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Forced Vibrations of Discrete Systems

m2

k2 ky2 ky4
k y2
kx1 kx 2 kx1 kx2 kx3
m1 m
m m1 m2

ky1 ky1 ky3


k1

2-DOF 2-DOF 4-DOF

Vertical motion only Planar motion only

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 1


Plan

1. Two-body Systems
• System of equations: time and frequency domain
• Direct solution
• Modal analysis and modal transform
2. Multibody Systems
• System of equations and direct solution
• Modal transform
• Modal reduction

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 2


Two-mass systems

F2 ( t ) U2 ( t )
m2

Two DOF Harmonic excitation with k2

Time frequency ω F1 ( t ) U1 ( t )
m1
domain

Frequency k1
domain
Example:
Direct
solution

Modal  cos (ωt )


Transform F= 
 − cos (ωt )

HA ggph

www.audi.co.uk

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 3


Time-domain Formulation

Undamped: ɺɺ = F
KU + MU
Two DOF

Time
Damped: ɺ + MU
KU + CU ɺɺ = F
domain

Frequency
domain Time-harmonic:

Direct  f1 cos (ωt − θ1 ) 


solution
F= 
Modal  f 2 cos (ωt − θ 2 ) 
Transform

The steady-state solution


(displacement) is of the form
 A1 cos (ωt − φ1 ) 
U= 
A
 2 cos ( ω t − φ )
2 

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 4


Example:

F ( t ) = 3cos 2t
m2
m1 = 9kg, m2 = 1kg
k2 r2
k1 = 24Nm −1 , k 2 = 3Nm −1
Two DOF
m1
Time
domain k1 r1 Rayleigh Damping: α = 0, β = 0.1
Frequency
domain

 27 −3
Direct
9 0   0 
K= , M= , C = β K, F = 
solution

−   ω 
Modal
Transform
 3 3   0 1   cos t 
Excitation „in a
System of equations in time domain: frequency band“

ɺ + MU
KU + CU ɺɺ = F

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 5


Frequency-domain Formulation

ɺ + MU
KU + CU ɺɺ = F

Two DOF

Time  f1  iωt  u1  iωt


domain F =   e = feiωt U =   e = ueiωt
Frequency  f2   u2 
domain
steady-state
Direct
solution

K + iωC − ω M  u = f
Modal
Transform 2

Dynamical stiffness matrix

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 6


Frequency Domain: Direct Solution

K + iωC − ω 2 M  u = f
Two DOF

Time
domain

Frequency
−1
u =  K + iωC − ω M  f
domain 2
Direct
solution

Modal
Transform Dynamical stiffness matrix

Remark: the dynamic stiffness matrix is frequency-dependent. If the solution


is sought in a frequency band, the matrix has to be inverted for every
frequency of the band.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 7


Matlab code

% forced response of 2-dof system

0
clc, close all, clear all

f = 
k1=24;k2=3;
m1=9;m2=1;
Two DOF beta=0.1;
% stiffness, mass matrix
1 
Time k = [[k1+k2, -k2] ; [-k2, k2]];
m = diag([m1,m2]); Excitation at mass #2
domain
% damping matrix, force vector
Frequency c = beta*k;
domain f=[0;1]
% direct solution for damped response
Direct omega=0.2:0.02:10; au=[];
solution for o=omega
k_d=-o^2*m+(1+i*o*beta)*k; % dynamic stiffness
Modal u=inv(k_d)*f;
Transform au(end+1)=norm(abs(u));
end
% graphics
lw=3; fs=22;
plot(omega, au, 'linewidth', lw)

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 8


Frequency Response function

Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System


2

1.5
|u(ω)|

1
|u(

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Driving Frequency ω [rad/s]

ω1 ω 2
HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 9
Frequency response with different damping values

Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System


3
β=0.1
β=0
2.5 β=0.4

2
|u(ω)|

1.5
|u(

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Driving Frequency ω [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 10


Resonance of the Undamped Response

 K − ω 2M  u = f
Two DOF

Time • Linear system of equations with symmetric, real-valued matrices


domain
• System has unique solution if and only if
Frequency
domain

Direct det  K − ω 2M  ≠ 0
solution

Modal
Transform

System „breaks down“ if driving frequency equals eigenfrequency:

det K − ω2M = 0 if ω = ω1 or ω = ω2 .

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 11


Modal Analysis: Eigenmodes

System of equations: The free vibrations of the two-mass oscillator


are governed by the coupled system of

Two DOF k1 + k2 −k2   X1  m1 0   Xɺɺ1  0


 −k    +   ɺɺ  =  
Time
domain  2 k2   X 2   0 m2   X 2  0
Frequency = „stiffness coupling“
domain

Direct Linear Algebra:


solution Since K and M are symmetric and positive-semidefinite, the
eigenvalues are real and nonnegative:
Modal
Transform
Modal Analysis:

Kx = λ Mx 0 ≤ λ1 ≤ λ2
λ1 = ω12 , λ2 = ω22
Angular eigenfrequencies.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 12


Modal Transformation

The (real-valued) eigenvectors are scaled to the unit mass-norm.

 x11 x21 
X MX=I
Two DOF
X =  x1 x 2  = 
T

x22 
with
Time
domain
 x12
Frequency
ω 2
0
X KX= =
domain T 1 2
2
ω
Direct
solution  0 ω2 
Modal transform of
Modal steiffness matrix.
Transform Diagonal = uncoupled!

By the modal transform (with a suitable assumption for damping), the


coupled system of ODE decouples into two equations that can be solved
independently.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 13


Modal Equations of Undamped Vibration

Assume: u = Xq XT K − ω 2 M  Xq = XT f

Two DOF
(ω 2
)
− ω 2 q1 = x11 f1 + x12 f 2
ω 2 − ω 2 I  q = XT f
Time 1

(ω )q
domain 2
2 −ω2 2 = x21 f1 + x22 f 2
Frequency ^
domain Diagonal matrix! f
Direct
solution
Modal Solution: Response is computed in two steps:
Modal −1
1. q = ω − ω I  f ,
^
Transform
  2 2
2. u = Xq

Advantage: Inverse of diagonal matrix easy to compute.


But: Have to compute modes first! SOL111 involves SOL103.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 14


Modal Damping

Recall (viscous damping, single-DOF): m


r
Xɺɺ + 2ζ 0ω0 Xɺ + ω02 X = 0 with ζ0 =
Two DOF 2mω0 r k
Time damping ratio
domain

Frequency Two-DOF, undamped Two-DOF, with modal Damping

(ω )y
domain

( 1 ) 1 f1
^
Direct
2
1 −ω 2
1 = f1 ω 2
+ 2i ωζ ω
1 1 − ω 2
q
^
=
(ω )y
^
( 2 ) q2 = f 2
solution
2
2 − ω2 2 = f2 ω 2
+ 2i ωζ ω
2 2 − ω 2 ^
Modal
Transform
Modal Damping
= adding a viscous damping term to each modal equation
= assigning a damping ratio to each mode.

Remark: Factor ( iω ) stands for time-derivative in the „frequency range“.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 15


Proportional Damping (Rayleigh damping)

ii ii
KU + MU = F
i
KU + CU + MU = F
C = αM + β K
Two DOF
with
Time
domain

Frequency ω 2
0 1 0 
domain X KX = 
T 1
2
, X MX = 
T

 0 ω2  0 1 
Direct
solution

Modal
Transform
α 0   βω 2
0  α + βω12 0 
X T CX =  +
  0
1
2
= 
 0 α   βω2   0 α + βω22 

Special case of modal damping with: 2ζ iωi = α + βωi2

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 16


Modal Transformation of Damped Vibrations

Ku + Cuɺ + Mu
ɺɺ = f K + iωC − ω 2 M  u = f

Two DOF

Time u = Xq
domain

Frequency
domain
ω12 0  1 0 
X KX = ω = 
T 2
2
, X MX = I = 
T

Direct
solution  0 ω 2  0 1 

Modal
Transform

ω 2 + iω XT CX − ω 2 I  q = XT f

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 17


Example:

Recall (Modes, modal transform):

1 1 −1
Two DOF 3 x1 3 X=  
18  3 3 
x2
Time
domain 1 −1
2 0 1 0 
Frequency XT KX =   , X T
MX = 0 1 
domain 0 4  
ω1 = 2 ω2 = 2
Direct
solution
2 0
Modal Rayleigh Damping: X CX = β 
T

Transform  0 4 

−ω q + (1 + iωβ ) ω q = X f
2 2 T

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 18


Solution and Back-Transformation

−ω q + (1 + iωβ ) ω q = X f
2 2 T
Two DOF

Time
domain

Frequency
domain fɶi
qi (ω ) = 2 Solution in „modal space“
Direct ω i − ω 2 + iωβω i 2
solution

Modal
Transform Cf. Solution for simple oscillator

u = Xq
Back transform

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 19


Modal transformation (Matlab code)
% direct solution for damped response ------------------
omega=0.2:0.02:10;
au=[];
c = beta*k;
for o=omega
k_d=-o^2*m+(1+i*o*beta)*k;
u=inv(k_d)*f;
Two DOF end
au(end+1)=norm(abs(u));

display('direct solution computed')


Time % solution by modal decomposition ---------------------
% modal analysis
domain [x,la]=eig(k,m);
omega1=sqrt(la(1,1)); omega2=sqrt(la(2,2));
% mass-normalization
Frequency xm = -x/sqrt(x'*m*x);
domain % modal transform of force
fm=xm'*f;
o=omega;
Direct % modal solution
solution q(1,:)=fm(1)./(omega1^2-o.^2+i*beta*omega1^2*o);
q(2,:)=fm(2)./(omega2^2-o.^2+i*beta*omega2^2*o);
% back transform
Modal u=xm*q;
Transform display('modal solution computed')
% norm
au1=sqrt(sum(abs(u).*abs(u),1));
% graphics
lw=3; fs=22;
plot(omega, au, 'k-',omega,au1,'r--','linewidth', lw)
xlabel('Driving Frequency \omega [rad/s]', 'fontsize', fs)
ylabel('|u(\omega)|', 'fontsize', fs)
title('Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System','fontsize', fs)
grid on
hold on
axis([0,10,0,3])
legend('direct','modal')

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 20


Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System
3
direct
modal
2.5

2
|u(ω)|

1.5
|u(

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Driving Frequency ω [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 21


Time-domain solution: direct vs. modal

% direct solution for damped response ------------------


omega=2;
k_d=-omega^2*m+(1+i*omega*beta)*k; % dynamic stiffness matrix
u_complex=inv(k_d)*f; % complex response amplitude
ru=real(u_complex); iu=imag(u_complex);
display('direct solution computed')

% solution by modal decomposition ---------------------


% modal analysis
[x,la]=eig(k,m);
omega1=sqrt(la(1,1)); omega2=sqrt(la(2,2));
% mass-normalization
xm = -x/(x'*m*x);
% modal transform of force
fm=xm'*f;
% modal solution
q(1,:)=fm(1)./(omega1^2-omega^2+i*beta*omega1^2*omega);
q(2,:)=fm(2)./(omega2^2-omega^2+i*beta*omega2^2*omega);
% back transform
u_modal=xm*q; rum=real(u_modal);ium=imag(u_modal);
display('modal solution computed')

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 22


Response for ω=2rad/s
t=0:0.001:8;
subplot(2,1,1), hold on, grid on
plot(t,ru(1)*cos(2*t)-iu(1)*sin(2*t),'k-','linewidth',lw)
subplot(2,1,2), hold on, grid on
plot(t,ru(2)*cos(2*t)-iu(2)*sin(2*t),'k-','linewidth',lw)

Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System: |u|= 2.23


1
direct solution
0.5 modal solution
Re(u (t))
1

-0.5

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time t [s]
4

2
Re(u (t))
2

-2

-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Time tDiscrete
Vibrations: [s] Systems 23
Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System
3
direct
modal
2.5
Amplitude at ω=2: |u|=2.23
2
|u(ω)|

1.5

Amplitude at ω=3: |u|=0.5


0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Driving Frequency ω [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 24


Response for ω=3rad/s

Forced Damped Vibrations of 2-Mass-System: |u|= 0.50


0.04

0.02
Re(u (t))
1

-0.02

-0.04
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time t [s]
1

0.5
Re(u (t))
2

-0.5

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time t [s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 25


% compute direct solution
k_d=-omega^2*m+(1+i*omega*beta)*k; % dynamic stiffness matrix
u_complex=inv(k_d)*f; % complex response amplitude
ru=real(u_complex); iu=imag(u_complex);
display('direct solution computed')
% plot direct solution
subplot(2,1,1), hold on, grid on
plot(t,ru(1)*cos(omega*t)-iu(1)*sin(omega*t),'k-','linewidth',lw)
subplot(2,1,2), hold on, grid on
plot(t,ru(2)*cos(omega*t)-iu(2)*sin(omega*t),'k-','linewidth',lw)
% modal analysis
[x,la]=eig(k,m);
omega1=sqrt(la(1,1)); omega2=sqrt(la(2,2));
% mass-normalization
xm = -x/sqrt(x'*m*x);
% modal transform of force
fm=xm'*f;
% modal solution
q(1,:)=fm(1)./(omega1^2-omega^2+i*beta*omega1^2*omega);
q(2,:)=fm(2)./(omega2^2-omega^2+i*beta*omega2^2*omega);
% back transform
u_modal=xm*q; rum=real(u_modal);ium=imag(u_modal);
display('modal solution computed')
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(t,rum(1)*cos(omega*t)-ium(1)*sin(omega*t),'g:','linewidth',lw-1)
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(t,rum(2)*cos(omega*t)-ium(2)*sin(omega*t),'g:','linewidth',lw-1)

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 26


Rayleigh Quotient

T
u Ku
R ( u) = T
Potential Energy
Definition:
uɺ Muɺ Kinetic Energy

Properties:

xiT Kxi
1. R ( xi ) = ωi
2
ωi = T
xi Mxi

2. ω12 = min R ( u ) Cf. simple oscillator:


u
c
ω =2
0
m

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 27


2. Discrete Systems

The methods shown above can be generalised from two-mass


Multibody systems to systems with an arbitrary number n of DOF. The
vector and matrix dimensions of the system

Ku + Cuɺ + Mu
ɺɺ = f
System of
equations (1)
are then n or n x n, resp. Modal analysis of the undamped system
Modal
analysis
yields n real eigenvalues. The corresponding n eigenvectors can be
written as a matrix X of size n x n.
Modal
Reduction Using the matrix X, the system then can be transformed into n
decoupled equations, representing n independent simple oscillators,
with modal amplitudes qi(t) . The back-transform u=Xq yields the
physical solution in the time domain.

In computational practice one frequently applies the method of modal


reduction, using a reduced matrix XN of size n x N with N<<n.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 28


Modal Analysis of n-DOF systems ky2 ky 4
kx1 kx2 kx3
m m
• The generalized Eigenvalue Problem
ky1 ky3

det  K − ω 2M  = 0 4-DOF
Multibody

System of
n×n
with symmetric, positive-definite n x n Matrices has exactly n non-negative
eigenvalues
equations
ω , ω2 , … , ωn ≥ 0
1
Modal
analysis and corresponding real-valued n × 1 eigenvectors (modes) x1 , x 2 ,… , x n .
Modal The modal matrix
Reduction
X =  x1 x 2 … x n 
 
is an orthogonal n × n matrix which can be scaled such that it is mass-
orthogonal,

X T M X = X M X T = I n ×n
It follows that X KX = ω
T 2

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 29


Notation (Circular Frequencies)

ω : Driving frequency (forced response)


ω0 : Eigenfrequency of a single-DOF system
ω1 , ω2 ,… , ωn : Eigenfrequencies of multiple-DOF systems

ω1 
 ω 
ω=  1 : Matrix of eigenfrequencies
 ⋱ 
 
 ωn 

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 30


Generalisation to n-DOF systems (2/2)

• The forced reponse can be computed from the linear system


i ii
KU + CU + MU = F (*)

• Assuming time-harmonic excitation in the form F = feiωt the response can be written as

 u1 
U =  ⋮  eiωt = ueiωt
 
un 
and the time-derivatives are replaced by the factor ( iω ) „in the frequency range“.

 K + iωC − ω 2 M  u = f (**)

• The matrix on the left of (**) is called the dynamic stiffness matrix. It depends on the
driving frequency ω.
• The linear n × n system (**) can be solved (separately for each ω of interest) using
either a direct approach (SOL108) or the method of modal superposition (SOL111).
• The modal equations are diagonal n × 1 if modal or proportional damping is assumed.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 31


Example: 10 DOF

cy2 cy4 cy6 cy8


cx1 cx2 cx3 cx4 cx5 cx6
m
m
1
mm2 m3 m
m
4
m
m
5

cy1 cy3 cy5 cy7


cxy1 cxy2

xy-Federn unter 45°montiert.


v
u
HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 32
Assembly of stiffness matrix (1/2)

Single spring:

c  c −c 
fa fb Kc =  
 − c c 
ua ub
Assembly

c1 c2  c1 −c1 0 
K c1 ,c2 =  −c1 c1 + c2 −c2 
 0 −c2 c2 
ub1= u a2
Equal displacements!
HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 33
Systematischer Aufbau der Steifigkeitsmatrix (2/2)

Constraint

c1 c2  c1 −c1 0 
K c1 ,c2 =  −c1 c1 + c2 −c2 
 0 −c2 c2 

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 34


Eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes

la =

1.0e+004 *

0.1471 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.7020 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1.0000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1.2857 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1.3081 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2.0403 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2.2500 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.7618 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.5000 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.5499

xx =

0.0414 -0.0981 0 0 0 0.0650 0 0.1680 0 -0.0787


0.0591 -0.1128 0 0 0 0.0312 0 -0.0640 0 0.0610
0.0711 -0.0267 0 0 0 -0.0988 0 -0.0524 0 -0.1227
0.0719 0.0257 0 0 0 -0.0630 0 0.0519 0 0.0646
0.0722 0.0583 0 0 0 0.0702 0 -0.0198 0 -0.0190
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2236 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1581 0 0 0
0 0 0.1826 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.1291 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.1195 0 0 0 0 0 0

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 35


Example, excitation with unit force vector, horizontal responses

10DOF System: Response in x-Direction


0
10
DOF1
u DOF2
-1
10 DOF3
DOF4
DOF5
Displacement [mm]

-2
10 Eigenfrequencies

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10

-6
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 36


Example, excitation with unit force vector, vertical responses

10DOF System: Response in y-Direction


-1
10
v DOF6
DOF7
-2 DOF8
10
DOF9
DOF10
-3
Eigenfrequencies
10

-4
10

-5
10

-6
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 37


Absolute response

10DOF System: Absolute response


0
10
Mass1
u +v
2 2
Mass2
-1 Mass3
10
Mass4
Mass5
Displacement [mm]

-2
Eigenfrequencies
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 38


Modal Reduction

In many practical applications one wants to determine the response of a system within a
certain frequency band. It is then sufficient to compute the eigenvalues and –vectors only up
to the maximal frequency of this band (plus some margin value for reliability). Usually this
yields a limited number of N<<n eigenvectors which are assembled into a reduced modal
matrix.

Using the reduced modal matrix, the system is transformed into a reduced modal space. This
method is also called modal projection. The solution in the modal space and the back
transform are performed in the same way as for modal transformation. In fact, modal
reduction and modal transformation are equivalent if N=n.

Projection: ℝ3 → ℝ 2

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 39


Modal Reduction: Steps 1,2

Ku + Cuɺ + Mu
ɺɺ = f dim K = n
Step 1: Determine (numerically and approximately) N << n = dim K,M eigenvalues and –
vectors of the undamped eigenproblem

K − ω 2 M  x = 0
and build a rectangular matrix X=XN.

Step 2: Assume
 
 
X =  x1 ⋯ x N  n≫N u ≈ u N = Xq
 
with N „modal coordinates“

N q1 ,⋯ qN

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 40


Modal Reduction: Step 3

Step 3: Modal transformation using the reduced matrix X.


The stiffness and mass matrices decouple!

ω12  1 
   ⋱ 
XT KX = ω 2 =  ⋱  , X T
MX = I =  
 ω N  N × N
2
 1  N × N

K + iωC − ω 2 M  u = f
n× n

ω 2 + iω XT CX − ω 2 I  q = XT f
N ×N

The modal system decouples for suitable damping assumptions. The principal advantage
of the method is the dimensional reduction to N<<n equations!

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 41


Modal Reduction: Steps 4 and 5
Step 4: Solution in modal space
If the system is decoupled, the equations can be solved independently. If not, one has to solve
directly the reduced linear system:

−1
q = ω + iω X CX − ω I  X f
 2
T T 2

Step 5: Back transform

u N = Xq
As a rule, the approximate solution agrees well with the exact solution in the frequency
band of interest.

Rule of thumb: perform the modal analysis up to 1.2..1.5fmax (highest driving frequency).

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 42


Beispiel 4.1: Direkte Lösung und modale Reduktion, N=2

10DOF System: Absolute response at Mass 4, reduced solution with 2 modes


0
10
Direct solution
Reduced modal solution
-1 Eigenfrequencies
10
Displacement [mm]

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 43


Beispiel 4.1: Direkte Lösung und modale Reduktion, N=4

10DOF System: Absolute response at Mass 4, reduced solution with 4 modes


0
10
Direct solution
Reduced modal solution
-1 Eigenfrequencies
10
Displacement [mm]

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 44


Beispiel 4.1: Direkte Lösung und modale Reduktion, N=6

10DOF System: Absolute response at Mass 4, reduced solution with 6 modes


0
10
Direct solution
Reduced modal solution
-1 Eigenfrequencies
10
Displacement [mm]

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 45


Beispiel 4.1: Direkte Lösung und modale Reduktion, N=8

10DOF System: Absolute response at Mass 4, reduced solution with 8 modes


0
10
Direct solution
Reduced modal solution
-1 Eigenfrequencies
10
Displacement [mm]

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 46


Beispiel 4.1: Direkte Lösung und modale Reduktion, N=10

10DOF System: Absolute response at Mass 4, reduced solution with 10 modes


0
10
Direct solution
Reduced modal solution
-1 Eigenfrequencies
10
Displacement [mm]

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Driving Frequency [rad/s]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 47


Comparison of direct and modal solutions

direct modal

• damping may be arbitrary but system


• arbitrary damping decouples only in special cases
• reduced matrix may become fully
populated

• Modal analysis is necessary as


• dynamic stiffness matrix must be the fist step.
recomputed, and inverted,for each • Low computational effort due to
driving frequency - decoupling of equations
- modal reduction if N<<n.

• leads to exact solution • gives approximate solution

• recommanded for • recommanded for


- small frequency band - large frequency band
- small matrix dimensions - large matrix dimensions

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 48


Industrial Example

Compared Modal Eigenvalue Extraction, 10-1000Hz - MP 30272


-3
10 Direct
Modal 600Hz
Modal 900Hz
Modal 1200Hz
Modal 1500Hz
Displacement Amplitude [mm]

-4
10

-5
10

-6
10

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Frequency [Hz]

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 49


Vergleich der Berechnungsparameter

Direkt Modal 600 Modal 900 Modal Modal


1200 1500
Num Eigenmodes 45 104 517 1018
REAL TIME in min 5030,63 5,75 12,55 90,22 152,55
USER TIME in min 4457,15 5,09 8,81 40,78 55,79
SYS TIME in min 176,46 0,39 0,88 6,58 10,87
DISK USAGE in
MB 5436,13 3984,22 4801,06 9316,03 17557,50
MEMORY USAGE
in kWORDS 38246,00 151872,50 151872,50 153601,72 58999,06

Masterprojekt: B. Büchner, R. Möllenhoff


Untersuchungen zur Anwendbarkeit der „Component Modes Synthesis“ in akustischen
Fragestellungen

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 5050


Beispiel 1: Free Vibrations of two-DOF system
Appendix:

m2
a) Berechne die Eigenfrequenzen
und Eigenmoden des skizzierten c2
m1 = 9kg, m2 = 1kg
Schwingsystems.
m1 c1 = 24Nm −1 , c2 = 3Nm −1
b) Stelle die Schwingung im
Zeitbereich für verschiedene
c1
Anfangsbedingungen dar.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 51


1.1. Gleichungssystem des Zweimassenschwingers

X 2 (t ) ii
m2 m2
↑: m2 X 2 = −c2 ( X 2 − X 1 )

c2 Fk 2 = c2 ( X 2 − X1 )

X1 (t ) ii
m1 m1 ↑: m1 X 1 = c2 ( X 2 − X 1 ) − c1 X 1

c1 Fk 1 = c1 X 1

System gekoppelter linearer Differentialgleichungen aus


zwei Gleichungen für zwei Unbekannte.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 52


Matrizengleichung des Schwingsystems:
Formulierung im Zeitbereich

ii
↑: m2 X 2 = −c2 ( X 2 − X 1 )

ii
↑: m1 X 1 = c2 ( X 2 − X 1 ) − c1 X 1

ii
c1 + c2 −c2   X1  m1 0   X1  0
 −c    +   ii
 = 
 2 c2   X 2   0 m2   X 2  0
Steifigkeitsmatrix Massenmatrix

ɺɺ + Kx = 0
Mx
Das gekoppelte System kann im Zeitbereich als Matrizen-Differentialgleichung geschrieben
werden. Zur Lösung sind Anfangsbedingungen für die Unbekannten erforderlich.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 53


Matrizengleichung des Schwingsystems:
Formulierung im Frequenzbereich
ii
c1 + c2 −c2   X1  m1 0   X1  0
 −c    +   ii
 = 
 2 c2   X 2   0 m2   X 2  0
Annahme: harmonische Schwingung …

X 1 ( t ) = x1eiω t Xɺɺ1 ( t ) = −ω 2 x1eiω t


X 2 ( t ) = x2 eiω t Xɺɺ ( t ) = −ω 2 x eiω t
2 2

… führt auf ein verallgemeinertes Eigenwertproblem

c1 + c2 −c2  2 m1 0    x1  iωt 0


  −ω    e =  
 −c2 c2   0 m2    x2   0
Steifigkeitsmatrix Massenmatrix

{K − ω M}[x] = 0 λ = ω 2
2 Eigenwert
(1)
x Eigenvektor

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 54


1.2. Lösung im Frequenzbereich (Modalanalyse)

Gesucht ist die Lösung des verallgemeinerten Eigenwertproblems

{ K − ω M [ x] = 0 } ω Wurzel aus
2 (1) Eigenwert
x Eigenvektor

Steifigkeitsmatrix Massenmatrix

Technischer Sprachgebrauch: Eigenfrequenzen und Eigenmoden des Schwingsystems.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 55


Exkurs Lineare Algebra: Lösung von Eigenwertproblemen

Berechnung der Eigenwerte aus (verallgemeinertes Eigenwertproblem:

det [ K − λ M ] = 0 (2)

Steifigkeits- und Massenmatrix sind symmetrisch! Man kann zeigen dass alle
Eigenwerte reell und nichtnegativ sind.
Daher sind auch die Wurzeln (Eigenkreisfrequenzen rad/s) reell. λ = ω ,ω ∈ℝ
2

Das verallgemeinerte Eigenwertproblem kann in ein spezielles


Eigenwertproblem umgeformt werden:

A = M −1K det [ A − λ I ] = 0
Die Berechnung der Determinante führt auf ein Polynom n. Grades (bei n
Freiheitsgraden) für die Unbekannte λ. Die Lösung dieses Gleichungssystems ist
analytisch nur bis zu fünf Freiheitsgraden möglich. Im allgemeinen werden
numerische Verfahren (z.B. Lancsosz Verfahren) verwendet.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 56


Zwei-Massen-Schwinger: Lösung des Eigenwertproblems

Das Gleichungssystem (1) führt auf das Eigenwertproblem (2),

det  K − ω 2 M  = 0
Dieses Eigenwertproblem hat zwei nichtnegative reelle Lösungen (Eigenwerte)

ω1 , ω2 ≥ 0
Die Eigenwerte sind die Kreisfrequenzen der Eigenschwingungen. Das Einsetzen der Eigenwerte
in (1) führt auf zwei Matrix-Vektorgleichungen zur Bestimmung der Eigenvektoren

 K − ω M  x1 = 0
2
1  K − ω22M  x 2 = 0
Die Beträge der Eigenvektoren sind beliebig. Es ist üblich, die Vektoren so zu normieren dass gilt:

x Mx1 = 1, x Mx 2 = 1.
T
1
T
2
Die Vektoren heißen masse-normiert.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 57


Beispiel: ungedämpfte Schwingung des
Zweikörpersystems
m2 k1=24;k2=3;
m1 = 9kg, m2 = 1kg m1=9;m2=1;
% stiffness, mass matrix
k2
k1 = 24Nm −1 , k2 = 3Nm −1 k = [k1+k2,-k2; -k2,k2];
m= diag([m1,m2]);
m1 [xx,la] = eig(k,m);

k1 xx =
0.2357 0.2357
0.7071 -0.7071
la =
2 0
0 4
3 >> xx/xx(1,1)
3
x1 1.0000 -1.0000 x2
3.0000 3.0000

1 −1

x1 , x 2
ω1 = 2 ω2 = 2
HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 58
Interpretation der Lösung (Frequenzbereich)

3 3
x1 x2
1 −1

ω1 = 2 ω2 = 2

Das Schwingsystem kann freie Schwingungen nur in den berechneten Eigenfrequenzen


ausführen. Jeder Eigenfrequenz entspricht ein Eigenvektor, der die Form der
Schwingung kennzeichnet.
Die Amplitude der freien Schwingung ist unbestimmt solange nicht Anfangs-
bedingungen bekannt sind. Jede freie Schwingung kann des Systems kann als
Superposition (lineare Überlagerung) von Eigenschwingungen dargestellt werden.

HAW/M+P, Ihlenburg, CompA Vibrations: Discrete Systems 59