
demonstrate needed demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills.
Skills
skills. skills.
Members are unable to Members are able to set Members are able to set up
Experimental Set-
set up the materials. up the materials with the materials with minimum
up
supervision. supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety
safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
Precautions
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Management Members do not finish Members finish on time Members finish ahead of
/ Conduct of on time with incomplete with incomplete data. time with complete data
Experiment data. and time to revised data.
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks and
their tasks and have no responsibilities most of have defined
Cooperative and defined responsibilities. the time. Group conflicts responsibilities at all times.
Teamwork Group conflicts have to are cooperatively Group conflicts are
be settled by the managed most of the cooperatively managed at
instructor. time. all times.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and and after the workplace with workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. occasional mess during during and after the
and after the experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need to be
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by supervised by the
independent work
instructor. the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score /


20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

46
Activity No. 7
Visualizations and Projections
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: Computer-Aided Drafting Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name: Instructor:
1. Objective:
This activity aims to:
1.1 Introduce the elevation view through orthographic and isometric views using the AutoCAD.
1.2 Exercise students‟ analytical-thinking and critical-thinking skills in creating a projection of
their own floor plan.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
After completion of this activity the students should be able to:
2.1 Apply elevation in creating floor plan using AutoCAD.
2.3 Understand the importance of elevation view in floor plan design.
3. Discussion :
One of the best ways to communicate one's ideas is through some form of picture or drawing.
This is especially true for the engineer. The purpose of this guide is to give you the basics of
engineering sketching and drawing.

This topic treats "sketching" and "drawing" as one. "Sketching" generally means freehand
drawing. "Drawing" usually means using drawing instruments, from compasses to computers to
bring precision to the drawings.

Most of the object you can see in this topic is a block object same in figure 7.1 where in it mostly
consist of several angles.

Figure 7.1 - A Machined Block


Isometric Drawing
The representation of the object in figure 7.2 is called an isometric drawing. This is one of a family
of three-dimensional views called pictorial drawings. In an isometric drawing, the object's vertical
lines are drawn vertically, and the horizontal lines in the width and depth planes are shown at 30
degrees to the horizontal. When drawn under these guidelines, the lines parallel to these three
axes are at their true (scale) lengths. Lines that are not parallel to these axes will not be of their
true length.

47
Figure 7.2 - An Isometric Drawing

Any engineering drawing should show everything: a complete understanding of the object should
be possible from the drawing. If the isometric drawing can show all details and all dimensions on
one drawing, it is ideal. One can pack a great deal of information into an isometric drawing.
However, if the object in figure 7.2 had a hole on the back side, it would not be visible using a
single isometric drawing. In order to get a more complete view of the object, an orthographic
projection may be used.

Orthographic or Multiview Drawing


Imagine that you have an object suspended by transparent threads inside a glass box, as in figure
7.3.

Figure 7.3 - The block suspended in a glass box

Then draw the object on each of three faces as seen from that direction. Unfold the box (figure
7.4) and you have the three views. We call this an "orthographic" or "multi-view" drawing.

48
Figure 7.4 - The creation of an orthographic multiview drawing

Figure 7.5 shows how the three views appear on a piece of paper after unfolding the box.

Figure 7.5 - A multi-view drawing and its explanation

Which views should one choose for a multi-view drawing? The views that reveal every detail
about the object. Three views are not always necessary; we need only as many views as are
required to describe the object fully. For example, some objects need only two views, while others
need four. The circular object in figure 7.6 requires only two views.
Dimensioning:

Figure 7.6 - An object needing only two orthogonal views

49
Figure 7.7 - An isometric view with dimensions

The "dimensioned" object in the isometric drawing shown in figure 7.7. As a general guideline to
dimensioning, try to think that you would make an object and dimension it in the most useful way.
Put in exactly as many dimensions as are necessary for the craftsperson to make it -no more, no
less. Do not put in redundant dimensions. Not only will these clutter the drawing, but if
"tolerances" or accuracy levels have been included, the redundant dimensions often lead to
conflicts when the tolerance allowances can be added in different ways.

Repeatedly measuring from one point to another will lead to inaccuracies. It is often better to
measure from one end to various points. This gives the dimensions a reference standard. It is
helpful to choose the placement of the dimension in the order in which a machinist would create
the part. This convention may take some experience.

Sectioning
There are many times when the interior details of an object cannot be seen from the outside
(figure 7.8).

Figure 7.8 - An isometric drawing that does not show all details

We can get around this by pretending to cut the object on a plane and showing the "sectional
50
view". The sectional view is applicable to objects like engine blocks, where the interior details are
intricate and would be very difficult to understand through the use of "hidden" lines (hidden lines
are, by convention, dotted) on an orthographic or isometric drawing.

Imagine slicing the object in the middle (figure 7.9):

Figure 7.9 - "Sectioning" an object

Figure 7.10 - Sectioning the object in figure 8

Take away the front half (figure 7.10) and what you have is a full section view (figure 7.11).

51
Figure 7.11 - Sectioned isometric and orthogonal views

The cross-section looks like figure 11 when it is viewed from straight ahead.

Drawing Tools
To prepare a drawing, one can use manual drafting instruments (figure 7.12) or computer-aided
drafting or design, or CAD. The basic drawing standards and conventions are the same
regardless of what design tool you use to make the drawings. In learning drafting, we will
approach it from the perspective of manual drafting. If the drawing is made without either
instruments or CAD, it is called a freehand sketch.

Figure 7.12 - Drawing Tools


"Assembly" Drawings
An isometric view of an "assembled" pillow-block bearing system is shown in figure 7.13. It
corresponds closely to what you actually see when viewing the object from a particular angle. We
cannot tell what the inside of the part looks like from this view.
We can also show isometric views of the pillow-block being taken apart or "disassembled" (figure
14). This allows you to see the inner components of the bearing system. Isometric drawings can
show overall arrangement clearly, but not the details and the dimensions.

Figure 7.13 - Pillow-block (Freehand sketch)


52
Figure 7.14 - Disassembled Pillow-block

Cross-Sectional Views
A cross-sectional view portrays a cut-away portion of the object and is another way to show
hidden components in a device.

Imagine a plane that cuts vertically through the center of the pillow block as shown in figure 7.15.
Then imagine removing the material from the front of this plane, as shown in figure 7.16.

53
Figure 7.15 - Pillow Block Figure 7.16 - Pillow Block
This is how the remaining rear section would look. Diagonal lines (cross-hatches) show regions
where materials have been cut by the cutting plane.

Figure 7.17 - Section "A-A"

This cross-sectional view (section A-A, figure 7.17), one that is orthogonal to the viewing direction,
shows the relationships of lengths and diameters better. These drawings are easier to make than
isometric drawings. Seasoned engineers can interpret orthogonal drawings without needing an
isometric drawing, but this takes a bit of practice.

The top "outside" view of the bearing is shown in figure 7.18. It is an orthogonal (perpendicular)
projection. Notice the direction of the arrows for the "A-A" cutting plane.

54
Figure 7.18 - The top "outside" view of the bearing
Half-Sections
A half-section is a view of an object showing one-half of the view in section, as in figure 7.19 and
7.20.

Figure 7.19 - Full and sectioned isometric views

55
Figure 7.20 - Front view and half section

The diagonal lines on the section drawing are used to indicate the area that has been theoretically
cut. These lines are called section lining or cross-hatching. The lines are thin and are usually
drawn at a 45-degree angle to the major outline of the object. The spacing between lines should
be uniform.

A second, rarer, use of cross-hatching is to indicate the material of the object. One form of cross-
hatching may be used for cast iron, another for bronze, and so forth. More usually, the type of
material is indicated elsewhere on the drawing, making the use of different types of cross-
hatching unnecessary.

Figure 7.21 - Half section without hidden lines


Usually hidden (dotted) lines are not used on the cross-section unless they are needed for
dimensioning purposes. Also, some hidden lines on the non-sectioned part of the drawings are
not needed (figure 7.12) since they become redundant information and may clutter the drawing.

Sectioning Objects with Holes, Ribs, Etc.


The cross-section on the right of figure 7.22 is technically correct. However, the convention in a
drawing is to show the view on the left as the preferred method for sectioning this type of object.
56
Figure 7.22 - Cross section
Dimensioning
The purpose of dimensioning is to provide a clear and complete description of an object. A
complete set of dimensions will permit only one interpretation needed to construct the part.
Dimensioning should follow these guidelines.

1. Accuracy: correct values must be given.


2. Clearness: dimensions must be placed in appropriate positions.
3. Completeness: nothing must be left out, and nothing duplicated.
4. Readability: the appropriate line quality must be used for legibility.

The Basics: Definitions and Dimensions


The dimension line is a thin line, broken in the middle to allow the placement of the dimension
value, with arrowheads at each end (figure 7.23).

Figure 23 - Dimensioned Drawing

An arrowhead is approximately 3 mm long and 1 mm wide. That is, the length is roughly three
57
times the width. An extension line extends a line on the object to the dimension line. The first
dimension line should be approximately 12 mm (0.6 in) from the object. Extension lines begin 1.5
mm from the object and extend 3 mm from the last dimension line.

A leader is a thin line used to connect a dimension with a particular area (figure 7.24).

Figure 7.24 - Example drawing with a leader

A leader may also be used to indicate a note or comment about a specific area. When there is
limited space, a heavy black dot may be substituted for the arrows, as in figure 7.23. Also in this
drawing, two holes are identical, allowing the "3x" notation to be used and the dimension to point
to only one of the circles.

Where to Put Dimensions


The dimensions should be placed on the face that describes the feature most clearly. Examples of
appropriate and inappropriate placing of dimensions are shown in figure 7.25.

58
Figure 7.25 - Example of appropriate and inappropriate dimensioning

In order to get the feel of what dimensioning is all about, we can start with a simple rectangular
block. With this simple object, only three dimensions are needed to describe it completely (figure
7.26). There is little choice on where to put its dimensions.

Figure 7.26 - Simple Object


Choose whether the dimension a block with a notch or cutout (figure 7.27). It is usually best to
dimension from a common line or surface. This can be called the datum line of surface. This
eliminates the addition of measurement or machining inaccuracies that would come from "chain"
or "series" dimensioning. Notice how the dimensions originate on the datum surfaces. Usually
chooses one datum surface in figure 7.27, and another in figure 7.28. As long as there is
consistency, it makes no difference.

Figure 7.27 - Surface datum example

59
Figure 7.28 - Surface datum example

In figure 7.29 we have shown a hole that we have chosen to dimension on the left side of the
object. The Ø stands for "diameter".

Figure 7.29 - Exampled of a dimensioned hole

When the left side of the block is "radiuses" as in figure 7.30, where duplicating dimensions break
the rule. The total length is known because the radius of the curve on the left side is given then
adds the overall length of 60 and note that it is a reference (REF) dimension. This means that it is
not really required.

60
Figure 7.30 - Example of a directly dimensioned hole

Somewhere on the paper, usually the bottom where there should be placed information on what
measuring system is being used (e.g. inches and millimeters) and also the scale of the drawing.

Figure 7.31 - Example of a directly dimensioned hole

This drawing is symmetric about the horizontal centerline. Centerlines (chain-dotted) are used for
symmetric objects, and also for the center of circles and holes. We can dimension directly to the
centerline, as in figure 7.31. In some cases this method can be clearer than just dimensioning
between surfaces.

Elevation View
An “elevation” is a drawing that shows the front or side of something. A floor plan, by contrast,
shows a space from above – as if you are looking down on the room from the ceiling. Thus, you
see the tops of everything, but you cannot view the front, side or back of an object. An elevation
gives you the chance to see everything from the other viewpoints.

61
Figure 7.32. Floor plan example

Elevations are essential in kitchen design, as well as other detailed renovations. Without
elevation drawings, you cannot see the details of your new cabinetry, the size of each drawer or
the location of each cabinet. A floor plan simply cannot communicate all of this information
adequately.

While an elevation is not required for every renovation or redecorating project, they are very
useful when designing items like a fireplace, bathroom vanities, bars, or any location with built-in
cabinetry, such as an office or entertainment space. The information shown on an elevation
drawing will give you a chance to make small changes to the design before anything is built or
ordered – you don‟t want to be surprised during the installation!

While every detail isn‟t typically shown on an elevation (such as the exact cabinet door style you
plan to use), the major elements will be there, including cabinet locations, the direction each
cabinet door opens (hint: look at the “arrows” on the doors – the arrow points to the hinge, so you
know which way the door opens!), appliance locations, height of cabinets and more. On
elevations intended for use during the preliminary design stage of your project, you will find much
less detail. Drawings intended for use as a guide for construction will include numerous notes
and dimensions on the page.

62
Figure 3.33. Elevation Sample

4. Materials and Equipment:


 A computer pre-installed with windows 7 64-bit operating system and AutoCAD 2018.
 Internet Connection
5. Procedures:
Using the mansion you created as front view create the elevation view of the right-side view, left-
side view and the back view. The height of the elevation from ground to the tip most of the roof
must be 3 meters. Include detailed drawings of your views to make it more attractive. You may
use objects from cad-blocks.net for your convenience. Paste your screenshots below.

6. Observation:
Place the results from the procedures above:
Floor Plan
**Insert your object views here**
Elevation View Screenshot (NOTE: No Cropping)
Front View

Right-side View

Back View

63
Left-side View

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

64
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable to set Members are able to set Members are able to
Experimental Set- up the materials. up the materials with set up the materials
up supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow
Safety Precautions safety precautions. precautions most of the safety precautions at
time. all times.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish on Members finish on time Members finish ahead
Time Management
time with incomplete data. with incomplete data. of time with complete
/ Conduct of
data and time to
Experiment
revised data.
Members do not know their Members have defined Members are on tasks
tasks and have no defined responsibilities most of and have defined
Cooperative and responsibilities. Group the time. Group conflicts responsibilities at all
Teamwork conflicts have to be settled are cooperatively times. Group conflicts
by the instructor. managed most of the are cooperatively
time. managed at all times.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and and after the experiment. workplace with occasional workplace at all times
Orderliness mess during and after the during and after the
experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by to be supervised by
independent work
instructor. the instructor. the instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total
Score / 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

65
Activity No. 8
Extrude and Loft Command
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: Computer-Aided Drafting/Drawing Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name: Instructor:
1. Objective:
This activity aims to:
1.1 Introduce extrude and loft command in creating 3D drawing object in AutoCAD.
1.2 Exercise students‟ analytical-thinking and critical-thinking skills in creating a
projection of their own 3D objects.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
After completion of this activity the students should be able to:
2.1 Apply extrude and loft command in making 3D drawings.
2.3 Understand the importance of manipulating 3D objects in floor plan design.
3. Discussion :
Figure 8.1 is an example spline.

Figure 8.1. Extruded Circle

The Extrude Command


An AutoCAD command that allows a closed 2D drawing be transformed into 3D drawing.
There are 2 ways to use the extrude command; either by command line or by shape
along a path.

An example of application of extrude command is to represent pipes in a drawing.

66
Extruding along a Path
Draw a POLYLINE from 0,0 to 120,0 to 120,120 to 240,120 to 240,0 and then press
<Enter> to finish the command.

Do a Zoom > Extents to see the polyline and then zoom out a little more like in figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2. Zoomed polyline

Next you will put a 24 unit radius on all the corners. The easiest way to do this is using
the Polyline option of the FILLET command.
Command: FILLET <ENTER>
Current settings: Mode = TRIM, Radius = 0.0000
Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim/mUltiple]: R
Specify fillet radius <0.0000>: 24
Select first object or [Polyline/Radius/Trim/mUltiple]: P
Select 2D polyline: <SELECT THE POLYLINE>
3 lines were filleted shown in figure 8.3.

Figure 8.3 Filleted polyline

What you're going to do next is extrude a circle along the polyline - or to be more
accurate, the path of the polyline. This would be one way of drawing pipes in 3D. For this
example, you'll draw a pipeline with a diameter of 12 units.

67
Next draw CIRCLE at the bottom right end of polyline. Use a diameter of 12 (radius of 6).
Once you have that, you need to rotate it in 3D. To do this, you will select the circle,
select the axis you want it rotated around and then choose the angle.

Command: ROTATE3D
Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0
Select objects: <SELECT THE CIRCLE> 1 found
Select objects: <ENTER>
Specify first point on axis or define axis by
[Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: X Specify a point on the
X axis
<0,0,0>: <SELECT THE BOTTOM RIGHT END OF THE POLYLINE -
Make sure your Osnaps are on for endpoints>
Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 <ENTER>

Your circle should have rotated 90 degrees and now you are looking at the side of it so
the circle appears to be a line as shown in figure 8.4.

Figure 8.4. Filleted polyline with circle

Now comes the easy part. Next you will EXTRUDE the circle along the path of the
polyline.

Command: EXT
EXTRUDE
Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4
Select objects: <SELECT THE CIRCLE> 1 found
Select objects: <ENTER>
Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: P
Select extrusion path or [Taper angle]: <SELECT THE PLINE>

Note: After the Extrude command, the polyline will still be there. If you need to keep your

68
drawing clean, remember to erase the path if you don't need it any more. To see how it
looks, view the object in the SW Isometric view, and use the HIDE command. It should
look like in figure 8.5:

Figure 8.5. Isometric view of the polyline

This is just one option available with the Extrude command. Try it on other paths and see
how it works. You will find that if your circle is too large, it may not be able to be extruded
on polylines with tight corners. You might then see this error on the command line:
Unable to extrude the selected object.

Any object that can be extruded can be extruded along a path. A path can be any open
object such as lines, arc, polylines, splines, etc.

For more practice, try to create a cord using a Spline as the path. You can also extrude 2
circles along a path (make one one circle smaller) and then SUBTRACT the smaller
diameter extrusion from the larger to create a hollow pipe.

Extruding with a Taper


Extruding along a taper gives you another option in your 3D toolbox. Here is an example
of how it is done:
Draw RECTANGLE 100 units by 100 units.

EXTRUDE the rectangle 50 units high with a taper angle of 45 °. Here are the
commands needed.

Command: EXT EXTRUDE


Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4
Select objects to extrude: <SELECT THE RECTANGLE>
1 found
Select objects to extrude: <ENTER>
Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper
angle/Expression] <1.0000>: T
Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45

69
Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle]
<1.0000>: 50

You should see figure 8:

Figure 8.6 Pyramid

Use the 3DORBIT command to view it at different angles (Click on the screen, hold the
button down and move the cursor around the screen). Try extruding different shapes with
various taper angles for more practice.

These options give you a lot of versatility within one command. You may not use these
options very often in your everyday drafting, but they're good to know.
The Loft Command

The loft command is similar to the extrude command, but much more versatile. Instead of
extruding a single shape, the loft command allows you to extrude several shapes and
make one continuous object.

Challenge is to create figure 8.8 from smooth objects shown in figure 8.7.

70
Figure 8.7 Several shapes with a circle

Figure 8.8 is a front view of the objects before and after the loft command:

Figure 8.8 Lines after loft command

Using the Loft Command


The goal of this exercise is to create a “twisted Cube” – a 20x20x20 cube that looks like
the top was twisted 45o.
Steps:
Draw a square 20x20. Copy it in the same place. Rotated the 2nd square 45o using the
midpoints of the square as the base point. Finally, move the 2nd square up 20 units.
Using the command viewports change the view to SW.

From left to right, the original square, the copied and rotated square and the moved 2 nd
square. Copy the 2 rectangles over (out of the way) to use in another exercise. It must
look like in figure 8.9.

71
Figure 8.9. Created squares

Command: LOFT
Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4, Closed profiles creation
mode = Solid
Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple
edges/MOde]: <PICK BOTTOM SQUARE> 1 found
Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple
edges/MOde]: <PICK TOP SQUARE> 1 found, 2 total
Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple
edges/MOde]: Specify opposite corner: <ENTER> 0 found
Select cross sections in lofting order or [POint/Join multiple
edges/MOde]: <ENTER>
2 cross sections selected
Enter an option [Guides/Path/Cross sections only/Settings] <Cross
sections only>: <ENTER>

After the command, your two squares will be turned to 3D lofted squares just like in
figure 8.10.

Figure 8.10. Lofted 2 squares


72
It looks like a 'twisted cube'. There is a lines going from the middle of the bottom square
to a corner of the top square. Use the HIDE command to see how it looks. It looks a little
strange, but you can make out that it has some odd shapes.

The copied lofted 2 squares were shown in figure 8.11.

Figure 8.11. Copied lofted 2 squares

Start the LOFT command again. This time you'll try something different. Select the
squares again as your cross sections, then instead of accepting the default, use the
Guides option G. Now select the four lines which will guide the loft to create a shape that
better represents what you want.

Command: LOFT
Select cross-sections in lofting order: <SELECT SQUARE>
1 found
Select cross-sections in lofting order: <SELECT OTHER
SQUARE> 1 found, 2 total
Select cross-sections in lofting order: <ENTER
Enter an option [Guides/Path/Cross-sections only] <Cross-
sections only>: G
Select guide curves: <SELECT LINE> 1 found
Select guide curves: <SELECT LINE> 1 found, 2 total
Select guide curves: <SELECT LINE> 1 found, 3 total
Select guide curves: <SELECT LINE> 1 found, 4 total
Select guide curves: <ENTER>

Compare the 2 objects; the 2nd one should look more like the goal of a twisted cube and
should look like in figure 8.12.

73
Figure 8.12. Different style of the lofted 2 squares

To change how you view things, use the VISUALSTYLES command to open the Visual
Styles Manager palette. This command allows you to quickly change settings for how
you view 3D objects that previously needed the knowledge of several system variables.

Use the settings highlighted below and press the "Apply to Current Viewport" button (or
double click on any of the colored squares at the top. You should now have a clear view
that illustrated the differences between the first lofted object and the second one that
used guides. These were shown in figure 8.13.

74
Figure 8.13. Visual Styles in 3D solid

Try creating your own lofted 3D Solids. Anything that can be extruded can be lofted - so
any closed shape will work. Try lofting a rectangle to a circle. Try exploding a lofted
object. There are many other options to this command, but in an effort to be brief and
cover the basics. To explore further, select the Settings option in the command.
Remember to pick the cross sections in the correct order, add guides to better define the
shape.

In review, extruding and lofting are two simple commands that give you a lot of power in
the 3D world. Get familiar with extruding, as it is a great way to build things in 3D. Lofting
will allow you to create more 'organic' shapes those previous versions of AutoCAD. Think
of how you could use cross sections of a ship's hull to create a 3D model.

4. Materials and Equipment:

75
 A computer pre-installed with windows 7 64-bit operating system and AutoCAD
2018.
 Internet Connection
5. Procedure/s:
Using the floor plan that you had created in either activity 6-2, transform your 2D floor
plan into a 3D floor plan using the Extrude command. Try to include Loft command to
some objects inside the floor plan.
6. Observation:

3D Floor Plan
**Insert your floor plan 3D views here**

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

76
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15
TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE


Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________
Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills.
skills. skills.
Members are unable to Members are able to Members are able to set up
Experimental Set-
set up the materials. set up the materials the materials with minimum
up
with supervision. supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow Members follow safety
Safety Precautions safety precautions. safety precautions precautions at all times.
most of the time.
II. Work Habits
Time Management Members do not finish on Members finish on Members finish ahead of
/ Conduct of time with incomplete data. time with incomplete time with complete data and
Experiment data. time to revised data.
Members do not know Members have Members are on tasks and
their tasks and have no defined have defined
defined responsibilities. responsibilities most responsibilities at all times.
Cooperative and Group conflicts have to be of the time. Group Group conflicts are
Teamwork settled by the instructor. conflicts are cooperatively managed at
cooperatively all times.
managed most of the
time.
Messy workplace during Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
and after the experiment. workplace with workplace at all times
Neatness and
occasional mess during and after the
Orderliness
during and after the experiment.
experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need to be
Ability to do supervision by the occasional supervised by the instructor.
independent work instructor. supervision by the
instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score /


20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

77
Activity No. 9
PRIMITIVE SOLIDS
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: Computer-Aided Drafting/Drawing Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted
Name: Instructor:
1. Objectives:
This activity aims to:
1.1 Introduce AutoCAD‟s primitive solids and Boolean operations for creating 3d objects.
1.2 Exercise students‟ analytical-thinking and critical-thinking skills in creating 3d objects using
primitive solids and Boolean operations of AutoCAD.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
After completion of this activity the students should be able to:
2.1 Apply primitive solids and Boolean operations to create 3D objects.
2.2 Understand the importance of elevation view in floor plan design.
3. Discussion:
Primitive Solids
A primitive solid is a „building block' that you can use to work with in 3D. Rather than extruding or
revolving an object, AutoCAD has some basic 3D shape commands at your disposal. From these
basic primitives, you can start building your 3D models. In many cases, you get the same result
from drawing circles and rectangles and then extruding them, but doing it one command is
generally faster. Using these with Boolean operations can be a very effective way of drawing in 3D.
There are eight different primitives that you can choose from and are on the Home > Modeling Tool
Panel (when in the 3D workspace).

SHAPE ICON COMMAND DESCRIPTION


Creates a solid box
after you provide 2
BOX BOX
opposite corners and
a height.
Creates a solid
SPHERE SPHERE / SPH sphere from a center
point and radius.
Creates a straight
cylinder from a
CYLINDER CYLINDER / CYL
center point, radius
and height.
Creates a tapered
cone from a center
CONE CONE
point, radius and
height.

78
Creates a triangular
WEDGE WEDGE / WED wedge from 2
opposite points.
Creates a torus
(donut shape) based
TORUS TORUS / TOR on center point,
radius and tube
radius.
Draws a solid object
with a polygon (3-32
PYRAMID PYRAMID / PYR sides) base that
rises to a central
point.
Draws a solid object
with width and height
POLYSOLID PSOLID
as you would draw a
polyline.

BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
Operations that alters the physical properties of solids.
COMMAND INPUT ICON DESCRIPTION
Joins two or more solids into
UNION
UNION / UNI creating one based on the total
(Boolean)
geometry of all.
Subtracts one or more solids
SUBTRACT SUBTRACT / from another creating a solid
(Boolean) SU based on the remaining
geometry.
Creates a single solid from one
INTERSECT INTERSECT /
more solids based on the
(Boolean) IN
intersected geometry.
Allows you to increase the size
EXTRUDE
SOLIDEDIT of a solid by extruding out one
FACE
of its faces.
Slices a solid along a cutting
SLICE SLICE
plane.
Aligns 2 3D Objects in 3D
3D ALIGN 3DALIGN
space.

4. Materials and Equipment:


 Computer
 CAD Software
5. Procedure:
Using 3D commands, create a realistic 3D model of following things shown below:
79
1. A Casserole
2. A Washing Machine
3. A Flat TV
4. A Tire
6. Observation:
Copy the output of the following 3D objects:

**screenshots must be in isometric view


1. A Casserole
2. A Washing Machine
3. A Flat TV
4. A Tire

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

80
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15
TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES
RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative
demonstrate needed demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
Skills
skills. skills. skills.
Members are unable Members are able to set Members are able to set
Experimental Set-
to set up the materials. up the materials with up the materials with
up
supervision. minimum supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety
safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
Precautions
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Members do not finish Members finish on time Members finish ahead of
Management / on time with with incomplete data. time with complete data
Conduct of incomplete data. and time to revised data.
Experiment
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks and
their tasks and have responsibilities most of have defined
no defined the time. Group conflicts responsibilities at all
Cooperative and
responsibilities. Group are cooperatively times. Group conflicts are
Teamwork
conflicts have to be managed most of the cooperatively managed at
settled by the time. all times.
instructor.
Messy workplace Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and during and after the workplace with workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. occasional mess during during and after the
and after the experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need to
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. by the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations:
TOTAL SCORE

RATING = (Total Score /


20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

81
Activity 10
3D Floorplan with UCS manipulation
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
1.1 The activity aims to create a 3D floor plan.
1.2 This experiment also provides students‟ knowledge and skills on command manipulation
using CAD software most usually in creating a 3D house from floor plan.
1.3 Apply creativity on placing object by manipulating UCS inside the floor plan.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
After the completion of the activity students should be able to:
2.1 Create a 3D house based from the floor plan.
2.2 Apply creativity on placing object by manipulating UCS inside the floor plan.
3. Discussion:
According to Autodesk knowledge network UCS is a moveable Cartesian coordinate system that
establishes the XY work plane, horizontal and vertical directions, axes of rotation, and other useful
geometric references. You can change the UCS origin and orientation for convenience as you
specify points, enter coordinates, and work with drawing aids, such as Ortho mode and the grid.

Using the UCS command and select face it will directly focus on which side you like to draw.

4. Materials and Equipment:


 A computer pre-installed with windows 7 64-bit operating system and AutoCAD 2018.
 Internet Connection
5. Procedure:
1. Run the AutoCAD software
2. Select Metric as the unit of measurement.
3. Create Figure 10.1 through the top view of the drawing area in 2D while it is still in drafting and
annotation workspace. Using metric unit, the rectangle has a length of 60 while the width is 50.

82
Figure 10.1. Floor plan of Activity 10
4. Make sure to offset inside the wall by 1 point and use mirror to copy wall to wall same side for
windows. Notice the internal wall was offset down by one point from the middle of the vertical line.
5. Use dim linear to check correct measurement of each lines but not necessarily include it to the
drawing.
6. Have a copy of the figure 10.1 as shown in figure 10.2 to be use later in creating the roof.

Figure 10.2. Copied floorplan

7. Create two rectangles of the first floor plan one for the original 50x60 rectangle while another
rectangle for the offset wall 1point.
8. On the command line type viewports and set the following value:
Standard viewports: single Setup: 3D
Change view to: SW isometric Visual style to: Shades of gray

9. Extrude the two rectangles by 20 (both rectangle) then change the visual style to: shaded with
edges.
10. Subtract the offset extruded rectangle wall from the 50x60 extruded rectangles. Note: In

83
subtracting using the shades of gray, hover the mouse first to the extruded 50x60 rectangles enter
then the next point will be the inside extruded rectangle and the output should look like in figure
10.3.

Figure 10.3. Subtracted rectangle

11. Change the visual style to 2D wireframe so that the door and windows are visible as we create
the 3D of it. Use orbit to rotate the view along the floor plan.
12. Change the UCS in front of the door. Type UCS enter then choose f for face and accept enter.
See figure 10.4 in proper selection of face.

Figure 10.4. Changing UCS

Note: In order the object not to be misplaced inside the floor plan, makes use of UCS especially
from transferring to another location part of the object.
13. Create rectangle (for door), type rec enter then click the proper location of the wall then choose
d for dimension then type 10 for length and 5 for width.
Notice in figure 10.5 that once you create rectangle to the 3D floor plan you need to observe that
the blue line indicates the selection part is the proper wall. Proper wall or correct wall is the place
where you should place the window and the door.
84
And from time to time you need to check using orbit if the rectangle fits to the correct wall.

Figure 10.6. Creating rectangle to the wall

14. Click the 5x10 rectangle and move it to the corner of the wall while use displacement of the
lower left corner of the rectangle to the lower left corner of the wall. Once the rectangle placed at
the corner of the wall, move enter choose d enter (for displacement) then type 27, 0, 0(x, y, z). The
UCS indicates the location of x, y and z path. This will place the door with exact measurement
along the floor plan, see figure 10.7.

Figure 10.7 Proper Door Location

15. Repeat the process of creating rectangle for window but the rectangle measures 5x7.
16. Move the window to the lower left corner of the wall then move again using displacement of 6,
3, 0 and 10, 0, 0 for the second window then copy the two windows enter choose displacement of
33, 0, 0. See figure 10.8 for reference.

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Figure 10.8. Four windows using copy displacement

17. Go back to top view and mirror the windows to the other side of the wall. See figure 10.9.

Figure 10.9. Copied windows using mirror

18. Create windows to the side parts of the wall but make sure to change UCS and use mirror to
copy it to the other side of the wall. Refresh the UCS view from the custom model view by clicking
top view and south west view three times or many times to go back to its normal top view. Custom
model view is located at the upper left corner of the drawing area.
19. Remember there is another wall located in the middle of the floor plan. From the top view,
follow the path of the wall by the command rectangle then use extrude with a height of 20.
20. Click layer properties from the ribbon area. Below def points right click then choose new layer
rename it with outer wall. Right click again below the layer name then choose layer again then
name it as inner wall. Close the layer properties. Choose the outer wall of the object inside the
drawing area then you can see a drop box along with a picture of bulb or a light look on the ribbon
layer area, choose outer wall. Now choose the inner wall of the floor plan then choose inner wall
layer.
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21. Hide the outer wall by clicking the light bulb picture of the wall on the layer ribbon.
22. Create two doors using rectangle (5x10) again on the inner wall. Note of the UCS face.

Figure 10.10. Two doors in the inner wall

23. Bring back the outer wall by clicking the light from the layer ribbon of the outer wall name.
24. Extrude the windows and door of the outer wall going inside of the floor plan by two points.
Make sure to select windows and door part by part of the wall then extrude. A total of five parts in
extruding the windows and door for left, right, front, back and inner of the floor plan.
25. Select outer wall then type subtract in the command line enter then click all the windows and
door except from the inner wall then enter. Now type again subtract then select inner wall enter
then select the two doors.
26. From the layer properties menu you can change the color of the outer wall into brown while the
color of the inner wall is green.
27. Turn off the inner and outer wall and delete all the lines created from the top view for the clean
appearance in figure 10.11.

Figure 10.11 Clean Inner and Outer Wall

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28. Proceed to the second floor plan. Offset the outer rectangle into three.
29. From the left side of the floor plan create a vertical line (30) on the middle part. Connect it to
the two corners of the left side. It looks like a triangle. Explode the rectangle of the second floor
plan and connect the three sides of the triangle using join command. See figure 10.12.

Figure 10.12. Joined triangle

30. Extrude the triangle to the right side of the floor plan. If the triangle is not extruded to the right
redo it but first refresh the UCS.
31. From the layer properties create a new layer then name it as roof and use orange as its color.
You can also change the color using the color selection.
32. Move the corner of the roof to the corner of the outer wall of the first floor plan.
33. Adjust the roof in the middle of the wall using UCS and move displacement command. See
figure 10.13.

Figure 10.13. Outer and inner wall with a roof

34. Add objects inside the floor plan and arrange it using UCS and move displacement command.

6. Observation:
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Place the result of the extruded floor plan using top view, front view and back view

Top View

South West View

South East View

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

89
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative
demonstrate needed demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
Skills
skills. skills. skills.
Members are unable Members are able to set Members are able to
Experimental Set- to set up the materials. up the materials with set up the materials
up supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety
safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
Precautions
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Members do not finish Members finish on time Members finish ahead
Management / on time with with incomplete data. of time with complete
Conduct of incomplete data. data and time to revised
Experiment data.
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks
their tasks and have responsibilities most of the and have defined
no defined time. Group conflicts are responsibilities at all
Cooperative and
responsibilities. Group cooperatively managed times. Group conflicts
Teamwork
conflicts have to be most of the time. are cooperatively
settled by the managed at all times.
instructor.
Messy workplace Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and during and after the workplace with occasional workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. mess during and after the during and after the
experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by to be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations: TOTAL SCORE
RATING = (Total Score
/ 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________

90
Activity No. 11
Rendering
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
1.1 The activity aims to create a final laboratory activity.
1.2 This activity also provides students’ knowledge and skills on how to document of their own
AutoCAD design with 3D object equipment based from their discipline.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Create AutoCAD final laboratory 3D activity equipment based from their discipline.
2.2 Discuss the step by step procedure on creating a final laboratory activity.
3. Discussion:
Hatch, color selection or color of the face (usually in solid editing ribbon) is the commands used to
color an object. Materials browser can also be used for realistic color of the object.

Each of the materials can be easily customized by double-clicking it.

You can also change the materials name by right clicking it then choose rename.
Realistic view shows a good preview of your project in progress, but still it hides important details.
To check and advanced and professional rendering on your 3D objects, you have to use the render
tools, all contained inside the Visualize tab.
91
From the 3D modeling workspace, click on the render button to open the Render window.

This shows the final appearance of your project after rendering, by applying the same identical
point of view of your workspace. Use your mouse wheel to zoom in and out, and check out the

Render progress at the bottom. All the complete renderings are listed at the bottom, by clicking on
the down arrow on the left, from the most recent one from the top. Click on one to select it and
check its preview again. Use the buttons on top to save it and print it.

4. Materials and Equipment:


 Computer
 CAD Software
5. Procedure:
1. From activity 9 and 10 adjust proper color combination using materials command.
2. Rearrange the objects in its proper location.
3. Then apply rendering tools.

6. Observation:

Place activity 9 output of the applied rendering tool:

92
Place activity 10 output of the applied rendering tool:

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment Rubric:

93
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable Members are able to set up Members are able to
Experimental Set- to set up the materials. the materials with set up the materials
up supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety Precautions safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
time.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish Members finish on time with Members finish ahead
Time Management
on time with incomplete data. of time with complete
/ Conduct of
incomplete data. data and time to revised
Experiment
data.
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks
their tasks and have responsibilities most of the and have defined
no defined time. Group conflicts are responsibilities at all
Cooperative and
responsibilities. Group cooperatively managed times. Group conflicts
Teamwork
conflicts have to be most of the time. are cooperatively
settled by the managed at all times.
instructor.
Messy workplace Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and during and after the workplace with occasional workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. mess during and after the during and after the
experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by to be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations: TOTAL SCORE
RATING = (Total Score
/ 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________
94
Activity No. 12
Final Laboratory Activity
Course Code: CPE 003 Program:
Course Title: COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING Date Performed:
Section: Date Submitted:
Name : Instructor:
1. Objective(s):
1.3 The activity aims to design and create a final laboratory activity.
1.4 This activity also provides students’ knowledge and skills on how to document of their own
AutoCAD design with 3D object equipment based from their discipline.
9. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.3 Create AutoCAD final laboratory 3D activity equipment based from their discipline.
2.4 Discuss the step by step procedure on creating a final laboratory activity.
10. Discussion:
Create a discussion about the chosen equipment and how you always use this tool according to
your field and apply rendering for the final output.

11. Materials and Equipment:


 Computer
 CAD Software
12. Procedure:

95
13. Observation:

96
14. Conclusion:

15. Assessment Rubric:

97
T I P – V P A A – 0 5 4 D
Revision Status/Date: 0/2009 June 15

TECNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

Subject: _________________ Experiment No. :______________________


Name: ______________________________________________________________

BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT


CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed demonstrate needed skills. demonstrate needed
skills. skills.
Members are unable Members are able to set up Members are able to
Experimental Set- to set up the materials. the materials with set up the materials
up supervision. with minimum
supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally Members always
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
process skills. process skills. process skills.
Members do not follow Members follow safety Members follow safety
Safety Precautions safety precautions. precautions most of the precautions at all times.
time.
II. Work Habits
Members do not finish Members finish on time with Members finish ahead
Time Management
on time with incomplete data. of time with complete
/ Conduct of
incomplete data. data and time to revised
Experiment
data.
Members do not know Members have defined Members are on tasks
their tasks and have responsibilities most of the and have defined
no defined time. Group conflicts are responsibilities at all
Cooperative and
responsibilities. Group cooperatively managed times. Group conflicts
Teamwork
conflicts have to be most of the time. are cooperatively
settled by the managed at all times.
instructor.
Messy workplace Clean and orderly Clean and orderly
Neatness and during and after the workplace with occasional workplace at all times
Orderliness experiment. mess during and after the during and after the
experiment. experiment.
Members require Members require Members do not need
Ability to do
supervision by the occasional supervision by to be supervised by the
independent work
instructor. the instructor. instructor.
Other comments / Observations: TOTAL SCORE
RATING = (Total Score
/ 20) x 100%
Evaluated by:

________________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member
Date: _____________________________
98
99