Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 354

Faculty of Business and Industrial Management

“Union – Nikola Tesla” University in Belgrade


Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
of the Republic of Serbia

"Todor Kableshkov" University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria


Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia
Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo, China
Bukovinian University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine
School of Economics and Management in Public Administration,
Bratislava, Slovakia
Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Russia
European Polytechnic Institute, Kunovice, Czech Republic
Mogilev State University of Food Technologies, Mogilev, Republic of
Belarus
Higher School of Social Sciences and Technology, Radom, Poland
International University in Brčko, Brčko District of Bosnia and
Herzegovina
North-Caucasian Institute of Business, Engineering and Information
Technology, Armavir, Russia
Branch of FGBOU VPO RGGU, Domodedovo, Russia
MESTE, Belgrade

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE


MANAGEMENT 2016
Belgrade, Serbia
May 5-6, 2016

ABSTRACT PROCEEDINGS

ICIM+
Izdavački centar za INDUSTRIJSKI MENADŽMENT plus
Beograd-Mladenovac, 2016
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment
„Union – Nikola Tesla“ Univerziteta u Beogradu
Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja
Republike Srbije

Univerzitet transporta „Todor Kableškov“, Sofija, Bugarska


Fakultet bezbednosnog inženjerstva, Žilini, Slovačka
Ninbo tehnološki univerzitet, Ninbo, Kina
Bukovinski Univerzitet, Černivci, Ukrajina
Visoka škola ekonomije i menadžmenta državne uprave, Bratislava,
Slovačka
Majkopski državni tehnološki univerzitet, Majkop, Rusija
Evropski politehnički institut, Kunovice, Češka
Mogilevski državni univerzitet prehrambene tehnologije, Mogilev,
Republika Belorusija
Visoka školom društvenih i tehničkih nauka, Radom, Poljska
Internacionalni Univerzitet Brčko, Distrikt Brčko, Bosna i Hercegovina
Severno-kavkaskim institut biznisa, inženjeringa i informacionih
tehnologija, Armavir, Rusija
Filijala FGBOU VPO RGGU u Domodedovu, Domodedovo, Rusija
MESTE, Beograd

MEĐUNARODNA NAUČNA KONFERENCIJA


MENADŽMENT 2016
Beograd, Srbija
5-6. maj 2016

ZBORNIK REZIMEA

ICIM+
Izdavački centar za INDUSTRIJSKI MENADŽMENT plus
Beograd-Mladenovac, 2016
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Međunarodna naučna konferenciija International Scientific Conference


MENADŽMENT 2016 MANAGEMENT 2016
Zbornik rezimea Abstract Proceedings

Urednik: Editor:
dr Zoran Čekerevac Dr Zoran Čekerevac
Izdavač: Publisher:
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski Faculty of Business and Industrial
menadžment Management,
ICIM plus ICIM plus,
Beograd-Mladenovac, Ive Andrića 2 Beograd-Mladenovac, Ive Andrića 2
tel/fax + 381 11 823-24-27 tel/fax + 381 11 823-24-27

Za izdavača: For publisher:


Prof. dr Milija Bogavac Prof. Dr. Milija Bogavac

Dizajn korica: Cover design:


Mladen Stojanović Mladen Stojanovic

Kompjuterska priprema: Technical editing:


Zoran Čekerevac Zoran Cekerevac

Štampa: Printeb by:


Presskosmaj, Mladenovac Presskosmaj, Mladenovac

Tiraž: Circulation:
250 250

ISBN 978-86-6375-053-1

Izdavanje Zbornika rezimea, organizaciju i održavanje Međunarodne naučne konferencije


MENADŽMENT 2016 pomoglo je
Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja Republike Srbije

Financing of the Abstract Proceedings, organization and realization of the International


Scientific Conference MANAGEMENT 2016 was sponsored by
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
of the Republic of Serbia
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

NAUČNI ODBOR / SCIENTIFIC BOARD


Prof. Milija Bogavac, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade – President
Prof. Vladimir Stojanović, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade
Prof. Nada Živanović, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade
Prof. Isidor Jevtović, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade
Prof. Zoran Čekerevac, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade
Prof. Dragan Momirović, PhD, FBIM, Belgrade
Prof. Petar Kolev, DSc, VTU „Todor Kableškov“, Sofija
Dr. h. c. Prof. Ing. Viera Cibakova, CSc, VŠEMvs, Bratislava
Prof. Eugene N. Safonov, DSc, Branch of FGBOU VPO RGGU, Domodedovo
Prof. Yaroslav Vyklyuk, DSc, Bukovina University, Chernivtsi
Prof. Daniela Todorova, Phd, VTU „Todor Kableškov“, Sofia
Prof. Nenčo Nenov, PhD, VTU „Todor Kableshkov“, Sofia
Prof. Ing. Zdenek Dvorak, PhD, FSI Žilina, Slovakia
Prof. Ing. Miloslav Seidl, PhD, FSI, Žilina
Prof. Ing Ladislav Šimak, PhD, FSI, Žilina
Prof. Anatoli Molokovitch, CSc, SBMT, Faculty of Business, Minsk, Belarus
Prof. Dr. Ludmila Prigoda, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop
Prof. Oldrich Kratochvil, DSc, European Polytechnic Institute, Kunovice
Prof. Emeritus Velimir Sotirović, International University in Brčko, Brčko District
Prof. Mehmed Avdagić, PhD, PPDIVUT, Sarajevo
Prof. Dušan Vejnović, PhD, Evropski defendologija centar, Banja Luka
Assoc. Prof., Wang Bo, PhD, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo
Assoc. Prof., Irina Ivanova, CSc., MGUP, Mogilev
Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ladislav Novák, PhD, FSI, Žilina
Assoc. Prof. PhDr. Zoltán Rózsa, PhD, VŠEMvs, Bratislava
Assoc. Prof. Ing. Klučka Jozef, PhD, FSI, Žilina
Assoc. Prof. Ing. Stanislav Filip, PhD, VŠEMVS, Bratislava
Assoc. Prof. Ljupčo Eftimov, PhD, Faculty of Economics, Skopje
Assoc. Prof. Ivona Palgan, PhD, Higher School of Social Sciences, Radom
Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľuboš Cibák, PhD. MBA, VŠEMVS, Bratislava
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Evelin Krmac, Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transportation, Portorož
Ing. Kavka Jaroslaw, European Polytechnic Institute, Kunovice
Prim. Dr. Sc. Senka Rendulić Slivar, Academy of Medical Sciences, Zagreb
Bruno Bojić, PhD, Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina

I
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZACIONI ODBOR / ORGANIZING BOARD


Prof. Milija Bogavac, PhD – President
Prof. Vladimir Stojanović, PhD
Prof. Nada Živanović, PhD
Prof. Isidor Jevtović, PhD
Prof. Zoran Čekerevac, PhD
Assoc. Prof., Wang Bo, PhD
Milanka Bogavac, Mgr.
Aleksandar Matić, LL.M.
Proof reading:
Dr. Ljiljana Jovković
Sanja Čukić, MSc

TEMATSKE OBLASTI TOPICS


Industrijski menadžment Industrial Management
Menadžment informacionih IT Management
tehnologija
Finansijski menadžment Financial management
Menadžment održivog razvoja Management of Sustainable
Development
Menadžment znanja Knowledge Management
Sportski menadžment Sport management
Menadžment kvalitetom Quality Management
Menadžment u turizmu Tourism Management
Krizni menadžment Crisis Management
Menadžment u teoriji i praksi Management in Theory and
Practice
Ekonomija savremenog društva Economy of modern society

II
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

RECENZENTI / REVIEWERS

Abreu Bastos Oksana, PhD, Salvador-Bahia, Brazil


Anđelić dr Svetlana, ITS, Beograd, Srbija
Bogavac dr Milija, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Bogavac dr Nataša, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Bogdanović Mario, Dr. sc., Ekonomski fakultet Sveučilišta u Splitu, Hrvatska
Čekerevac dr Zoran, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Čuturić dr Simeon, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Ćosić dr Dragan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Ćućić Dražen, dr.sc., Ekonomski fakultet, Sveučilište J. J. Strossmayera, Osijek, Hrvatska
Ćuzović dr Sreten, Ekonomski fakultet, Univerzitet u Nišu, Srbija
Ćurčić dr Radmila, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union -Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Davidović dr Branko, Visoko škola strukovnih studija, Kragujevac, Srbija
Dispinar Dr. Derya, Istanbul University, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul,
Turska
Džudović dr Marinko, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola
Tesla" Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Đuričić dr Milan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Eftimov Ljupčo, PhD, Faculty of Economics, "Ss. Cyril and Methodius" University, Skopje,
Makedonija
Eshugova dr Svetlana, Faculty of Economics and Service, Maykop State Technological
University, Maykop, Russia
Gračanac dr Aleksandar, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola
Tesla " Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Ivanković dr Svetlana, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla
" Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Ivović dr Slobodan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Jarić dr Dušan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Jerotijević dr Zoran, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Jevtović dr Isidor, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Jovanov dr Goran, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija

III
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
Jovković dr Ljiljana, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Krmac dr. Evelin, Fakulteta za pomorstvo in promet, Univerza v Ljubljani, Slovenija
Kurtić Adil, Dr. sc., Ekonomski Fakultet, Univerzitet u Tuzli, Bosna i Hercegovina
Lebl dr Aleksandar, IRITEL A.D., Beograd, Srbija
Lutovac dr Mitar, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla "
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Macanović dr Aleksa, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla
" Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Maltseva Elena - C.Sc., Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Rusija
Mateljak Željko, PhD, Ekonomski Fakultet, Univerzitet u Splitu, Hrvatska
Mijoč Ivo, Dr.sc., Ekonomski fakultet, Sveučilište J. J. Strossmayera, Osijek, Hrvatska
Miljković dr Ljubomir, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola
Tesla" Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Momirović dr Dragan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola
Tesla" Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Nićin dr Nevenka, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Nikolić dr Dragoslav, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Paladova Tatiana, CSc, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Rusija
Pecikoza dr Antonije, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Pešić dr Aleksandar, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Prigoda Dr. Lyudmila, Faculty of Economics and Service, Maykop State Technological
University, Rusija
Ristić dr Kristijan, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Ristić dr Slobodan, Fakultet organizacionih nauka Univerziteta u Beogradu, Srbija
Stachová Katarína, PhD., School of Economics and Management in Public Administration in
Bratislava, Slovačka
Stojanović dr Vladimir, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola
Tesla " Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Škunca dr Dubravka, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Tomaszewski Janusz, PhD, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski University of Administration and
Business in Gdynia, Poljska
Trnavac dr Dragana, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
Vasilev Detelin, PhD, "Todor Kableshkov" University of Transport, Sofija, Bugarska
Vyklyuk Yaroslav, Dr., Bukovinian University, Chernivtsi, Ukrajina
Živanović dr Nada, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, "Union – Nikola Tesla"
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija

IV
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PREDGOVOR
Međunarodna konferencija o poslovno ekonomskom i informatičkom menadžmentu sve
više postaje mesto razmene znanja i iskustva o teoriji i praksi menadžmenta, kod nas i u
svetu. Gradeći je na platformi okupljanja i ravnopravnog uključivanja svih stručnih
potencijala u zemlji i inostranstvu, zajedno stvaramo kompetentni nacionalni i
internacionalni forum o menadžmentu.
Projekat poslovnog menadžmenta na globalnom nivou se nalazi u punom zamahu, tako da
danas, između ’’Menadžmenta 2014’’ i ove Konferencije imamo veći potencijal znanja i
iskustva, nego što ih je bilo ukupno pre dve godine.
Globalni cilj Konferencije je uspostavljanje međunarodnog foruma za razmenu znanja,
iskustva i informacija o različitim aspektima menadžment filozofije danas i sutra.
Parcijalni ciljevi ovog skupa su: (I) Kreiranje filozofskih, naučnih, tehnoloških i praktičnih
modela i znanja za različite probleme: industrijskog menadžmenta, menadžmenta
informacionih sistema, finansijskog menadžmenta, menadžmenta održivog razvoja,
menadžmenta znanja, sportskog menadžmenta, menadžmenta totalnim kvalitetom - TQM,
menadžmenta u turizmu, kriznog menadžmenta, menadžmenta u teoriji i praksi i
ekonomije savremenog društva; (II)Generisanje novih ideja zasnovanih na domaćoj i
međunarodnoj razmeni znanja i informacija; (III) Formiranje domaće naučne i stručne
strategije za rad u široj oblasti menadžmenta između dve konferencije i (IV) Prezentacija
stečenih iskustava i postignutih rezultata preduzeća u primeni i unapređenju savremenih
metoda i tehnika menadžmenta.
Zadaci Konferencije se definišu kao: (I) diskusija o različitim aspektima modernog
menadžmenta u svetu i kod nas, (II) promovisanje, teorijsko razmatranje i praktična analiza
i primena različitih alata i tehnika za unapređenja menadžmenta, i (III) uspostavljanje veza
između različitih struka specijalnosti kako to menadžment zahteva.
Broj i kvalitet prihvaćenih radova iz zelje i inostranstva obezbeđuje realizaciju postavljenih
ciljeva. Ove godine je posle stručne recenzije prihvaćeno 80 radova za saopštavanje.
Njihove osnovne karakteristike su: (i) visok naučno – stručni nivo, (ii) širenje problema
projekata poslovnog ekonomskog, industrijskog i informatičkog menadžmenta u različite
privredne grane i (iii) veliki broj radova koji dolazi iz privrede.
Veliki broj institucija, organizacija i pojedinaca su doprineli uspešnoj pripremi konferencije,
što se posebno odnosi na autore prihvaćenih radova. Svima se najtoplije zahvaljujem.
Na kraju, u ime Programskog i Organizacionog odbora i u svoje lično ime se najtoplije
zahvaljujem svim autorima, koji su dali doprinos uspehu naše Konferencije.

U Beogradu, Prof. dr Milija Bogavac


5 i 6. maj 2016.

V
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PREFACE
The international conference on business, economics and informatics management is
increasingly becoming a place of exchanging knowledge and experiences about the theory
and practice of management, both at home and in the world. By building this conference
on the platform of gathering and equal participation of all expert capacities in this country
and abroad, together we create a competent national and international forum on
management.
The project of business management on a global level has been taking its full swing, thus
resulting in the fact that today, between the two conferences, ''Management in 2012" and
this one, we have a greater potential of knowledge and experience than two years ago.
The global goal of the conference is to establish an international forum for exchange of
knowledge, experiences and information about various aspects of the management
philosophy today and in the future.
Partial goals of this meeting are: (i) creating philosophical, scientific, technological and
practical models and knowledge on variety of problems such as: industrial management,
information systems management, financial management, management of sustainable
development, knowledge management, sports management, Total Quality Management -
TQM, tourism management, crisis management, management in theory and practice and
economics of modern society; (ii) Generating new ideas based on domestic and
international exchange of knowledge and information; (iii ) Forming the national scientific
and technical strategy for work in the wider field of management between the two
conferences, and (iv) Presenting the gained experiences and achieved results of the
enterprise in the application and improvement of contemporary management methods
and techniques.
The conference tasks are defined as follows: (i) discussion on various aspects of modern
management in the world and in our country, (ii) promotion, theoretical considerations
and practical analysis and application of various tools and techniques for improvement of
management, and (iii) establishment of links between different specialty fields as it is
required by management.
The number and quality of the accepted papers from the country and abroad are ensuring
the achievement of the set goals. This year, after the peer review, 80 papers have been
accepted for the conference. Their main characteristics are: (i) high scientific - professional
level, (ii) the expanding the project problems concerning business, economics, industrial
and information management to various industries, and (iii) a large number of papers
coming from the field of economy.
A large number of institutions, organizations and individuals have contributed to the
successful preparation of the conference, particularly with regard to the authors of the
accepted papers. I would like to kindly thank them all.
Finally, on behalf of the Program and Organizing Committee and myself, I would like to
thank all the authors who have contributed to the success of our Conference.
In Belgrade, Professor Dr. Milija Bogavac
May 5th and 6th, 2016

VI
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

SADRŽAJ – TABLE OF CONTENTS


PRINCIPI ANALIZE FINANSIJSKIH IZVEŠTAJA KAO SREDSTVA ZA
REALIZACIJU CILJEVA MENADŽMENTA PREDUZEĆA ............................................ - 1 -
PRINCIPLES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AS
A MEANS OF REALIZATION OF A COMPANY'S MANAGEMENT GOALS ................ - 4 -
STRATEGIJE MARKETINGA U USLOVIMA KRIZE .................................................... - 7 -
MARKETING STRATEGIES IN CRISIS CONDITIONS ............................................... - 10 -
MANAGING CONSTRAINTS IN SMES FINANCING -
THE CASE OF ROMANIAN TOURISM SMES ......................................................... - 13 -
ORGANIZACIJA I FINANCIRANJE NOGOMETNIH KLUBOVA U HRVATSKOJ ......... - 16 -
ORGANISATION AND FINANCING OF FOOTBALL CLUBS IN CROATIA................. - 19 -
METHODOLOGY OF MEDIA COVERAGE ANALYSES IN MEDIA MONITORING
ORGANIZAIONS WITH PARTIAL DIGITALIZATION ............................................... - 22 -
PREDUZETNIČKA INOVATIVNOST I KREATIVNOST - PUT ZA IZLAZAK IZ KRIZE ... - 25 -
ENTREPRENEURIAL INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY -
A WAY OUT OF THE CRISIS ................................................................................. - 28 -
FORMATION OF IMAGE AND NATIONAL BRAND OF KAZAKHSTAN ................... - 31 -
MENADŽMENT DOGAĐAJA I TURIZAM .............................................................. - 34 -
EVENT MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM ............................................................... - 36 -
NET VERSUS GROSS CAPITAL FLOWS IN THE LUCAS PARADOX ......................... - 38 -
EFIKASNOST INFORMACIJSKIH TEHNOLOGIJA U TURIZMU
REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE......................................................................................... - 40 -
EFFICIENCY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CROATIAN TOURISM ............. - 43 -
KOMPARATIVNA ANALIZA MAĐARSKOG I SRPSKOG INOVATIVNOG
PREDUZETNIČKOG AMBIJENTA .......................................................................... - 46 -
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SERBIAN AND HUNGARIAN INNOVATIVE
ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT ................................................................... - 49 -
MICROENTERPRISES: BIG OR SMALL DATA? ...................................................... - 52 -
ORGANIZACIONO PONAŠANJE – LJUDSKA GREŠKA............................................ - 55 -
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR – HUMAN ERROR................................................ - 58 -
ZAHTEVI U POBOLJŠANJU UPRAVLJANJA LANCEM SNABDEVANJA ................... - 61 -
REQUIREMENTS IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT....................... - 64 -
ANALIZA PRIMENJIVOSTI TEHNIKE OTKRIVANJA ZNANJA U PODACIMA ........... - 65 -

VII
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
ANALYSIS OF APPLICATIONTECHNIQUES FOR DETECTION
OF KNOWLEDGE IN DATA ................................................................................... - 67 -
ADOPTION OF NON PROGRAMMED DECISIONS IN THE MARKET
UNCERTAINTY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA.............................................. - 69 -
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE
OF THE CASH FLOWS OF COMPANIES ................................................................ - 71 -
THE NEED OF EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY MANAGEMENT
AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION ................................................. - 73 -
SYNTHETIC INDEX OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT - ASSESSMENT OF RURAL
COMMUNITIES AS AN EXPRESSION OF PROCESS APPROACH ............................ - 76 -
IMPORT SUBSTITUTION AS A FORM OF REALIZATION OF THE ECONOMIC
TRANSFORMATION STRATEGY OF MODERN RUSSIAN ECONOMY .................... - 78 -
THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICS FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT .......................... - 80 -
CUSTOMER RESEARCH OF NON-BANK ENTITIES ................................................ - 82 -
INNOVATIONS IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT ........................................................... - 84 -
DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY PROBLEMS WITHIN
ROAD TRANSPORT DECISION MAKING............................................................... - 87 -
SISTEM FINANSIRANJA KORPORACIJA ................................................................ - 91 -
SYSTEM OF CORPORATION FINANCING ............................................................. - 94 -
MOGUĆNOST UPOTREBE LAKE GENERALNE AVIJACIJE
U KRIZNIM SITUACIJAMA ................................................................................... - 97 -
OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING LIGHT GENERAL AVIATION
IN SITUATIONS OF CRISIS .................................................................................. - 100 -
UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT STIMULATING HIGHER EDUCATION QUALITY .... - 103 -
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING THROUGH THE QUANTITATIVE
EVALUATION OF UNIVERSITY QUALITY ............................................................ - 106 -
ORGANIZACIONO PONAŠANJE – INDIVIDUALNE SPOSOBNOSTI...................... - 109 -
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR –INDIVIDUAL SKILLS ......................................... - 112 -
PRIMENA NOVIH TEHNOLOGIJA NA ZAPOSLENE U SRBIJI ............................... - 115 -
APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES ON EMPLOYEES IN SERBIA................. - 118 -
ANALIZA KONKURENTNOSTI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE U KONTEKSTU
PRISTUPNIH PROCESA EU ................................................................................. - 121 -
ANALYSIS OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA IN
THE CONTEXT OF EU ACCESSION PROCESS ...................................................... - 124 -
POVEZANOST STRATEGIJSKOG PLANIRANJA I PROGRAMSKOG BUDŽETIRANJA
U OBLASTI KULTURE ......................................................................................... - 127 -

VIII
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM
BUDGETING IN THE DOMAIN OF CULTURE ...................................................... - 130 -
ORGANIZACIJA RADNIH MESTA KAO DELA PROIZVODNOG CIKLUSA .............. - 133 -
ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PLACES AS A PART OF PRODUCTION CHAIN ... - 136 -
INDUSTRIAL INFLUENCE ON THE INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRAFFIC OF
THE LAND TRANSPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA .................................. - 139 -
INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CONTROL ...................... - 143 -
THE HSR AS AN INNOVATIVE AND ECOLOGICAL MODE OF TRANSPORT ......... - 146 -
STATE RESERVE FUND MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA:
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS ............................................................................ - 150 -
STRATEGIC PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT ............................................ - 153 -
CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT CORRIDORS IN BULGARIA BY
PROMOTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP .................................................. - 155 -
UPRAVLJANJE ZNANJEM KAO ČINIOCEM RAZVOJA POSLOVNIH SISTEMA ...... - 158 -
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT
OF OPERATING SYSTEMS .................................................................................. - 161 -
EKONOMSKA DIPLOMATIJA – MOĆ I ULOGA U VRIJEME GLOBALIZACIJE ....... - 164 -
THE ECONOMIC POWER AND THEIR ROLE DURING GLOBALIZATION.............. - 167 -
APPLICATIONS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN TRANSPORT BUSINESS .................. - 170 -
MODELOVANJE POUZDANOSTI SLOŽENIH TEHNIČKIH SISTEMA U INDUSTRIJI –
SSA KONCEPT .................................................................................................... - 173 -
RELIABILITY MODELING OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL SYSTEMS IN INDUSTRY,
SSA CONCEPT .................................................................................................... - 176 -
GLOBALIZACIONE PROMENE I PROCESI ........................................................... - 179 -
GLOBALIZATION CHANGE AND PROCESSES ..................................................... - 182 -
COMPLEX VIEW ON STUDY DISCIPLINE OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT .................. - 185 -
"DOMINO EFFECT" OF INCIDENTS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF MALA FATRA ....... - 188 -
THE MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION:
THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF IMMIGRATION RESOURCES ........................ - 191 -
DEFINISANJE MULTIMEDIJALNE STRATEGIJE ZA POVEĆANJE BROJA
KORISNIKA USLUGA ŽELEZNICE ........................................................................ - 195 -
DEFINING MULTIMEDIA STRATEGIES TO INCREASE NUMBER OF
RAILWAY SERVICES ........................................................................................... - 198 -
KRIZNI MENADŽMENT KAO DEO STRATEŠKOG MENADŽMENTA
USLUŽNIH KOMPANIJA ..................................................................................... - 201 -

IX
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
CRISIS MANAGEMENT AS A PART OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SERVICE
COMPANIES ...................................................................................................... - 203 -
MEĐUNARODNI MERDŽERI I AKVIZICIJE (M&A) KAO OBLICI KORPORATIVNOG
RESTRUKTURIRANJA - STRATEGIJE I TAKTIKE PREUZIMANJA I ODBRANE........ - 205 -
CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS (M&A) AS FORMS
OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING - TAKEOVER AND DEFENSE
STRATEGIES AND TACTICS ................................................................................ - 207 -
STRESS MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF
OPERATIONS WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON ENTERPRISES OF
THE TOURISM SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ............................. - 209 -
MODERN INSTRUMENTS OF INNOVATION FINANCING IN THE CONTEXT
OF ECONOMY DESTABILIZATION ...................................................................... - 212 -
ERP SISTEMI KAO PODRŠKA ELEKTRONSKOM POSLOVANJU ORGANIZACIJA:
EVALUACIJA MOGUĆIH ALTERNATIVA ............................................................. - 214 -
ERP SYSTEMS AS A SUPPORT FOR ORGANISATIONAL E-BUSINESS:
EVALUATION OF POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES....................................................... - 216 -
EKOLOŠKI IZAZOVI PRIVREDNOG RAZVOJA ...................................................... - 218 -
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT..................... - 222 -
GLOBALNA FINANSIJSKA KRIZA I IZAZOVI EKONOMSKE STABILNOSTI ............. - 226 -
THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE ECONOMIC
STABILITY .......................................................................................................... - 230 -
ALATI I ORGANIZACIONI ASPEKTI KRIZNOG MENADŽMENTA .......................... - 234 -
TOOLS AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT................ - 237 -
THE BALLANCE BETWEEN PROFESSION AND CAREER ...................................... - 240 -
SYSTEM OF RANKING POSITIONS OF THE PERSONNEL AS A FACTOR OF
INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY ........................................ - 243 -
METHODS, MODELS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DECISION MAKING IN
THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON
THE BANKING SECTOR ...................................................................................... - 247 -
CJELOŽIVOTNO UČENJE I VRIJEDNOST OBRAZOVANJA .................................... - 250 -
LIFELONG LEARNING AND THE VALUE OF EDUCATION.................................... - 253 -
UTICAJ STAROSNE DOBI I STEČENOG OBRAZOVANJA NA
KORIŠĆENJE INFORMACIJA I DONOŠENJE ODLUKA.......................................... - 256 -
THE INFLUENCE OF AGE AND GAINED EDUCATION ON THE USE OF INFORMATION
AND DECISION-MAKING ................................................................................... - 260 -
DILEME MENADŽMENTA POLITIČKE STRANKE - ŠTA POSLE IZBORA? .............. - 263 -

X
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
MANAGEMENT CONCERNS OF POLITICAL PARTIES - WHAT
AFTER THE ELECTION? ...................................................................................... - 265 -
UTVRĐIVANJE PERCEPCIJA POTROŠAČA O KARAKTERISTIKAMA KVALITETA
PROIZVODA – FOKUS GRUPE ............................................................................ - 267 -
DETERMINING CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF PRODUCT QUALITY
CHARACTERISTICS – FOCUS GROUPS ............................................................... - 270 -
EQUESTRIAN INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT .......................................................... - 273 -
PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION MARKET
IN BULGARIA ..................................................................................................... - 275 -
EFFECTS OF MIGRATION ON THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY ................................ - 278 -
RHETORICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS.............................................. - 281 -
OPTIMIZATION OF THE FINANCIAL RESULT BY METHOD
"PRICE ELASTICITY OF SALES" ........................................................................... - 284 -
MENADŽMENT UNAPREĐENJA ORGANSKE PROIZVODNJE ANIMALNIH
PROTEINA U SRBIJI............................................................................................ - 287 -
MANAGEMENT OF IMPROVING ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF ANIMAL
PROTEINS IN SERBIA ......................................................................................... - 290 -
MORAL-ONTOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE HORSE INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT:
INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH ....................................................................... - 293 -
INTERNET MARKETING I EFIKASNOST POSLOVANJA MALIH
I SREDNJIH PREDUZEĆA .................................................................................... - 295 -
INTERNET MARKETING AND EFFICIENCY OF SMALL
AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES ............................................................................. - 297 -
UPRAVLJANJE KVALITETOM HACCP STANDARDA U TRGOVINI ........................ - 299 -
UTICAJ DIZAJNA RADNIH MESTA NA EFEKTIVNOST ZAPOSLENIH .................... - 305 -
INFLUENCE OF JOB DESIGN ON EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS ............................ - 308 -
FINANSIJSKI IZVEŠTAJI KAO PRODUKT RAČUNOVODSTVA ............................... - 311 -
FINANCIAL REPORTS AS ACCOUNTING PRODUCTS .......................................... - 314 -
ROLE OF THE LEADER IN SUCCESS OF CHANGES IN AN ORGANIZATION ......... - 317 -
STRATEGIJA UPRAVLJANJA REJTINGOM PRIVREDNOG DRUŠTVA
SLOŽENE ORGANIZACIONE I VLASNIČKE STRUKTURE ...................................... - 320 -
THE MANAGMENT RATING STRATEGY OF THE COMPANY WITH
THE COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONAL AND OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE ................... - 322 -
ORGANIZACIJSKE MERE U EKOLOŠKOM AMBIJENTU ....................................... - 324 -
ORGANIZATIONAL MEASURES IN ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT...................... - 326 -

XI
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016
INKORPORIRANJE EKOLOŠKIH PROCESA U CILJEVE UNAPREĐENJA
PRODUKTIVNOSTI ............................................................................................. - 328 -
INCORPORATION OF ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN ORDER TO IMPROVE
PRODUCTIVITY .................................................................................................. - 330 -
STRATEŠKO PRILAGOĐAVANJE KAO OSNOV ODRŽIVOG UPRAVLJANJA
INTEGRISANIM TURISTIČKIM PROIZVODOM DESTINACIJE - NA PRIMJERU
TURISTIČKE DESTINACIJE KOTOR ...................................................................... - 332 -
STRATEGIC ADJUSTMENT AS A BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF
INTEGRATED TOURIST PRODUCT – CASE STUDY KOTOR ................................. - 333 -
ATRAKTIVNOST BERZI KAO NAČINA INVESTIRANJA
U SAVREMENIM USLOVIMA ............................................................................. - 334 -
ПРИВЛЕКАТЕЛЬНОСТЬ РЫНКА АКЦИЙ КАК ИНСТРУМЕНТА ИНВЕСТИРОВАНИЯ В
СОВРЕМЕННЫХ УСЛОВИЯХ ............................................................................ - 336 -

XII
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PRINCIPI ANALIZE FINANSIJSKIH IZVEŠTAJA KAO SREDSTVA


ZA REALIZACIJU CILJEVA MENADŽMENTA PREDUZEĆA
Danijela Anđelković
Fakultet za preduzetnički biznis, Univerzitet „Union – Nikola Tesla“,
Beograd, Srbija
andjelkovic.dj@gmail.com
Danijela Zubac
Visoka stukovna tehnička škola u Zvečanu, Kosovska Mitrovica, Srbija
danijela.marjanovic@gmail.com
Olgica Brzaković Kadrić
Maloprodaja obuće „O“, Beograd, Srbija
olja777@yubc.net

REZIME
Predmet istraživanja rada se odnosi na utvrđivanje međuzavisnosti principa analize
finansijskih izveštaja kao sredstva za realizaciju ciljeva menadžmenta preduzeća. U
tom kontekstu, utvrđuju se osnovne komponente koje doprinose poboljšanju kvaliteta
pomenutog odnosa, u skladu sa interesima menadžmenta preduzeća. Menadžeri
preduzeća analiziraju finansijske performanse preduzeća za potrebe upravljanja
poslovanjem preduzeća, kako tekućeg, tako posebno i strateškog. Isto tako, za
menadžere koji vode poslovne pregovore sa stranim partnerima poznavanje
finansijskog položaja preduzeća je od naročitog značaja. Kod eksternih interesnih
grupa, navode se prema značaju, pre svega, investitori, kreditori i država. Dobra
informisanost u kontekstu anglosaksonskog principa podrazumeva da u finansijskim
izveštajima budu utvrđene i prezentirane sve značajnije informacije koje mogu biti od
značajnijeg uticaja na sadašnje i buduće odluke investitora i drugih korisnika.
Suprotno, izostavljanje određenih informacija moglo bi dovesti korisnike informacija
do pogrešnog rasuđivanja i donošenja pogrešnih odluka.
Principi analize finansijskih izveštaja predstavljaju uslove od kojih zavisi razumljivost,
relevantnost, pouzdanost i uporedivost informacija, i kao takvi predstavljaju sredstvo
za realizaciju ciljeva menadžmenta preduzeća. U istraživanju principa finansijske
analize u ovom radu polazi se od savremene računovodstvene teorije koja smatra da se
opšteprihvaćeni principi, mogu rangirati kao postulati: koji obezbeđuju osnovne
uslove za računovodstveno vrednovanje; i bazni principi kojima se reguliše
vrednovanje bilansnih pozicija i koji se, shodno tome, upotrebljavaju prilikom
sastavljanja i prezentiranja finansijskih izveštaja. Kao i u slučaju Međunarodnih

-1-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

računovodstvenih standarda, i kod Međunarodnih standarda finansijskog


izveštavanja je prisutno da slede, u pogledu svoje utemeljenosti, pristup zasnovan
na fundamentalnim načelima, odnosno principima. Međunarodni standardi finansijskog
izveštavanja, u suštini, ustanovljavaju postulate i principe za računovodstveno
tretiranje poslovnih transakcija i događaja. Reč je o principima koji, uz nužno
profesionalno rasuđivanje o tome kako da se primenjuju u specifičnim okolnostima,
primarno determinišu sadržinu finansijskih izveštaja preduzeća.
Jedna od najznačajnijih računovodstvenih pretpostavki ili principa koji se ilustruje u
radu odnosi se na subjektivitet poslovnog sistema kao posebne celine. Reč je o
zahtevu da se imovina uložena u poslovanje preduzeća obuhvata odvojeno od ostale
imovine vlasnika i poverioca i da se uspešnost upravljanja tom imovinom kontroliše
putem rezultata. Shodno navedenom zahtevu, preduzeće prilikom izveštavanja o
finansijskom položaju i uspešnosti poslovanja, u finansijske izveštaje uključuje samo
one transakcije koje se odnose na poslovanje tog preduzeća. Poslovanje zasnovano
na principu dobitka je karakteristika po kojoj se poslovni entitet razlikuje od ostalih
ekonomskih entiteta.
U ovom radu se posebno ukazuje na principe (načela) bilansiranja kojima se reguliše
vrednovanje bilansnih pozicija. Jedan od najznačajnijih tradicionalnih principa
bilansiranja je princip nabavne vrednosti ili princip troška nabavke. Princip zahteva
da se imovina u knjigovodstvu vodi i u bilansu iskazuje u visini novčanog izdatka
učinjenog radi njenog sticanja. Saglasno navedenom, aktiva je prikazana u bilansu
stanja na osnovu istorijskih troškova (tj. prema trošku nabavke). Nepostojanje čvrste
veze između vrednosti stalne imovine po kojoj se ona vodi u knjigovodstvu i sadašnje
tržišne vrednosti smanjuje iskaznu moć bilansa. Međutim, ovo ipak nije dovelo do
napuštanja principa istorijskog troška. Razlog tome, nalazi se u većoj objektivnosti
podataka na kojima je zasnovana metoda istorijskih troškova u odnosu na druge
metode koje nam stoje na raspolaganju. Uz princip troška nabavke i sticanja prihoda
uobičajeno je povezan i princip sučeljavanja prihoda i rashoda koji zajedno čine
primarne, fundamentalne principe za realizaciju cilja bilansa koji se odnosi na
utvrđivanje tačnog periodičnog rezultata. Obzirom, da se poslovni rezultat utvrđuje
kao razlika prihoda i rashoda, sledi da te dve kategorije poslovnog rezultata treba
sučeljavati, tj. uporediti. Pri tome je veoma bitno da se sučeljavaju samo oni prihodi i
rashodi koji se odnose na isti obračunski period i koji su međusobno uslovljeni.
Princip predstavlja zahtev dodeljivanja rashoda obračunskom periodu u kome su
nastali njima prouzrokovani prihodi. Drugim rečima, radi se o procesu priznavanja
troškova na osnovu uzročno - posledičnog odnosa sa priznatim prihodima. U radu se
posebno ukazuje na problem alternativne primene principa fer vrednosti, prema našoj
važećoj normativnoj regulativi i međunarodnim standardima finansijskog
izveštavanja. U tom kontekstu ističe se njegov subjektivni karakter u odnosu na
princip nabavne vrednosti.

-2-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Za kvalitet finansijskih izveštaja je veoma važan princip konzistentnosti ili doslednosti. Uz


princip nabavne vrednosti, princip realizacije i sučeljavanja prihoda i rashoda, princip
konzistentnosti treba da doprinese utvrđivanju objektivnog periodičnog rezultata.
Principom se zahteva dosledna primena usvojenih pravila i postupaka za potrebe
sastavljanja i prezentiranja finansijskih izveštaja. Pored formalnog kontinuiteta,
usvojene forme prezentiranja strukture bilansa stanja i bilansa uspeha, princip
konzistentnosti podrazumeva doslednu primenu odabranih računovodstvenih politika
kao preduslov uporedivosti finansijskih izveštaja tokom više obračunskih perioda.
Princip konzistentnosti nalaže da, iako postoji sloboda izbora između pojedinih
računovodstvenih postupaka i metoda, preduzeća treba da odaberu one postupke i
metode koje će konzistentno koristiti u nizu sukcesivnih perioda. U posebnim
slučajevima kada se određene računovodstvene politike menjaju, potrebno je u
napomenama uz finansijske izveštaje obrazložiti razloge promene i kvantifikovati
njihov uticaj na poslovni rezultat. Drugim rečima, ukoliko se rezultat poslovanja menja
zbog promene računovodstvenih metoda i postupaka, a ne zbog stvarnih poslovnih
događaja, tu činjenicu treba obelodaniti. Na taj način se obračunati periodični rezultati
oslobađaju eventualnih efekata promene načina procenjivanja i samostalnog
ponašanja sa vrednostima u bilansu. Doslednost pomaže menadžmentu preduzeća,
investitorima i ostalim korisnicima bilansnih informacija u donošenju odluka, jer
osigurava vremensku i objektivnu uporedivost informacija. Navedeni principi
bilansiranja, kao i postulati međusobno su povezani i uslovljeni i kao takvi ne mogu
se razmatrati odvojeno. Oni su neizbežno povezani u celinu i predstavljaju jedan
potpun, konzistentan sistem.

Ključne reči: menadžment, finansijski izveštaji, efikasnost, finansiranje, metoda fer


vrednosti, princip nabavne vrednosti.

-3-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PRINCIPLES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AS A MEANS


OF REALIZATION OF A COMPANY'S MANAGEMENT GOALS
Danijela Andjelkovic
Faculty of entepreneurial business, University “Union – Nikola Tesla”,
Belgrade, Serbia
andjelkodani@gmail.com
Danijela Zubac
Higher Technical Proffesional School Zvecan, Serbia
danijela.marjanovic@gmail.com
Olgica Brzakovic Kadric
Trade “O“, Belgrade, Serbia
olja777@yubc.net

ABSTRACT
The paper explores the establishment of the interdependence in financial statement
analysis as a tool for realization of a company's management objectives. In this
context, it determines the basic components that contribute to improving the quality
of the relationship in compliance with the interests of enterprise management.
Company managers analyze the financial performance of the enterprise for the
purpose of enterprise business management. Moreover, for business leaders,
negotiation with foreign partners’ conversance of the financial position of the
company is of particular importance. Good information in the context of Anglo-Saxon
principle implies that the financial statements are established and presented with all
significant information that may be of significant impact on the present and future
decisions of investors and other users. In contrast, the omission of certain information
could lead information users to the wrong judgment and wrong decisions.
Principles of financial statement analysis represent the conditions on which the
understandability, relevance, reliability and comparability of information depends, and
as such are a means for the realization of the objectives of a company's management.
The study of principles of financial statement analysis in this paper starts from the
modern accounting theory, which holds that the generally accepted principles can be
ranked as postulates: providing the basic requirements for accounting and valuation;
basic principles governing the valuation of balance sheet items and that are,
accordingly, used in the preparation and presentation of financial statements.
Following the case of International Accounting Standards, the International Financial
Reporting Standards are present. International Financial Reporting Standards, in

-4-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

essence, establish the postulates and principles for accounting treatment of business
transactions and events. These are the principles which, along with the necessary
professional judgment on how to apply in specific circumstances, primarily determine
the content of financial statements of companies.
One of the most important accounting assumptions or principles are illustrated in this
paper, referring to the subjectivity of the business system as a separate unity. It is a
requirement that the assets invested in the business of the company are controlled
by the result. According to this request, the company reporting on the financial
position and operating performance, in the financial statements include only
transactions related to the company's operations. Business based on the principle of
profit is the characteristic that makes a distinction between business entity and other
economic entities.
This paper specifically highlights the principles balancing governing valuation of
balance sheet items. One of the most important traditional balancing principles is the
principle of purchase value or acquisition costs. The principle requires that the assets
in the books kept on the balance sheet show the amount of cash expenditure
effected. Pursuant to the above, the assets are shown in the balance sheet on the
basis of historical cost (i.e. to the purchase value). The absence of strong links
between the value of fixed assets which are kept in the books and the current market
value, reduces the presentation power of the balance sheet. However, this does not
lead to the abandonment of the principle of historical cost. The reason for this is that
there is a greater objectivity of the data underlying the method of historical cost in
comparison to other methods that are at our disposal. With the principle of the cost
of acquisition and the acquisition of income typically is connected and the principle of
matching revenues and expenses, which together form the primary, fundamental
principles for the realization of the objective of the balance relating to the
determination of the exact period result. Given that the operating result is determined
as the difference between revenues and expenditures, it follows that these two
categories of business results are to be confronted and compared. It is very important
to compare only those revenues and expenses that relate to the same accounting
period and are mutually interdependent. The principle represents the requirement of
assigning expenditures to the accounting period in which they are incurred, causing
the revenue. In other words, it is a process of recognition of costs based on the cause
- effect relations with the recognized income. The paper specifically points out the
problem of alternative application of the principle of fair value for our current
normative regulations and international standards of financial reporting. In this
context, we pointed out the subjective character of the principle regarding to
acquisition cost principle.
For the quality of financial reports, the principle of consistency is very important.
Together with the principle of acquisition cost and the principle of implementation and
matching revenues and expenses, the principle of consistency should contribute to

-5-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

establishing an objective periodic results. Principle requires consistent application of


the adopted rules and procedures for the purpose of preparing and presenting
financial statements. In addition to formal continuity, adopted forms of presentation
structure of the balance sheet and income statement, the principle of consistency
means the uniform application of the selected accounting policies as a prerequisite
for the comparability of financial statements over several accounting periods. The
principle of consistency requires that, although there is freedom of choice between
different accounting procedures and methods, company needs to choose the
procedures and methods to be used consistently in a series of successive periods.
In special cases when certain accounting policy changes it is required to note in the
financial statements explanations the reasons for the change, quantifying their impact
on business results. In other words, if the operating result fluctuates due to changes
in accounting methods and procedures, and not because of actual business events,
this fact should be disclosed. In this way, the calculated results of the periodic release
of possible effects of changes in mode of assessment and independent behavior with
the values in the balance sheet. Consistency helps the management of a company,
investors and other users of information in decision-making, as it provides the time
and objective comparability of information. These principles of balancing, as well as
the postulates are interrelated and interdependent and as such cannot be considered
separately. They are inevitably linked in unity and represent as one complete,
consistent system.

Keywords: management, financial statements, efficiency, financing, the fair value


method, the principle of cost.

-6-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

STRATEGIJE MARKETINGA U USLOVIMA KRIZE


Slobodan Anđelković
Ekonomski fakultet Univerziteta u Kragujevcu, Kragujevac, Srbija
andjelkovic.dj@gmail.com
Milorad Perović
Elektroprivreda Srbije, Beograd, Srbija
Milorad.Perovic@djerdap.rs
Danijela Ivkov
Privredna akademija u Novom Sadu, Novi Sad, Srbija
Ivkov87@gmail.com

REZIME
U preliminarnim istraživanjima u radu ukazuje se na različite aspekte upravljanja
marketingom. U tom kontekstu u radu se segmentira i ilustruje upravljanje kao proces
planiranja, implementacije i kontrole; upravljanje kao proces odlučivanja; i upravljanje
marketingom kao proces upravljanja tražnjom Isti pristup se koristi u procesu
strategijskog marketinga, pomoću kojeg organizacija alocira svoje marketing miks
resurse da bi došla do svojih ciljnih tržišta. U tom kontekstu u radu se ukazuje na
ključne aspekte procesa strategijskog marketinga koji se sastoji iz faze planiranja
marketing aktivnosti, faze implementacije planova, i faze kontrole. Planiranje,
implementacija i kontrola su osnovni poslovi svih menadžera, a posebno marketing
menadžera, zbog mesta i uloge koju ima upravljanje marketing aktivnostima u
strategijskom menadžmentu preduzeća. Poslovi su međusobno povezani da bi se
pokazalo da je proces marketing menadžmenta kontinuiran. Svako preduzeće u
uslovima krize sledi set ciljeva zasnovanih na svojoj misiji i domenu posla. Uspešan
marketing program u uslovima krize zahteva da menadžer marketinga segmentira
tržište firme, identifikuje alternativne marketing mogućnosti, i izvrši izbor ciljnih tržišta.
Predmet istraživanja u ovom radu se odnosi na prilagođavanje strategije marketinga
i osnovnih elemenata marketinga uslovima krize sa ciljem novog pozicioniranja
preduzeća da bi se ostvarila konkurentska prednost. Naime, naša epoha se
karakteriše iskustvima sa dubokim krizama. Krize preduzeća su: neplanirani i
neželjeni procesi; na koje se uslovno može uticati; čiji je ishod ambivalentan i može
da znači uništenje ili restituciju (i metamorfozu). Krizni menadžment nudi mogućnost
pozitivnog uticaja na krizu, tj. da se iskoristi šansa za promenu ka novom
pozicioniranju, da bi se tako savladala kriza ili čak da bi se ostvarila konkurentska
prednost. Najvažnija stvar u marketingu, bilo da je u pitanju recesija ili ne, je
predvideti u kojem pravcu će se kretati potrošači. Orijentacija na potrošače je ključni

-7-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

aspekt strategije uspešnih preduzeća. Mnogi menadžeri ističu da je stvaranje profita


na dugi rok osnovni cilj i motiv za postojanje preduzeća. U radu se ukazuje na
izmenjeni savremeniji pristup menadžmentu koji polazi od toga da profit nije pravi cilj
i svrha menadžmenta – on zapravo znači da svi pravi ciljevi i svrhe budu ostvarljivi.
Polazi od toga da je prava svrha preduzeća da stvara vrednost za svoje kupce i da
kao rezultat toga ostvaruje profit. Pojedini elementi koji se odnose na satisfakciju i
lojalnost kupaca, zadržavanje kupaca, profitabilnost kupaca, predstavljaju bitne
odrednice marketing odnosa sa kupcima. To se može zapaziti, takođe, iz koncepta
lanca vrednosti. Ilustracija koncepta lanca vrednosti u radu ukazuje da se lanac
vrednosti sastoji iz više nivoa. Na prvom nivou, potrebno je u skladu sa rezultatima
sprovedenih marketing istraživanja kreirati odgovarajući marketing program, što je
posebno važno u kriznim vremenima. Na drugom nivou neophodno je putem
marketinških istraživanja uključiti merenje satisfakcije kupaca, ispitivanje stavova i
namera kupaca, analizu imidža brenda. Treći nivo uključuje određena finansijska
merenja koja se, između ostalih merenja, moraju uključiti u sadržaj rada marketing
istraživanja. Na kraju, na vrhu lanca procenjuje se vrednost kompanije koja
prvenstveno zavisi od stepena satisfakcije kupaca i kvaliteta isporučene vrednosti za
kupce. Merenje profitabilnosti kupaca je aktivnost koja marketingu daje jednu
dodatnu i novu dimenziju. Na ovaj način uspostavlja se međusobna povezanost
između marketinga i finansija u funkciji povećanja vrednosti preduzeća. U prošlosti u
fokusu su bile finansijske mere performansi, kao što su rast prodaje i zarade, novčani
tokovi, i cena akcije. Za razliku od toga, u savremenom poslovnom okruženju u
fokusu korišćenja strategijskog menadžmenta firme u uslovima krize su primarno
strategijske mere uspeha, od kojih mnoge su nefinansijske mere uspešnosti
poslovanja, kao što su inovacije, kvalitet proizvoda, satisfakcija kupaca i rast
oportunitetnosti
Najvažniji elementi odnose se na razvoj novih proizvoda, stvaranje snažnog brenda,
pozicioniranje proizvoda i formiranje adekvatnih cena proizvoda. Međutim, najveći
značaj pri stvaranju vrednosti za kupca odnosi se na inovacije, zato što inovacije
predstavljaju bazu za uspešnu primenu ostalih elemenata koji utiču na stvaranje
vrednosti za kupca. U mnogim preduzećima inovacije se posmatraju odvojeno od
marketing sektora. Međutim, savremeni koncept marketing odnosa upravo povezuje
inovacije i marketing u jedinstvenu celinu, smatrajući ih ključnim elementima
zadovoljenja savremenog potrošača. Istraživanja u radu ukazuje da se inovacije i
marketing ne smeju sprovoditi odvojeno, već moraju predstavljati integralni deo
poslovne strategije menadžmenta preduzeća. U ovom radu se posebno ukazuje na
tržišno pozicioniranje preduzeća u uslovima krize. Tržišno pozicioniranje zahteva od
preduzeća da razvije ideju o tome koju vrstu ponude da učini ciljnom tržištu u odnosu
na ponude konkurenata. Mora se uložiti napor da se vidi šta konkurenti nude kupcima
na ovom tržištu i šta kupci stvarno žele. Na bazi tih nalaza, preduzeće je spremno da
odabere konkurentsku poziciju. Preduzeće može pokušati na razne načine da ostvari
željenu poziciju na tržištu, ali je tržište to koje konačno odlučuje koju će poziciju

-8-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

preduzeće da zauzme. Ponuđači proizvoda i usluga pokušavaju diferencirati svoj


proizvodni program naglašavanjem karakteristika za koja smatraju da će bolje ispuniti
potrebe potrošača u odnosu na konkurentske proizvode. Da bi se efikasno
implementirale strategije pozicioniranja proizvoda neophodno je da preduzeća
poseduje inovativnost i sposobnost razumevanja potrošača. Shvatanjem moći
pozicioniranja pristupa se formulisanju strategije marketinga odabiranjem pozicije
koju preduzeće želi da zauzme u uslovima krize. Preduzeće bira poziciju koju želi da
zauzme i onda kreće da razvija marketing miks koji će mu pomoći da ostvari tu
poziciju.
U posebnom delu rada ukazuje se na strategije marketinga u kriznim vremenima koje
se odnose na povlačenje preduzeća sa slabih tržišta, razmatranje ulaska na nova
tržišta, sticanje konkurentskih prednosti i dr. U tom kontekstu ističu se temeljne
strategije marketinga u uslovima krize koje se odnose na strategiju proizvoda,
strategiju cena, strategiju distribucije i strategiju promocije. Strategija cena kao
indikator vrednosti i kvaliteta ima veoma važnu ulogu u procesu stvaranja vrednosti
za potrošača. Cena proizvoda ili usluge može značajno uticati na pozicioniranje
brenda u uslovima krize. Ona je važan izvor konkurentske prednosti preduzeća.
Takođe i povećanje profitabilnosti se može postići odgovarajućom strategijom cena,
sniženjem troškova ili povećanjem obima prodaje. Za malo i srednje preduzeće je
veoma bitno da kreira odgovarajuću strategiju cena u uslovima krize. Ona uključuje
troškove, ciljeve, ograničenja, strategiju niskih, srednjih ili visokih cena, konkurentske
strategije cena i istraživanje potrošača. Rezultat procesa donošenja odluka o cenama
u velikoj meri utiče na rezultate poslovanja preduzeća, a posebno u kriznim
vremenima. Isto tako, strategija tržišnog komuniciranja je nužan, ali ne i dovoljan
uslov pružanja vrednosti potrošačima u uslovima krize. Nakon upoznavanja
potrošača sa proizvodom koji firma nudi, potrebno je usmeriti marketing napore ka
prodaji datog proizvoda. Marketing orijentacija ne podrazumeva jednostavnu prodaju
proizvoda potrošačima, već uspostavljanje dobrih dugoročnih odnosa sa njima. S tim
ciljem potrebno je da preduzeće razvije odgovarajuću strategiju pružanja usluga
potrošačima u uslovima krize. Istraživanja u radu ukazuju da recesiju treba iskoristiti
kao mogućnost za pozicioniranje preduzeća za budući rast.

Ključne reči: strategije marketinga, pozicioniranje proizvoda, menadžment,


ekonomsko-finansijska kriza, koncept lanca vrednosti.

-9-
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MARKETING STRATEGIES IN CRISIS CONDITIONS


Slobodan Andjelkovic
Faculty of Economics – University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
andjelkovic.dj@gmail.com
Milorad Perović
Elektrisity Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Milorad.Perovic@djerdap.rs
Danijela Ivkov
University Business Academy in Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
ivkov87@gmail.com

RESUME
In preliminary research, the paper points to the various aspects of marketing
management. In this context, the paper segments and illustrates management as the
process of planning, implementation and control, management as a decision-making
process, and marketing management as the process of demand management. The
same approach is used in the process of strategic marketing, with which
organizations allocate their marketing mix of resources in order to reach their target
markets. In this context, the paper points out to the key aspect of the strategic
marketing process consisting of marketing activities planning phase, the
implementation phase, and the phase of control. Planning, implementation and
control represent the basic tasks of all managers, and especially marketing managers
because of the place and role of the management of marketing activities in the
strategic management of the company. The tasks are connected to each other to
show the continuous process of marketing management. Each company during the
crisis follows the set goals based on their mission and domain operations. A
successful marketing program during the crisis requires the marketing manager of a
company to segment the market, identifying alternative marketing opportunities, and
make the selection of target markets.
The research presented in this paper refers to the adjustment of marketing strategy
and basic elements of marketing in conditions of crisis with the aim of company
repositioning in order to achieve a competitive advantage. Specifically, our epoch is
characterized with experiences of a deep crisis. Company crisis is an unplanned and
unwanted processes which can conditionally be affected. Its outcome can be
ambiguous and can mean the destruction or restitution. Crisis management offers
the possibility of a positive impact on the crisis, ie. to use the opportunity for a change
towards a new positioning, in order to overcome the crisis or even to achieve a

- 10 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

competitive advantage. The most important thing in marketing, is predicting the


consumers orientation, whether in a recession or not. Customer orientation is the key
aspect of a strategy of successful companies. Many managers point out that profit
making in the long term is a main goal and motivation for the existence of a company.
The paper points to the altered modern approach to management, which assumes
that profit is not the real aim and purpose of management - it actually means that all
the real aims and objectives are to be achieved. It assumes that the real purpose of
a company is creating value for its customers and as a result realized profit. Some
elements relating to satisfaction and loyalty, customer retention, customer
profitability, are important determinants of customer relationship marketing. This can
be seen also from the concept of the value chain.
Illustration of the concept of the value chain in the work indicates that the value chain
consists of several levels. On the first level, it is necessary, in accordance with the
results of the conducted marketing research, to create compelling marketing
program, which is especially important in times of crisis. At another level, it is
necessary to include marketing research by measuring customer satisfaction,
examining the attitudes and intentions of customers, brand image analysis. The third
level includes certain financial measurements that, among other, must be included in
the scope of labor market research. Finally, at the top of the chain company's value
is being estimated, which primarily depends on the degree of customer satisfaction
and the quality of the delivered value for customers. Measuring customer profitability
is an activity that gives the marketing an additional new dimension. In this way, the
interconnection between marketing and finance is established in order to increase
the company's value. In the past, the focus was on financial measures of
performance, such as sales and earnings growth, cash flow, and price action. By
contrast, in the modern business environment in company's strategic management
focus during the crisis are primarily strategic measures of success, many of which
are non-financial operating performance measures, such as market share, product
quality, customer satisfaction and opportunity growth. The most important elements
are related to the development of new products, creating a strong brand, product
positioning and formation of adequate price of a product. However, the greatest
significance in the creation of value for the customer refers to innovation, because
innovation represents a basis for the successful implementation of other elements
that affect the creation of value for the customer. In many enterprises innovation is
seen separately from the marketing sector. However, the modern concept of
marketing relationships associates innovation and marketing into a single whole,
considering them the key elements to satisfy a modern consumer. The research in
this paper indicates that innovation and marketing must not operate separately, but
must be an integral part of business strategy, of a company's management. This
paper has emphasized the market positioning of the company during the crisis.
Market positioning requires companies to develop an idea of what kind of offer to
provide to target market in comparison to competitors' offers. The effort should be

- 11 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

made to see what competitors are offering to customers in the market and what
customers really want. Based on these findings, a company is ready to choose
competitive position. The company may try in different ways to achieve the desired
position in the market, but the market finally decides which position the company will
take. Bidders of products and services are trying to differentiate their product lines
highlighting the characteristics they believe will better meet the needs of consumers
than competitive products. In order to effectively implement the strategy of product
positioning, it is essential for companies to possess innovativeness and the ability to
understand consumers. By understanding the positioning power, a company can
formulate marketing strategies by selecting the position that the company wants to
take in times of crisis. After choosing the position, company moves on developing of
marketing mix that will help to achieve that position.
The paper specifically points to a marketing strategies in crisis conditions concerning
the withdrawal of enterprises from weak markets, considering entering new markets,
acquiring competitive advantages and others. In this context highlighted are
fundamental marketing strategies in the crisis conditions that apply to the product
strategy, price strategy, distribution strategy and promotion strategy. Pricing strategy
as an indicator of the value and quality plays a very important role in the process of
creating value for the consumer. The price of the product or service can significantly
affect the brand positioning in the crisis. It is an important source of competitive
advantage. Moreover, the increase in profitability can be achieved by an appropriate
price strategy, lowering costs or increasing sales volume. For small and medium
enterprises, it is very important to create an appropriate price strategy in the crisis
conditions. It involves costs, objectives, and constraints, strategy of low, medium or
high price, competitive pricing strategies, and consumer research. The result of the
process of decisions making about prices, greatly affect the company's operating
results, especially in times of crisis. The strategy of marketing communication is a
necessary but not sufficient condition to provide value to consumers in times of crisis.
After familiarizing consumers with a product that a company offers, it is necessary to
focus marketing efforts on sales of the product. Marketing orientation does not imply
a simple sale of products to consumers, but establishing good long-term relationships
with them. To this end, it is necessary for the company to develop an appropriate
strategy to provide services to consumers in times of crisis. The research in this paper
indicates that the recession could be seized as an opportunity to position the
company for future growth.

Keywords: strategy, marketing, management, economic - financial crisis, the


concept of the value chain.

- 12 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MANAGING CONSTRAINTS IN SMES FINANCING - THE CASE OF


ROMANIAN TOURISM SMES
Daniel Badulescu
University of Oradea, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Oradea, Romania
dbadulescu@uoradea.ro
Alina Badulescu
University of Oradea, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Oradea, Romania
abadulescu@uoradea.ro
Olimpia Ban
University of Oradea, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Oradea, Romania
oban@uoradea.ro

INTRODUCTION
SMEs’ financing represents nowadays an issue of a great importance, both as
research theme and practical concern. Tourism, considered as a business
opportunity, is also challenging for policy makers, lenders and for small businesses
activities in this sector. In addition to the specific difficulties of any (small) business,
tourism operators are facing, unfortunately, barriers related to searching and
accessing the most appropriate funding enabling them to overcome the difficult crisis
periods and to achieve their growth ambitions. This paper is aiming at investigating,
by using a survey-based research, the availability of the financing institutions to
adequately finance the SMEs’ businesses in tourism. The objectives of this paper
are, first, to assess the main difficulties and specific ways of creditors’ involvement in
SMEs’ business financing, and secondly, to find out which are the main difficulties
and obstacles in tourism financing, and to what extent they can be mitigated.
SMES’ FINANCING AND THE SPECIFICITY FOR TOURISM SMES
Overcoming the economic crisis effects and the difficult recovery is closely related to
the strengthening and expansion of the SMEs sector, but this objective cannot be
achieved in the absence of an adequate financing. The surveys of European
Commission (2015) reveal that, during the last ten years, the access to finance of
European SMEs has been considered as the second (or the third, in some years)
most pressing concern for SMEs’ managers. These studies also state that the
lenders' (mainly, the banks’) response is weak, and considerably uncorrelated with
the expectations of business environment and policy makers. Certain researchers
consider that the inadequate financing of SMEs is a structural feature which has to
be mitigated by public interventions (Beck, Demirgüç-Kunt and V. Maksimovic, 2005;
de la Torre, Martínez Pería and Schmukler, 2010). The majority of these opinions are
circumscribed to the demand side constraints theory: the lack of adequate financing
for SMEs is caused by their less attractiveness for the lenders. The second

- 13 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

perspective explains that the problem of inadequate funding of SMEs originates from
the supply side constraints, particularly those related to the way that financial
institutions work (Toivanen and Cressy, 2000). According to several scholars and
practitioners, the tourism industry displays a relatively higher risk compared with
other industries, mainly due to: losses from loans, the seasonality of cash-flow,
external exposure, and specific behavior of poor experienced managers. The fact
that losses from loans are, typically, higher than in other sectors, will affect all
participants, including those with consolidated businesses, experienced, with good
future prospects (COTA, 2006). There is a third position arguing that the financial
market for SMEs is increasingly competitive, with good prospects for profitable
growth. Thus, all kind of lenders see SMEs as being a strategic sector, where they
plan to expand operations in a sustainable manner. Good lending relationships can
improve SMEs’ access to finance, mitigating the effects of the crisis (Beck, Degryse,
De Haas, & van Horen, 2014, p. 32).
RESEARCH: METODOLOGY, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In order to investigate the creditors’ involvement and availability in financing ventures
operating in tourism, we developed and conducted, during February – April 2015, a
survey-based research among main institutional lenders Romania. The
questionnaires were designed and then sent to 135 bank managers, SMEs risk
managers and relationship managers, employed in various bank units located,
mainly, in North-Western, Centre and Western Regions of Romania.
The research has revealed that the group of supporters of the idea that the lending
offer to SMEs is sufficient and structurally adequate reaches almost half of the
preferences. However, this percentage is quite low, given that these opinions come
exactly from the most important funding providers for SMEs. It is possible that this
opinion, circumscribed to SMEs businesses in tourism, to be actually more reserved
than for other industries. Regarding the deterrence of SMEs in accessing loans,
bankers agree that SMEs are obviously discouraged by the large requirements for
guarantees, which exceed the possibilities of the company or their shareholders (65%
of the respondents), and by the excessive, expensive and long-lasting procedures
and required documents (61% of the respondents). Additional obstacles faced by
SMEs are the lengthy approval process, even for relatively small loan amounts. On
the other hand, respondents are quite firm considering that the expectations
regarding the rejection of loan application is not a valid reason for SMEs’ reluctance
to institutional lenders. Regarding how banks perceive the risks associated with
tourism activity, our research has revealed that the tourism businesses are
considered as being slightly riskier business compared to other sectors.
Another investigated topic concerns the most important risk factors taking into
consideration by banks when financing the SMEs operating in tourism. The low
experience of managers and the high seasonality appear to be the higher risk factors
(both issues being indicated by 94% of the respondents). It is surprising the (relative)
neutral score attributed to collaterals, which can be explained by the quite frequent
involvement of banks in co-financing European projects, where the risks and
collateral requirements are diminished. The respondents highly valuate the cost

- 14 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

control and liquidity provision (indicated as very important by 69% of the respondents)
and a good control of the market. The strict compliance with the initial business plan
and marketing strategy seems to be important, but not essential. This neutral
perspective is explained, perhaps, by the fact that the business plan should be
flexible, related to the specific realities and opportunities. The banks do not give
importance to discount offers and other promotional policies initiated by tourism
operators, considering that the margins are already small, and the chance of survival
and business strengthening stays in quality and diversification of touristic services.
CONCLUSIONS
Apparently, the credit supply for SMEs operating in tourism is considered, by the main
lenders, as sufficient and structurally adequate. However, our research has indicated
that lenders are aware there are some objective factors which discourage SMEs in
accessing bank loans (e.g. the requirements for consistent guarantees, the
expensive and long-lasting procedures, the lengthy approval processes). Our study
has confirmed that the lenders’ caution regarding SMEs operating in tourism cannot
be attributed only to the relatively small size of the business, to its high seasonality,
to poor collateral or financial performance, but also to the quality of management.
Consistent with other researches, we have found that the credit supply for touristic
businesses is more difficult to access and less competitive compared to other
ventures operating in different sectors. Therefore, SMEs should make rationale and
intelligent investments, should diversify their income-generating activities, and
increase the experience and responsibility of the management. The limited interest
of banks in SMEs’ tourism businesses needs to be addressed through better
complementarities with public assistance programs (i.e. EU funds for tourism), as an
important way to mitigate the risks in this sector, and also to diversify the funding
supply for this important economic sector.
REFERENCES
Beck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., & Maksimovic, V. (2005). Financial and Legal Constraint
to Firm Growth: Does Firm Size Matter? Jurnal of Finance, 60, pp. 137-177.
Beck, T., Degryse, H., De Haas, R., & van Horen, N. (2014, July). When arm’s length
is too far:relationship banking over the business cycle. European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development Working Paper No. 169, p. 32.
Council of Tourism Associations in British Columbia (COTA) (2006). Financing
Tourism Operations in British Columbia. Canada: COTA & Taylor Capital
Corporation.
de la Torre, A., Martínez Pería, M., & Schmukler, S. (2010). Bank involvement with
SMEs: Beyond relationship lending. Journal of Banking and Finance, 34, pp.
2280–2293.
European Commission. (2015). Survey on the access to finance of enterprises
(SAFE. Analytical Report 2015). Brussels: EC: Directorate-General for
Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs.
Toivanen, O., & Cressy, R. (2000). Lazy Entrepreneurs or Dominant Banks? An
Empirical Analysis of the Market for SME Loans in the UK. Warwick Business
School SME Centre Working Paper.

- 15 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZACIJA I FINANCIRANJE NOGOMETNIH KLUBOVA U


HRVATSKOJ
Anto Bajo
Institut za javne financije, Zagreb
bajo@ijf.hr
Marko Primorac
Ekonomski fakultet Zagreb
mprimorac@efzg.hr
Lucija Grubišić
Ekonomski fakultet Zagreb
lucijagrubisic111@gmail.com

SAZETAK:
Nogomet se iz društvene igre postupno transformirao u tržišnu djelatnost koja diljem
svijeta privlači značajna strana ulaganja. Nogometni klubovi u svijetu i u Europi sve
više ulažu u transfere igrača zbog čega taj sektor dobiva značajniju pozornost u
gospodarstvu i u fiskalnim sustavima. Niz je dilema vezanih uz pravni status i
organizaciju nogometnih klubova, njihovih računovodstvenih politika i poreznih
obveza, ali i subvencija koje dobivaju od institucija javnog sektora. Opravdano je pitati
se u kojoj je mjeri nogomet ostao u području javnog interesa, a u kojoj je mjeri
podložan privatnim interesima vođenim isključivo profitnim motivima. U mjeri u kojoj
dominiraju privatni interesi nogometne klubove trebalo bi lišiti povlaštenog poreznog
tretmana, značajnih javnih subvencija i ostalih koristi koje uživaju na teret javnog
sektora.
Cilj je rada obaviti financijsku analizu poslovanja nogometnih klubova u Hrvatskoj.
Analizom će biti obuhvaćeni klubovi prve i druge hrvatske nogometne lige (HNL)
sukladno aktualnom rasporedu u sezoni 2015/2016. HNL I uključuje 10, a HNL II 12
klubova. Analizirat će se struktura prihoda i rashoda te imovine, obveza i kapitala
nogometnih klubova. Konačno, izračunom odabranih financijskih pokazatelja ocijeniti
će se njihova relativna uspješnost u poslovanju te ukazati na potencijalne probleme
vezane uz njihovu likvidnost i zaduženost. Financijski rezultati i stvorene obveze
trebale bi ukazati je li nogomet u Hrvatskoj prerastao iz financijski manje važne
društvene aktivnosti s očitim javnim koristima u ozbiljnu gospodarsku granu sa
zastupljenijim privatnim interesima. Analiza će otkriti u kojoj fazi tranzicije prema
profesionalnom sportu se nalaze nogometni klubovi u Hrvatskoj.
Nogometni klubovi u Hrvatskoj posluju kao neprofitne organizacije ili kao dionička
društva. U HNL I su u jednakoj mjeri zastupljena oba pravna oblika. Klubovi HNL II
uglavnom su ustrojeni kao neprofitne organizacije.

- 16 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Klubovi koji teže razvoju sportske infrastrukture, mladih sportaša i lokalne zajednice,
stvaraju pozitivne vanjske uèinke (eksternalije) promoviranjem sportskih vrijednosti u
društvu i trebaju biti ustrojeni kao neprofitne organizacije. Logièno je da se takvi -
uglavnom amaterski - klubovi u veæoj mjeri financiraju javnim sredstvima. Meðutim,
profesionalni klubovi usmjereni na stjecanje prihoda (koje ne koriste nužno na razvoj
vlastitih igraèa veæ na kupnju kvalitetnijih sportaša), ne bi trebali uživati status
neprofitnih organizacija.
Pretpostavljamo da su ukupni prihodi klubova prve lige značajno veći od klubova
druge lige. Rashodi promatranih klubova uglavnom su znatno veći od prihoda, pa
klubovi prve lige teško osiguravaju pokriće troškova poslovanja. Slično je i s
klubovima druge lige. S obzirom na dominaciju Dinama u odnosu na ostale
promatrane klubove, analiza je obavljena s posebnim osvrtom na njegovo
poslovanje.
Financijsko izvještavanje klubova nije ujednačeno jer neki koriste računovodstvo
neprofitnih organizacija, a neki računovodstvo trgovačkih društava. Stoga su
modificirane pojedine stavke financijskih izvještaja klubova neprofitnih organizacija
tako da odražavaju strukturu financijskih izvještaja trgovačkih društava. Iako taj
postupak ne može u svim dijelovima izvještaja biti potpuno precizan, nužan je za
usporednu analizu. Izvanredni prihodi neprofitnih organizacija obuhvaćaju ostale
prihode (od naknade šteta i refundacija, od prodaje dugotrajne imovine i ostale
nespomenute prihode), a financijski prihodi su od financijske imovine (od kamata za
dane zajmove, oročenih sredstava i depozita po viđenju, od zateznih kamata i od
pozitivnih tečajnih razlika).
Ostale kategorije prihoda (od prodaje roba i pružanja usluga, od članarina i članskih
doprinosa, po posebnim propisima, od nefinancijske imovine i od donacija) smatraju
se poslovnim prihodima. Zbog neujednačenog računovodstvenog okvira i kod analize
strukture imovine i obveza treba obaviti određene prilagodbe stavki iz financijskih
izvještaja klubova koji posluju kao neprofitne organizacije. Naime, imovina neprofitnih
organizacija ne klasificira se u izvješćima samo kao dugotrajna i kratkotrajna, već se
dijeli na proizvedenu i neproizvedenu dugotrajnu imovinu, sitni inventar, nefinancijsku
imovinu u pripremi, proizvedenu kratkotrajnu imovinu i financijsku imovinu (bez
podjele na dugotrajnu i kratkotrajnu). Imajući u vidu nedostatke takve klasifikacije i
specifičnosti poslovanja nogometnih klubova u Hrvatskoj (koji u načelu ne bi trebali
raspolagati većim iznosima dugotrajne financijske imovine), njihova je financijska
imovina u cijelosti klasificirana kao kratkotrajna imovina, isto kao i sitni inventar,
nefinancijska imovina u pripremi i proizvedena kratkotrajna imovina. Ostale stavke
imovine su klasificirane kao dugotrajna imovina.
Na prvi pogled može izgledati neobično da se igrači nogometnih klubova evidentiraju
u bilanci kao imovina, no igrači se kupuju na tržištu, gotovo jednako kao i bilo koja
druga imovina. Kako ne bi mijenjali klub tijekom sezone, engleski nogometni savez
(engl. Football Association - FA) je još 1885. propisao registraciju svih igrača. Kao
posljedica te odredbe razvilo se tržište pravima na igrače. Naime, registracijom igrača
klub zadržava pravo na igrača za vrijeme trajanja ugovora. Ukoliko neki drugi klub

- 17 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

želi „kupiti“ igrača za vrijeme trajanja ugovora, matičnom klubu mora platiti naknadu
za prijenos tog prava. Evidencija prava na registraciju igrača u financijskim izvješćima
ima uporište u međunarodnom računovodstvenom standardu (MRS) 38 koji propisuje
priznavanje i evidenciju nematerijalne imovine koja nije posebno obrađena drugim
međunarodnim računovodstvenim standardom.
Prema MRS 38, nematerijalna imovina je nemonetarna imovina bez fizičkih obilježja
koja se može utvrditi. U računovodstvenom smislu, imovina je resurs – kontrolira ga
subjekt u čijim izvještajima se bilježi - od kojeg se očekuje priljev budućih ekonomskih
koristi. Imovina je utvrdiva kada je odvojiva, te proizlazi iz ugovora ili drugih zakonskih
prava. Konačno, MRS 38 propisuje kako se nematerijalna imovina treba priznati
samo ako se trošak nabave te imovine može pouzdano utvrditi.
Igrači koji su sklopili ugovor s pojedinim klubom vezani su uz njega određeno vrijeme
u kojem se očekuje da će za klub stvoriti ekonomske koristi. Osim toga, činjenica da
pravo proizlazi iz ugovora, ali i pravo na prodaju igrača (odvajanje prava na igrača
od ostale imovine kluba) potvrđuju utvrdivost te imovine.
S obzirom da se igrači obično kupuju uz određenu naknadu (za razliku od ostalih
zaposlenika), trošak nabave igrača može se pouzdano utvrditi pa se može i
evidentirati u financijskim izvješćima, sukladno standardu MRS 38. Naravno, imajući
u vidu trajanje ugovora, ta nematerijalna imovina se u financijskim izvješćima i
amortizira u ugovorenom roku i to uglavnom bez ostatka vrijednosti. Treba istaknuti
da - iako to i nije sasvim logično - igrači koji nisu kupljeni nego su stasali u klubu ne
mogu biti evidentirani u bilanci jer ne zadovoljavaju sve kriterije propisane
standardom MRS 38. Naime, s obzirom da ti igrači nisu stečeni uz naknadu, za njih
se ne može utvrditi trošak nabave. Evidencija igrača u imovini klubova, utječe i na
rashode zbog postupne amortizacije nematerijalne imovine.
Uspješnost klubova u ostvarivanju financijskih rezultata procijeniti će se usporedbom
njihovih financijskih pokazatelja - koeficijenata obrta, ekonomičnosti i profitabilnosti.
Temeljem usporedbe analiziranih pokazatelja, dobit će se realni uvid u financijsku
poziciju klubova. Rezultati analize trebali bi ukazati je li potrebna kvalitetnija
regulacija financijskog poslovanja tog sektora i uspostavljanja stabilne zakonodavne
i institucionalne infrastrukture za njegovu dugoročnu održivost. Rezultati istraživanja
trebali bi pokazati postoji li potreba i razlozi za jasnije profiliranje statusa nogometnih
klubova i njihovog organizacijskog ustroja. Za nogometne klubove financirane javnim
sredstvima otvoreno je pitanje treba li propisati konkretne načine i iznose financiranja,
ali i namjenu tako prikupljenih financijskih sredstava.
Iako je u Hrvatskoj samo mali dio klubova (uglavnom prve lige) prošao tu tranziciju
prema profesionalnom sportu, potrebno je jasno razgranièiti poslovanje
profesionalnih i amaterskih klubova te ih sukladno njihovu statusu tretirati u sustavu
javnog financiranja.
Ključne riječi: neprofitne organizacije, financiranje sporta, nogometni klubovi,
Hrvatska

- 18 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANISATION AND FINANCING OF FOOTBALL CLUBS IN


CROATIA
Anto Bajo
Institute of Public Finance, Zagreb, Croatia
bajo@ijf.hr
Marko Primorac
Faculty of Economics and Business Zagreb, Croatia
mprimorac@efzg.hr
Lucija Grubišić
Faculty of Economics and Business, Zagreb, Croatia
lucijagrubisic111@gmail.com

SUMMARY
Football has gradually transformed from a sport game and a popular social
phenomenon into a market activity attracting significant foreign investment all over
the world. Clubs are increasingly investing in the transfer of players which is why this
sector grips attention in the economy and fiscal systems. There is a set of dilemmas
relating to the legal status of football clubs, their accounting policies and tax liabilities,
but also the subsidies they receive from the public sector. It is reasonable to wonder
to what extent football remained in the area of public - sport and financial - interest
and to what extent is it subject to private interests, driven by profit motives. To the
extent they are dominated by private interests, football clubs should be deprived of
preferential tax treatment, significant public subsidies and other benefits enjoyed at
the burden of the public sector.
The main objective of this paper is to perform the financial analysis of business
activities of football clubs in Croatia. The analysis includes clubs from first Croatian
football league (HNL I) and second Croatian football league (HNL II), according to
the current schedule for the season 2015/2016. HNL I includes 10 and HNL II
additional 12 clubs. We analyse the structure of revenues and expenditures as well
as assets and liabilities of both Croatian football leagues. Finally, based on the
calculation of selected financial indicators we assess their relative business success
and point out to the potential problems relating to their liquidity and indebtedness.
Based on their financial results and the incurrence of liabilities we judge whether
football in Croatia grew from financially less important social activity (with obvious
public benefits) to a serious economic branch with prevalent private interests. The
financial analysis should reveal the stage of transition of Croatian football clubs to
professional sports.

- 19 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Football clubs in Croatia operate as non-profit organizations or as public limited


companies. In HNL both legal forms are equally represented. Clubs from HNL II are
generally established as non-profit organizations.
Clubs that strive for the development of sports infrastructure, young athletes and the
local community, creating positive external effects (externalities) through promotion
of sports values in the society should be organized as non-profit organizations. It is
logical that such - mostly amateur - clubs are largely financed by public funds.
However, professional clubs focused on generating income (which is not necessarily
used for the development of their own players but acquisition of better – professional
athletes), should not enjoy the status of non-profit organizations.
We assume that total revenues of the first league clubs are significantly higher than
those of the second league clubs. Expenditures of observed clubs are generally much
higher than revenues. Due to this HNL I clubs have difficulties in covering the
operating costs. It is similar with HNL II clubs. Given the dominance of Dinamo
compared to other clubs observed, the analysis was performed with a special focus
on Dinamo’s business operations.
Financial reporting of clubs is not uniform because some clubs use non-profit
accounting, and others for-profit accounting. For this reason were certain items from
financial statements of clubs set up as non-profit organizations modified to reflect the
structure of financial statements of public limited companies. Although this process
cannot be completely accurate in all parts of the report, it is necessary for making the
comparative analysis possible. Other revenues of non-profit organizations include
other revenues (from fees and damages reimbursement, from the sale of fixed assets
and other miscellaneous revenues), whereas financial revenues include revenues
from financial assets (interest on outstanding loans, term deposits and demand
deposits, default interest and foreign exchange gains). Other categories of revenues
(from sales of goods and services, membership dues and membership fees,
revenues collected according to special regulations, revenues from non-financial
assets and from donations) are considered operating revenues.
Because of the uneven accounting framework certain adjustments to the items in the
financial statements of clubs operating as non-profit organizations had to be made
for analysing the structure of assets and liabilities. The assets of non-profit
organizations is not classified in reports only as a long-term and short-term, but is
also divided into produced and non-produced long-term assets, small inventory, non-
financial assets in preparation, produced short-term assets and financial assets
(without division into long-term and short-term). Keeping in mind the deficiencies of
such classification and specifics of football clubs' operations in Croatia (which in
principle should not have large amounts of long-term financial assets), their financial
assets are entirely classified as short-term assets, as well as small inventory, non-
financial assets in preparation and produced short-term assets. Other asset items are
classified as long-term assets
At first glance it may appear unusual that football players are recorded in the balance
sheet as assets, but players can be bought in the market, as any other assets. In

- 20 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

order to prevent swapping between clubs during the season, the English Football
Association already in 1885 prescribed the registration of all players (Morrow, 1997).
The transfer market for players was developed as a result of these provisions. With
the registration of players, the club reserves the right to hold players for the duration
of the contract. If another club wants to 'buy' a player for the duration of the contract,
it has to pay a fee for the transfer of that right to the home club. The records of right
to registration of players in the financial statements is supported by the International
Accounting Standard (IAS) 38, which prescribes the recognition and registration of
intangible assets that are not specifically dealt with in other international accounting
standards.
According to IAS 38, an intangible asset is non-monetary asset without physical
substance, which can be identifiable. In accounting terms, an asset is a resource -
controlled by an entity in whose reports it is registered - which is expected to generate
future economic benefits. An asset is identifiable when it is separable, and derives
from a contract or other legal rights. Finally, IAS 38 prescribes that intangible assets
should be recognized only if the cost of acquiring an asset can be determined reliably.
Players who have entered into an agreement with certain clubs are associated with
those clubs for a certain period of time in which they are expected to generate
economic benefits for the clubs. In addition, the fact that the right emerges from the
contract, as well as the right to sell players (separation of rights to players from other
assets of the club), confirm the identifiability of the asset. Since players are usually
bought for a fee (unlike other employees), the cost of acquiring players can be
determined reliably and therefore recorded in the financial statements, in line with the
IAS 38. Of course, given the duration of the contract, this intangible asset is also
depreciating in the financial statements and amortizing within the stipulated period,
mostly without residual value. The process of recording the players in club's assets,
also affects the expenditures for gradual depreciation of intangible assets.
The performance of clubs in achieving the financial results will be estimated by
comparing their financial indicators – turnover ratios, indicators of effectiveness and
profitability ratios. Based on the comparison of those indicators, we will get the real
insight into the clubs’ financial position. Results of the financial analysis should
indicate whether Croatia needs a better regulation of the financial operations of the
football sector and the establishment of a stable legal and institutional infrastructure
for the long-term sustainability. The research results should also show whether there
is a need for clearly profiling the status of football clubs and their organizational
structure. It remains an open question whether for publicly financed football clubs’
specific methods and amounts of financing as well as the purpose of funds collected
in such way should be prescribed.
Although only a small fraction of clubs in Croatia (mostly those from HNL I) passed
the transition to a professional sport, it is necessary to clearly delineate the operations
of professional and amateur clubs. In line with their status, football clubs should be
treated in the system of public financing.
Key words: non-profit organisations, sport financing, football clubs, Croatia

- 21 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

METHODOLOGY OF MEDIA COVERAGE ANALYSES IN MEDIA


MONITORING ORGANIZAIONS WITH PARTIAL
DIGITALIZATION
Senka Bengin
Fakultet tehnickih nauka Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, Srbija
senka.bengin@yahoo.com
Milena Jovanovic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University “Union –
Nikola Tesla” Belgrade, Serbia
Peter Pavel Merzel
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University “Union –
Nikola Tesla” Belgrade, Serbia

RESUME
In the overall interconnection between the institution/organization and the public, it is
important to inform PR specialists on the realization and placement of different
annoucements. Most of PR officers, and often excutives as well in institutions and
contemporary organizations as well as individuals engaged in public jobs, use
services of media monitoring as tools for identifying and analyzing annoucements in
media on their activities or activities of the clients they represent, competition
reactions as well as media and broader social public. The most frequently purchased
media services are the following: newspaper and magazine cuttings, TV monitoring,
i.e. following the news of interest for the organization. These data are used by media
monitoring users for improvement of their work, for building their good reputation and
identifying new business opportunities. An efficient service of media monitoring
enables PR specialists to react promptly in crisis situations when it becomes
necessary to face negative information published in media and jeopardize the clients
reputation. A systematic collecting, analyzing and using of media information is
important for PR professionals in their endeavour to inform on not only quantitative
data regarding their media presence (coverage, appearance) but on the degree of
their presence in media determined by various indicators (the size of inscription, type
of mention, its place in the text/broadcast, size of heading, author, illustration) as well
as on the presence of key massages in the published material and media value
related to mesuring the space (or time) of the announcement in media as counted on
the price of advertizing, space and other elements.
Media monitoring is a significant return of the investments info corporative
communications indicating the success in public relations and representing a

- 22 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

systematic way of a continuous collection of media announcements which can serve


for carrying out media coverage analyses. The methodology of media coverage
analysis depends on the organization structure for media monitoring. Organizatitions
based on printed media monitoring - present in the countries where the overal printed
editions are not completely transmitted into a digital form (online) - have a specific
structure of the sector for media coverage analyses and they apply special
methodology of media announcemens analyses. This methodology is primarily based
on the extracts from printed media - press clips - especially from daily newspapers.
Media monitoring organiaztions naturally have available a great number of media
announcements every day. Thus these organizations are forming analytical sectors.
These analyses are useful for research the public opinion as well as for analyses of
political, economic, social, cultural and other issues. The analytical sector itself is
developing its own methodology of media coverage analyses.
Media coverage analyses, especially the more complex ones, are mostly carried out
for bigger organizations capable of paying for these additional services. Such a sector
usually has three employees depending on the volume of work.
This analysis methodology is mainly based on the following: counting or articles,
determining the attitude indicator (positive, negative, neutral) and analyzing the
content. In effect, the basic methodology implies the following:
 counting of articles; and
 dermining the IMPC (i.e. index of media presence and coverage)
The IMPC includes the following components:
 opinion indicator determing how the organization is presented in media
(positive, negative, neutral);
 influence (significance indicator) measuring the degree of presence in media
through indicators (size of coverage, type of mention, place in the
text/broadcast, size of the heading, author, illustration);
 range as to the number of viewers/readers within one media auditorium.
And if we speak about a special methodology, the IMPC could include the following
components:
 presence of key massages in the report;
 targeted public determining the media concerned or wanted;
 content analys;
 media value as related to the masured space (or time), for the
annocencement concerned and is conted on the basis of the price of
advertisement space.
The methodology applied in analyses is based on the IMPC. For counting of IMPC
indexes various indicators are measured for cach organization mentioned in the
announcement. The index value can be: positive, negative or close to zero.

- 23 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The IMPC index could signify the characteristics of the organization within a certain
period, media or event.
The review of formula for counting IMPC index comoponents:
IPC = Influence + Range + Attitude Indicator, asuming the following:

 attitude indicator regarding how the organization is presented (positive,


negative, neutral);
 influence (significance indicator) measuring the degree of presence in midia
through indicators: size of announcement, type of mention, place in the
text/broadcast heading size, mention of the author and illustration;
 range referring the number of vewers/readers in the media auditorium.
Various analyses are carried out on the basis of these methodologies, such as:
 basic quantitative analyses;
 quantitative analysis;
 quantitative analysis by way of IMPC index.
On the other hand, certain analyses imply the use of special methodologies such as:
quantitative analysis including a specific IMPC index and commercial value of media
announcements. The basic quantitative analysis is founded upon the methodology of
articles counting. Its advantage is being easy to carry out.
The quantitative analysis is based on the methodology of articles count and attitude
indicator determination.
The quantitative analysis using the IMPC index is based on articles count and IMPC
index and represents the analysis for numerical workout of the quality of media
presentation. This quantitative analysis enables the client to choose the specific
components of IMPC.
The organization model of the enterprise for media monitoring, as well as of the sector
for media coverage and content analysis is based on the traditional press clipping,
i.e. monitoring of printed media as the major source of news, assuming the specific
methodology of media coverage analysis. This also implies analyzing the commercial
value of media announcements based on the media contents analysis, but with the
additional presentation of media value of the report. This technology includes "paper
clipping", i.e. original cuttings of printed media announcements aimed at measuring
the number of columns for every report followed by measuring the media valuue of
the report. This type of methodology is exclusively represented in organizations for
media monitoring based upon the traditional press clipping, i.e. tracking the printed
media as the major source of news.

- 24 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PREDUZETNIČKA INOVATIVNOST I KREATIVNOST - PUT ZA


IZLAZAK IZ KRIZE
Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet “Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Beograd, Srbija
nacasn@hotmail.com

Milosav Miličković
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet „Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Beograd, Srbija

REZIME
Inovativnost i kreativnost savremene privrede predstavljaju ključni potencijal na kome
se bazira budući rast i razvoj. Kreativna ekonomija je postala jedan od najbrže
rastućih sektora svetske privrede, ne samo u smislu stvaranja prihoda, već i oblasti
otvaranje novih radnih mesta i porasta izvoza. Prema podacima Creative Economy
Report 2013 (CERs) mnogo veći deo svetskih intelektualnih i kreativnih resursa se u
novom milenijumu ulaže u industrije zasnovane na kulturi (engl. culture-based
industries). Kreativna ekonomija je, prema istom izvoru, oblast rasta, ne samo u
razvijenijim već i u zemljama u razvoju. Kreativnost i inovacije su postale pravo
bogatstvo naroda savremenog doba. Kreativna i kulturna ekonomija predstavljaju
veoma važan deo globalne ekonomije koji sve više dobija na značaju.
Vodeću ulogu u svetu koji se menja imaju »kreativne industrije« gde je razmena robe
istisnuta ekonomijom zasnovanom na idejama, odnosno znanju i informacijama.
Teorijski gledano kreativne industrije predstavljaju novi ekonomski model koji
karakterišu samozaposlenost, autonomija i fleksibilnost, visoko obučena radna
snaga, sačinjena od veoma motivisanih „freelensera“ uključenih u timove ili mreže
specijalista i stručnjaka.
Za globalnu ekonomsku krizu se smatra da, uprkos uvreženom pravilu o redovnosti,
nema pretežno cikličan karakter. Cikličnost potiče iz same prirode ekonomskog
sistema i njegovog cilja da se modifikacije i razvija. Savremena kriza je, pre svega,
sistematska jer su danas veliki i teški strukturni problemi tipični za svetske
ekonomske krize i zadiru u srž funkcionisanja globalnog ekonomskog sistema.
Značajna transformacija globalne privrede nastupila je kao rezultat globalne
ekonomske krize. Ključnu ulogu u regulisanju krize dobijaju tržišta u razvoju i
razvijene ekonomije. Nova globalna ekonomija počiva na međusobnoj povezanosti
razvijenih i zemalja u razvoju.

- 25 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Trenutna ekonomska kriza je dovela do niza negativnih efekata uključujući i


otpuštanje zaposlenih. Porast nezaposlenosti je uticao na mnoge pojedince da
pokrenu sopstveni biznis. Jedan od načina za prevazilaženje naraslih problema sa
viškom radne snage je podsticanje preduzetničkih aktivnosti. Stoga se može reći da
ekonomska kriza stvara šansu za razvoj preduzetništva te da su inovacije,
kreativnost i preduzetništvo osnovne strategije za izlazak iz kriznog stanja.
Uloga kreativnog sektora u eri nove ekonomije dobija sve više na značaju zbog
sposobnosti da se suočava i da rešava složene probleme kao i da stvara nova
znanja. Po pravilu, kreativnost je pretpostavka za inovaciju jer počiva na stvaranju
novih ili kombinovanju starih ideja na specifičan način. Kreativni sektor zasnovan na
univerzalnom resursu (znanju, intelektu i veštinama) postaje nosilac ekonomskog
razvoja svih zemalja bez obzira na stepen razvijenosti. Razlika u koncentraciji znanja
na kojoj se temelji kreativnost utiče na njene tokove tako da manje razvijene i
nerazvijene zemlje izvoze kreativnost kroz znanje kojim raspolaže obrazovana radna
snaga, dok razvijene zemlje uvoze kreativnost, što rezultira uvozom proizvoda i
usluga nerazvijenih od strane razvijenih.
Kreativna ekonomija i kreativne industrije su od izuzetnog značaja za zemlje u
razvoju pošto im omogućavaju da uđu u sektore visokog rasta svetske privrede i da
povećaju svoje učešće u svetskoj trgovini. Evidentna je dominacija razvijenih zemalja
u izvoznim i uvoznim tokovima kreativnih proizvoda za razliku od zemalja u razvoju
u kojima je izvoz rastao po stopama koje su iznad razvijenih zemalja. Posmatrano sa
aspekta udela razvijenih i zemalja u razvoju u kreativnom sektoru evidentan je porast
udela zemalja u razvoju.
Kreativna ekonomija je sektor koji dominira u privrednom rastu, zaposlenosti i trgovini
mnogih razvijenih zemalja. Primera radi, u Evropi u 2003. godini je ostvaren rast od
12% u kreativnoj ekonomiji u odnosu na ukupnu privredu. UNDP procenjuje da
kulturne i kreativne industrije doprinose sa oko 2,6% ukupnom BDP-u Evropske
Unije, pružajući kvalitetne poslove za oko 5 miliona ljudi u okviru 27 zemalja članica
Zajednice. Kreativne industrije utiču na povećanje kreativnog kapitala i stvaranju kreativne
klase koja predstavlja faktor privlačenja investicija.
Preduzetnička kreativnost, kao element razvojne politike i strategije nacionalnih
ekonomija, ima za cilj stvaranje nečeg novog i jedinstvenog u određenim prilikama.
Pitanje vezano za suštinu kreativnosti tj. odnosa uma i materije kao osnove ljudske
aktivnosti je vekovno pitanje na koje su brojni teoretičari pokušali da daju odgovor.
Na temelju posedovanja znanja, primenjenog iskustva, tehnologije i profesionalnih
veština formira se kreativni kapital koji postaje glavni pokretač ekonomskog razvoja.
Države koje mogu privući »kreativne resurse« razvijaće se mnogo brže i više od
drugih zemalja. O rastućem doprinosu kreativnog sektora formiranju svetskog BDP-
a svedoče brojni podaci objavljeni u izveštajima UNCTAD-a i UNDP-a. Međutim, iako
je struktura kreativne ekonomije slična za industrijske i zemlje u razvoju, postoje
razlike između zemalja u relativnom značaju različitih komponenti kreativne

- 26 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ekonomije, u zavisnosti od različitih faza razvoja zemalja. Različitosti se ogledaju u


tome da li se govori o kreativnim malim i srednjim preduzećima, velikim
korporacijama, javnim kulturnim institucijama ili pojedinačnim umetnicima i
proizvođačima.
Mala i srednja preduzeća dominiraju u kreativnom sektoru u razvijenim i zemljama u
razvoju što je posledica njihovog talenta i kreativnosti. UNCTAD navodi da je
kreativnost duboko ukorenjena u kulturnom kontekstu svake zemlje, tako da se
pretpostavlja da sve zemlje koristeći raspoloživi kreativni talenat imaju potencijal za
razvoj kreativne industrije. Nije redak slučaj da se u pojedinima zemljama, kreativna
MSP takmiče sa velikim vertikalno integrisanim kompanijama, što dovodi do pojave
asimetrične konkurencije.
MSP u kreativnim industrijama se susreću sa sličnim problemima sa kojima se
suočavaju mala preduzeća u drugim oblastima privrede. Jedno od najvećih
ograničenjima u nastojanju da se kreativna ideja transformiše u robu ili usluge je
otežan pristup kapitalu. Razvoj kreativnih preduzetničkih projekata nije moguć bez
obezbeđenja neophodnih finansijskih sredstava. Kreativna MSP posluju bolje u
ekonomijama u kojima je finansijski sektor prilagođen za finansiranje malih i srednjih
preduzeća i gde su kreativne industrije zvanično priznate. U tom smislu, mala i
srednja preduzeća u većini zemalja u razvoju su u nepovoljnom položaju, naročito
zbog toga što je koncept kreativnih industrija i dalje dosta nov.
Privrede dvadeset prvog veka će biti u stanju da prevazilaze krizna stanja i da
napreduju ukoliko u skladu sa promenama prihvataju kreativnost i inovacije. U
pomenutim procesima poseban značaj se pridaje preduzetničkoj kreativnosti i
inovativnosti, kao elementu razvojne politike i strategije nacionalnih ekonomija.
„Inovacijska privreda” će promeniti prirodu rada, poslova, kapitala, konkurencije,
tržišta i potrošača i omogućiti stvaranje uslova za izlazak iz krize. Ključna mogućnost
koju inovacijska privreda pruža preduzetnicima jeste stvaranje bogatstva u do sada
nezabeleženim razmerama.

- 27 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ENTREPRENEURIAL INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY - A WAY


OUT OF THE CRISIS
Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
University, Belgrade, Serbia
nacasn@hotmail.com
Milosav Milickovic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
University, Belgrade, Serbia

RESUME
Innovation and creativity of the modern economy are the key potential of the future
growth and development. Creative economy has become one of the fastest growing
sectors in the world economy, not only in terms of income generation, but also in the
field of job creation and export increase.
According to the data in Creative Economy Report 2013 (CARs), much larger part of
the world's intellectual and creative resources in the new millennium is being invested
in culture-based industries. According to the same source, creative economy is the
power of growth, not only in developed but also in developing countries. Creativity
and innovation have become the treasure of the nations in the modern era. Creative
and Cultural economy are essential parts of the global economy that are increasingly
becoming more important.
"Creative industries" have a leading role in a changing world where the exchange of
goods is pushed out by the economy based on ideas, knowledge and information.
Theoretically, creative industries represent a new economic model characterized by
self-employment, autonomy and flexibility, highly skilled workforce, made of highly
motivated "freelancers" involved in teams or networks of specialists and experts.
It is considered that the global economic crisis, in spite of its regularity, does not have
a cyclic character. Cyclicality stems from the very nature of the economic system and
its objective to modify and evolve. The contemporary crisis is, above all, systematic
because large and heavy structural problems of today are typical of the global
economic crisis, and they interfere with the functioning of the global economic
system.
Significant transformation of the global economy occurred as a result of the global
economic crisis. The emerging markets and developed economies are having the

- 28 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

key role in regulating the crisis. The new global economy rests on interconnectedness
of developed and developing countries.
Current economic crisis has led to a number of negative effects including the
dismissal of employees. The increase in unemployment has affected many
individuals to start their own business. One of the ways of overcoming the problems
of growing redundancy of workers is to encourage entrepreneurial activity. Therefore,
it can be said that the economic crisis creates an opportunity for development of
entrepreneurship, making innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship the basic
strategies for overcoming the crisis.
The role of the creative sector in the era of the new economy is gaining importance
because of the ability to face and solve complex problems and to create new
knowledge. As a rule, creativity is a prerequisite for innovation because it is based
on the creation of new or combination of the old ideas, in a specific way. The creative
sector, based on universal resource (knowledge, skills and intellect), becomes the
economic development of all countries regardless of their level of development.
The difference in the concentration of knowledge on which creativity is based, affects
its flow so that less developed and developing countries export creativity through
knowledge that the educated workforce has. On the other hand, developed countries
import creativity, resulting in imports of goods and services of the underdeveloped by
the developed.
Creative economy and creative industries are of great importance for developing
countries as they allow them to enter the high growth sectors of the world economy
and to increase their participation in the world trade. The dominance of export and
import of creative products in developed countries is obvious, in contrast to
developing countries where exports grew at rates that are above the ones in the
developed countries. From the aspect of the share of developed and developing
countries, there is an evident increase in the share of developing countries in creative
sector.
Creative economy is a sector that dominates economic growth, employment and
trade of many developed countries. For example, in 2003 in Europe, there was a
growth of 12% in the creative economy regarding the overall economy. UNDP
estimates that the cultural and creative industries contribute with about 2.6% of total
GDP in the European Union, providing quality jobs to around 5 million people within
27 member states of the Community. Creative industries affect creative capital
increase and making of a creative class, which is a factor for attracting investment.
Entrepreneurial creativity, as an element of development policies and strategies of
the national economy, aims to create something new and unique in certain
circumstances. A question related to the essence of creativity, or in another words,
the relationship of mind and matter as the basis of human activity, is an ancient
question that many theorists have tried answer.

- 29 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Based on the possession of knowledge, applied experience, technology and


professional skills, the creative capital is being formed. It is becoming the main driver
of economic development. The countries that can attract "creative resources" will
developed faster and more than other countries. A growing contribution of creative
sector, as well as the formation of world GDP is witnessed by numerous figures
published in the reports of UNCTAD and UNDP. However, although the structure of
the creative economy is similar in industrial and developing countries, there are
differences between the countries in relative importance of the various components
of creative economy, depending on different stages of development of the countries.
Diversity is reflected in whether we talk about creative small and medium enterprises,
large corporations, public cultural institutions or individual artists and producers.
Small and medium-sized enterprises dominate in the creative sector in developed
and developing countries. This is the result of their talent and creativity. UNCTAD
says that creativity is deeply rooted in the cultural context of each country. Thus, it is
assumed that all countries, by using the available creative talent, have the potential
for development of creative industries. It is not rare that in some countries, creative
SMEs compete with large vertically integrated companies, leading to the emergence
of asymmetric competition.
In creative industries, SMEs face similar problems that small businesses have in
other areas of the economy. Difficult access to capital is one of the major constraints
in the effort to transform creative ideas into goods or services. Development of
creative entrepreneurial projects is not possible without ensuring the necessary
financial resources. Creative SMEs operate better in those countries where the
financial sector is suited to finance small and medium-sized enterprises and where
the creative industries are officially recognized. In this regard, small and medium
enterprises, in most of developing countries, are in a bad position, especially because
the concept of creative industries is still rather new.
The economies of the twenty-first century will be able to overcome the crisis and to
progress if they accept creativity and innovation, in accordance with changes. In the
aforementioned processes, special emphasis is put on entrepreneurial creativity and
innovation, as an element of development policy and Strategy for national
economies. "Innovation Economy" will change the nature of work, jobs, capital,
competition, markets and consumers, which will enable the creation of conditions for
going out of the crises. The key advantage that innovation economy provides for
entrepreneurs is accumulation of wealth in unprecedented scale.

- 30 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

FORMATION OF IMAGE AND NATIONAL BRAND OF


KAZAKHSTAN
Ziyada Borbasova
Scientific Research Institute of the Karaganda Economic University,
Karaganda, Kazakhstan
borbasova@mail.ru
Sayran Ulakov
Scientific Research Institute of the Karaganda Economic University,
Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Ulakov_C@mail.ru
Yuriy Ossik
Scientific Research Institute of the Karaganda Economic University,
Karaganda, Kazakhstan
ossik2006_@mail.ru

RESUME
For developing countries, the problems are relevant of marketing approach to the
formation of the image, to the creation and promotion of the brand as a national idea,
as a collective, complex brand of the territories and a country as a whole. We can
see much less publications on such brands than on the brands of goods, services
and businesses, although the relationship between the first ones and the second
ones exists and it is quite difficult.
A holistic brand of the country is made of many components: bright political or public
figures of the state in the present or in the past, individual spheres of the state’s life
– the authorities, economy, military forces, foreign and domestic policy, culture, and
so on. This is what determines the reputation that the country acquires or will acquire
in the minds of the world's community as a result of interaction of its certain subjects
(territories) with the rest of the world. A country’s brand is a cumulative indicator of
the weight and success of the actions of its leadership in the international arena, an
evaluation of the opinion of foreign public about the country. It is recognized that the
programs of creation and promotion of the brand, the formation of the country's image
in the contemporary world can and should be implemented with the use of marketing
tools.
Acknowledging the importance and the need for creation of a single national brand
of the country, we have to note that its embodiment and promotion must be

- 31 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

considered as a long-term process, in contrast to the views on the possibility of its


creation in a short period of time.
Kazakhstan, due to its geographical position at the intersection of Europe and Asia,
is a kind of a world crossroad combining the cultural values of these parts of the
world. In Kazakhstan, the two world religions have been closely intertwined – Islam
and Christianity, and it is a safe home for more than 100 nationalities. The strategic
transport routes connecting Asia and Europe, Russia and Central Asian countries run
through the territory of the country. A "trail" of migration flows has been paved through
Kazakhstan, carrying the pieces of culture of different peoples and settled in this
country in one way or another ("The Silk Road" continuing). As a result, Kazakh
people with its rich ancient history, culture, traditions and customs, in the context of
globalization, absorbs the best values of the Western culture.
A positive authority of Kazakhstan and its leader – the President of Kazakhstan, N.
A. Nazarbayev, on the one hand, deserves to design and create the brand, which
should be an appropriate to the worthy authority of the country in the world. This is –
creating an image of an attractiveness of the country and its people for the guests,
tourists and the entire world community.
The example of Germany in the period of preparation and hosting the Football World
Cup in 2006 is a fact deserving attention in the formation of the image, strengthening
and promotion of the country’s brand. It is possible, according to the authors, to apply
this approach during the preparation for EXPO-2017 and the Universiade-2017 to be
held in Astana.
Every city in Kazakhstan can contribute to the formation of the image and to the
promotion of the national brand: Baikonur – a Space Harbor, Karaganda – the center
of the industry and the city of scientific intellectuals, Aktau – an oil workers town and
the center of an ancient Mangyshlak; Shymkent, Taraz – the cities on the ancient Silk
Road, Kurchatov – the scientific center for nuclear research in the land of the
Kazakhs, the channel "Irtysh-Karaganda" in Sary-Arka steppes, etc.). Astana already
has implemented a project like "The Alley of Ideas in Germany" in the form of the
ethno-memorial complex "The Map of Kazakhstan – Atameken", or "Kazakhstan in
miniature". Beside it, sculptural compositions and acting copies of the objects
devoted to the innovative ideas that emerged in the Kazakh land at the dawn of
human civilization can find their places (domesticated horses, an arba, a yurt, pants,
a saddle, stirrups, etc.). Ethno-auls and farm-touristic complexes can and should also
be created around the cities of Kokshetau, Karaganda and Pavlodar. Such work is
already underway. For example, 5 km from Karaganda, a farm "Camila" began the
works to establish an agro-tourist complex, in which the teachers and students of the
Karaganda Economic University of Kazpotrebsoyuz took an active part. The complex
includes a horse arena and horse stables; falcons, quail and pheasant farms, a
stocking pond and a pond for beach holidays, a cafe building, a complex of guest
houses with all amenities, a race track, demonstration farms for keeping cows, sheep,

- 32 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

goats, camels and other animals. Wind generators will enable addressing a part of
the complex’s needs for electricity.
By the time of hosting the EXPO-2017, the racetrack would invite to spend the
championships of the country and abroad for the sports games "Kokpar", "Alaman
Bayga", "Kyz Kuu", as well as individual "Jamba Atu (Sadak Tartu)", "Oramal Ilu"
dzhigitting, "Tal Shabu", "Falconry" and others. The project of the agro-tourist
complex "Camila" provides the possibility of hosting national weddings and
celebrations beside the "Ethno-Aul" on population’s request.
The adoption and implementation of the long-term national program "The Brand of
Kazakhstan" will help not only to generate a positive image of the country,
recognizable in the world, but will also contribute to the emergence of the Kazakh
national identity.

- 33 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MENADŽMENT DOGAĐAJA I TURIZAM


Aleksandra Brakus
Visoka škola modernog biznisa, Beograd, Srbija
brakus011@gmail.com

REZIME
Zabava kao globalni fenomen dobija sve više na važnosti i ostvaruje ogromne
prihode. Rad se bavi događajima koji mogu biti planirani ili neplanirani i ograničenog
trajanja. Menadžment događaja je postao posebno polje izučavanja u velikom broju
institucija. Događaji imaju poseban značaj u turizmu, u smislu poboljšanja imidža ili
publiciteta određenog grada, zajednice ili regije. Svaka zajednica shvata potrebu
organizovanja određenih događaja radi pozicioniranja u svesti publike i razlikovanja
od konkurenata i pridobijanja medijske pažnje koja bi joj pomogla da privuče
određenu ciljnu grupu. Profesionalci koji se bave organizovanjem događaja moraju
posedovati određene menadžerske veštine i znanje koje će im pomoći da upravljaju
događajima. Dobra komunikacija, planiranje, vođenje, kontrola su samo neke od
potrebnih osobina da bi se uspešno organizovao događaj, kao što je sajam,
konferencija, festival ili sportski događaj. Marketing je veoma važan segment, jer on
omogućava da se različitim komunikacijama privuče publika i zadovolje njihove
potrebe. Organizovanje događaja je usluga, koja nije opipljiva, samim tim zahteva
dodatno angažovanje menadžera i celog tima da se stvori dobar imidž kao garancija
kvaliteta. Menadžment događaja zajedno sa turizmom i kulturom predstavlja
partnersku saradnju koja bi trebalo da doprinese stvaranju zajedničke usluge. Na taj
način kulturna industrija zauzima značajno mesto u globalnoj ekonomiji. Kulturni
turizam je izuzetno značajan jer omogućava mestima koja nisu isključivo turistička i
nemaju turističke posete tokom cele godine da kreiraju svoju kulturno – turističku
ponudu zahvaljujući svojim potencijalima. Njegov cilj je da motiviše ljude da putuju i
posećuju znamenita mesta kako bi se bolje upoznali sa određenom kulturom i njenom
istorijom. U vreme ubrzanog načina života i sve češćeg pominjanja interkulturalnosti
i multikulturalnosti, kulturni turizam omogućava da se lakše upoznamo sa različitim
gradovima, regionima i njihovom kulturom i načinom života. Kulturno – turistička
ponuda zajedno sa organizovanjem određenih događaja pravi je način motivisanja
ljudi da poseti određeno mesto ili grad i njegove znamenosti kao što su: dvorci, salaši,
gradske i seoske zgrade, spomenici kulture. Ali, pod kulturno – turističkom ponudom
se podrazumevaju i tradicionalne i savremene kulturne vrednosti, kao što su lokalni
folklor, običaji i verovanja, jezik i sve ono što je tradicionalno i specifično lokalno.
Organizovanje događaja kao što su izložbe, muzički spektakli, pozorišne predstave,
festivali, jubileji mogu dodatno pospešiti kulturno – turističku ponudu i obogatiti
sadržaj određenog mesta ili grada. Turistička ponuda nije namenjena samo turistima,
već i domaćem stanovništvu koje treba da upozna svoje kulturne potencijale da bi ih
više poštovala. Kultura, umetnost i turizam znatno utiču na ugled i reputaciju
određene sredine, i zbog toga se gradovi i regioni brendiraju. Postizanje dobrog i

- 34 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

pozitivnog imidža uz pomoć kulture i umetnosti i organizovanjem prikladnih događaja


bi trebalo da bude cilj svake zajednice, jer će im to pomoći da razviju turizam i
upoznaju posetioce sa njihovom jedinstvenom kulturom. Brendiranje gradova
predstavlja garanciju i kvalitet koji taj grad pruža u smislu dobre zabave i događaja,
kulture i arhitekture koja ga krasi. Zato sve više gradova pokreće kampanje u
nastojanju da proda svoje specifične lokalne vrednosti i zadovolji potrebe za
zabavom i kulturne potrebe. Sve veći broj regiona nastoji da razvije svoj identitet tako
da postane prepoznatljiv i atraktivan ne samo za svoje stanovnike, već i da privuče
posetioce. U suštini svaki grad ili regija izlazi na globalno tržište i takmiči se stvarajući
svoj brend koji da bi bio originalan, mora se razlikovati od drugih. Ponuda mora biti
originalna interesantna, da bi privukla turiste koji pored posete kulturnih znamenitosti
žele da se dobro provedu. Zabava kao kulturna ponuda može pomoći u boljem
pozicioniranju na globanom tržištu. Određene koncerte pop i rok muzike poseti više
desetina hiljada ljudi ljubitelja te vrste muzike, kako u svojoj zemlji tako i u drugim
zemljama, takođe i određene sportske događaje, koji postaju sve više kulturni
događaji. Ako uzmemo za primer otvaranje Olimpijade u SAD i Grčkoj ili fudbalskog
prvenstava u Francuskoj, kada je pod vedrim nebom organizovan koncert tri operske
zvezde – Pavarotija, Dominga i Karerasa, videćemo da je u ovim slučajevima kulturni
turizam, zajedno sa organizovanjem događaja doneo veliki profit i promovisao kulturu
i gradove gde su se ovi događaji održavali. Ono što je bitno da su ove spektakle
prenosile najveće svetske medijske kuće, koje su omogućile da ove događaje vide
milioni gledaoca i na taj način utiču na promovisanje i stvaranje dobrog imidža ovih
gradova. Bitno je doći do ciljne grupe i predstaviti im se u najboljem svetlu.
Menadžment događaja zajedno sa kulturnim turizmom predstavlja budućnost i
siguran način za borbu na globalnom tržištu koje je sve surovije i sa sve većom
konkurencijom. Prilikom prenosa određenih događaja kao što je Tour the France,
određeni delovi gradova budu u krupnom planu i tu se vidi promišljenost i rediteljskog
i scenografskog projekta. Veliki međunarodni događaji imaju za cilj da privuku veliku
masu ljudi. Učesnika ima mnogo, organizatori imaju pune ruke posla ali tu su i
sponzori i finansijeri koji ostvaruju svoj cilj putem prenosa događaja. Za
organizovanje velikih događaja potreban je veliki rad, zalaganje i trud ali zato ako sve
bude kako treba, poseta bude velika, provod dobar, a sve to prenesu i mediji, nema
većeg uspeha. Ono po čemu se razlikuje jedna zemlja od druge ili po čemu se jedan
grad razlikuje od drugog jeste kultura naroda i etničkih grupa, jezici, istorija,
nacionalni spomenici i sve one specifične lokalne vrednosti koje ne postoje na
drugom mestu. To je ono što se mora iskoristiti u kulturno – turističkoj ponudi, i
predstaviti kao jedinstveno. Dakle dolazimo do one tačke kada se shvata da turizam
bez kulture ne može i da je njena uloga velika i prilikom organizovanja događaja i
njihovog promovisanja. Dobro iskorišćeni kulturni potencijali jedne zajednice, mogu
joj omogućiti veliki profit i pomoći razvoju zajednice. Potrebno je da se formira
strategija kulturnog razvoja i da dođe do međusektorske saradnje. Da zajednica
shvati značaj koji ima od kulture i turizma i organizovanja događaja koji bi kod turista
i publike postigli satisfakciju.
Ključne reči: menadžment događaja, turizam, promocija, marketing

- 35 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

EVENT MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM


Aleksandra Brakus
Modern Business School, Belgrade, Serbia
brakus011@gmail.com

SUMMERY:
Fun as a global phenomenon is getting more on importance and making huge
profits. The work deals with events that can be planned or unplanned and of limited
duration. Event management has become a separate field of study in a number of
institutions. Events have special significance in tourism, in terms of improving the
image of the publicity or certain city, community or region. Each community has
realized the need to organize certain events for positioning in the minds of the
audience and differentiation from competitors and winning media attention that will
helpe it to attract a specific target group. Professionals who deal with organizing the
event must possess a certain management skills and knowledge that will help them
to run the events. Good communication, planning, management, control are just
some of the qualities needed to successfully organize an event such as: a trade show,
conference, festival or sport event. Marketing is a very important part, because it
allows the various communications to attract audiences and satisfy their needs.
Organizing the event is a service that is not tangible, and therefore requires additional
engagement of managers and the whole team to create a good image as a guarantee
of quality. Event management, together with tourism and culture represents a
partnership that should contribute to the creation of common services. In this way,
the cultural industry occupies an important place in the global economy. Cultural
tourism is very important because it allows to places that are not exclusively a tourist
place and have no tourist visits throughout the year to create their own cultural -
tourist offer thanks to its potential. Its aim is to motivate people to travel and visit
places of interest in order to meet the particular culture and its history better. At the
time of the accelerated lifestyle and a more frequent mentioning the interculturalism
and multiculturalism, cultural tourism makes us easier to introduce to different cities,
regions and their culture and way of life. Cultural - tourist offer and together with the
organization of certain events is the right way to motivate people to visit the place or
city and its places of interest such as: castles, farms, urban and rural buildings,
monuments of culture. But, under the cultural - tourist offer are included both
traditional and contemporary cultural values, such as local folklore, customs and
beliefs, language and everything that is traditional and specifically local. Organizing
events such as exhibitions, musical shows, theatrical performances, festivals,
jubilees can further promote cultural - tourist offer and enrich the content of a
particular city or town. Tourist offer is not intended only for tourists but also local
residents who need to know their cultural resources to respect them more. Culture,
Arts and Tourism significantly affect to the reputation and the reputation of the other

- 36 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

communities, and that is why cities and regions are branded. Achieving a good and
positive image with the help of culture and art, and organizing appropriate events
should be the goal of every community, because it will help them to develop tourism
and familiarize visitors with their unique culture. City branding is a guarantee of the
quality that the city offers in terms of entertainment and events, culture and
architecture that adorns it. Therefore, more and more cities are starting campaign in
an effort to sell their specific local values and meet the needs of the entertainment
and cultural needs. A growing number of the region is trying to develop their identity
so that it becomes a recognizable and attractive not only for its residents, but also to
attract visitors. In essence, each city or region is on a global market and compete by
creating their brand that would be original, must be distinguished from the others. The
offer must be original interesting in order to attract tourists who visit cultural
attractions in addition to want to have a good time. Entertainment as well as cultural
offer can help in better positioning on the global market. Certain concerts of pop and
rock music visit more than thousands of people who are fans of this kind of music,
both in their country and in other countries, too, and some sport events, which are
becoming more and more cultural events. If we take for example the opening of the
Olympics in the United States and Greece, or football championships in France,
where the open air concert was organized with three opera stars - Pavarotti, Domingo
and Carreras, we will see that in these cases, cultural tourism, together with the
organization of events brought huge profits and promote culture and cities where
these events took place.
What is important that these spectacles were presented by the world's largest media
companies, which have enabled these events to be seen by millions of spectators
and on that way affected the promotion and created a good image of these cities. It
is important to reach the target groups and present them in the best light. Event
management together with cultural tourism is the future and certain way to fight the
global market that is increasingly drastic and with increasing competition. When the
transfer of certain events such as the Tour the France, certain areas of cities are in a
large plan, and it shows thoughtfulness and directing and scene project. A large
international events aimed to attract a large crowd of people. There are many
participants, the organizers have their hands full, but there are sponsors and
financiers who realized their goal via the transmission event. For the organization of
major events requires a lot of work, eagerness and effort, but if all goes well, the visit
is great, a good time to transfer all the media the success is great. What makes one
country different from another, or makes one city different from another, is the culture
of nations and ethnic groups, languages, history, national monuments and those
specific local values that do not exist elsewhere. This is what must be used in a
cultural - tourist offer, and present as a unique. So we come to the point when you
realize that tourism without culture can not exist and its role is great in organizing the
event and to promote them. Good used cultural resources of a community can allow
big profits and help community development. It is necessary to form a strategy for
cultural development, and that there is a cross-sectoral cooperation. The community
needs to understand the importance of having a culture and tourism and organizing
events which will achieve satisfaction to audiences and tourists.

- 37 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

NET VERSUS GROSS CAPITAL FLOWS IN THE LUCAS PARADOX


Tajana Tos Bublic
The University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
tajana.tos.bublic@bak.hr
Suzana Djordjevic
The University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
suzana.djordjevic@bak.hr
Marko Lajtman
The University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
marconi.lajtman@gmail.com

RESUME
Following the neoclassical growth theory and applying on to the market of capital,
capital should flow from “rich” countries to “poor” countries. If we define richer
countries as the countries with more capital per worker, according to the theory
capital should be cheaper, and thereby marginal product of capital should be smaller.
In other words, capital return should be less in richer countries than in the poorer
ones. Starting from Solow model, a country with more capital per worker should
export capital (savings) to the country with less capital per worker until capital per
worker equalizes in both countries.
According to the neoclassical theory, Lucas (1990) (comparing marginal product of
capital of USA and India) proved that all capital should flow from USA to India
because Indian marginal product of capital is 58 times bigger than the one in the
USA. The fact that it is not so is now recognized as the Lucas paradox.
The Lucas paradox is included as one of the main puzzles in international
macroeconomics and finances together with high correlation between savings and
investments in OECD countries (the Feldstein-Horioka puzzle), lack of overseas
investments from resident of home country (the home bias puzzle) and low correlation
of consumption growth across countries (the risk sharing puzzle).
Studies on the Lucas paradox are different in defining capital and in the sample of
countries used for data. Most research study net capital flows, but some analyze
gross capital flows and some papers focus on all capital flows unlike some that focus
only on private capital inflows. What most of papers have in common is studying
world data and very rarely regional data. Most of the work on the capital flows focuses
on net capital flows (difference between inflows by foreigner and outflows by domestic
agents, NCF) but financial crises shifted attention to gross capital flows (GCF).

- 38 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

While there are undisputed facts of existence of Lucas paradox in global capital flows,
Europe, according to a very few papers, does not show paradoxical capital flow.
Moreover, empirical analysis shows net capital flows accordingly to assumptions of
neoclassical theory.
Having in mind that net capital flows can be reduced due to the two different aspects
(decreasing of capital inflow or increasing of capital outflows) and that foreign and
domestic agents are driven by different factors we find that the lack of Lucas paradox
in Europe capital flows is the consequence of studying net instead of gross capital
flows.
The aim of this paper is to elaborate the need of analyzing gross capital flows instead
of net capital flows in time of globalization, financial liberalization and crisis and by
doing that explaining all the differences in conclusions of existence of Lucas paradox.
Paper is first defining differences between net capital flows and gross capital flows.
The second part of the paper is giving an overview of studies compared to the data
used in the research. Conclusions of those researches are than compared
considering the type of capital flows – gross or net, assuming that net capital flows
are showing different effects on Lucas paradox than gross capital flows.
As a conclusion paper gives three statements. First is setting net capital flows as a
relatively stable variable regardless the shocks on the markets. Second one is
describing gross capital flows as larger and more volatile to changes than net capital
flows. The third conclusion of the paper is positioning all the gross capital flows,
capital inflows and capital outflows, as a variable.
Understanding the capital flows and Lucas paradox in the economy of modern society
means to answer the question of convergence of countries in the long term and
thereby question the existing neoclassical growth theories and shifting them into a
new, globalization era of liberalization and crisis.

Keywords: Lucas paradox, net capital flows, gross capital flows

- 39 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

EFIKASNOST INFORMACIJSKIH TEHNOLOGIJA U TURIZMU


REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE
Maja Buljat
Veleučilište Baltazar Zaprešić, Zaprešić, Hrvatska
maja. buljat@bak.hr
Suzana Đorđević
Veleučilište Baltazar Zaprešić, Zaprešić, Hrvatska
suzana. djordjevic@bak.hr
Barbara Franić
Veleučilište Baltazar Zaprešić, Zaprešić, Hrvatska
barbara. franic@bak.hr

REZIME
Svakodnevno se pronalaze nova sredstva i načini koji omogućuju sve veću
efikasnost u poslovanju, odnosno dovode do veće profitabilnosti poslovanja
poduzetnika u turizmu. Dinamično i neizvjesno okruženje mijenja poslovanje
turističkih agencija nalažući im prilagodbu, prihvaćanjem novih izazova i mogućnosti
iz okoline.
Važnost turizma proizlazi iz brojnih ekonomskih učinaka, kao što su: rast
zaposlenosti, rast dohotka, rast javnih prihoda te rast kapitalnih ulaganja. Razvoj
turizma donosi brojne ekonomske koristi privatnom, javnom i neprofitnom sektoru te
lokalnom stanovništvu. Nedostatak odgovarajućeg ekonomskog mjerenja učinaka
ostvarenih kroz turizam često vodi i podcjenjivanju koristi od turizma, posebice u
usporedbi s ostalim gospodarskim sektorima. Turizam u Hrvatskoj u velikoj je mjeri
izvozno orijentiran, što je vidljivo iz udjela noćenja stranih turista u ukupnim
noćenjima. U Hrvatskoj je 2014. prema podacima Ministarstva turizma boravilo 13,1
milijun turista što predstavlja rast za 5,6% u odnosu na 2013. U ukupnom broju
dolazaka dominiraju strani turisti s 11,6 milijuna (rast od 6,2%), dok broj dolazaka
domaćih turista iznosi 1,5 milijuna (rast od 1,4%). Primjetan je konstantan rast udjela
turističke djelatnosti u bruto domaćem proizvodu. Povećanje udjela prihoda
ostvarenih od turizma u ukupnom BDP-u Hrvatske ukazuje na to kako je turistički
sektor od velike važnosti kada je u pitanju pozitivan ekonomski rast Hrvatske.
Recesija koja u Hrvatskoj traje od 2008. godine utjecala je gotovo na sve sektore
gospodarstva, izuzev turizma. Devizni prihodi nakon velikog pada u 2009. godini
bilježe konstantan rast, zaposlenost u turističkom sektoru također bilježi porast.
Navedeni podaci ukazuju na važnost ulaganja u turistički sektor te važnost prilagodbe

- 40 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

i organizacije poslovanja novim trendovima koji su u najvećoj mjeri orijentirani


tehnološkom razvoju.
Mediji i tehnologija smanjili su svijet, te će se ljudske potrebe izjednačiti stvarajući
jedinstveno globalno tržište koje će dominirati uz svjetski najuspješnije tržišne marke.
Tehnologija okreće svijet prema "jedinstvenim ujedinjenim zajednicama", i nije više
bitno kojoj rasi, religiji ili kulturi pripadaju - oni svi skupa ubiru plodove tehnologije u
kojem bilo obliku N. Koncul (2004). Novi mediji uz pomoć novih informacijskih
tehnologija omogućili su da se slike, tekst, zvukovi, video i drugi sadržaji prenose
velikim brzinama na velike udaljenosti te tako doprinose ukupnim promocijskim
aktivnostima u turizmu te pozitivan utjecaj na razvoj hrvatskog turizma, kao i
cjelokupnog gospodarstva.
Novi potrošački trendovi, političke promjene, nova tehnologija, fragmentacija tržišta,
globalizacija, vertikalna, horizontalna i dijagonalna integracija, zabrinutost zbog
okoliša, gospodarska integracija i mnogi drugi važni procesi - sve to pridonosi
složenosti upravljanja poduzećem u turizmu. Razvoj gospodarstva je nezamisliv bez
Interneta, prvenstveno zbog dominiranja stranih turista. Informacijske tehnologije
donijele su velike promjene u turizmu i na turističkom tržištu.
Značenje Interneta kao primarnog pružatelja informacije, rezervacijskog sustava i
promocije izazvao je „revoluciju“ na strani turističke ponude i potražnje, pri čemu je
posebno unio velike promjene kod organizatora putovanja. Danas je Internet jedan
od najvažnijih medija koji se primjenjuje u turizmu kao ključ kvalitetnog poslovanja
organizacije. Promjenjivi gospodarski uvjeti, promjene u ponašanju potrošača i razvoj
novih tehnologija uzrokovati će nastanak novih tržišta. Jedan od najvažnijih trendova
koji će imati utjecaj na potrošače je ubrzani razvoj tehnologije. Pojava Interneta
donijela je i novu tržišnu kategoriju, elektronsko poslovanje. Koristeći Internet kao
temeljno sredstvo komunikacije i obrade inovacija, poduzeće prisvaja mrežu kao svoj
organizacijski oblik“. Castells (2003) Prodaja, distribucija i promocija predstavljaju
vrlo važne komponente u turizmu. Plasirati turističku ponudu na određenom
turističkom tržištu manifestira se na dva najčešća oblika distribucije: izravnu
distribuciju i neizravnu distribuciju. Proces prodaje i distribucije intenziviran je
primjenom informatičke tehnologije. Cilj ovog rada je prikazati važnost informacijske
tehnologije u turizmu, odnosno Interneta kao portala za prikupljanje informacija o
turističkoj ponudi i prednosti korištenja online rezervacijskog sustava koji se ujedno
nameće kao osnovni resurs menadžmenta tvrtke. Sa sve većom raširenošću i
primjenom Interneta u gospodarski razvijenim zemljama, trend elektroničkog
poslovanja postaje sve značajniji, odnosno organizacija svih resursa tvrtke na
formiranje adekvatnog poslovnog modela koji omogućuje efikasno poslovanje u
turizmu posredstvom Interneta. Koliko je Internet važan u turizmu, dokazuje i
provedeno istraživanje. Osnovni cilj istraživanja jest utvrditi važnost Interneta u
organiziranju i rezerviranju putovanja. Za istraživanje je korišten anketni upitnik s 13
pitanja i proveden je između 21. i 29. siječnja 2016. godine. Osnovni skup čine

- 41 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

studenti Veleučilišta Baltazar Zaprešić u dobi od 19 do 49 godina. Uzorak obuhvaća


84 ispitanika od čega je 31% muškog spola, a 69% ženskog spola. Anketni upitnik
slao se online, nakon dovršetka istraživanja dobiveni odgovori koordinirani su i
analizirani u Microsoft Excelu i statističkim formulama. Većina ispitanika – 97,6 %
posjeduje računalo, dok samo 2,4 % ispitanika ne posjeduje računalo, no bez obzira
na taj mali udio, svi ispitanici koriste Internet. Od ukupnih 100% ispitanika, 20%
provodi minimalno 15 minuta do 1 sat vremena na dan koristeći Internet, 36% provodi
1 do 2 sata, 15% od 2 do 3 sata, a 29% ispitanika u ukupnom broju provodi više od
3 sata na dan koristeći Internet. Više od polovice ispitanika (70,2%) je odgovorilo da
informacije o destinaciji prikuplja putem Interneta. Sve manje se traže informacije
putem turističkih agencija, što se može vidjeti po rezultatima provedenog istraživanja.
Kada je riječ o načinu rezerviranja putovanja 76,2% ispitanika rezervira svoj
putovanje putem Interneta, dok 23,8% preko turističkih agencija. Ispitanici smatraju
da je na Internetu mnogo jeftinije, brže i općenito jednostavnije s jedne strane
prezentirati svoju ponudu, a s druge strane, sa strane potražnje na temelju
navedenog i doći do informacija.
Turizam u Hrvatskoj ima izrazito visok udio u nacionalnom proizvodu, te je od velike
važnosti za Hrvatsko gospodarstvo. Potrebno je neprekidno praćenje i evaluacija
postojeće turističke ponude. Ulaskom na globalno tržište, poduzetnik ima priliku vrlo
jednostavno i brzo upoznati kvalitetu, cijene usluga i asortiman ponude konkurencije
što mu otvara mogućnosti i daje smjernice za organizaciju i usavršavanje vlastite
ponude. S druge strane, sa strane potražnje, navike, želje i potrebe se sve više
mijenjaju. Turist želi biti u kontaktu s cijelim svijetom, prikupljati informacije o
turističkim destinacijama i njihovoj ponudi pristupiti brzo. Gotovo pola rezervacija u
Hrvatskoj ostvari se virtualnim putem, a Internet i društvene mreže potisnuli su
tradicionalne izvore ponuda turističkih destinacija.

Ključne riječi: Internet, devizni priljev, turizam, BDP, zaposlenost, organizacija


poslovanja.

- 42 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

EFFICIENCY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CROATIAN


TOURISM
Maja Buljat
University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
maja. buljat@bak.hr
Suzana Đorđević
University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
suzana. djordjevic@bak.hr
Barbara Franic
University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zapresic, Zapresic, Croatia
barbara. franic@bak.hr

RESUME
Each day there are new tools and methods that enable business performance to be
more efficient, and lead to higher business profitability in the tourism industry.
Because of the dynamic and uncertain environment, management of travel agencies
has changed, forcing them to adapt, accept new challenges and find new
opportunities. The importance of tourism can be seen in a number of economic
factors, such as employment growth, income growth, the growth of public revenue
and the growth of capital investments. Tourism development brings many economic
benefits to the private, public and non-profit sector and the local population. The lack
of adequate economic measurements of effects generated through tourism often
leads to underestimating the benefits of tourism, especially in comparison with other
economic sectors. Tourism in Croatia is largely export-oriented, which is evident from
the share of foreign tourists’ overnights in the total overnight stays. According to the
Ministry of Tourism, 13.1 million tourists visited Croatia in 2014, which represents a
growth of 5.6% compared to 2013. In the total number of arrivals there were 11.6
million foreign tourists (growth of 6.2%), while the number of domestic tourist arrivals
amounted to 1.5 million (growth of 1.4%). There is a constant growth of the tourist
industry in the gross domestic product. Increase in the share of revenues generated
from tourism in the total GDP of Croatia indicates that tourism sector is of a great
importance when it comes to positive economic growth of Croatia. The recession in
Croatia, which has been going on since 2008, has had the influence on almost all
sectors of the economy, except for tourism. Since the huge decline in 2009, foreign
currency revenues have been growing constantly, while the employment rate in
tourism sector has also increased. These data indicate the importance of investments
in tourism sector and the importance of adapting business organization to new trends

- 43 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

that are largely oriented to technological development. The media and technology
have made the world closer, and consumers’ needs similar, which has helped create
a unique global marketplace where the world's most successful brands dominate.
Technology has turned the world into a "single unified community", and it is no longer
important what race, religion or culture they belong to - all of them together reap the
benefits of technology in any form Koncul N. (2004). New Media, with the assistance
of new information technologies, has made it possible for images, text, sounds,
videos and other contents to be transferred at high speed across vast distances, thus
contributing to the overall promotion of tourism activities and producing a positive
impact on the development of Croatian tourism and overall economy. New consumer
trends, political changes, new technologies, market fragmentation, globalization,
vertical, horizontal and diagonal integration, concerns about the environment,
economic integration and many other important processes - it all contributes to the
complexity of company management in tourism. Development of economy is
impossible without the Internet, primarily because of the dominance of foreign
tourists. Information technologies have brought an enormous change in tourism and
in tourist market. The significance of the Internet as a primary information provider,
booking system and a promotion tool has caused a "revolution" in tourist supply and
demand, whereby trip organizers went through major changes. Today the Internet is
one of the most important media in tourism and it is the key for quality business
organization. Changing economic conditions as well as changes in consumer
behaviour and development of new technologies, all lead to the emergence of new
markets. One of the most important trends that has the impact on consumers is a
rapid development of technology. The emergence of the Internet has brought about
a new market category, online business. By using the Internet as a fundamental
means of communication and process innovation, the company adopts the network
as its organizational form" Castells (2003). Selling, distribution and promotion are
very important components of tourism. Launching a tourist offer on a certain tourist
market is done by two most common forms of distribution: direct distribution and
indirect distribution. The process of selling and distribution has been intensified by
the application of information technology. The aim of this paper is to present the
importance of information technology in the tourism industry, and the importance of
the Internet as a portal for gathering information about the tourist industry and the
advantages of using an online reservation system. Economically developed countries
are increasingly using the Internet, the trend of e-business is becoming more and
more important, and all companies' resources are being invested into establishing an
adequate business model that will enable efficient business operations in tourism via
the Internet. The conducted research has proven the importance of the Internet in
tourism. The main objective of the research was to determine the importance of the
Internet in organizing and booking trips. For research purposes, a questionnaire with
13 questions was used and it was conducted in the period between 21st and 29th
January 2016. The basic set consists of students from the University of Applied
Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić aged 19-49 years. The sample includes 84 students, out

- 44 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

of which 31% were male and 69% female. The questionnaire was done online, the
obtained responses were coordinated and analysed in Microsoft Excel and by using
statistic formulas. The majority of respondents – 97.6% owns a computer, while only
2.4% of respondents do not have a computer, but all respondents use the Internet.
Out of the total 100% of the subjects, 20% spend a minimum of 15 minutes up to 1
hour per day using the Internet, 36% spend from 1 to 2 hours, 15% from 2 to 3 hours,
and 29% of the total number spend more than 3 hours a day using the Internet. More
than half of all respondents (70.2%) said that they find information about their
destinations via the Internet. Less and less people are turning to travel agencies to
find out travel information, as can be seen in the results of the study. When it comes
to booking, 76.2% of respondents book their travel via the Internet, while 23.8%
contact travel agencies. Respondents consider that the Internet is much cheaper,
faster and generally easier, not only to present offers, but also to find the desired
information.
Tourism in Croatia makes an extremely large part of the national product, and it is of
major importance for Croatian economy. It is necessary to continuously monitor and
evaluate the existing tourist offer. By entering the global market, entrepreneurs have
an opportunity to easily and quickly get acquainted with the quality, price and
competitor’s’ offer, which opens the possibilities and provides guidance for organizing
and perfecting their own offers. On the other hand, from the demand side, habits,
needs and wishes are increasingly changing. Tourists want to be in touch with the
whole world, to find out information about tourist destinations and access the offers
quickly. Almost half of reservations in Croatia is done virtually, and the Internet
together with social networks has pushed back the traditional means of finding travel
offers.

Keywords: The Internet, foreign exchange earnings, tourism, GDP, employment,


business organization.

- 45 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

KOMPARATIVNA ANALIZA MAĐARSKOG I SRPSKOG


INOVATIVNOG PREDUZETNIČKOG AMBIJENTA
Tamara Ž. Cvetković
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
rubi.bg@gmail.com
Slobodan Aćimović
Ekonomski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, Beograd, Srbija
asloba@ekof.bg.ac.rs
Milan Mihajlović
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
Univerzitet, Beograd, Srbija
mihajlovicmilan89@gmail.com

REZIME
Inovacija predstavlja osnov za globalnu konkurentnost. Vrsta inovacija koje se
primenjuje u različitim industrijama opredeljuje njihov uticaj na privredni rast i
performanse u regionu ili državi. Inovacija predstavlja promenu koja kroz kreiranje
resursa omogućuje stvaranje bogatstva. Isto tako, inovaciju čini i sve ono što donosi
promene u potencijalu proizvođenja bogatstva kod već postojećih resursa. Iako
inovacija uopšte ne mora da bude tehnička i ne mora da bude materijalna stvar ona
uvek donosi promene u ekonomskom sistemu jedne zemlje. Očigledno je da se
ključni faktor sposobnosti zemalja da održe privredni rast i konkurentnost nalazi u
sposobnosti da aktiviraju inovacije i učenje.
Upravljanje malim biznisom i preduzetništvom su poslednjih trideset godina postale
glavni predmet interesovanja i istraživanja u akademskim krugovima. Globalni interes
za mala i srednja preduzeća (MSP) i preduzetništvo je rapidno rastao tokom 1980-ih
i 1990-ih pošto su ona postala nosioci i pokretači ekonomskog razvoja. Brojni autori
su ukazali na to da male firme i zrele firme imaju najveći udeo u ukupnoj zaposlenosti
i otvaranju novih radnih mesta.
Visok stepen tržišne fleksibilnosti i niski troškovi poslovanja predstavljaju značajnu
odrednicu i komparativnu prednost malih preduzeća. Ona su često izvor inovacija i
kao takva doprinose ubrzanom privrednom razvoju. U ovim preduzećima dolazi do
izražaja preduzetnička inicijativa, profitabilnost ulaganja kapitala, inovativnost i
kreativnost.

- 46 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Savremene privrede ponovno prepoznaju preduzetništvo kao akcelerator budućeg


razvoja, rasta proizvodnje, profita i zaposlenosti. U otvorenoj i globalnoj ekonomiji
profitabilnost se zasniva na pojedinačnim efektima svakog preduzeća, njegovoj
konkurentskoj poziciji, kadrovima i primenjenim strategijama. Budući da je akcenat
na preduzećima koja ulažu u sebe, inoviraju, izlažu se riziku, anticipiraju promene, u
uslovima ograničenih resursa moguće je govoriti o preduzetničko-inovativnim
kompanijama.
O značaju malih i srednjih preduzeća za budući rast, inovacije, zapošljavanje i
ekonomski oporavak svedoče podaci OECD po kojima u grupaciji zemalja koje
pripadaju OECD mala i srednja preduzeća zapošljavaju više od polovine radne snage
i to u privatnom sektoru. U Evropskoj uniji mala i srednja preduzeća čine preko 99%
svih preduzeća od čega 91% ovih preduzeća predstavljaju mikro preduzeća.
Sa stanovišta dinamičnosti svetske poslovne scene i položaja Srbije i Mađarske
realno je očekivati da okosnica njihovog budućeg rasta i razvoja bude preduzetnički
sektor. Razvoj inovativnih sposobnosti, proizvoda ili procesa, može da pruži
preduzeću brojne strateške izbore. Nasuprot tome, mala i srednja preduzeća koja
nemaju mogućnost da investiraju u inovacije su manje sposobna da odgovore na
promene u tehnološkim i konkurentskim tržišnim očekivanjima i mogućnostima,
odnosno da daju odgovore na uvođenje novih proizvoda ili na proširenje procesa
konkurenata.
Srpska iskustva u razvoju preduzetničkog ambijenta se ocenjuju kao srednje
uspešna, što se dokumentuje, pre svega, udelom malih i srednjih preduzeća u
ukupnom broju preduzeća, sa više od 90% kao što je slučaj sa većinom zemalja
Evropske unije. Po pitanju ukupne zaposlenosti kao i udela inovacija u ukupnoj
konkurentnosti Srbija ima jako lošu poziciju u odnosu na zemlje regiona i EU28.
Preduzetnički ambijent se u Srbiji, donekle, razlikuje od ostalih zemalja u tranziciji.
Mala preduzeća ne predstavljaju novinu u današnjim uslovima privređivanja pošto
značajan broj u Srbiji egzistira još od osamdesetih godina. Pod uticajem globalne
ekonomske krize sektor malih preduzeća pokazuje zabrinjavajući nedostatak
dinamičnosti poslovanja tako da se, prema zvaničnim podacima, evidentira
kontinuirana stagnacija ili čak smanjenje broja malih i srednjih preduzeća.
Razvoj preduzetničkog inovativnog ambijenta u Srbiji rezultat je nedovoljne primene
naučno-istraživačkog rada, nedovoljne primene razvoja novih tehnologija,
neadekvatne finansijske podrške što je dovelo do drastičnog porasta troškova,
tehnološke dezintegraciji privrede, slabljenja konkurentske sposobnosti privrednih
subjekata, i porasta ino konkurencije. Prevazilaženje pomenutih poteškoća moguće
je postići uključivanjem srpskih preduzeća u mrežu međunarodnih istraživačkih
institucija, povezivanjem privrede sa naučnim institucijama, racionalnim korišćenjem
raspoloživih potencijala i osposobljavanjem privrede da apsorbuje nova znanja i
inovacije.

- 47 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Po udelu MSP u ukupnom broju preduzeća Srbija se ne razlikuju previše od razvijenih


zemalja Evrope iz razloga što više od 90% preduzeća čine mala i srednja preduzeća.
Razlike postoje kad je reč o ukupnoj zaposlenosti kao i udelu inovacija u ukupnoj
konkurentnosti. Navedeni pokazatelji ukazuju na jako lošu poziciju Srbije u odnosu
na zemlje regiona i EU28 što upućuje na zaključak da mala i srednja preduzeća
moraju agresivnije da rade na podizanju konkurentnosti svojih proizvoda i usluga
kako bi mogla da izvoze.
Funkcionisanje savremene svetske privrede je u direktnoj zavisnosti od privatnog
preduzetništva. Značaj malih i srednjih preduzeća za razvijene i zemlje u razvoju
konstantno raste. Društveni značaj malih i srednjih preduzeća (MSP) se ogleda u
tome što ona predstavljaju okosnicu zaposlenosti, kreiranja novih radnih mesta i
ključnog aktera u kreiranju i održavanja blagostanja i regionalnih zajednica. Dakle,
blagostanje malih i srednjih preduzeća predstavlja ključni element za budući rast
ekonomija razvijenih zemalja.
Značaj malih i srednjih preduzeća za Evropsku uniju i zemlje članice, uključujući i
Mađarsku, konstantno raste, što je potvrđeno praktičnim politikama koje sprovode
Evropska komisija i zemlje članice. Naime, Evropska unija je početkom ovog veka
pokrenula niz politika i inicijativa sa ciljem da podstakne razvoj preduzetništva, malih
i srednjih preduzeća (MSP). Mala i srednja preduzeća mogu omogućiti evropskoj
privredi planirani rast ukoliko se nastavi sa podsticanjem preduzetničkog ambijenta
kroz odgovarajuću legislativu, stimulisanjem razvoja profitabilnih preduzetničkih
ideja, razvijanjem inovativnih sektora i diversifikacijom proizvodnje. U tom cilju, u
strateškoj viziji Evrope („Evropa 2020”) za period 2010–2020. se navode fleksibilnost
i kreativnost MSP kao ključne prednosti u realizaciji strateškog opredeljenja EU.
Dakle, blagostanje malih i srednjih preduzeća predstavlja ključni element za budući
rast ekonomije EU ali i za kreiranje tzv. ekonomije znanja.
Kad je reč o inovativnosti Srbija i Mađarska pripadaju grupi srednjih (moderate)
inovatora, pri čemu Srbija ima slabije performanse. Mađarska pripada grupi tzv.
"High-Activity Economies" koje imaju nisku stopu preduzetničke aktivnosti s tim da
su preduzetnici ambiciozni, ali ne i inovativni. U periodu između 2007. i 2014. godine
ostvareno je poboljšanje njenih inovativnih performansi. Pored oscilacija u odnosu
na Evropsku uniju Mađarska je vremenom ostvarila umereno povećanje inovativnih
performansi sa 65% u 2007. godini na 67% u 2014. godini.
Privreda Srbije se nalazi u procesima intenzivnih prilagođavanja privredno
sistemskim rešenjima, standardima i praksi Evropske unije. U tom smislu biće
dragocena iskustva privredne prakse zemalja Evropske unije uključujući i Mađarsku
koja je u tim procesima ostvarila znatno bolje rezultate.

- 48 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SERBIAN AND HUNGARIAN


INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT
Tamara Z. Cvetkovic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
University Belgrade, Serbia
rubi.bg@gmail.com
Slobodan Acimovic
Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
asloba@ekof.bg.ac.rs
Milan Mihajlovic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
University Belgrade, Serbia
mihajlovicmilan89@gmail.com

RESUME
Innovations are the foundation of the global competitiveness. The types of
innovations that are used in various industries identify their impact on economic
growth and performance in a region or country. Innovations involve a change that
provides a wealth creation through the generation of resource. Likewise, innovation
includes everything that brings change in wealth production with available resources.
Although innovation is not necessarily technical and material thing, it always brings
changes in the economic system of a country. It is obvious that the key factor, which
relates to the ability of countries to sustain economic growth and competitiveness, is
the ability to trigger innovations and learning.
Small business and entrepreneurship management in the last thirty years has
become a major subject of interest and research in academic circles. Global interest
in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship was growing
rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s as they had become the carriers and initiators of
economic development. Many authors point out that small companies and mature
companies have the largest share in total employment and the creation of new jobs.
The high degree of market flexibility and low operating costs are an important
determinant of comparative advantage of small businesses. They are often a source
of innovation and as such they contribute to the rapid economic development. In
these companies, the entrepreneurial initiative is evident, as well as the profitability
of capital investment, innovation and creativity.

- 49 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Once again modern economies recognize entrepreneurship as the accelerator for the
future development, growth, production, profits and employment. In the open global
economy profitability is based on the individual effects of each company, their
competitive position, human resources and applied strategies. Since the focus is on
the companies that invest in themselves, innovate, risk and anticipate change in times
of limited resources, it is possible to talk about entrepreneurial and innovative
companies.
The importance of small and medium enterprises for future growth, innovation,
employment and economic recovery is confirmed by the data provided by OECD,
showing SMEs employ over half the labor force and to the private sector, in the group
of countries belonging to the OECD. In the EU, SMEs account for over 99% of all
enterprises and 91% of these enterprises are micro-enterprises.
From the perspective of a dynamic global business scene and the position that Serbia
and Hungary have on it, it is realistic to expect that the basic structure of their future
growth and development is the entrepreneurial sector. Development of the innovative
capabilities, products or processes, can provide a company with a number of strategic
choices. In contrast, small and medium-sized enterprises that do not have the ability
to invest in innovation are less able to respond to changes in technology and
competitive market expectations and opportunities, as well as to the introduction of
new products or the expansion of their competitors.
Serbian experience in development of the entrepreneurial environment is assessed
as moderately successful, which above all can be noticed in the share of small and
medium-sized enterprises within the total number of enterprises, with more than 90%,
which is also the case with a majority of EU countries. As for the total employment
and share of innovations in the overall competitiveness, Serbia has a very bad
position in comparison to the countries of the region and the EU28.
The entrepreneurial environment in Serbia is somewhat different from other transition
economies. Small enterprises do not represent a novelty in today's economic
conditions, considering that a significant number exists in Serbia since the eighties.
Under the influence of the global economic crisis, the sector of small enterprises
shows a disturbing lack of business dynamism. Therefore, according to official data,
sustained stagnation is recorded as well as a reduction in the number of small and
medium-sized enterprises.
The development of innovative entrepreneurial environment in Serbia is the result of
insufficient implementation of scientific research, development of new technologies,
inadequate financial support, which has led to a drastic rise in costs, technology
disintegration of the economy, the weakening of the competitive ability of companies,
and increasing foreign competition. Overcoming the problems above mentioned can
be achieved by including Serbian companies in the network of international research
institutions, linking the economy with scientific institutions, rational use of available
sources and training the economy to absorb new knowledge and innovation.

- 50 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

According to the share of SMEs in total number of Serbian enterprises, they do not
differ much from the developed countries in Europe, because more than 90% of
enterprises are small and medium-sized enterprises. There are differences when it
comes to total employment and share innovations in overall competitiveness. These
indicators show a very bad position of Serbia in relation to the countries of the region
and the EU28 is suggesting that SMEs have to work aggressively to raise the
competitiveness of their products and services in order to be able to export.
The functioning of the global economy is directly connected with the sector of private
enterprise. The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises for developed and
developing countries is constantly growing. The social importance of small and
medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is reflected in the fact that they represent the
backbone of employment, creating new jobs and key actors in the creation and
maintenance of the social prosperity and regional communities. Thus, the welfare of
small and medium enterprises is a key element for the future growth of the economy
of developed countries.
The importance of SMEs for the European Union and its member states, including
Hungary, is constantly growing, as confirmed by practical policies implemented by
the European Commission and the Member States. The European Union has, at the
beginning of this century, launched a series of policies and initiatives with the aim of
encouraging the development of entrepreneurship, small and medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs). Small and medium-sized enterprises can enable the planned
growth of the European economy if it continues to encourage the entrepreneurial
environment through a proper legislation, fostering the development of profitable
entrepreneurial ideas, developing innovative sectors and the diversification of
production. With this aim, a strategic vision of Europe (“Europe 2020") for the period
2010-2020 is referred to flexibility and creativity of SMEs as key advantages in the
realization of the strategic orientation of the EU. Thus, the welfare of small and
medium enterprises is a key item for the future growth of the EU economy and for the
creation of so-called knowledge economy.
When it comes to innovations, Serbia and Hungary belong to the moderate
innovators, whereby Serbia has poorer performance. Hungary belongs to the group
called "High-Activity Economies" that has a low rate of entrepreneurial activity, with
the ambitious but not innovative entrepreneurs. In the period between 2007 and 2014
it was improving the innovative performance. In addition to fluctuations compared to
the European Union, Hungary has achieved a moderate increase in innovative
performance from 65% in 2007 to 67% in 2014.
Serbian economy is in the process of intensive adjustment to the economic system
solutions, standards and practices of the European Union. In respect to that, of a
great value will be the experience of economic practices of the EU countries including
Hungary, which has achieved significantly better results in these processes.

- 51 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MICROENTERPRISES: BIG OR SMALL DATA?


Zoran Cekerevac
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union – Nikola Tesla”
University in Belgrade, Serbia
zoran@cekerevac.eu
Zdenek Dvorak
Faculty of Security Engineering, University in Zilina, Slovakia
Zdenek.Dvorak@fbi.uniza.sk
Petar Cekerevac,
Hilltop Strategic Services, Belgrade, Serbia
petar@cekerevac.eu

RESUME
This work deals with the challenges of microenterprises (further MEs) using data.
There is no doubt that the use of small data has a longer history and is better
developed. The use of big data is of a recent date, and the tools for their processing
are still in the developing phase.
Every company independently, tries to collect as much information as possible, not
only in the field of its activities, counting on the fact that the possession of data is a
capital that will pay off sooner or later. Data possession represents significant
potential. Based on reliable data, management is able to timely make right decisions.
However, is this always possible? Many companies, although able to collect a
number of relevant data, are not able to successfully exploit them. In their analyses,
a lot of unused data remain, not only from the group of big data, but, also from the
group of small data.
Microenterprise is categorized here as in the Commission Recommendation
2003/361/EC (EC, 2003): “…an enterprise which employs fewer than 10 persons and
whose annual turnover and/or annual balance sheet total does not exceed EUR 2
million”. In Serbia, 95% of all enterprises are micro enterprises, with more than
270,000 private entrepreneurs and micro companies (CA, 2015). For this reason, this
issue is becoming more important.
The creation and organization of data infrastructure largely depends on the type of
activities of the company and may be substantially different from industry to industry.
This is why it can be difficult to formulate general conclusions, and in order to obtain
more general and realistic picture, this work deals only with the general principles of
using small and big data.
The working hypothesis was that MEs , due to their limited resources, are not able to
effectively use big data for the benefit of their business.

- 52 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

H0 - The null hypothesis of this analysis is: MEs are not able to form their own
infrastructure in order to be able to take advantage of big data and to form their
strategies of development and doing business.
H1 - The alternative hypothesis is: There are MEs that can form their infrastructure so
that they are able to take advantage of big data and to form their strategies of
development and doing business.
In the research were applied the methods of induction and generalization, as
explained in (Bešić, 2008).
The essential differences of small and big data arise from their definitions. According
to Techopedia (2015): “Small data describes data use that relies on targeted data
acquisition and data mining”, and “Big data refers to a process that is used when
traditional data mining and handling techniques cannot uncover the insights and
meaning of the underlying data.”
IBM (2015) concluded that small data are connected with: low volumes, batch
velocities, and structured varieties. On the other hand, big data are characterized by
(IBM, 2015): Pet byte volumes, real-time velocities, and multi structured varieties.
According to Bagley (2014), 75% of small businesses, in 2015-6, planned to invest
in analysis of big data. Because of the big interest of small businesses, even powerful
software packages intend to become available on very moderate prices. At the same
time, they tend to become easy to use by any employee. This can give an opportunity
to micro enterprises, by the use of advanced analytics techniques, to analyze
previously untapped data sources. Using the analysis of big data independently or
together with their existing data, MEs will gain new views on their doing business
which can consequently result in more appropriate decisions.
Enterprises must adapt to quickly changing landscape to establish analytical
competitive advantage. (Heudecker, et al., 2013). This raises several questions as:
 How can MEs act in order to obtain the necessary skills?
 How can MEs organize themselves to extract value?
 How is information obtained, and governed?
The answer to the first question is very unfavorable for MEs. A big data company
does not need a “data analyst”, but “data scientist”. That is not just the mere change
of the name of the workplace. Data scientist is an expensive hybrid of data hacker,
analyst, communicator, and trusted advisor. The answer to the second question
demands deeper analysis, but it is easy to conclude that there are two extreme
possibilities: that no one cares about big data, and, the most favorable one, that a
company is organized on matrix principle where business and IT work together
following the company's strategy. It is logical that each Head of MEs want to apply
the best variant. However, practice has shown that this is often not feasible. Problems
may lay in the lack of strategy, in inability of competent managers, in the lack of
personnel, in the lack of knowledge, etc. The third question is connected with the
question: What to do with the data? The company can filter them out, arrange them,
and classify them. Although the picture will be clearer, it is unlikely that the information

- 53 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

could be used to solve some specific problems. The reason is simple. It is hard to
find a real situation that will coincide with the data entered in database.
In general, big data and cloud services provide new functionality to users. They can
improve utilization of resources, and they can help to generate revenue faster.
However, the use of big data brings some risks. There is a number of negative
scenarios, and the only one convenient scenario, when business department and IT
are managed by a single leader, competent in both areas.
Analyzing small and big data, one can certainly conclude that many managers in
decision making prefer to work with small data and already proven tools, rather than
to rely on the illusion obtained from complicated, often "black box", software tools and
uncontrolled vast mass of data. And these managers can be right, because it is
proven that the analysis of a poll with the sample of 1,500 people is enough precise
to predict who will be the next president. A poll with the sample of 300 is sufficient to
predict how much the whole population will like a new product or service, etc.
When a company decides to go into the big data environment, it has to ask itself:
what is the right way to use big data? The answer can be in forming business strategy,
and then in starting to acquire data needed to support this strategy.
Finally, for MEs it is of crucial importance to start with small investments and to form
scalable system that will satisfy MEs' needs in every moment.
This research did not verify hypothesis Ho. It was shown that some microenterprises
can successfully use big data when certain conditions are met.
The research does not disprove of the alternative hypothesis H1: “There are MEs that
can form their infrastructure so that they are able to take advantage of big data in
order to form their strategies of development and doing business”. The research gives
a lot of options for MEs to use big data.
WORKS CITED
Bagley, R. O. (2014, Dec 19). 6 Small Business Trends To Watch Out For In 2015.
Retrieved from Forbes:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/rebeccabagley/2014/12/19/6-small-business-
trends-to-watch-out-for-in-2015/
Bešić, M. (2008). Metodologija političkih nauka sa statistikom. Belgrade: Fakultet političkih
nauka.
CA. (2015, October 26). Mikro preduzeća. Retrieved from Credit Agricole:
https://www.creditagricole.rs/mali-biznis/krediti/mikro-preduzeca.198.html
EC. (2003, May 20). Commission Recommendation 2003/361/EC: Definition of micro,
small and medium-sized enterprises. Official Journal L 124. Retrieved from
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=URISERV:n26026
Heudecker, N., Beyer, M. A., Laney, D., Cantara, M., White, A., Edjlali, R., . . . McIntyre,
A. (2013, Nov 20). Predicts 2014: Big Data. Gartner Insight.
IBM. (2015, Oct 28). Taming Big Data: Small Data vs. Big Data. Retrieved from IBM Big
Data & Analytics Hub: http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/infographic/taming-big-
data-small-data-vs-big-data
techopedia. (2015, Oct 27). Small data. Retrieved from techopedia:
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/29539/small-data

- 54 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZACIONO PONAŠANJE – LJUDSKA GREŠKA


Simeun Čuturić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet „Union –
Nikola Tesla“, Beograd, Srbija
prof.cutura@mts.rs
Luka Ilić
Fakultet organizacionih nauka, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Beograd, Srbija
Milan Đuričić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet „Union –
Nikola Tesla“, Beograd, Srbija
milan.djuricic.17@gmail.com

REZIME
U teorijskim uopštavanjima i empirijskim istraživanjima koja se mogu svrstati u
naučnu oblast organizacionog ponašanja retko se sreće manifestacija ljudske
greške.Dosadašnja saznanja i pored tako česte prisutnosti ovog fenomena u
ponašanju ljudi u organizaciji kao da počivaju na hipotezi da su ‚‚Ljudi bezgrešni''.
U našem jeziku,kao i u mnogim drugim,česte su maksime koje glase:‚‚Ljudski je
grešiti'', ‚‚Ko radi,taj i greši''.To su klišei koji opisuju bitne aspekte čovekovog života i
svakodnevnih situacija sa kojima se on susreće.Doslovno tumačenje ovih fraza
sugeriše da su greške deo ljudske prirode,uvek su bile i uvek će se pojavljivati u
njegovom radu i svakodnevnom životu.Čovekov život,a posebno njegova svesna
svrsishodna delatnost,rad,prožeta je manjim ili većim pogreškama.Neke od njih su
zanemarljive i ostaju neprimećene,a neke imaju značajne i trajne posledice.Ima
mišljenja koja upućuju na zaključak da je istorija ljudskog društva,pre svega istorija
njegovih ratova u suštini istorija njegovih grešaka.
Kod ovog etno-psihološkog pristupa prirodi ljudske greške i ovog načina razmišljanja
o njima,njihovom poreklu i posledicama,uočljiva je sumnja u to da li je moguće staviti
pod kontrolu tako duboko ukorenjene navike kod ljudi.Kontrolisati ljudsku naviku da
greše je isto što i kontrolisati njihov celokupni život i više od toga,neki veruju da napori
za sprečavanje nesvesnog ugrožavanja sebe ili drugih nisu dostigli gornju granicu i
da još ima prostora za poboljšanje.
U kontekstu etno-psihološkog razmatranja ljudske sklonosti ka greškama pojavljuje
se i njihov željeni odnos. ‚‚Nulte greške'' često se pominju kao cilj čovekovog
ponašanja i prisustva greški u njemu,ali ovaj cilj je više ideal nego stvarnost.U tom
svetlu približavanja ‚‚nultoj grešci'' u čovekovom ponašanju,a posebno u radu,neka

- 55 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

radna mesta bolje su kotirana od drugih,tako,na primer komercijalna avijacija i


proizvodnja nuklearne energije imaju relativno dobar dosije bezbednosti(ali ne i
savršen).U načelu,na radnim mestima gde se većina interakcija obavlja između ljudi
i opreme,lakše je ostvariti kontrolu nad bezbednosnim problemima.Na drugim radnim
mestima interakcije se obavljaju ne samo između ljudi i opreme,već isključivo između
ljudi koji često izvode intenzivne i kritične nerutinske postupke.Mogućnost da neki
aspekti‚‚ljudske prirode'' izazovu devijaciju planiranog toka radne procedure izrazito
se povećava sa povećanjem lanca izvršilaca.To je još više izraženo kod izvesnog
broja ‚‚specifičnih'' ljudi koji su u značajnoj interakciji sa drugim
ljudima,opremom,proizvodima i procedurama na radnom mestu.
Neke greške zbog svoje učestalosti i beznačajnih posledica postaju sastavni deo
radnog učinka.Greške daktilografa,slovne greške u tekstu,omaške u govoru
predavača i sl. postaju sastavni deo tog posla.Saobraćajne nezgode su tako česte
da smo se na njih navikli.Propusti u izradi bele tehnike gotovo da su njihov
‚‚neizostavni'' deo.
Poprirodiprogramskeorijentacijeljudskomgreškomsepretežno,zasada,bavinaukapsih
ologijaInjoj srodne discipline.Enciklopedije i rečnici psihologije najčešće grešku
definišu kao ‚‚odstupanje u mišljenju,delanju od onoga što se smatra
tačnim,pravilnim, uobičajenim ili normalnim''.
Iako je pojam greške danas sastavni deo svakodnevice,veoma ga je teško precizno
definisati sa tehničkog stanovišta.
Teškoće u problemskom i pojmovnom određenju ljudske greške su brojne.Jedan od
najbitnijih razloga je što se termin ‚‚greška'' koristi da označi sasvim različite
fenomene i raznorodne situacije.U tom smislu pod ovim terminom najčešće srećemo
njihovu upotrebu u označavanju pojava kao što su:ishod ili konsekvenca,sam
događaj,ili moguć uzrok.
U prilog tome ide i činjenica da i same naučne analize prirode i porekla ljudske greške
koje polaze sa različitih aspekata često imaju veoma različita i nekompatibilna
pristupanja.Na primer, inženjer posmatra osobu kao komponentu sistema koja može
raditi uspešno ili pogrešno,isto kao da u tom kontekstu posmatra opremu.S druge
strane,psiholozi polaze od toga da je ljudsko ponašanje ciljno orjentisano i može biti
potpuno shvaćeno samo uz sagledavanje svih ličnih ciljeva i njihovog međusobnog
odnosa.Dalje ilustracije radi, sociolozi ponašanje koje rezultuje greškom pripisuju
preovlađujućem socio-tehnološkom sistemu,i u sociološkoj analizi za varijable koje
utiču na pojavu grešaka uzimaju stil menadžmenta i organizacionu strukturu,ili
slabosti u organizaciji.
Ipak,većina istraživača smatra da bi bilo pogrešno ljudsku grešku videti kao ishod
neke aktivnosti ili samo u njenom kontekstu.
Ovakvo u osnovi pogrešno viđenje posledica pogrešaka je nastalo zbog logičke
povezanosti greške i posledica,koje ona prouzrokuje,a na osnovu kojih se ona obično

- 56 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

i utvrđuje.Uobičajeno shvatanje i procenjivanje greške je u oceni njenih posledica i


njihove težine,obzirom da se uobičajeno radi o negativnim konotacijama.To upućuje
na dva zaključka,prvo da je ljudska greška uzrok određenih pojava,ishoda,i drugo,da
ima status hipotetičkog konstrukta zaključenog na osnovu odgovarajućeg
ishoda.Moglo bi se uopšteno reći da je ljudska greška ‚‚pretpostavljeni uzrok
aktivnosti koja ima za posledicu neuspeh da se postigne očekivani ishod''.
Tragajući za pojmovnom suštinom ljudske greške,koje ljudi u svom radu i ponašanju
čine su:odstupanje od kodeksa ponašanja,je akt koji podrazumeva nenamerno
odstupanje od istine ili preciznosti,kao i čin koji uz pomoć neznanja,nedostatka,ili pak
sasvim slučajno,neuspeva da postigne željeni cilj...
Takođe u pojmovnom smislu suština ljudske greške nalazimo u osobinama ili stanje
zablude to jest pogrešno uverenje,nešto stvoreno zabludom i razlika između opažene
ili izračunate vrednosti i prave vrednosti.
Uzimajući u obzir i poštujući navedene razlike,možemo zaključiti da se radi o veoma
kompleksnom pojmu koji često uključuje uzroke i posledice raznovrsnih događaja ali
i njihove prateće elemente.Ipak sintetički posmatrano,dolazimo do zaključka da bilo
koja definicija greške ako pledira da bude potpuna,mora imati najmanje sledeća tri
elementa:
Prvo,mora postojati jasno određen standard ili kriterijum repertoara ponašanja u
odnosu na koji se može meriti odgovor,odnosno na osnovu koga bi se neko određeno
ponašanje moglo okarakterisati kao pogrešno ili tačno.Analitičari su to pojednostavili
i odredili kao referentne tačke na početku svoje analize.
Drugo, mora postojati događaj koji će se okvalifikovati kao neželjeni,zato što nije
doveo do očekivanog cilja.
Treće,mora postojati izvestan stepen slobode odlučivanja ne bili počinilac
potencijalne greške imao mogućnost da se ponaša na način koji se neće smatrati
pogrešnim,jer ako nešto nije moguće izbeći,onda nije ni smisleno niti prihvatljivo to
smatrati greškom.
Dakle osnovne pretpostavke definisanja ljudske greške su:događaj,kriterijum i
mogućnost izbora.

Ključne reči: organizacija,organizaciono ponašanje,ljudska greška,događaj i posao.

- 57 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR – HUMAN ERROR


Simeun Cuturic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University Union -
Nikola Tesla, Belgrade, Serbia
prof.cutura@mts.rs
Luka Ilic
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade,
Serbia
Milan Djuricic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University "Union -
Nikola Tesla", Belgrade, Serbia
milan.djuricic.17@gmail.com

RESUME
In theoretic generalizations and empirical research, which can be classified in the
scientific field of organizational behavior, manifestations of human knowledge
mistakes are rarely seen. According to the knowledge in this area, despite such
frequent presence of mistakes in the behavior of people, organizations' operations
are based on the hypothesis that people are errorless .
In Serbian language, as in many others, are common maxims such as: “To err is
human'', “Whoever works makes mistakes''. These are the clichés that describe
important aspects of human life and everyday situations that one meets.
Interpretation of these phrases suggests that errors are a part of human nature, that
they have always been and always will be appearing in his work and in everyday life.
Human life and work are imbued with a smaller or larger errors. Some of these are
insignificant and unnoticed, and some have significant and lasting consequences.
There is an opinion which suggests that the history of human society, especially the
history of wars, is the history of his mistakes.
In this access the nature of human errors and the ways of thinking about them, their
origins and consequences, is clearly doubtful. A question of whether is it possible to
control so deeply ingrained habits is imposed. Some believe that the efforts to prevent
unconscious endangering of a person or others have not reached the upper limit, and
there is still room for improvement.
In the context of ethics, philology considerations of human fallibility appear in their
desired relationship. “Zero fault” is often mentioned as a goal of human behavior, but
this goal is more ideal than realistic. In the light of convergence, zero error in human

- 58 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

behavior, especially in the work, some positions quoted are better than others, so, for
example, commercial aviation and the production of nuclear energy have a relatively
good safety record (but not perfect). In general, the areas where most of the
interaction is done between people and equipment, it is easier to achieve control over
the security problems. On other workplaces, there is only between people who often
performe intensive and critical non-routine ways.
Some mistakes, due to their frequency and meaningless consequence, become an
integral part of the working mistake. Errors typists, typographical errors in the text,
omissions in the speech of lecturers, etc. become an integral part of the work. Traffic
accidents are so common that we observe them as normal things.
By nature, program orientation is mainly human error, for now, dealing with doctrinal
psychology is related to the discipline. Encyclopedias and dictionaries of psychology
usually define error as a variance in the opinion of the action of what is considered to
be accurate, regular, usual or normal.
Although the term mistake is now an integral part of everyday life, it is very difficult to
precisely define the technical point of view. Difficulties in problem and the conceptual
definition of human error are numerous. One of the most important reasons is that
the term, error is used to refer to quite different phenomena and diverse situations.
In this sense, under this term is usually meant their use in labeling phenomena such
as: the outcome, the event, or the possible cause.
It is supported by the fact that the same scientific analysis of the nature and origin of
human error that depart from various points often have very different and
incompatible accession. For example, an engineer looks at a person as a component
of a system that can operate successfully or wrongly, the same as in the context of
observing equipment. On the other hand, psychologists assume that human behavior
is target-oriented and can be fully understood only with consideration of personal
goals. However, most researchers think it would be wrong to see human error as a
result of an action or only in its context.
This is basically the result of the wrong perception of errors resulting from the logical
connection errors and the consequences that it causes, and on the basis of which it
is usually determined. Common understanding and evaluating errors in the
assessment of its consequences and their weight, since it is usually a negative
connotation. This leads to two conclusions, first that human error is causing certain
phenomena and outcomes, and secondly, that the status of a hypothetical construct
is concluded on the basis of an appropriate outcome. One could generally say that
human error is the assumed cause of action which results in a failure to achieve the
expected outcome. Deviation from the code of conduct is an act that involves
unintentional deviation from the truth or accuracy, and act with the help of ignorance.

- 59 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Moreover, in terms of the conceptual essence of human error is found in the


character, or the state of delusion that is a false belief, something created delusion
and the difference between the observed and calculated values and the true value.
Taking into account and respecting those differences, we can conclude that this is a
very complex concept which often includes the causes and consequences of various
events as well as their supporting elements. However synthetic this point of view is,
we come to conclusion that any definition of error should have at least the following
three elements.
First, there must be a clearly defined standard or criterion repertoire of behavior in
relation to which one can measure the response and on the basis of which a certain
behavior could be wrong or right..
Secondly, there must be an event that will qualify as undesirable, because it did not
lead to the expected target.
Treće,mora postojati izvestan stepen slobode odlučivanja ne bili počinilac
potencijalne greške imao mogućnost da se ponaša na način koji se neće smatrati
pogrešnim,jer ako nešto nije moguće izbeći,onda nije ni smisleno niti prihvatljivo to
smatrati greškom.
Third, there must be a certain degree of discretion in order for the person who made
a mistake to have the ability to behave in a way that will not be considered wrong,
because if something cannot be avoided, then it is not sensible nor acceptable to
consider it a mistake.
In conclusion, the basic assumptions of human error are: event, criteria and choice.
Keywords: organization, organizational behavior, human error, event and business.

- 60 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ZAHTEVI U POBOLJŠANJU UPRAVLJANJA LANCEM


SNABDEVANJA
Branko Davidović
Visoka tehnička škola, Kragujevac
iwtbg@beotel.net

REZIME
Fokus savremenih organizacija zasnovanih na konceptu upravljanja lancima
snabdevanja, nastao je kao odgovor na stalne poslovne zahteve koji se odnose na
unapređenje poslovnih procesa, fleksibilnosti, agilnosti i kolaboracije lanca
snabdevanja. Cilj ovog rada je izložiti konceptualne zahteve za poboljšanje
upravljanja lancem snabdevanja i ukazati na neke mogućnosti povećanja kvaliteta i
zadovoljstvu korisnika. Zahtevi korisnika su promenili dinamiku nastupa u mnogim
industrijskim granama. Nalaže se ubrzavanje lanca snabdevanja i smanjenje zaliha
u organizacijama svih veličina bilo da je „korisnik“ krajnji konzument ili posrednik u
lancu. Mnoge organizacije su provele decenije bruseći dodatne aktivnosti, razvijajući
predviđanja, vršeći detaljne analize, one su tražile način da smanje ili uklone
nepotrebne troškove prvenstveno zaliha, čineći rasprodaje, što je dovodilo do gubitka
prodaje i potencijalnog gubitka lojalnosti korisnika. Ove prakse zamene se nastavljaju
danas.
Poslovna logika ukazuje, da organizacije obično prate dve od tri performanse u isto
vreme: uslugu, cenu i/ili kvalitet. Dok cena i kvalitet ostaju na vrhu važnosti za mnoge
organizacije, izlaženje u susret zahtevima korisnika (VOC) kada se radi o poručivanju
i hitnoj isporuci postaje determinator globalnog takmičenja distributera. Današnji
korisnici „imaju neuporedivo veći nivo uticaja na aktivnosti unutar lanca snabdevanja
u cilju ispunjenja njihovih zahteva“. Organizacije koje obezbeđuju mnogostruke
puteve naručivanja mogu lako da realizuju zahteve fleksibilnih planova distribucije,
mogu i preuzimaju, veći udeo na tržištu od manje prilagodljivih organizacija.
Prema ranijim istraživanjima, na uzorku od preko 150 velikih svetskih organizacija,
51% želi da skrati rokove isporuke, 50% troškove zaliha, 43% bolju optimizaciju
zaliha, 42% povećanu efikasnost lanca, 35% stvaranje fleksibilnijeg lanca, 35% veću
fokusiranost na korisnike po pitanju odgovornosti, 34% poboljšanu vidljivost svojih
pošiljaka po mestima nalaženja u lancu, 29% da poveća uticaj lanca snabdevanja na
rast prihoda, 27% unapredi i standardizuje procedure u lancu, 23% skrati ciklus
proizvodnje, 12% mogućnost prilagođavanja proizvoda zahtevima korisnika, 12%
unapredi procedure oko sklapanja poslova i ugovora i dr. Ako se posmatra višak
zaliha, trećina organizacija u potpunosti potvrđuje da je njihov lanac snabdevanja
veoma efikasan i odličan u kontrolisanju visina zaliha kod 7%, kod 39% ima dobro

- 61 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

praćenje zaliha, njih 27% vrlo dobru kontrolu, njih 24% imaju povremenu kontrolu,
3% nemaju kontrolu kod ne automatizovanih skladišta. Strategije za smanjenje zaliha
navode na smanjenje potrebnih zaliha, u stvari više od polovine (55%) tvrdi da je ovo
pitanje presudno za profitabilnost. Njih 19% da je smanjenje zaliha ekstremno važno,
vrlo važno 39%, ponekad važno 36%, nije uvek važno 2% i nije toliko važno njih 7%.
Proizvođači imaju planove smanjenja zaliha od 5% do najviše 70% dok među
posrednici planiraju smanjenje zaliha do 44%. Konkretno, ocenjeno kao najvažnije je
sposobnost, da se obezbedi više blagovremenih informacija o mogućim promenama
u lancu koje kasnije utiču na njegovo upravljanje 60%, planiranje i logističko izvršenje
47%, saradnja unutar organizacija i trgovinskih partnera 44%, kao i da se predvidi
uticaj marketinških promocija ili neadekvatnih aktivnosti 42%. Ima i drugih bitnih
saznanja u upravljanju lancima snabdevanja.
Saradnja i integracija učesnika u lancu se ostvaruje saradnjom i razmenom
informacija između kros-funkcionalnih timova unutar organizacije i van nje. Saradnja
može optimizovati dizajn proizvoda i procesa kao i satisfakciju učesnika u lancu.
Pregledom literature identifikovani su kao najvažniji zahtevi: poboljšanje brzine kroz
ceo lanac snabdevanja, poboljšanje tačnosti i zadovoljenje kupca, izlaženje u susret
zahtevima korisnika za rukovanjem materijalima i robom, mogućnost naručivanja
različitim načinima uz realizaciju u maloprodajnim objektima ili on-line, veća vidljivost
lanca, čija optimizacija u lancu ima višestruki značaj radi smanjenja neizvesnosti.
Neizvesnost kao pojava, u mnogome remeti procese koji svakako prevazilaze pojam
upravljanja lancem snabdevanja. Smatra se da ljudski napori na svim poljima imaju
kao jedan od glavnih ciljeva da se eliminiše iznenađenje i nepripremljeno suočavanje
sa nepoznatim. Fokusirajući pažnju isključivo na lance i mreže snabdevanja, ističu
se tri glavna izvora neizvesnosti koji opterećuju lance snabdevanja: neuspeh
dobavljača da ispune obećanja u vezi isporuke,
moguće kvarove na proizvodnim postrojenjima i kompjuterske greške kao i
neizvesnost u pogledu količina porudžbine i pojava efekta “biča”.
Ako organizaciji nedostaje integracija, onda se u stvari govori o nedostatku ili,
suprotno, da postoji vidljivost od početka do kraja lanca. Na osnovu ranijih
istraživanja, 61% organizacija “niti se slažu, niti ne slažu” sa imanjem potpune
vidljivosti od početka do kraju, u stvari nemaju tu vidljivost. Posledica toga je što nisu
zainteresovani za neke faze lanca. To je takođe razlog što se 61% organizacija slaže
da treba da uđe u procesu poboljšanja interne integracije. Smatra se, da samo 30%
organizacija imaju potpunu vidljivost od početka do kraja, dok se 31% niti slaže sa
tim niti se ne slaže. Samo 32% je zadovoljno se efikasnošću procesa proizvodnje i
operacijama u skladištima, 61% je u procesu poboljšanja integracije između
proizvodnje i skladištenja, i čak 33% se ne slaže s tim da što su njihove operacije
opisane kao tipične tehnologije.
Optimizacijom zahteva može se ostvariti određena korist u stepenu poboljšanja
određenih performansi u sledećim rasponima: povećanje tačnosti pri planiranju 25 %

- 62 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

do 80 %, smanjenje zaliha 25 % do 60 %, skraćenje vremena realizacije trebovanja


30 % do 50 %, smanjenje troškova u lancu 25 % do 50 %, povećanje tačnosti
isporuke 16 % do 28 %, povećanje produktivnosti 10 % do 60 %, povećanje
korišćenja kapaciteta 10 % do 20 % i dr.
Pritisci na lance snabdevanja su sve veći i veći i lideri širom industrija planiraju
postepene investicije kako bi naveli zaposlene, procese i tehnologije da menjaju pa
čak i da “krše pravila” u smislu prilagođavanja tržištu. U tom smislu, može se zaključiti
da organizacije moraju da:
 skeniraju horizont njihove industrije kako bi razvili sopstvenu strategiju. Šta i
kako razni segmenti korisnika rade. Koje tehnologije usvajaju. Kako izgleda
konkurentski pejzaž. Šta raditi da se održi ili poveća sopstvena konkurentska
pozicija. Gde žele da bude organizacija,
 evidentiraju, prate i kontrolišu sopstvene procese. Dokumentacija o
procesima čini aktivnosti procesa vidljivim, identifikuje lica koja su potrebni
za njihovo izvršenje, čime se omogućava identifikacija inputa i autputa i
prilika za automatizaciju. Ne može se izvršiti promena ukoliko se ne poznaje
šta treba menjati. Obavezno je skeniranje dela tehnologije za automatsku
identifikaciju i tehnologiju sakupljanja podataka koja će unaprediti tačnost,
efikasnost, brzinu i saglasnost. Tačni podaci su imperativ kod dogovorenog
ili oročenog roka,
 projektuju prioritete inicijativa i razviju plan za implementaciju određene
platforme. Ukoliko odmah počne i investira postepeno, organizacija nećete
biti u zaostatku. Potrebno je držati korak sa liderima. Na početku nije
potrebno dosta sredstava, koliko će trebati kada budete trebalo da dostignete
najbolje u praksi zavisi od nivoa usluge koji želi postići,
 implementiraju rešenja koja pružaju najveći i pravi temelj, usaglašen sa
ostalim korisnicama lanca. Vreme i resursi nisu izgovor. Ukoliko organizacija
nema resurse ili stručnost da učinite nešto, treba tražiti komponente.
Želja da se lanac snabdevanja optimizira i da se postigne svetski kvalitetan lanac
mora da bude koncipirana ili da ima podršku top menadžmenta organizacije svih
korisnika u lancu. Ovo zahteva postojanje dvosmerne komunikacije između top
menadžmenta i viših menadžera zaduženih za integrisanje lanca snabdevanja, kao i
funkcija i procesa unutar njega. Značajne liderske karakteristike jesu sposobnost da
se artikuliše i predstavi vizija optimiziranog lanca snabdevanja drugim članovima
tima, da se oformi adekvatan tim i da se motiviše da postiže rezultate, da se inovira i
uvode promene, kao i da se neguje kultura kontinualnog učenja i unapređenja,
zasnovanog na integritetu svakog pojedinca.

- 63 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

REQUIREMENTS IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT


Branko Davidovic
Visoka tehnicka skola, Kragujevac, Serbia
iwtbg@beotel.net

RESUME
The focus of modern organizations is based on the concept of supply chain
management. It was created in response to ongoing business requirements related
to business process improvement, flexibility, agility and collaboration supply chain.
The aim of this paper is to expose the conceptual requirements for improving supply
chain management and the balance between that lower costs and losses and that
greater income, and also to work on quality and customer satisfaction. Customer
requirements have changed the dynamics of performance in many industries.
Organizations that can increase productivity, the cost of materials and / or products
and the application of appropriate risk management strategies are catching up with
this trend in order to isolate themselves from the competition, making their supply
chains more flexible. Such organizations accelerate the achievement of their
business objectives and create a better experience for end customers.
Business logic indicates that organizations are usually followed by two of the three
variables at the same time: service, price and / or quality. While price and quality
remain the top concern for many organizations, meeting the requirements of the
customer (VOC) when it comes to ordering and delivery of emergency becomes the
determiner of global competition distributors. Today's customers "have a much higher
level of impact on activities within the supply chain in order to meet their
requirements." Organizations providing multiple pathways ordering can easily
implement flexible plans of distribution requirements. They can also take a greater
the market share of less adaptable companies.

- 64 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ANALIZA PRIMENJIVOSTI TEHNIKE OTKRIVANJA ZNANJA U


PODACIMA
Nebojša Denić
Fakultet informacionih tehnologija, Alfa BK Univerzitet, Beograd
denicnebojsa@gmail.com
Vuk Vujović
Fakultet informacionih tehnologija, Alfa BK Univerzitet, Beograd
vuk.mba.bg@gmail.com
Aleksandar Skulić
Fakultet informacionih tehnologija, Alfa BK Univerzitet, Beograd
bobanspasic11@gmail.com

REZIME
U ovom istraživačkom radu dat je prikaz mogućih aspekata primene tehnike
otkrivanja znanja u podacima (engl. Data mining) u preduzećima u Srbiji sa ciljem
unapređenja ukupnog poslovanja preduzeća. Rezultati istraživanja relevantne
literature pojam poslovne inteligencije izjednačavaju sa procesom otkrivanja znanja
iz podataka, eminentni autori ističu kako je reč o grupi analitičkih tehnika procesa
(klaster analiza, analiza tržišne korpe) što služe za pronalaženje odnosa između
podataka te korišćenje tih otkrića za predviđanje budućih događanja. Finalnu
manifestaciju skladištenja podataka predstavlja proces otkrivanja znanja iz podataka,
odnosno, pronalaženja skrivenih trendova, modela, zakonitosti i odnosa među
podacima koji menadžmentu malih i srednjih preduzeća mogu koristiti u procesima
upravljanja i odlučivanja. Pojedini autori razlikuju procese; otkrivanja znanja u
podacima, i napredne analitike kada ističu kako otkrivanje znanja u podacima traži
uzorke i obećavajuće odnose, a tek potom napredna analitika koristi potvrđene
odnose kako bi predvidela buduće trendove, događaje i uzorke ponašanja. S obzirom
da su danas preduzeća zatrpana podacima o poslovanju, otkrivanje znanja iz
podataka kao jedna od oblasti poslovne inteligencije dobija na važnosti u procesu
inteligentnog pretraživanja velikih baza podataka. U radu je na osnovu istraživanja
relevantne stručne literature, kao i sprovedenih istraživanja u praksi, istražen i
evoluiran kompletan proces otkrivanja znanja u podacima. U tom pravcu su
sublimirane aktivnosti otkrivanja znanja u podacima: proces pronalaženja podataka,
priprema podataka, upoznavanje sa potrebnim informacijama, identifikacije potrebnih
zadataka u procesu pripreme podataka, priprema podataka u Oracle okruženju kao i
metodološki okviri za pripremu istih. Rezultati istraživanja ukazuju da priprema
podataka pokriva 60 do 90% od ukupnog vremena potrebnog da se sprovede ceo

- 65 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

proces otkrivanja znanja u podacima. U ovom studiozno istraživačkom radu


predstavljeno je nekoliko ključnih pitanja koja daju odgovore na analizi promenljivosti
tehnike otkrivanja znanja u podacima i to : kako se proces pripreme podataka uklapa
u proces otkrivanja znanja u podacima, koji su ključni procesi za pripremu podataka
u procesu otkrivanja znanja iz podataka, koje su tehnike i metode koje se koriste u
pripremi podataka za postizanje što boljih rezultata u primeni procesa otkrivanja
znanja u podacima, koja su to ograničenja u ovom setu softverskih alata za proces
otkrivanja znanja u podacima, da li je moguće na osnovu nalaza uspostaviti
jedinstveni metodološki okvir za pripremu podataka za proces otkrivanja znanja u
podacima u izabranom IT okruženju? Rezultati istraživanja u preduzećima i
poslovnim sistemima u Srbiji ukazuju da se ona u svom poslovanju sve više sreću sa
problemima koji nastaju usled: nedostatka kvalitetnih informacija za potrebe procesa
upravljanja i odlučivanja, nedovoljne operativne podrške, slabe analitičke obrade
podataka, loše organizacije podataka i slično. Između ostalog i napred navedene
činjenice inicirale su istraživanje mogućnosti brzog odgovora na aktuelne promene
poslovanja i potrebe efikasnog donošenja odluka, sa ciljem unapređenja poslovanja,
uz akcenat na primeni tehnike otkrivanja znanja u podacima. Tako se nametnula
potreba za korišćenjem takvih upravljačkih alata i tehnologija koje malim i srednjim
preduzećima omogućuju sveobuhvatno, brzo i efikasno korišćenje svih dostupnih
podataka i informacija, unutar i izvan preduzeća važnih za uspešno upravljanje
preduzećemError! Reference source not found.. U tu svrhu preduzećima i
poslovnim sistemima u Srbiji stoji na raspolaganju širok spektar softverskih alata i
tehnika sistema poslovne inteligencije. U današnje vreme kad su mala i srednja
preduzeća konstantno zasipana velikim količinama podataka i informacija potrebno
je pažljivo kreirati sistem koji omogućuje ekstrakciju i korišćenje što kvalitetnijih
informacija neophodnih poslovnim sistemima za donošenje pravih i pravovremenih
poslovnih odluka.
Ključne reči: Data mining, istraživanje, podatak, informacija, znanje, proces

- 66 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ANALYSIS OF APPLICATIONTECHNIQUES FOR DETECTION OF


KNOWLEDGE IN DATA
Nebojsa Denic
Fakultet informacionih tehnologija, Alfa BK Univerzitet, Beograd
denicnebojsa@gmail.com
Vuk Vujovic
Fakultet informacionih tehnologija, Alfa BK Univerzitet, Beograd
vuk.mba.bg@gmail.com
Aleksandar Skulic
VTŠSS Uroševac-Leposavic, Serbia
aleksandarskulic@gmail.com

RESUME
This research provides an overview of the possible aspects of the application of
techniques of knowledge discovery in data (Data mining) in enterprises in Serbia with
the aim of improving the overall business. The research results of the relevant
literature equate the term of business intelligence with the process of knowledge
discovery from data. The eminent authors point out that this is a group process of
analytical techniques (cluster analysis, market basket analysis), which are used to
find the relationship between the data and use these findings to predict future events.
The final event data warehousing is the process of discovering knowledge from data,
i.e. to find hidden trends, models, rules and relationships among the data that the
management of small and medium enterprises can use in the processes of
governance and decision-making. Some authors differ the processes; knowledge
discovery in data, and advanced analytics, look for patterns and promising relations.
Only then do the advanced analytics confirmed the benefits relate to anticipated
future trends, events and patterns of behavior. Given the fact that today the
companies are swamped with business information, knowledge discovery from data
as one of the areas of business intelligence is gaining importance in the process of
intelligent search of large databases. The paper is based on the research relevant
literature as well as the surveys carried out in practice, which researched and evolved
the entire process of knowledge discovery in data. In this regard, the activities of
sublimated knowledge discovery in data are: the process of finding information, data
preparation, introduction to the necessary information, identifying required tasks in
the process of preparing data, preparing data in the Oracle environment and
methodological frameworks for the preparation. The research results indicate that the
preparation of data covers 60 to 90% of the total time required to carry out the whole

- 67 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

process of knowledge discovery in data. In this meticulous research presented,


several key questions are raised, and they give answers to the analysis of the
applicability of the techniques of knowledge discovery in data and to how the process
of preparing the data fits into the process of knowledge discovery in data. These are
the key processes for the preparation of the data in the process of knowledge
discovery from data. The techniques and methods used in the preparation of the data
serve to achieve better results in the implementation process of knowledge discovery
in data, which are restricted to this set of software tools for the process of knowledge
discovery in data. The question is: is it possible to establish a uniform basis of the
findings methodological framework for the preparation of the data in the process of
knowledge discovery in data in the selected IT environment? The results of research
in companies and business systems in Serbia show that they face many problems
due to: the lack of quality information for management and decision-making
processes, lack of operational support, poor analytical data processing, poor
organization of data. Among other things, the above-mentioned facts initiated the
exploration of possibilities to respond rapidly to changes in current operations and
the need for effective decision-making, in order to improve operations, with the
emphasis on the application of techniques of knowledge discovery in data. Thus, the
need for using such management tools and technologies that SMEs provide, both
inside and outside the company is important for the successful management of the
company. To this end, companies and business systems in Serbia are available in a
wide range of software tools and techniques of business intelligence systems. At the
present time when small and medium-sized enterprises are constantly filled up with
a large amounts of data and information, it is necessary to carefully create a system
which allows the extraction and use of the best quality information necessary for
business systems, in order to make right and timely business decisions.
Keywords: Data mining, research, data, information, knowledge, process

- 68 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ADOPTION OF NON PROGRAMMED DECISIONS IN THE


MARKET UNCERTAINTY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Snezana Dimkovska
DPPM AGRIA-Agroindustriska Grupacija DOO, Veles R. Makedonija,
snezanadimkovska@yahoo.com

RESUME
Managers in Macedonia are constantly faced with the need to make certain decisions
during their work, which often has a strong impact on the future of the organization.
They make decisions that create the outcome of business they manage, decisions
that deeply affect organizational effectiveness and certainly have a great impact on
the effectiveness of achieving the objectives that the company has set.
The survey was conducted in companies in Macedonia. Each of them has a different
number of employees, different structure and governing bodies and different size of
capital, i.e. small, medium and large companies, according to the classification of the
companies established by the legislation of the Republic of Macedonia. The survey
was conducted by analysing and processing data received from the answers given.
In the small companies owned by one person who also manages the businesses,
with a small number of employees, the management bodies are melted in a face-
manager, with a small capital turnover. The second group of companies is middle
size companies, taking into consideration of all criteria for determining the structure
of the companies established by legislation in Macedonia. These companies already
have developed governing bodies consisted of more than one member, i.e. these
companies have formed a management team. In the third group according to the
classification of firms in Macedonia are large companies, where taking non-
programmed decision is completely different from the previous two. These
companies have developed network of collective bodies such as supervisory board,
management board, committees, etc. making the process of decision making
different from the process of decision-making in small or medium-sized firms.
This research has achieved certain results relating to the adoption of the non-
programmable decisions in Macedonia.
During the operating of each enterprise different decisions are made daily that are
influenced by the daily activities. Non-programmed decisions are made in all
businesses, whether small, medium or large. Such decisions are made in conditions
of great uncertainty and strong competition in the market. In the small enterprises,
the non-programmable autonomous decisions are adopted by the founder and
manager of the company, who at the same time is leading and managing the

- 69 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

company by himself. In medium and large enterprises company, the non-


programmable decisions, managers often do not make by themselves, but in
consultation with other managers, because in these enterprises the decisions
concerning the strategy of the company is not in the hands of one manager. In terms
of consultation with other managers when making non-programmed decision,
managers of small businesses rarely consult with other managers, while the
managers in medium and large enterprises however always consult with other
managers.
This results from the fact that in medium and large enterprises a higher level of
organization of production is developed, and thus more people are involved in
managing of the company. The collection of information is carried out by managers
of all categories of enterprises, small, medium or large. This collection of information
is carried out to make a justified non-programmable decision. The analysis of the
operation of the competitors is performed by all managers, no matter if a non-
programmable decision is made in small, medium or large enterprise. The market
competition causes endangering the operation of the enterprise, which are the main
reasons that managers give great importance to the work of other competing
companies. When it comes to closely monitoring of the opportunities for effective non-
programmable decision, the managers of small and medium enterprises give more
importance to the possibilities while the managers of large companies sometimes
follow opportunities. This is because small and medium enterprises are aimed at
rapid development and increasing production capacity, while large enterprises have
already achieved a certain rounded development process and pay more attention to
the maintenance of that already established production process. Business risk is
always present in all businesses, so each non-programmable decision is followed by
a certain risk of failure. In terms of risk when making non programmable decision, all
managers at small, medium or large enterprises make risk analysis of the adoption
of non-programmed decision. The adoption of the decision is followed by its
implementation, based on the fact that the managers of small, medium and large
companies insist on full implementation of the adopted non-programmable decision.
This is because the non-programmable decisions have strategic importance for the
company and seek to be implemented.

- 70 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING THE


NATURE OF THE CASH FLOWS OF COMPANIES
Galyna Drebit
Kyiv National Economical University by V. Hetman, Kiev, Ukraine
galyna-drebit@i.ua

RESUME
The question of determining the economic nature of the cash flows is extremely
important both in theoretical and practical aspects, as the formed approaches to the
interpretation of the essence of the cash flows define the fundamentals of their
planning and control in the future.
In research works on corporate finance theoretical and practical issues of economic
nature of the cash flows of companies have become the subject of research of many
scientists and practitioners. They made a significant contribution to the development
of theoretical and methodological foundations of determination the economic nature
of the cash flows, their planning and control. However, the financial theory and
practice of today doesn’t present a unified approach to determining the economic
essence of the definition of "the cash flow of the company" because even now
scientists and practitioners continue their debate in understanding the economic
nature of this category. In this regard, we consider it actual to develop a relevant
paradigm of understanding the nature of the cash flows of the company, which would
include all their properties.
On the basis of the research of scientific and practical papers on corporate finance
three approaches to understanding the nature of the cash flows of the company can
be distinguished: static, dynamic and aggregated. Each of these approaches disclose
the nature of the cash flows in terms of taking into account the specific characteristics
possessed by the cash flows of the company.
The representatives of the static approach interpret the cash flow from the
perspective of its impact on the balance of funds in the accounts of the company and
define it as the net cash flow for the period. Within the static approach the cash flow
seems to be a free cash balance at any given time, which can not be identified with
the flow (circulation, movement) because the flow means motion. The volume of the
cash flows can be characterized by such indicators as the volume of the received
funds and the amount of the spent money. As you can see from the definitions given
above the basic categories that characterize the cash flow within the static approach
is: "the cash balance at any given time", "the net cash flow".

- 71 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

At the dynamic level the cash flow represents itself in two ways: in the form of a plan
of the future cash flows of the company in the time, or of the report about their
movements in previous periods. As part of a dynamic approach to the nature of the
cash flows some scientists define "the cash flow" as determinants of the cash flow
and the other scientists define "revenue and expenditure of funds", "flow of payments"
as determinants of the cash flow. The cash flow is not constant at a certain date (as
it is noted under static approach to the cash flow), but rather a circulation of cash for
the period. After all, the circulation and flow reveal the essence of the category of "the
cash flow", the circulation and flow are the main features of this category, the cash
flows are intrinsically linked with them. The process of the cash flows happens in time
and space during the service of all types of business.
The category "the cash flow of companies" are aggregated, as it includes many types
of the cash flows that are generated by the company and serve its business. It should
be noted that each company has its own "unique cash flow." It depends on the
specifics of activity of each entity starting from areas of operation, the level of
provision of production, turnover, number of employees, type of activity, tax policy,
payment discipline etc.
In our opinion the term “aggregated” is used to define the cash flow as a set of events
divided gradually in the time which are related to separate and logically completed
fact of the change of the owner of financial resources through the implementation of
commitments between economic agents.
Thus, having analyzed the diverse approaches to understanding the nature of the
cash flows of the company it can be concluded that to form the determination of the
cash flows of the company we should take into account its economic nature, under
which it is primarily the cash flows. Some researchers add "cash equivalents" to the
category of cash, which is due to the specifics of the transformation of surplus cash
in short-term investments that can be quickly converted into cash.
In our opinion the most reasonable is aggregated approach to understanding the
nature of the cash flows, as it includes both dynamic and static (at a certain date)
nature of this category. We define the cash flow of the company as the intended
cash flow, which is expressed in their admission, distribution and disposal from
operating, investing and financing activities. The result of the cash flow is the
available balance of cash and cash equivalents, which serves as a static
determinant of the cash flows.
So the cash flow of the company is a specific financial category that expresses its cash
and cash equivalents flows during the determined time period and ensures the
implementation of economic relations arising in the implementation of its operating,
investing and financing activities.
Keywords: the cash flows of a company, static approach, dynamic approach,
aggregated approach

- 72 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE NEED OF EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY


MANAGEMENT AND CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
PROTECTION
Zdenek Dvorak
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
Zdenek.Dvorak@fbi.uniza.sk
Assoc.prof. Ing. Bohus Leitner, PhD.
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
Bohus.Leitner@fbi.uniza.sk
Lenka Mocova
Institute of Continuing Education University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovakia

INTRODUCTION
The problem of security and critical infrastructure protection in the European area is
becoming more topical which can be explained by the current security situation in the
world. Our society must react to the current security situation and new migration-
related issues. One of the challenges we are facing is fostering security research and
education in the field of security management in the most important areas of human
life. The aim of this paper is to present the generally defined basic terms and aspects
of understanding the problem of security and protection of critical infrastructure. Our
task is to define the need of education in the field of management of critical
infrastructure security. The paper also presents the purpose and contents of the new
study programme at the Faculty of Security Engineering of the University of Žilina
and its graduate profile. There are also some topical problems related to
implementing this study programme.
THEORETICAL ASPECT OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTON
The University of Žilina (hereinafter UNIZA) is a higher education and scientific
research institution with wide scope of activities. In October 2015 the Accreditation
Commission accredited the new study programme „Security and protection of critical
infrastructure“. The purpose of this paper is to state the basic terms in the field of
security of systems and elements of critical infrastructure and its protection. We also
wish to justify the need of education in fields of security management and protection
of important infrastructure networks. An important part also is the brief presentation

- 73 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

of the new study programme and present challenges for its future development and
contribution to the society.
How can the CI subsystems and elements be disrupted, destroyed or
temporarily/permanently disabled? The European Council Directive 2008/114/ES
(European Directive 2008/111/ES) defined the term European critical
infrastructure (hereinafter ECI). To identify its elements for efficient managing of
ECI security, it is necessary to define the types of attacks as well as the probability
estimate of occurrence and their expected consequences. Anthropogenic
influences – negative phenomena caused by human activity (e.g. terrorist attacks,
hacker attacks, industrial accidents, human errors, etc. Natural influences –
negative phenomena caused by natural processes (e.g. tectonic effects,
meteorological risks related to the effects of extreme weather, risks related to slope
movements, etc.
NEW STUDY PROGRAMME
In 2015 the Accreditation Commission confirmed the FBI UNIZA accreditation for
bachelor and engineer degree programmes that focus on the field of security and
protection of critical infrastructure. The study programme “Security and protection of
critical infrastructure” is:
 unique in central Europe,
 multidisciplinary oriented, focusing on various types of infrastructure
networks,
 based on the needs of practice,

 supported by the Slovak Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Transport,


Construction and Regional Development and the Ministry of Economy,
 is primarily focused on the main ECI fields – energy a transport.
To demonstrate the assumed knowledge and skills of graduates of our study
programme, only the crucial parts of the engineer graduate profile will be provided.
The graduates of the 2nd degree (master degree) will be able to identify possible
threats and sources of risk in social, economic, natural, technical and technological
processes, they will be able to analyze and comprehensively evaluate them as well
as to propose procedures and application of methods and techniques of risk
minimization. They will possess theoretical knowledge of critical infrastructure
protection with specific focus on power engineering, transport and necessary basics
of information and communication technologies. They will be able to propose and
implement prevention measures, to monitor and analyze the development of risk and
crisis factors, prepare the adequate response to the emerging crisis phenomenon,
manage continuity in the functioning of critical infrastructure elements and to
implement an efficient system recovery. The graduates should be able to forecast the
development of social, economical, natural and technological processes, to apply the

- 74 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

optimization procedures and other management tools to improve the efficiency of


their operations. They will be provided with information on security management
system of the state, on regional territorial units and their self-government. The
graduate is a qualified expert in managing security and protection of:

 entities in the fields of power engineering, oil and natural gas production and
distribution, heat industry, transport infrastructure management,
 entities that provide protection of important objects and systems of
infrastructure,
 central state administration bodies (Ministry of Economy, Transport,
Defense, Interior),

 expert teams active in protection of infrastructure networks.


CONCLUSION
The energy and transportation system of the region, state and the whole European
area is a complex, interdependent structure, consisting of a large number of
infrastructures (energy production facilities, transmission systems, transport routes,
information systems, terminals, etc.). This structure is of a crucial importance for
securing the vital functions of society. The fields of power engineering and transport
are therefore considered the most important sectors of critical infrastructure in most
developed countries worldwide.
The most topical and crucial problems of the new study program are:
 demographic crisis consequences (sharp drop in the number of university
applicants),
 ignorance of the concept of critical infrastructure and its related issues in
society, as a result the title of the study programme remains unknown for
most potential applicants,
 the first study programme focused on CI protection in the Central and Eastern
Europe and related lack of opportunities to exchange experience and experts
in the field,
 necessity to create the form and contents of new profile courses, especially
for important areas of power engineering and information and communication
technologies,
 lack of opportunities of subject-specific and practical cooperation with
important energy companies and their experts for problems of security and
protection of their company infrastructure.

- 75 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

SYNTHETIC INDEX OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT -


ASSESSMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES AS AN EXPRESSION OF
PROCESS APPROACH
Pawel Dziekanski
Instytut Prawa, Ekonomii i Administracji, Uniwersytet Jana
Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Poland
pdziekan@interia.eu

RESUME
Territorial self-government units are the employer, the principal, the client and the
investor at the same time. Their actions, which include property management,
services, finance management, investments etc., have influence on regional
economy. The tasks from the public usefulness area, which they realize, are non-
profit, therefore they are financed from public funds. Territorial self-government as
the subject of economic, political and social life of the region plays an active role in
the creation of qualitative and quantitative transformations. Factors affecting this
process include finance, modernity, variety and innovation of regional economy, the
quality of spatial management, the level of infrastructure development and the human
capital. In order for the territorial self-government units to fulfil their role in shaping
the living and managing conditions of the local communities in an active way, they
must be equipped in the proper financial resources.
The processes taking place in organizations speaking in general can be divided into
management processes, HR management, production processes and the processes
of measurement, analysis and improvement. Art of management is based on the
ability to properly coordinate the various activities with the available resources.
The finance is the basis of public tasks realization and decide of the conditions of
economic conditions and investment activity of the unit. In addition, the costs of
current tasks realization, as well as the availability of external sources of funding, also
decide of the scale of investment activity. The limitation of financial resources
becomes a problem in comparison with the range of realized tasks
The analysis carried out enables the assessment of the differentiation level of the
objects described with the set of statistical features. It leads to defining the clusters
of objects according to selected variable. The research expands the information
about the considered category of objects. It enables the assessment of the
participation level of each object in the development of the whole collectivity and the
making of graphic visualization of the problem. Selected analytic variables
(stimulants, deterrent) are characterized by high spatial variability and low correlating.

- 76 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The variables taken into the research are characterized by various degree of
correlation and various level of variability. The method of unitarization used in the
calculations enables the comparison of the diagnostic variables. Its aim is to deprive
the variables of names and unification of the orders of magnitude of the
measurements results. Sequentially calculated synthetic measure has values from
the range [0, 1]. Next the studied units were sorted according to the value of
infrastructure coefficient.
The method indicated in the study enables the comparison of multi-characteristic
objects according to defined criteria. It enables creation of hierarchy of the objects
and their sets taken into multidimensional spaces from the point of view of selected
variables. The selected set decides of the assessment result and of the informative
value of the final measure.

Keywords: financial condition, budget, revenue, expenses, synthetic indicator

- 77 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

IMPORT SUBSTITUTION AS A FORM OF REALIZATION OF THE


ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION STRATEGY OF MODERN
RUSSIAN ECONOMY
Svetlana K. Eshugova
Faculty of Economics and Service, Maykop State Technological
University, Maykop, Russia
Eshug.sv@yandex.ru

RESUME
At present the problem of import substitution has become more relevant due to the
introduction of response sanctions by Russia that have resulted in the prohibition of
import of agricultural production, raw materials and food produced in the USA, the
EU countries, Canada, Australia and the Kingdom of Norway to the Russian
Federation for a period of one year. Meat, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit
have been included in the prohibition articles list.
On October 2, 2014 the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed the Order of No.
1948-o “On the approval of the plan of measures (“the road map”) to assist import
substitution in agriculture for 2014-2015”.
The “road map” includes actions to increase the efficiency of the use of agricultural
lands and improvement of the state veterinary and phytosanitary control
(supervision), including the creation of the state automated information system of
early notification about the cases of identification of dangerous veterinary and
sanitary goods.
The approved “road map” contains the complex of measures (including the ones on
the development of regulations) directed on the achievement of the indicators of
import substitution established in the State program of development of agriculture
and regulation of the agricultural, raw materials and food markets for 2013-2020 and
the state program “Development of Fishery Complex”. The plan provides
improvement of the mechanisms of customs and tariff regulation of the import of main
types of agricultural, fish and other products from the water biological resources
taking into account the membership of Russia in the WTO and the Customs union.
The made decisions are directed on the activization of participation of Russia in the
international cooperation in the field of agriculture and fishery, and also food safety.
Realization of the measures of the plan will allow to provide increase in the production
of agricultural products, raw materials and food and decrease in the dependence of
the domestic food market on the import of meat from 21,6 to 7,7%, milk and dairy
products from 23,6 to 16,6%, vegetables from 14,6 to 10,1% by 2020.
The dairy branch is one of the most sensitive to the import. While the volume of import
of whole-milk production is rather small, the import of cheese reaches a half, and of
butter - 40%. With the introduction of response sanctions, the dairy branch attracts
much attention at all government meetings on import substitution. However, the

- 78 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

situation most likely won't change in the shortest possible time because increase in
the productive herd of dairy cows needs some time. Therefore, despite all the
optimistic statements that the Russian producers will soon be able to fill the market
with their own production, nevertheless they will have to use the import from the
countries not included in the prohibition list.
Thus, import substitution as a type of economic strategy and agro-industrial policy of
the state is directed on the protection of domestic producers by the replacement of
the imported foodstuff with goods of national production. Increase of competitiveness
of domestic production by means of stimulation of technological modernization of
production, increase of its efficiency and development of new competitive types of
production with rather high added value has to become the result of import
substitution.
Import substitution potential of a territorially isolated formation (region) is defined as
a set of resource potential, the institutional environment, the organizational capital
and the volume of domestic demand. The resource potential is treated as a set of
factors of production of the agents of the territory of basing, and also mechanisms of
their involvement and use in the public reproduction, as an integral characteristic of
the condition of the regional economy defining its abilities to the production of
economic and social values.
If existence of resources in the hands of the residents acts as a necessary condition
for the formation of the resource potential of the regional economy, their
complementarity, interaction and adequacy to the factors of internal and external
environment of the territory is a sufficient one.
Effective realization of the resource potential of the region is possible at the presence
of organizational routines, procedures and algorithms of actions and processes, as
well as the principles of formation of communications between the residents and (or)
non-residents of the regional economy, and also the ability to create, integrate and
reconfigurate these routines, procedures, algorithms and principles. The structure
and qualitative characteristics of the factors of production making the resource
potential of the territory define a type of economic activity concerning which the use
of tools of import substitution is expedient.
Thus, from the point of view of import substitution potential which domestic
agroproducers possess, the greatest opportunities are available in the production of
dairy and meat products the domestic production of which is expedient and rather
competitive. To develop these trends of agriculture the country possesses resource
conditions and certain competitive advantages, as well as domestic demand of the
processing industry.
It should be noted that import substitution isn't the idea which arose at the moment
due to the introduction of “anti-sanctions”, but should to be a part of consistent
agrarian policy of the country.
References:
1. The "road map" on import substitution in agriculture has been approved. Information
Agency CCI-Inform. October 9, 2014 Access-free. http://www.tpp-
inform.ru/news/17114.html
2. Kostrova A. Can we live without import? // Neva time. August,22 2014 // Access -
free. http://nvspb.ru/tops/projivem-bez-importa-55174

- 79 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICS FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT


Stanislav Filip
School of Economics and Management in Public Administration,
Bratislava, Slovakia
stanislav.filip@vsemvs.sk
Kristián Ujváry
Presidium of the Police Forces, Bratislava, Slovakia
kristian.ujvary@minv.sk
JEL Category: H12

RESUME
The security on the European Union territory is influenced by various elements such
as climate, nature, society and its crisis events. Especially the global warming
phenomenon is responsible for increasing number of disastrous floods, fires, storms,
or extremely high and long lasting heats lacerating lots of EU Members e.g. Serbia,
France, Italy, as well as Greece, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The health and lives of European population are also threaten by human initiated
activities. These are industrial breakdowns and road accidents as well as war
conflicts and terrorists attacks on Ukrainian Russian borderland, in Syria, Libya, and
Afghanistan or in Eritrea. By its negative causes: mass illegal and non-controlled
migration are affected not only Greece, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia,
Croatia, Austria, Germany and Scandinavia but also all EU Member States including
the Slovak Republic. Almost one million of migrants in 2015 forms a mass of war
refugees, economic migrants and infiltrated terrorists, who represent the biggest
menace for Europe. The terrorist attacks in Paris prove the importance of fight against
terrorism and preservation of Schengen borders to protect the European territory and
its citizens.
In spite of the ambition of the European Council and EU Member States to solve
mentioned problems they cannot still manage to reach desired status.
The security becomes a key factor of human lives in their homes, cities, regions and
states.
The security becomes top priority of governmental policies. To know objective
security level is a basic condition for optimal leading of crisis processes by managers
to reach desired level of citizens’ security.

- 80 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Statistical data collected and published on the websites by relevant ministries and
county administrative departments should become one of basic stones to determine
objective security of citizens in corresponding territorial regions.
Currently it is not possible to compare cases of road accidents and violent crimes,
emergency ambulance and fire rescue services calls, number of floods and industrial
breakdowns due to present structure and form of their publication. The current way
of collecting statistical data do not give us the possibility for objective evaluation of
state security.
In the paper the author analyses importance, accessibility and relevance of public
accessible statistical data which characterize the security of county districts. He
evaluates the efficiency of structure and form of statistical data for security research
and decision taking of crisis managers in public administration in the Slovak Republic.
He informs about the possibilities to use statistical data to measure the security and
to compare the security level nationally and internationally.
The aim of the paper is to provide the readers with the overview of current possibilities
to use statistical data, to identify their positives and negatives and to suggest
solutions.
The first part of the paper is dedicated to theoretical principles and legal frame of the
topic compiled of national and international publications as well as legal norms and
strategic documents for the state and EU security.
The analysis of current state of collecting statistical data by relevant ministries is the
core of the paper. The applicability of present structure and forms of reported
indicators of statistical data to measure and to compare the security level by different
county districts are evaluated in the paper. It critically evaluates the present gaps in
the system of statistical data from the view of evaluating processes of crisis managers
at partial level of public administration in the Slovak Republic.
The part of the paper with solutions offers possible solutions to unify indicators of
statistical data, that enable to measure objectively and to evaluate the security of
county districts on national and international level.
The contribution of the paper is the fact that it deals detailed with this topic which is
usually presented and harmonized only by the ministry and on its level. It offers a
frame for deeper research of this topic nationally and internationally. Finally these
information can serve EU citizens as a base for evaluation of the security of free
movements in Schengen area.
Standardised scientific methods as analysis, synthesis as well as mathematical
statistical methods, comparative methods, methods of scientific induction and
deduction are applied in the paper. The methods of scientific abstraction and
description are applied in the paper, too.
Keywords: Security, security threat, measurements of security, statistical data,
county district

- 81 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CUSTOMER RESEARCH OF NON-BANK ENTITIES


Ľubica Filipova
Faculty of Economics and Business, Pan-European University,
Bratislava, Slovak Republic
lubica.filipova@paneurouni.com

JEL category: E44

RESUME
The issue of non-bank entities in Slovakia and segmentation of their customers is
extremely topical and important.
Its topicality and importance is emphasized by increasing number of non-bank
entities on financial market established by either legal or physical persons. Almost
thirty thousand distrain cases annually when incomes and property of non-bank
customers are seized for failure to repay raises attention on this topic, too.
The legal environment in the Slovak Republic enables to establish non-bank entities.
They are performed under Commercial Code and other laws regulating non-bank
activities when acting as creditors providing consumer credits and loans to its
customers. Therefore, the non-bank entities with their products and services are
generating competitive landscape for bank sector.
Customers are basic precondition for financial institution performance. All methods
and forms of goal‫ـ‬directed marketing are used to address customer. To gain success
the non-bank entities are forced to search for those groups of customers which will
be interested in their products and services. They use a number of modern methods
and research techniques for this purpose.
The paper is focused on this topic, especially on research of non-bank customers
reflected segmentation criteria.
The aim of this paper is to identify and to evaluate present status of segmentation
reflecting segmentation criteria and to suggest solutions for improvements. A survey
of non-bank customer segmentation in the Slovak Republic was used for this
purpose.
The first part of this paper is a theoretical frame serving as a base for analytic and
synthetic parts. It includes theoretical starting points of financial entities marketing
while applying describing principle from general to unique. It defines and
characterizes financial marketing and market. A customer as an essential
precondition of financial institution is detailed described, too. Special part is dedicated
to a theoretical base of segmentation in financial sector. Segmentation criteria

- 82 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

applied in research part of the paper are specified and described here. The final part
describes current methods and research techniques of relationship between non-
bank entities and their customers. For this chapter we have sourced in insufficient
national as well as in international bibliography, magazines and scientific papers.
The second analytic part is specially focused on the current status analysis of non-
bank entities in the Slovak Republic. The reason for that is the fact that at the present
there do not exist either scientific literature or legal acts determining conditions of
establishment and operation of non-bank entities in the Slovak Republic. Pointing at
bankrupted non-bank entities we emphasize risks effecting their customers. Special
part is dedicated to creditors register kept by National Bank of Slovakia and to
conditions the non-bank entities have to fulfil to be registered there and so to get
permission for their performance. The final part of this chapter is dedicated to an
analysis of a non-bank entity which with its products and services as well as customer
relationship is leader in this field in the Slovak Republic. The second chapter is based
on the national and EU legal norms as well as those of European Central Bank and
official websites of non-bank entities.
Final part of the paper is dedicated to research findings of customer segmentation of
non-bank entities in the Slovak Republic achieved by electronic survey. The goal and
hypothesis of the survey are based on theoretical information reached during study
at the School of Economics and Management of Public Administration in Bratislava
as well as own work experiences in some bank entities. Diagrams and descriptions
of findings and current situation are used to present survey results. Partial results
describe positives and negatives of current situation. Therefore, this part brings also
starting points for solutions to make the situation better in favour of non-bank entities
and their customers. The third chapter is based on information gained from 362
survey respondents.
We have used standardised scientific methods as e.g. method of scientific
abstraction and description especially when describing matters and features of the
financial market in the Slovak Republic. Methods of scientific analysis, synthesis and
comparison were used mainly in the second part of the paper. Survey method and
mathematic-statistical method, diagram method and method of scientific induction
and deduction were applied to formulate findings and solutions in final part of the
paper.

Key words: bank, non-bank entity, customer segmentation, marketing research

- 83 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

INNOVATIONS IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT


Waldemar Gajda
Warszawska Szkola Zarzadzania – Szkoła Wyzsza, Warszawa, Poland
waldgaj@vp.pl
Vasyl Zaplatynskyi
National University of Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine, Kiev,
Ukraine and Academy of Safety and Bases of Health, Kiev, Ukraine
vasyl.zaplatynskyi@gmail.com

RESUME
Most authors considering innovations in crisis management focus their attention on
innovations that are used to emerge from the company crisis. Much less has been
said about innovation in the activities of crisis management or crisis team. This is a
consequence of the fact that, historically, crisis management was considered as
management only in an emergency situation. It is called - an emergency crisis
management. The purpose of this management is to bring the company out of the
crisis, or at least reduce the damage. A set of techniques that can be used by the
crisis manager for this purpose are quite different, but here is difficult to offer any
innovation.
The situation changed after the crisis management tasks have expanded. These
problems began to include: definition of probability (risk) of the crisis, identification,
development of crisis measures. This situation prompted the development of
preventive, prophylactic measures to prevent or mitigate the crisis itself or increase
stability of the enterprise to a particular crisis. Crisis management in addition to the
above activities begins to include various methods of forecasting the onset of crisis,
and a large set of preventive measures aimed at reducing the action of the crisis for
the company. In addition to crisis management the terms “risk management” and
“anti-crisis administration” are used.
Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined
in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and
economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability
and / or impact of unfortunate events (Douglas, & Hubbard, 2009) or to maximize the
realization of opportunities. Risk management's objective is to assure uncertainty
does not deflect the endeavor from the business goals. (Antune, & Gonzalez, 2015)
Risk management is a part of the prevention of crisis management.

- 84 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Anti-crisis administration in the Russian literature in the original is called


"антикри́зисное управле́ние". Anti-crisis administration is a special case of crisis
management. Anti-crisis administration is a process of application forms, methods
and procedures aimed at the socio-economic recovery of financial and economic
activity of an individual entrepreneur, enterprise, industry, the creation and
development of conditions to emerge from the crisis. Anti-crisis administration
considers the crises caused by poor management - inadequate, or unprofessional,
and crises that have arisen as a result of corruption, abuse, theft and fraud.
With the expansion of crisis management, the tasks will have more opportunities to
apply innovations to solve specific problems of crisis management.
Thus, in the modern crisis management innovation is possible in two ways:
 The use of innovation to meet the challenges of crisis management, which
are not related to changes in the production facility protection. These
innovations relate to the introduction of innovative methods of forecasting
crises, the use of innovative methods for the development of preventive
measures, in particular the use of simulation techniques, etc.;
 The introduction of innovation in an enterprise. These innovations are very
diverse and are aimed at improving the sustainability of the enterprise for the
crisis, or are used to exit the company out of crisis.
Innovations that are used to exit the company out of the crisis, can be directed to:
 Changes in the organization structure;
 Changes in the personnel of the organization;
 Creation of a new product or service;
 Introduction of new technologies;
 Development of a new market;
 Obtainment of a new source of raw materials;
 Changes in the enterprise market position;
 Changes in the economic, social and environmental policies;
 Changes in the control system.
These innovations are used by crisis managers in the process of withdrawal of the
company from the crisis. They are described in detail in the literature. They can be
used for businesses, social groups, local government structures, government
structures, the foreign policy decisions of the international level.
Most authors considering the crisis management write about saving the organization
(in some cases at any cost). It should be recognized that some crises are so
devastating that it is impossible to save the company. In this case, other tasks may
be assigned to a crisis manager: liquidation of the enterprise, rebirth of the enterprise;
revival of the updated enterprise; carrying out of bankruptcy procedures; creation of
an enterprise which is not related to the previous one.

- 85 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The bulk of publications and textbooks are devoted to crisis management activities
of enterprises and their associations. However, crisis management can be
successfully used in the management of a national scale. Its application for the
removal of the country (e.g. Ukraine) of the crisis is more than justified.
One type of large-scale, state of crisis is a war. The war can be seen not only as a
state of crisis, but also as a special condition of the state. For example, one of the
key theses of David Keen, in his work "The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil
Wars" is a definition that war is not just a rejection of the existing system, but rather
the creation of an alternative way of making a profit, power, and protection of their
interests (Keen, 1998, p. 71-72). In the study of long-term conflicts D. Keen concludes
that in many cases, created a specific mechanism, when the warring parties trying to
achieve short-term benefits, but not to end the war and defeat the enemy. This
mechanism is called the term "war economy", which has been used to explain a
number of different events - rebellions, the collapse and the collapse of state
institutions. (Collier, & Hoeffler, 2001) (Collier, & Hoeffler, 2002)
The war is a crisis for the majority of residents of the state due to the negative
economic, humanitarian, social and political consequences of armed conflict. The war
in this sense is characterized as a very negative impact on all aspects of life and all
reasonable efforts should be used to its completion. The aim of the international
community (UN, NGOs, etc.) is to promote the rapid recovery of the country or
countries after the war and to develop constitutional and democratic principles as the
other states have an interest in it (Kazansky, & Zaplatynskyi, 2012). Thus, the
international community is engaged in crisis management. Opportunity and types of
innovation in crisis management at the macro level have some differences on
innovation at the enterprise level.

WORKS CITED
Antune Ricardo; Gonzalez Vicente (3 March 2015). "A Production Model for Construction: A
Theoretical Framework". Buildings 5 (1): 209–228.

Collier P. & Hoeffler A. (2001) Greed and Grievance in Civil War.


Collier P. & Hoeffler A. (2002) On the Incidence of Civil War in Africa. Journal of Conflict
Resolution. 46(1)
Hubbard Douglas W. (2009)The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to Fix
It. John Wiley & Sons. p. 46
Kazansky R., Zaplatynskyi V. (2012) Vybrani pidkhody do doslidzhennya politychnoyi
ekonomiyi konfliktiv. Bezpeka zhyttyediyalʹnosti lyudyny – osvita, nauka, praktyka:
Zbirnyk naukovykh pratsʹ KHI mizhnarodnoyi naukovo-metodychnoyi konferentsiyi. –
Donetsʹk: PP „Lavys”, p.124-128. ISBN: 978-966-96541-6-8
Keen D. (1998) The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. Adelphi Paper 320. London:
International Institute for Strategic Studies

- 86 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY PROBLEMS


WITHIN ROAD TRANSPORT DECISION MAKING
Nikolay Georgiev
‘Todor Kableshkov“ University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
ngeorgiev60@gmail.com
Violina Velyova
‘Todor Kableshkov“ University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
vili_tuk@abv.bg
JEL Category: H12, R41

Abstract
The transportation system safety in many countries often constitutes the largest
public-sector problem. The planning and management process concerning transport
safety requires that engineers collect and maintain traffic safety data, identify
hazardous locations, conduct engineering studies, and establish project priorities. In
this regard, the article discusses most common technical and technological factors
affecting transport safety and the role of road infrastructure in road accident
occurrence. For the purpose of design and maintenance of a successful transport
management an exemplary procedure for estimation of transport infrastructure
improvement on traffic safety is considered. Аll mentioned above could be done in a
successful manner just by the usage of scientific approaches and methods.The
present paper discusses the essence of some scientific methods, and possibilities to
be adapted for the purpose of a successful decision-making in the area of transport
safety.

Keywords: traffic safety, hazardous locations, decision making, scientific


approaches and methods

INTRODUCTION
The transportation system safety in many countries often causes the largest public-
sector problem. The article discusses most common technical and technological
(engineering) factors affecting transport safety and the role of road infrastructure in
road accident occurrence. For the purpose of design and maintenance of a
successful transport management, all the main operations that should be performed
are given and an exemplary procedure for estimation of transport infrastructure
improvement on traffic safety is considered. The article also discusses the essence
of some scientific methods and possibilities for adaptation.

- 87 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

FACTORS AFFECTING TRAFFIC SAFETY


The operating environment of potential conflicts between traffic participants, may be
due to the influence of several factors. These factors include: state and/or local policy
on road safety, the characteristics of traffic flows (traffic intensity, speed, density and
composition (structure)), vehicle characteristics and human behavior, time,
organization and traffic management etc. The interaction between these factors is
derived from the ‘Driver–Vehicle–Road’ system in the context of the environment
(working conditions). (Georgiev, N, 2007)
Factors affecting traffic safety that are connected with the road conditions and other
infrastructure are also known as engineering factors. They are two types - technical
and technological factors which can be divided into 6 main groups, connected with:
road segment or intersection, alignment, road shoulder type and width, infrastructure
characteristics, devices for traffic control and technological factors such as guidance
devices. (Kumares C. Sinha and Samuel Labi, 2007), (Nambuusi, B., T. Brijs, E.
Hermans, 2008), (Canale, S., Leonardi, S., Pappalardo, G., 2003).

PROCEDURE FOR SAFETY IMPACT EVALUATION


The main steps in Successful Safety Management are connected with continuous
updating of the data about: black spots, accident reduction factors, condition of road
infrastructure, policies for traffic regulation and continuous training of road users.
All approaches and accident prediction models can be assigned to ‘Monitoring of the
accident factors and tracking changes in the operational environment’ and
‘Appropriate Actions’.
The Decision - making procedure for traffic accident reduction is shown in figure
within article contents. The summary procedure is connected to the solution of three
tasks:
 determining engineering factors and the extent to which they affect the road
safety (individually or in combination),
 evaluation of each unit change of the engineering factors on crash reduction,
 from the first two points, evaluating the predicted accident number and
possible change expected due to a certain intervention.
All tasks in the procedure are connected each other in order to improve safety and
can be explained as follows: Defining the Analysis Area, Choice of appropriate
approach for the analysis, Establishing the base case scenario. The final part of
procedure is devoted to the gathering of information about the monetary cost of
accidents and determination of the overall cost savings (or increases) due to the
intervention over a certain part of the infrastructure (modification).

- 88 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CONTEMPORARY STATE OF TRAFFIC SAFETY IN BULGARIA


Compared to other European countries and on the base of the index number of killed
in road transport accidents per 1 million inhabitants, Bulgaria occupies an
unsatisfactory position in the area of traffic safety across Europe with about 1000
people killed in road accidents per year. In Bulgaria, more than two-thirds of injuries
and 40% of fatalities in road accidents were registered in urban areas (Registration,
reporting and analysis of traffic accidents, 2014).
The main urban transport problems in Bulgaria can be boiled down to: traffic
congestion, environmental pollution, unreliable public transport and low level of road
safety. (Georgiev, N. 2007.Zilina).
SELECTING AND ADAPTING ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR
INTERSECTIONS IN BIG CITIES IN BULGARIA
The present article aims at selecting, adapting and checking applicability of some
renowned accident prediction models in Sofia, Bulgaria.
The paper makes a profound analysis of a great deal of scientific papers and
researches in the field of accident prediction models (e.g. Nambuusi, B., T. Brijs, E.
Hermans, 2008) and (Canale, S., Leonardi, S., Pappalardo, G., 2003):
For the purpose of research two types of intersections are chosen. The first accident
prediction model is created on the basis of statistical data relating to road accidents
with fatalities and injuries, traffic and infrastructure characteristics of 76 four-leg
signalized intersections. The second model is developed by the usage of statistical
data regarding accidents with fatalities and injuries on 60 three-leg stop/controlled
intersections in Sofia.
For the purpose of model creation is used specialized software for processing
statistical data - Statistica 7. The applicability (adequacy) of the two models is verified.
Altogether for the two models it can be summarized that the combination of all
interventions leads to reduction of the number of accidents. Therefore, it can be said
that traffic engineers should seek for changing engineering factors such as: lane
width, number of lanes and diverting part of the traffic on other conceivable roads (of
course after making respective research).
CONCLUSIONS
The proposed procedure and accident prediction models could successfully be used
in decision making to improve traffic safety. The obtained models and the presence
of an interaction between institutions is a guarantee for a positive result concerning
efforts to improve road safety at national, regional and municipal levels. That will
surely lead to reduction of the number of road accidents and their consequences
(prevention of significant material and moral loss).

- 89 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

WORKS CITED

Canale, S., Leonardi, S., & Pappalardo, G. (2003). The reliability of urban road
network: Accident forecast models. Dipartamento di Ingegneria Civile e
Ambientale. Universita degli Studi di Catania.
Georgiev, N. (2007). The present state of urban traffic in Bulgarian biggest cities – is
it a transport crisis? The Twelfth International Scientific Conference Crises
Situations Solution in Specific Environment, 20 and 21 June 2007, Zilina,
Slovak Republic.
Kumares C. S. & Labi. S. (2007). Transportation Decision Making: Principles of
Project Evaluation and Programming. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Nambuusi, B., Brijs, T., & Hermans. E. (2008). A review of accident prediction models
for road intersections. Onderzoekslijn Infrastructuur en ruimte. RA-MOW-
2008-004.
Registration, reporting and analysis of traffic accidents. The Ministry of Interior of
Bulgaria. Sofia. 2014. http://dokkpbdp.mvr.bg/Statistics/default.htm
HSE Planet. (2015). Safety Management Cycle.
http://hseplanet.blogspot.bg/2015/01/safety-cycle.html
Statistics Pocket Book (2014). National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.

- 90 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

SISTEM FINANSIRANJA KORPORACIJA


Vojislava Grbić
Visoka škola strukovnih studija za menadžment i poslovne
komunikacije, Sremski Karlovci, Ekonomski fakultet, Evropski
univerzitet Brčko, Brčko distrikt
vojislava.grbic@gmail.com
Slobodan Nićin
Fakultet za evropske pravne i političke studije, Novi Sad, Ekonomski
fakultet, Evropski univerzitet Brčko, Brčko distrikt
bobanicin@yahoo.com
Milanka Bogavac
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet “Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Beograd
bogavac.milanka@gmail.com

REZIME
Poslovi i postupci u vezi sa obezbeđivanjem i ulaganjem novčanih sredstava čine
finansiranje. U svakoj korporaciji finansiranje u osnovi znači obezbediti i staviti
organima upravljanja sredstva na raspolaganje, kako bi oni osigurali samostalnost i
sigurnost u radu. Za finansiranje se mogu obezbediti sredstva iz sopstvenih i tuđih
izvora.
Finansijska politika, kao deo ekonomske politike korporacija, se može definisati kao
ukupnost načelnih odluka povezanih sa opštom politikom korporacija, koja određuju
pravila ponašanja kod svih finansijskih operacija i dispozicija. Spram toga, finansijska
politika predstavlja neodvojivi deo opšte ili generalne poslovne politike korporacija i
ne predstavlja nikakav izolovani ili samostalni deo bilo koje, pa i poslovne politike
korporacija. To je razumljivo, ako se ima u vidu činjenica da je opšta, tj. generalna
politika korporacija zasnovana na nizu parcijalnih politika korporacija zasnovanih na
unapred postavljenim ciljevima. Parcijalne politike korporacija se utvrđuju i
međusobno usklađuju na nivou pojedinih službi i njihovih rukovodstava, koja ih stalno
preko odgovarajućih instrumenata dalje razvijaju i sprovode.
Finansiranje privrednih korporacija mora biti u skladu sa ekonomskom politikom,
budući da se i finansiranje poslovanja korporacija menja se promenama u
ekonomskoj politici. Stoga egzistiraju brojni oblici finansiranja, u zavisnosti od izvora
sredstava, od namene sredstava, od uslova pod kojima se sredstva koriste i sl.

- 91 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Finansiranje predstavlja proces koji obuhvata: pribavljanje novca-novac je potreban


za tekuće i razvojne potrebe korporacija; ulaganje novca-novac se može ulagati u
materijalnu, finansijsku i drugu imovinu; vraćanje novca-uložena sredstva se
oslobađaju iz kružnog toka poslovanja i ponovo se ulažu u skladu sa potrebama
korporacija; usklađivanje izvora finansiranja sa ulaganjima-potrebno je vršiti
usklađivanje izvora finansiranja u pasivi sa ulaganjima u aktivi po obimu u roku.
Pod pravilima finansiranja podrazumevaju se i označavaju kriterijumi za izbor
sredstava finansiranja, odnosno norme za pribavljanje kapitala iz određenih
poslovnih aspekata. Osnovna svrha pravila finansiranja jeste da posluže
preduzećima kao smernice za donošenje odluka o finansiranju.
Osnova svih pravila u upravljanju aktivnostima finansiranja korporacija jeste njegova
poslovna politika. Misli se na politiku korporacija usklađenu sa njegovim ciljevima.
Kako su tretirana pravila, tj. principi finansiranja korporacija, determinisana njegovim
potrebama da povremeno, ili po automatizmu vrši njegovo usaglašavanje, proizilazi i
obaveza menadžmenta da izbor sredstava finansiranja stalno podređuje
zadovoljavanju potreba kapitala.
Ekonomska teorija i privredna praksa u potrazi za opšteprihvaćenim pravilima
finansiranja kapitala korporacija, imala je i ima poteškoće. One su uzrokovane
izborom vrste sredstava kao mogućnosti zadovoljenja potreba kapitala, s jedne
strane, i drugih činilaca od uticaja na bonitet korporacija, s druge strane.
Pravila finansiranja poslovnih sredstava korporacija nastala su kao rezultat pokušaja
finansijske teorije i prakse da identifikuju i postave univerzalne norme ili standarde
koji bi važili za sve privredne subjekte i sve uslove privređivanja. Pravila finansiranja
u kvantitativnom smislu određuju strukturu izvora sredstava prema poreklu i roku
raspoloživosti, što čini tzv.vertikalna pravila finansiranja; relacije pojedinih delova
sredstava posmatranih po roku imobilizacije i pojedinih delova izvora posmatranih po
roku raspoloživosti, što čini tzv.horizontalna pravila finansiranja.
Vertikalna pravila finansiranja polaze od pretpostavke da se kroz strukturu izvora
obezbedi sigurnost dužnika i poverioca, rentabilnost uloženih sredstava i autonomija
dužnika. Horizontalna pravila finansiranja polaze od pretpostavke da se kroz relacije
pojedinih delova sredstava i pojedinih delova izvora sredstava obezbeđuje likvidnost.
Stalno traganje za novim pravilima finansiranja poslovanja i rada korporacija obaveza
je ekonomskih teoretičara i praktičara. Klasična pravila zasnovana na bilansnom
rašlanjavanju imovine i kapitala korporacija nisu na dovoljno efikasan način
zadovoljila zahteve za pravilno uspostavljanje ravnoteže u poslovanju i radu
korporacija. Neke ideje teoretičara u vezi sa ostalim pravilima finansiranja, mogu se
interpretirati na sledeći način:
− finansijska ravnoteža polazi od toga da se finansiranje poslovanja i rada
korporacija shvati kao ekonomska aktivnost koja se iscrpljuje nabavkom i

- 92 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

upotrebom sredstava u cilju postizanja zahteva ekonomičnosti, kao izraza


dinamike željene likvidnosti.
− za dugoročno poslovanje i rad korporacija vraćanje tuđeg kapitala označava
smanjenje imovine koja stoji na raspolaganju preduzeću, radi izvršavanja
njegovih obaveza. Ukoliko to smanjenje ugrožava izvršenje ciljeva korporacija,
opasnost je da oni neće biti ispunjeni u planiranom obimu. Opasnost povećava
uticaj snage nedostajuće imovine na izvršenje ciljeva korporacija.
− dospelost primljenog kapitala treba da odgovara vremenu vezivanja delova
imovine nabavljene tim kapitalom.
− pravila finansiranja poslovanja i rada korporacija traže raščlanjavanje bilansnih
pozicija imovine i kapitala prema raznim ciljevima pojedinih delova te imovine i
kapitala, pa se može govoriti o dva dela imovine korporacija: delovi imovine
namenjeni glavnim ciljevima i delovi imovine namenjeni dopunskim ciljevima koje
preduzeće ostvaruje dugoročno ili kratkoročno.
− zbirno obeležje delova imovine vezano za kapacitet je da je ona trajno vezana
za poslovni proces korporacija, u koji stalno treba investirati radi njegovog
održavanja.
− različitost potreba za nabavkama i investiranje u poslovanje i rad korporacija
zahtevaju različito vreme vezivanja, čemu treba prilagođavati i finansiranje.
− delovi imovine koji služe proširenju kapaciteta moraju biti dugoročno raspoloživi.
− delovi imovine koji služe ostvarivanju ostalih dopunskih ili sporednih ciljeva nisu
od bitnog uticaja na likvidnost u odnosu na rentabilnost.
− sve dok postoji pozitivna razlika između stvarne i tržišne kamate, privlačenje
tuđeg dugoročnog kapitala isplativo je za finansiranje svih delova imovine koji
služe osnovnom poslovnom cilju korporacija.
Kapacitet po kome finansijsku ravnotežu u poslovanju i radu korporacija treba
uvažavati, tražio poštovanje likvidnosti i sigurnosti, kao i ostale zahteve finansijske
politike, a pre svega poštovanje rentabilnosti. Raspoloživu mogućnost supstitucije i
prolongiranja treba uvek koristiti pri izboru vrste kapitala za pokrivanje imovine
namenjene ostvarivanju ciljeva korporacija.
Ključne reči: finansiranje, poslovanje korporacija, novac

- 93 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

SYSTEM OF CORPORATION FINANCING


Vojislava Grbic
College of Professional Studies for Management and Business
Communications, Sremski Karlovci, and Faculty of Economics, European
University Brcko, Brcko district, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
vojislava.grbic@gmail.com
Slobodan Nićin
Faculty of European Legal and Political Studies, Novi Sad, Faculty of
Economics, European University Brcko, Brcko district, Bosnia and
Herzegovina
bobanicin@yahoo.com
Milanka Bogavac
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University "Union -
Nikola Tesla", Belgrade, Serbia
bogavac.milanka@gmail.com

RESUME
Jobs and procedures in connection with the provision and investment funds make
funding. In every corporation finance basically means providing management bodies
and investing resources to finance the activities of corporations, in order for financing
to be secured from its own funds and other resources.
Financial policy, as a part of the economic policy of corporations, can be defined as
the totality of the principal decisions related to the general policy of the corporation,
which lay down the rules of conduct for all financial operations. Accordingly, the
financial policy is inseparable part of the overall or general business policies of
corporations and does not constitute any isolated or independent part of business
policy of a corporation. This is understandable if we take into account the fact that
the general-Corporation policy is based on a series of partial policy corporations
based on pre-set targets. Partial policy corporations are determined and mutually
coordinated at the level of individual departments and their leaders.
Financing commercial corporations must be consistent with the economic policy,
since the financing of business corporations is replaced by changes in economic
policy. Therefore, numerous forms of financing exist, depending on the source of
funds, the purpose of the funds, the conditions under which the funds are used and
the like.

- 94 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Financing is a process comprising: obtaining money - money is needed for current


and development needs of the corporation; investment of money - money can be
invested in tangible, financial and other assets; returning the money - invested funds
are released from the circular flow of operations and re-invested in accordance with
the needs of the corporation; alignment of financing with investment - it is the
necessary harmonization of sources of funding in total liabilities with investments in
assets .
Under the rules of funding are meant and indicated the criteria for the choice of means
of financing, and standards for the provision of capital from certain business aspects.
The main purpose of the financing rules is to serve companies as a guideline for
making decisions about financing.
The basis of all policies in the management of financing activities of the corporation
is its business policy. This refers to the policy of the corporation in line with their
objectives. How the rules or the principles of Funding Corporation are treated, is
determined by the needs of a company to periodically or automatically perform their
harmonization. It entails the obligation of the management to subordinate finance to
the needs of capital.
Economic theory and economic practice have had difficulties in search of generally
accepted rules of capital funding corporation. The difficulties are caused by choosing
the type of resource as well as the possibilities of satisfying the needs of capital on
the one hand, and other factors that affect the creditworthiness of corporations, on
the other hand.
The rules of financing business assets of a corporation are formed as a result of the
attempts to identify and set universal norms or standards that would apply to all
businesses and all economic conditions. The rules of financing quantitatively
determine the structure of sources of funds to the origin and period of availability,
which makes the so-called vertical financing rules; the relation of certain parts of
assets observed after a period of immobilization and some parts of sources observed
after a period of availability, make horizontal financing rules.
The vertical financing rules are based on the assumption that the structure of the
sources ensure the safety of the debtor and the creditor, the profitability of investment
and autonomy of the debtor. Horizontal financing rules are based on the assumption
that the relation of certain parts of assets and sources of funds provides liquidity.
The constant search for new rules of business financing and operation of the
corporation is the obligation of economic theorists and practitioners. Classic rules
based on parsing balance sheet assets and capital corporations are not a sufficiently
effective way of satisfying the requirements for the proper establishment of balance
in business and operation of corporations. Some ideas of the theorists in relation to
other financing rules can be interpreted as follows:

- 95 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

− Financial balance assumes that the financing of business corporations


understands and works as an economic activity that can exhaust the supply and
use of resources in order to achieve the required efficiency, as an expression of
the dynamics of the required liquidity.
− For long-term business and labor corporations restoration of foreign capital
means decrease in assets available to the company, in order to fulfill its
obligations. If this reduction threatens to the execution of objectives of the
corporation, the danger is that they will not be fulfilled as planned. The maturity
of the received capital should correspond to the binding parts of property
purchased this capital.
− The rules of business financing and operation of corporations seeking breakdown
of balance sheet items of assets and capital, under the various objectives of the
individual parts of these assets and capital. We can talk about two parts of the
assets of corporations: the main parts of properties and parts intended for
additional asset of a company can achieve long-term or short-term objectives.
The parts of assets are related to the capacity that is permanently attached to the
business process of the corporation, in which there is a constant need to invest
for maintenance.
− Diversity of needs for procurement and investment in business and working
corporations require a different setting time, which should be adapted to
financing.
− Parts of the property that serve the expansion of capacity must be available in
the long run.
− Parts of the property that serve the realization of other supplementary or
secondary goals are not a significant impact on liquidity in relation to profitability.
− As long as there is a positive difference between actual and market interest,
attracting other people's profitable long-term capital for financing all over the
property serves the basic purpose of a business corporation.
Capacity according to which financial balance in business and corporations work to
be respected, seek respect for liquidity and safety, as well as other requirements of
financial policy, and above all respect for viability. Available options substitution and
prolongation should always be used in selecting the type of capital for assets intended
for achieving the goals of the corporation.
Keywords: finance, business corporations, money

- 96 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MOGUĆNOST UPOTREBE LAKE GENERALNE AVIJACIJE U


KRIZNIM SITUACIJAMA
Vladimir Grujić
Visoka poslovna škola strukovnih studija “Čačak”, Beograd
vladimir.grujic59@yahoo.com
Dragan Lazić
Civil Air Patrol, Chicago, IL, USA
dragan.lazic.sa@gmail.com

REZIME
Svet u kome živimo nаlаzi se u senci globаlnih opаsnosti, kаo što su učestаle
prirodne kаtаstrofe, аli i sve veće mogućnosti tehničko – tehnoloških hаvаrijа, kаo i
terorističkih nаpаdа. Bez obzirа na to što čovek dаnаšnjice poseduje fаscinаntnа
znаnjа i sposobnosti, krize i kаtаstrofe se dogаđаju usled delovаnjа prirode (poplаve,
suše, klizištа, zemljotresi, cunаmi, požаri, oluje, epidemije zаrаznih bolesti, glаd i dr.)
kаo i usled nesаvršenosti tehnologije ili ljudske greške. Nаstаju industrijski, hemijski
i nukleаrni ekcidenti, koji se dešаvаju i nа kopnu, i na rekama, morimа i okeanima,
ali i u vаzduhu. Nаžаlost, sve više brigа nаm zаdаju i teroristički nаpаdi (nа istаknute
pojedince, institucije društva ili obične grаđаne, а učestаle su i otmice аvionа,
brodovа) čije su posledice krize globаlnih rаzmerа.
Zаstupаmo stаv dа se krizni menаdžment u orgаnizаciji bаvi plаnirаnjem unаpred
kаko bi imаo spremаn odgovor u svim situаcijаmа i nа svаko pitаnje „štа аko“.
Pretvoriti krizu u šаnsu i njome ovlаdаti, i uspeti sаčuvаti ključne resurse i
sposobnosti orgаnizаcije znаči biti jаk. Orgаnizаcijа kojа je jаkа onа je u stаnju „biti
sposobnа i uspešno se izboriti sа promenom, brže i bolje od konkurencije”. (Adizes,
2009) Nаjupešnije su one orgаnizаcije čiji menаdžment ne čekа dа se problem jаvi
već se zа njegа proаktivno pripremаju. Menаdžment orgаnizаcije pored plаnа A sa
kojim orgаnizаcijа ulаzi u krizu morа dа imа rаzvijen plаn B i C i spremnost dа ih
primeni.
Majske poplave 2014. godine ostaće zapamćene po tome jer su suočile Republiku
Srbiju sa kriznom situacijom globalnih razmera, zbog čega je vlada Republike Srbije
proglasila od 15. do 23. maja vanredno stanje na celokupnoj teritoriji naše zemlje.
Sektor za vanredne situacije je angažovao sve potencijale sa kojim je raspolagao:
kompletan sastav vatrogasno – spasilačkih jedinica, sve specijalizovane timove za
spasavanje i rad na vodi kao i specijalizovane jedinice Civilne zaštite za rad na vodi
u ugroženim područjima. Pripadnici Policije, Žandarmerije, Vojske Srbije, Crvenog
Krsta Srbije, Gorske Službe spasavanja dali su ogroman doprinos u spasavanju i
pomoći ugroženima. Građani Srbije i javna preduzeća uložili su hiljade časova
dobrovoljnog rada u rešavanje jedne od navećih prirodnih katastrofa koja je zadesila
zemlju. Sa najugroženijih područja evakuisano je oko 31 hiljada ljudi, ogroman broj

- 97 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

porodica ostao je bez svojih domova i celokupne imovine. U opštini Obrenovac koja
je najviše nastradala evakuisano je više od 25 hiljada ljudi. Paralelno sa poplavama
pojavilo se i 775 klizišta kao i kratkotrajna kontaminacija površinskih i podzemnih
voda, kao i kontaminacija obradivog zemljišta velikih razmera, a na hiljade grla stoke
se udavilo.(Srbije, 2014)
Iskustva drugih zemalja koje se sreću sa kriznim situacijama vrlo sličnim kao i
Republika Srbija su vrlo poučna, recimo Švajcarska i Austrija su zemlje koje su u
topografskom smislu planinske, i koje se u sistemu zaštite i spasavanja isključivo
oslanjaju na helikoptere. Za razliku od njih Nemačka i Francuska u istoj službi
spasavanja i zaštite stanovništva kombinuju upotrebe lake generalne avijacije i
helikoptera dok na drugoj strani Sjedinjene Američke Države, Kanada, Australija i
Engleska se prevashodno u sistemu zaštite i spasavanja oslanjaju na laku generalnu
avijaciju. Ako znamo da je Republika Srbija od 2000. do 2015. godine pretrpela već
broj katastrofalnih poplava i požara, a da je u tim kriznim situacijama samo jednom
korišćena laka generalna avijacija u sistemu zaštite i spasavanja samo po sebi se
nameće pitanje zašto je to tako i čime se to opravdava. (avijacija, 2012)
Iako je Republika Srbije zemlja sa skromnim materijalnim mogućnostima čiji su
resursi značajno ograničeni postoji sklonost ka upotrebi helikoptera kao
vazduhoplovnog sredstva, prvog izbora za spasavanje i transport, iako čak i površna
analiza otkriva da bi upotreba lake generalne avijacije bila daleko racionalnija i
svrsishodnija. Dati odgovor na pitanje „Koje su to prednosti, a koje mane lake
generalne avijacije u odnosu na helikoptere nije jednostavno, ali je poređenje
moguće i potrebno“, tim pre što je odgovor prilično ubedljiv kad se u obzir uzmu
činjenice.
Laka generalna avijacija raspolaže sa velikim brojem različitih tipova aviona
(jednomotorni i dvomotorni) sa približno istim letnim karakteristikama.
Laka generalna avijacija u odnosu na helikoptere ima daleko manje troškove
upotrebe i održavanja. U svetskim razmerama više od 90% tržišta pripada
Continental i Lycoming motorima, čime se troškovi obuke ljudstva u održavanju
znatno smanjuju, što kod helikoptera nije slučaj, za svaki helikopter razvija se
posebna pogonska grupa.
Takođe, pogonska grupa lake generalne avijacije ne zahteva veći broj ljudi za
održavanje pojedinačnih sistema, jer je ceo sklop pogonske grupe sveden na
jednostavan rad i upotrebu, što znači da je celokupna priprema aviona za let mnogo
kraća i jednostavnija. A to znači da je daleko bolji odnos časova leta i pripreme
letelice za let kod lake generalne avijacije u odnosu na helikoptere.
Laka generalna avijacija spada u štedljivog potrošača goriva. Prema podacima iz
priručnika za avion Cesna 172, potrošnja po času leta je 37 litara. iz tehniče
dokumentacije za helikopter tipa Gazella navodi se da je prosečna potrošnja oko 133
litre po času leta.
Takođe, brzina pripreme vazduhoplova na zemlji je uveliko na strani lake generalne
avijacije, prema uputstvu za pripremu aviona Cesna 172 izvode 1 do 2 tehničara u
trajanju od 15 do 30 minuta. Priprema helikoptera Gazela za let je mnogo duža zbog
složenosti sistema koji se kontrolišu, u proseku za pripremu helikoptera Gazela
potrebna su 3 do 4 tehničara i priprema traje od 30 do 60 minuta.

- 98 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Letelice lake generalne avijacije su načelno nekoliko desetina puta jevtinije od


helikoptera. Prema podacima proizvođača prosečna cena Cesne 172 je 250 hiljada
dolara, a helikopter Gazela sa standardnom avionikom je oko 5 miliona dolara,
analogno tome, cena rezervnih delova je oko 20 do 25 puta veća pri održavanju
helikoptera.
Amortizacija prilikom upotrebe lake generalne avijacije može se sagledati u činjenici
da je jedan životni vek motora do 3000 časova leta, dok mlazni motori na
helikopterima retko dosežu 1000 časova leta.
Maksimalno trajanje leta sa punim rezervoarom kod lake generalne avijacije
prosečno iznosi 5,5 – 6 časova, dok kod helikoptera je značajno manje prosečno
svega 3 – 3,5 časa.
Laka generalna avijacija ima veću otpornost na složene meteo uslove. S obzirom da
helikopteri lete u zoni nižih visina (najčešće se zadaci izvršavaju na visini od 200 –
400 m u odnosu na reljef) tako da svaka promena vremena pri tlu značajno utiče na
izvršenje leta. Naročito velike poteškoće za letenje helikopterom zadaju magle.
Avioni lake generalne avijacije su takođe osetljivi na iste meteo uslove s tim što zona
letenja lake generalne avijacije je na višim visinama (1000 – 3000 m).
Letačka obuka pilota lake generalne avijacije je značajno jeftinija od obuke pilota
helikoptera. Ako je prosečna cena obuke pilota aviona lake generalne avijacije oko 8
hiljada dolara, cena obuke pilota helikoptera je uvećana za preobuku i iznosi oko 20
hiljada dolara.
Cena trenaže pilota lake generalne avijacije na Cesni 172 je 46 dolara po času, do
je cena leta helikoptera sa turbinskim motorom 226,94 dolara po času, dok je za
helikoptere sa mlaznim motorom cena preko 400 dolara. (Heli, 2015)
Poletanje i sletanje su najkritičnije faze izvršenja zadatka. Avioni lake generalne
avijacije pri poletanju i sletanju imaju potrebu za ravnim površinama do 500 m,a
helikopteri mogu sleti na sve terene širine veće od 1,5 prečnika rotora.
Uzimajući u obzir da je severni deo Republike Srbije ravničarski sve travnate utrine i
delovi puta prvog reda i autoputa mogu biti upotrebljeni za poletanje i sletanje. Ako
se govori o centralnim i južnim predelima Republike Srbije, može se primetiti da
postoji jasno definisana i dobro raspoređena mreža aerodroma po celoj teritoriji koji
se mogu koristiti, kao i alternativni putevi prvog reda, autoputevi i travnate utrine.
Pored JAT privredne avijacije i svi aero klubovi na teritoriji Republike Srbije raspolažu
lakom generalnom avijacijom bilo da je ona u vlasništvu kluba ili pripada pojedincima
koji su njihovi članovi. To je brojka od preko 120 letelica lake generalne avijacije
različitih tipova i nosivosti. Za razliku od toga ni jedan aero klub na teritoriji Republike
Srbije ne raspolaže helikopterima.
Ovaj rad nema pretenzije da da konačne odgovore na pitanje svrsishodnosti i
opravdanosti upotrebe helikoptera u kriznim situacijama, a pogotovo ne da ospori
izuzetne napore, vrhunsku obučenost i osposobljenost, hrabrost i žrtve koje su
podneli piloti i posade helikoptera, u akcijama zaštite i spasavanja ljudskih života i
materijalnih dobara. Namera nam je bila da ukažemo na značajne resurse i
mogućnosti lake generalne avijacije u izvršavanju zadataka, zaštite i spasavanja na
teritoriji Republike Srbije.
Ključne reči: Krizni menadžment, laka generalna avijacija, helikopteri, krizna
situacija.

- 99 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING LIGHT GENERAL AVIATION IN


SITUATIONS OF CRISIS
Vladimir Grujic
Business School “Cacak”, Belgrade, Serbia
vladimir.grujic59@yahoo.com
Dragan Lazic
Civil Air Patrol, Chicago, IL, USA
dragan.lazic.sa@gmail.com

RESUME
The world in which we live is situated in the shadow of global dangers, such as:
frequent natural disasters, greater possibilities of technical or technological
accidents, terrorist attacks, and so on. Regardless of the fact that modern people
possess fascinating knowledge and abilities, crises and disasters happen as the
consequences of the processes in nature (flooding, droughts, landslides,
earthquakes, tsunamis, fires, storms, epidemics of diseases, hunger) and they also
happen due to the imperfection of technology of human errors (industry, chemical
and nuclear accidents, the acting of which is connected to land, rivers, seas, oceans
or air). Unfortunately, terrorist attacks (on outstanding individuals, institutions of a
society or common citizens, frequent hijackings of aircrafts, ships) becomes greater
concern to us and the consequences of them are global crises.
Our attitude is that the management of crisis in an organization makes plans in
advance, in order to have the answers to all situations, as well as to the question
“what if”. To turn crises into chances and rule them, and succeed in keeping the key
resources and abilities of organization, means to be strong. The organization which
is strong is the one capable of “being able and successfully fight the change, faster
and better than the competition” (Adizes, 2009). The most successful are those
organizations whose managements do not wait for the problem to appear but they
prepare for it proactively. The management of an organization, besides the plan A for
dealing with the crises, has to have the developed plans B and C, ready to be applied.
The flooding in May 2014 will be remembered for the fact that the Republic of Serbia
faced the global situation of crisis, and that is why the government of the Republic of
Serbia announced the situation of emergency from May 15 to May 23, on the entire
territory of our country. The sector for emergencies engaged all the potentials which
were on its disposition: complete staff of firefighting and rescue units, all the
specialized teams for rescuing and working on water as well as the specialized units
of Civil Protection for water operating in the affected areas. The members of the
Police, Gendarmerie, The Army of Serbia, Red Cross Serbia, Mountain Rescue
Service, gave a great contribution in rescuing and helping the affected people. The
citizens of Serbia and public enterprises invested thousands of hours of voluntary
work into solving one of the greatest natural disasters which affected this country.
From the most affected areas, around 31 thousand people were evacuated, many
families became homeless and without entire properties.
In the municipality of Obrenovac, which suffered the most, there were more than 25
thousand people evacuated. Together with the flooding, there appeared more than

- 100 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

775 landslides and short time contamination of surface and underground waters, as
well as the contamination of a great deal of agricultural land, and thousands of
domestic animals drowned.
The experiences of other countries, which have had very similar situations of crisis to
the one in The Republic of Serbia, are very educative. The examples are: Switzerland
and Austria, the countries which are topologically mountainous, and which, in the
system of protection and rescuing, rely particularly on helicopters.
Unlike these countries, Germany and France, in the same service of rescue and
protection of population, combine the use of light general aviation and helicopters,
but, on the other hand, The USA, Canada, Australia and England, in the system of
protection and rescue, rely particularly on light general aviation. If we know that The
Republic of Serbia from 2000 to 2015 suffered a greater number of catastrophic
floods and fires, and that in these crisis situations were once used light general
aviation for the protection and rescue of the system, the question arises: why is it so
and how is it justified?
Although the Republic of Serbia is the country with humble financial opportunities and
significantly limited resources, there is the inclination for using helicopters as a means
of aviation, making them the first choice for rescue and transport. Even if the
elaborate analysis reveals that the usage of light general aviation would be far more
rational and appropriate.
To answer the question “Which are the advantages and disadvantages of light
general aviation comparing to helicopters?” is not simple, but the comparison is
possible and necessary, especially because the answer is rather convincing if the
facts are considered.
Light general aviation disposes of numerous types of aircrafts (with one motor and
two motors) with approximately the same flying characteristics.
Light general aviation, in comparison to helicopters, has far less expenses for usage
and maintenance. Globally, more than 90% of the market belongs to the motors
Continental and Lycoming, by which the expenses of staff training in the maintenance
are significantly reduced, which is not the case with helicopters. For each helicopter
a separate driveline is developed.
In addition, the driveline of light general aviation does not need a great number of
people for maintenance of individual systems, because the whole system of the
driveline is reduced to simple functioning and use, which means that the complete
preparation of an aircraft for a flight is much shorter and simpler. This also means
that there is far better proportion of flying lessons and preparation of aircrafts for a
flight with light general aviation than with helicopters.
Light general aviation belongs to the group of fuel saving vehicles. According to the
data of a manual for the aircraft Cessna 172, fuel consumption per hour of flight is 37
liters. From the technical documents, for the helicopter of the type Gazelle, the
average consumption is about 133 liters per hour of flight.
Also, the speed of preparation of an aircraft on land is in favor of light general aviation;
according to the manual of the aircraft Cessna 172, 1 to 2 technicians perform the
preparation in the duration from 15 to 30 minutes. The preparation of the helicopter
Gazelle for a flight is much longer because of the complexity of the system that are
controlled, averagely, for the preparation of the helicopter Gazelle, 3 up to 4
technicians are necessary and the preparation lasts from 30 to 60 minutes.
The crafts of light general aviation are, in principle, several dozen times less
expensive than those of helicopters. According to the data of a manufacturer, the

- 101 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

average price for Cessna 172 is 250 000 $ and a helicopter Gazelle, with a standard
costs about 5 000 000 $. Analogously to that fact, the price of spare parts is about 20
to 25 times higher for maintaining helicopters.
The amortization while using light general aviation can be regarded through the fact
that a lifetime of the motor is to 3000 flying hours, and the jet engines of helicopters
rarely reach 1000 hours of flight.
The maximum duration of a flight with a full tank of a light general aviation averagely
is 5-6 hours, while at helicopters it is significantly shorter in average, only 3-3,5 hours.
Light general aviation is more resistant to complex meteorological conditions.
Considering the fact that helicopters fly in the zone of lower heights (their tasks are
the most frequently performed at the heights from 200-400 m in proportion to the
relief) so that every change of the weather near the land significantly influences the
flights. Especially evident problems of flying helicopters can occur in the conditions
of fog. The aircrafts of light general aviation are also sensitive to the same
meteorological conditions but the flying zone of light general aviation is on higher
heights (1000 – 3000 m).
Flying trainings for pilots of light general aviation is significantly cheaper than the
flying trainings for pilots of helicopters. If the average price of a flying training for a
pilot of the aircraft of light general aviation is about 8 000$, the price of a flying training
for a pilot of a helicopter is enlarged for the amount of another training and is about
20 000$.
The price of training a pilot of light general aviation on the aircraft Cessna 172 is 46$
per an hour, while the price of flying the helicopter with turbine engine is 226,94$ per
hour, and for the helicopter with jet engine the price is over 400$ (Heli 2015).
The takeoff and landing are the most critical phases of performing a task. The
aircrafts of light general aviation while the takeoff and landing need flat surfaces to
500 m, but helicopters can land on all the terrains broader than 1,5 of the diameter
of the rotor.
Considering that the northern part of the Republic of Serbia is flat, all grass surfaces
and parts of the first order roads and the highway can be used for the takeoff and
landing. If we talk about central and southern parts of the Republic of Serbia, there
can be noticed that there is clearly defined and well-arranged network of airports on
the whole territory which can be used, as well as the alternative first order roads,
highways and grass surfaces.
All the Air-clubs on the territory of the Republic of Serbia possess light general
aviation, whether as the property of clubs or individuals who are the members of the
clubs. There are over 120 crafts of light general aviation of various types and
capacities. Yet, no air-clubs on the territory of the Republic of Serbia possess
helicopters.
This project does not have pretension to give final answers to the question of
purposefulness and justification of using helicopters in the situations of crisis,
especially not to deny exceptional efforts, top training and skillfulness, bravery and
victims of the pilots and crews of helicopters in the actions of protection and rescuing
human lives and properties. Our intention is to indicate significant resources and
opportunities of light general aviation in performing the tasks of protection and
rescuing on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

Key words: Management of crisis, Light general aviation, Helicopters, Situation of


crisis.

- 102 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT STIMULATING HIGHER


EDUCATION QUALITY
Hristo Hristov
“Todor Kableshkov” University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
cac@vtu.bg
Mariya Hristova
“Todor Kableshkov” University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
mhristova@vtu.bg

RESUME
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is built on the principles and values
set as early as in the Bologna Declaration in 1999 being enriched and approved in
the years to follow. One of these principles is the quality of higher education.
Explicitly or implicitly, it is included in the agendas of periodic meetings of Ministers
of Education of the countries-participants in the Bologna Process in Prague, Bergen,
London, Leuven, Vienna, Budapest and Bucharest. The adopted common European
Qualifications Framework (EQF) in the EHEA is the basis of building national
qualifications frameworks. Common principles, criteria and methodology for quality
assurance were agreed. "Standards and Guidelines of Quality Assurance in the
European Educational Area" were approved. Three levels of implementation were
introduced: institutional (inter-university), outside (of the agencies for evaluation and
accreditation) and European, which is represented by the European Association for
Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA).
The National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency (NEAA) of the Republic of
Bulgaria is a member of ENQA and is guided by its principles and standards. In 2012
the Council of Ministers approved the National Qualifications Framework of the
Republic of Bulgaria (NQF) where the last three levels define knowledge, skills and
competencies of bachelors, masters and doctors in Bulgaria. The Parliament adopted
the Strategy for Development of Higher Education in Bulgaria up to 2020.
Despite these achievements the reforms of higher education in Bulgaria are seriously
lagging behind. It is the resource-oriented model of institutional funding of public
universities that still reigns, which gives universities a government subsidy for
maintenance of training according tom standards per student differentiated by
programmes. As a consequence of this principle universities decrease the
requirements to students: both with enrolment, training and testing. This model of
institutional funding reduces the quality of education because to protect staff and
budget, universities condescendingly enrol and retain unprepared students.

- 103 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Recognizing the weaknesses of public institutional funding, in 2012 the government


began to gradually introduce adjustments into this model. Part of the state subsidy
for higher education (currently 4% but with a tendency to grow) is paid as a stimulus
for universities with professional fields, top-ranked in the Bulgarian University
Ranking System (BURS) of Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. This system
was created using European funds and includes criteria in several sections such as:
accreditation evaluation, learning process, research, academic staff, learning
environment, social life and administrative services, career of graduates and
compliance with the labour market. To a large extent BURS repeats the criteria of
NEAA. The former has a number of weaknesses and deficiencies, there is no
consistency between the weight of evaluation criteria in both systems, but it must be
recognized that BURS is a step in the right direction. After the forthcoming imperative
improvement of both systems and their harmonization they can become an effective
tool for quality management in higher education on national level. Now changes in
the Higher Education Act are also provided to increase the share of budgetary funding
for quality assessed according to BURS.
Quality control in the institutions themselves acquires particular weight. The Higher
Education Act introduced a mandatory System of Evaluation and Quality
Maintenance of Education. As a consequence, all universities introduced their own
systems of quality management, some of which are in compliance with the
international ISO standards.
The analysis shows that, along with some positive results, quality systems are
accepted unambiguously both at universities and nationwide. Realistic self-
evaluation has not become a common practice. Academic leaders often have formal
attitude and are sceptical of them. There is a lack of interest in the evaluation process.
Small part of students participates fully in surveys on quality achieved. There are no
"reference points" for comparison in evaluation: requirements, standards. The
evaluation is done within the university but the end user is outside. The importance
of subjective factor is too high, which puts the adequacy of assessments into
question. The publicity of evaluation is limited and does not create competition in
achieving quality. The feedback between quality and its environment is open and
practical "broken" – teacher, student, academic head. The Strategy of Higher
Education states the low efficiency of systems, which is largely due to the "lack of
stimuli for the best teachers." Thus "career development is hindered and equalizing
traditions are fixed."
To develop inter-university systems of quality management as efficient tools, it is
necessary to implement two important steps:
1. To generate motivation for high quality effectively connecting the
achievements of faculty with their payment and recognition.
2. To meaningfully and formally coordinate the University Quality Management
with national accreditation systems and BURS, which is not a fact now.
The paper presented is mainly dedicated to these two problems.

- 104 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

To connect the achievements of faculty with payment and recognition, it is necessary


to objectively and adequately assess the quality of their performance and creativity.
However, quality cannot be measured and assessed as quantity if there are no
defined requirements for the respective object. Requirements of knowledge, skills
and competences are contained in EQF and NQF but they are so common that
cannot be used directly. Such standards, let's call them academic, should be
developed by each establishment of higher education for its programmes and
degrees. They must arise from and be agreed with the NQF and the university
mission and values. Then it is necessary to apply assessment based on these
standards. It should be assessment according to criteria, rules and mechanisms in
compliance with the criteria of NEAA and BURS and similar numerical scale. Further,
it is necessary to seek approaches and principles that guarantee the evaluation
objectivity, which should not be closed within the university but also cover the users
of university product. To reach a common understanding in the university and
recognition of the evaluation system, so that it does not raise serious objections. The
assessments should be public at least within the university and stimulate those who
have achieved quality. The paper proposes formal models, which can serve to
evaluate teachers according to the volume of their work and quality of results. Thus
the approach to reward quality established by BURS lying in the amendment of the
Higher Education Act, should be transferred from professional fields at universities to
the university staff, already assessed by objectified university system of quality
management.
The coordination of systems will result in a single system of university management
from "top" to "bottom" that:
1. Transfers while improving the principles, methods and mechanisms of the
national evaluation system from the national level to university one.
2. Directs aspirations and forms interests, harmonious and synergistic to the
NQF, to the mission, values and policies of higher education.
3. Creates prerequisites for better ranking in the national rating system of
professional fields with the budget bonuses consequent for the university.
4. Motivates students to participate in evaluation because it already depends
on them a lot and they see that.
5. The problems of relationships with users who become a part of the system
are solved.
6. Due to the feedback between quality and remuneration, the system can self-
improve and enhance its adequacy and efficiency.
Such university management, stimulating quality can be expected to have effects
associated with a complete change in the atmosphere of university. Redistribution of
funding to leading university teachers and executives could occur and over time it
could cause natural selection of academic staff in favour of quality. The joint
evaluation activity will inevitably bring universities and businesses nearer and the gap
between them will start to close.

- 105 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING THROUGH THE


QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF UNIVERSITY QUALITY
Mariya Hristova
“Todor Kableshkov” University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
mhristova@vtu.bg

RESUME
The quality of university products – higher education, research results and their
application – is the result of intellectual environment and intellectual process
immanently inherent to university. This understanding of quality stems from tradition
and common university conservatism but creates difficulties with its evaluation. It is
characterized by inherent verbal evaluation, which hides fuzziness and uncertainty
often "coloured" by the subjective interests.
In absence of objectivity and adequacy of assessments, the holder of quality cannot
be proportionally stimulated and this is a serious obstacle to motivate university
entities and to its continuous improvement.
It is more adequate to the market environment and appropriate for assessment to use
the following definition:
Quality of education and research and related educational entities is a set of the
properties and characteristics that give them ability to meet the dynamically changing
demands to them. The requirements with training are formulated with the academic
standards and qualification characteristics of programs and university degrees.
This definition makes possible to give quantitative assessment by comparing the
state of evaluated subject (how things are in reality) with the academic standard,
respectively the requirements defined (how things should be). The rated objects
include subjects, programmes of university degree, lecturer, and research results.
Quantitative assessments must be credible to the extent to be trusted in order to use
them for stimulating the improvement of quality closing the feedback between quality
and its holder.
There are different approaches and methods to assess the quality of training in
university practice worldwide. The National Rating System of Bulgaria has chosen an
option where different aspects (factors) of training and research process are
assessed.
To objectify the assessment of quality, the evaluation is:
 Multifactorial (multi-criterial) where the value and importance of the
assessment criteria, which are directly related to the standards for a given
object, determine quality. For each of the evaluated objects criteria Ki, any

- 106 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

of which has also indicators (indicators Ij), have been developed. This type
of hierarchical relationships is used in the Bulgarian national criteria system.

К1 К2 К3 К4 К5

I1 I2 I3 I1 I2 I3 I1 I2 I4 I1 I2 I1 I2 I3 I4

 Multi subjective - evaluating several entities from at least three different


countries from different viewpoints and with different interests: independent,
user and self-esteem.
 Expert - without seeking formal method, it is given by evaluators based on
current and objective information according to university data, direct and
indirect impressions, own experience and expertise.
 Quantitative (e.g. within a100-point interval scale). The estimates can be
obtained both from objective data and by expertise.
Users include: employers, business entities, companies, state and public
organizations, students and PhD students. The independent evaluators include trade
and professional organizations, editorial boards of professional journals, alumni
students and PhD students.
The significance (weight) of criteria in the overall quality assessment is not uniform
and is determined by expertise. Each criterion is given weight z  1 by the size of
rating scale part determined to it in the 100-point table shown below.
The evaluators do not have the same significance. The requirement of independence
and lack of conflict of interests is common to all but each of them has different
competence, awareness and expertise on various criteria and indicators. According
to these qualities, each of them is given a different coefficient of weight determined
by experts.
Weight of Evaluators
Criteria Indicator criterion Assessments Self- Professional
Students Users
z 1 assessment guilds
1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
К1 I11 5 r11 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,2
Q

r11Q

I12 7 r12 0,2 0,2 0,4 0,2


Q

r11Q

Some evaluators do not participate in the evaluation of certain indicators because


they have no competence or are presumed not to be objective – directly interested in
assessment. In these cases, the corresponding cell "evaluator-indicator" in the
evaluation form where the coefficient of weight is recorded is empty. When during the

- 107 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

evaluation process any of evaluators decide that he/she does not have competence,
he/she may omit this assessment. The algorithm of evaluation form computing
presented in this paper automatically reduces the rest of weighting factors so that the
sum is kept to be equal to one r
j
j  1.

The quality assessment in point dimensions is quantification of the degree of


approximation to the respective academic standard. It is quantitatively defined within
the scale part provided for this criterion. For example, the first criterion K1 of the form
given above is 12 points as much as the sum of the weights of its two indicators is.
The total (aggregate) quality assessment is the arithmetic sum of the points given for
all criteria and is obtained within 0 – 100 points.
The poll on quality of a programme, subject, teacher and research is performed by
electronic evaluation forms relevant to the object of evaluating. Such a form is
shown above. Other surveys are not used. Correspondence with evaluators is
electronic, tables are exchanged. Such is also processing of assessments. They are
performed by the integrated information system of university using the algorithm,
which is a subject of this paper.

In this algorithm the number of criteria i  1, n and the number of evaluation


indicators for each of them j  1, m are declared initially. It is checked if there is
lack of assessment with a given coefficient of weight. In case of positive answer,
kt
coefficients of weight are recalculated by ktr  .
1   ktn
Q, Qi, Qk are calculated. The algorithm ends in calculating the aggregate assessment.
The key variables in this algorithm are:
q – assessment given by the evaluator of an indicator in the statutory scale;
ktr – recalculated evaluators’ coefficients of weight;
Q – relative share of the assessment of a certain indicator given by a certain evaluator
Q  kt q
Qi – total assessment of the i-th indicator in the statutory scale Qi  Q
mi n
Qk   Qi – assessment of criterion k; Qa   Qk – aggregated assessment within
j 1 k 1

a 100-point scale.
Data access in the system is regulated: of evaluators – single, of authorized officials
– for a certain period and under the supervision of the administrative offices.
The complexity of evaluation system, which otherwise (in conventional technologies)
is inapplicable, is overcome trough the electronic system. Accuracy and authenticity
are achieved. Data integrity and evaluations are stored. Time and resources are
saved.

- 108 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZACIONO PONAŠANJE – INDIVIDUALNE SPOSOBNOSTI


Luka Ilić
Fakultet organizacionih nauka, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Beograd, Srbija
Simeun Čuturić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet „Union –
Nikola Tesla“, Beograd, Srbija
prof.cutura@mts.rs
Milan Đuričić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet „Union –
Nikola Tesla“, Beograd, Srbija
milan.djuricic.17@gmail.com

REZIME
Da bi smo shvatili uzročnost organizacionog ponašanja i njegovu zavisnost od niza
ključnih individualnih osobina potrebno je razmatranje započeti centralnim
psihološkim fenomenom a to je nesumnjivo, ličnost. Tu složenu organizaciju koja je
nastala uzajamnim delovanjem socijalne sredine i urođenih predispozicija možemo
posmatrati kroz njenu kognitivnu, emotivnu i kognitivnu dimenziju. Takav pristup je
uobičajen u psihološkim studijama i teorijama ali obzirom da nas za ovo razmatranje
prvenstveno interesuju sposobnosti to smo se opredelili za njenu strukturu koju
reprezentuju crte ličnosti.
Sama ličnost tj. čovekovo ponašanje, odnosno, psihički život čoveka karakteriše
jedinstvo svih osobina i procesa. Sve osobine koje pojedinac poseduje i svi psihički
procesi koji se u njemu i oko njega manifestuju međusobno su povezani i integrisani
u određeni sistem i usmeren prema nekim ciljevima. Zahvaljujući jedinstvenoj
organizaciji osobina i procesa, svi procesi se odvijaju koordinirano i međusobno
usklađeno čineći sistem ili sklop ličnosti. Crte koje čovek poseduje prestavljaju
usklađenu integraciju, a ne skup osobina.
Značaj jedinstva ličnosti uočava se tek kada se to jedinstvo naruši psihičkim
oboljenjima, kada nastaje dezorganizacija psihičkog života, pa i potpuni raspad
strukture ličnosti. U ostalom, čovek sebe nedoživljava kao skup svojih karakteristika
već kao celinu-ličnost, u kojoj su sve te odlike povezane i ujedinjene.
Osobenost i posebnost su bitne karakteristike pojedinca, ali te osobenosti nisu tolike
da se ne bi moglo govoriti o zajedničkim karakteristikama ljudi, pa i pojedinih grupa.
Ljudi se prema sličnosti svojih osobina svrstavaju u klase, tipove, stilove ponašanja.
‚‚Svaki čovek je, kako kažu neki naučnici, po nečemu sličan svim drugim ljudima, po
drugim karakteristikama, jednak ili sličan samo nekim ljudima, a po nekim osobinama
različit od svih drugih ljudi. '' Osobenost se ogleda u određenim karakteristikama
ponašanja i u načinu organizacije psihičkog života.

- 109 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Jedinstvo, osobenost i doslednost u ponašanju možemo smatrati karakterističnim


načinom ponašanja za neku osobu. To karakteristično ponašanje pojedinca u kojem
se ove tri karakteristike posebno ističu je, ustvari, njegova ličnost. Ličnost čini
jedinstven sistem osobenog ponašanja kojim se pojedinac razlikuje od drugih ljudi.
Ličnost je jedan od osnovnih pojmova kojima se služe psihološke nauke. Ona se
može definisati na razne načine i gotovo da nije bilo istaknutijeg istraživača i
teoretičara ove oblasti koji nije pokušao da ličnost odredi na svoj način. Jedna od
neprihvatljivijih i najplodnijih definicija ličnosti koju je dao autor ovog članka, da je
ličnost jedinstvena organizacija osobina koja se formira uzajamnim delovanjem
jedinke i sredine i određuje opšti, za pojedinca karakteristični, način ponašanja.
Kada se govori o samoj ličnosti kao psihološkoj pojavi ona je sklona da se menja,
razvija, transformiše. Njen razvoj se odvija pod uticajem tri grupe činilaca, u koje se
mogu uvrstiti brojni uticaji čijim uzajamnim delovanjem ličnost nastaje. To su
presvega: biološki, socijalni i aktivnosti kao činioci razvoja ličnosti.
Biološki činioci razvoja ličnosti. Najčešće se govori o biološkim osnovama ličnosti.
Čovek pri rođenju nosi u svom biološkom nasleđu neke potencijale i dispozicije od
kojih će se neke odmah u detinjstvu ispoljiti, neke će se manifestovati u kasnijem
životu, tokom sazrevanja, a neke se nikada neće ispoljiti.
Biološku osnovu ličnosti, čine nervni sistem, endokrini sistem i telesna konstitucija.
Među njima od posebnog je značaja nervni sistem, kao nosilac važnih dispozicija za
razvoj intelektualnih i drugih sposobnosti. Sam temperament pretežno zavisi
odfunkcije endokrinog sistema, te je kao grupa crta ličnosti biološki nasleđen.
Nasleđena je i telesna konstitucija kao osobena crta ličnosti, ali se njene
karakteristike, mišićavost, na primer, mogu radom i posebnim naporom znatnije
menjati.
Biološki momenti pored toga što imaju uticaje na razvoj ličnosti predstavljaju osnovu
za njeno formiranje i razvijanje. U njima se ogleda mogućnost i krajnji dometi razvoja
ličnosti ali ne i garancija da će te mogućnosti biti ostvarene. Za dostizanje konačnog
izraza ličnosti presudni su sredinski uticaji, a posebno delovanje njene socijalne
sredine.
Formiranje i razvoj ličnosti više zavisi od socijalnih činilaca. Na neke crte ličnosti
socijalna sredina presudno utiče kao što je to sa osobinama karaktera koje su gotovo
isključivo plod delovanja socijalnog okruženja. Kod drugih osobina od sredine zavisi
mogućnost njihovog razvoja jer bi mnoge sposobnosti ili posebni talenti ostali
‘’uspavani” ukoliko izostanu povoljni i podsticajni uticaji sredine. Na razvoj ličnosti
utiče veliki broj raznovrsnih socijalnih činilaca među kojima najveći uticaj imaju
porodica, škola, vršnjaci, kultura…
Najveći uticaj na formiranje i razvoj ličnosti ima porodica. Posebno je taj uticaj jak u
prvim godinama života. Smatramo u tom kontekstu ‘’Dete je otac čovekov’’, to jest da
bi se dete razvilo u zdravu i uravnoteženu ličnost neophodno je da odraste u
adekvatnim porodičnim uslovima. Porodica treba da omogući detetu da razvije osećaj
sigurnosti, da mu roditelji pokažu da je ono voljeno i da prema njemu ispoljavaju
srdačan i topao odnos. Kad je reč o razvoju ličnosti, utisak sigurnosti koji dete ponese
iz porodice ne zavisi samo od odnosa roditelja prema detetu, već i odnosa između

- 110 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

samih roditelja i opšte atmosfere. Poremećeni odnosi među roditeljima kao posledicu
imaju poremećeno ponašanje deteta i neželjene forme njegove ličnosti.
Svojim pedagoškim stavom prema deci roditelji doprinose razvoju mnogih poželjnih
ili negativnih osobina njihove ličnosti. U tom pogledu neprihvatljiva je preterana
strogost pogotovu ako je praćena agresivnošću i fizičkim kažnjavanjem dece. S
druge strane izrazita popustljivost i razmaženost koja se toleriše i neguje od strane
roditelja rezultira sindromom „prezaštićenog deteta’’ sa nizom nepoželjnih osobina
ličnosti koje dete prate i u zrelom dobu.
Polazak u školu, dolazak u novu sredinu, vodi dete osamostaljivanju i uspostavljanju
novih socijalnih odnosa. Uticaj škole se ostvaruje kroz sadržaje školskih programa,
postupke izvođenja nastave i kroz organizaciju školskog života. U kasnijem periodu
slični uticaji na formiranje individualnih sposobnosti takođe se dešavaju u
završavanju srednje škole, fakulteta a kasnije profesionalnog rada u različitim
organizacijama, kompanijama i slično. Posebno se ističu kulturni i socijalizacioni
uticaji koji se prenose mnogostrukim interakcijama pojedinaca u organizaciji i samog
kulturnog miljea. U tom smislu je veoma važno da pojedinci poseduju individualne
sposobnosti koje će omogućiti da postane ‘’bazična ličnost’’ gde će omogućiti da svi
članovi kolektiva sa svojim sposobnostima odgovore svakodnevnom izvršavanju
zadataka i obaveza na svom radnom mestu u bilo kojoj organizaciji.
Za uticaj kulture na ličnost posebno su važni položaji i uloge koje pojedinac zauzima
u određenoj grupi, organizaciji, sam status pojedinca se podrazumeva kao funkcija
koju isti ima u grupi, organizaciji, društvu čiji je član. Pod ulogom se podrazumeva
ponašanje koje je u određenoj kulturi vezano uz određeni položaj i za koji se očekuje
da ga onaj koji ima određen položaj redovno manifestuje. Za svaki položaj je vezano
očekivano ponašanje, tj. određena uloga. U određenoj grupi svaki njen član ima svoj
položaj i uz njega vezano ponašanje, u celokupnoj hijerarhiji organizacione strukture
ukupne organizacije. Ponašanja ljudi se razlikuju zavisno od situacije u kojoj se
nalaze i položaja koje zauzimaju. Međutim, položaj ne negira ličnost jer se ljudi
različito ponašaju zauzimajući iste ili slične položaje i imajući iste uloge. Različiti
pojedinci iste uloge obavljaju na različite načine. Ipak, utvrđujući crte ličnosti nekog
pojedinca moramo voditi računa o položajima i ulogama koje on ima.
Poput uticaja kulture i društveni sistem deluje na formiranje i razvoj ličnosti. Društveni
sistem deluje posredno preko mnogih drugih činilaca. Od sistema društva zavise
odnosi u porodici, a posebno školski sistem. Tu su i mnogi drugi društveni faktori kao
što je klasna pripadnost, verska pripadnost, materijalno stanje i drugi činioci kroz koje
društveni sistem neposredno deluje na razvoj ličnosti, sposobnosti svojih članova.
Kao i kod delovanja kulturnih činilaca društveni sistem preko svojih neposrednih ili
posrednih uticaja odlikuje ponašanje koje se smatra poželjnim i formira norme koje
se moraju poštovati. Vladajuće snage društva određuju sudstvo, školstvo i ciljeve
vaspitanja i obrazovanja u skladu sa svojim interesima. Stoga se društveni sistem
može smatrati izvornim faktorom socijalizacije, a škola i porodica njegovim
prenosiocem.
Ključne reči:organizacija, organizaciono ponašanje, individualne osobine,
sposobnosti i ličnost.

- 111 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR –INDIVIDUAL SKILLS


Luka Ilic
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade,
Serbia
SimeunCuturic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University "Union -
Nikola Tesla", Belgrade, Serbia
prof.cutura@mts.rs
Milan Djuricic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University "Union -
Nikola Tesla", Belgrade, Serbia
milan.djuricic.17@gmail.com

RESUME
In order to understand the causation of organizational behavior and its dependence
on a set of key individual features, we need to consider the central psychological
phenomenon, and that it is, undoubtedly, personality. This complex organization,
created in interaction of social protection and innate predispositions, can be observed
through its cognitive and emotional form. This approach is common in psychological
studies and theories. To us, for the purpose of this discussion, it is primarily
interesting for its structure and character traits.
Human behavior, that is, the psychic life of a person is characterized by the unity of
all process. All characteristics and traits that an individual possesses, all the mental
processes that are manifested in him and around him, are interconnected and
integrated into a certain system which is directed towards some goals. Thanks to the
unique characteristics of the organization and processes, all processes are carried
out in coordination and harmony with each other, making the system or circuit person.
The importance of the unity of personality can be seen only when the unity impairs
mental illnesses. Disorganization occurs when disruption the psychic life, and even a
complete breakdown structure of a person occurs. In other words, a person is not
seen as a group of characteristics but as a whole-person, in which all those qualities
are associated and united.
The peculiarity and uniqueness are the essential characteristics of an individual.
However, there are some common characteristics of people, and even some groups.
According to the similarity of their properties, people fall into classes, types, styles of
behavior. Each individual is, as some scientists put it, in some way similar to all the

- 112 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

other people. On the other hand, in certain characteristics, a person is the same or
similar only to some people, and in some others different from all other people. The
peculiarity is reflected in the behavior of certain features in the organization of mental
life.
Unity, characteristic and consistency in behavior can be regarded as characteristic
mode of behavior of a person. Person makes a unique system of proper behavior
which make an individual different from other people.
Personality is one of the basic concepts used by psychological science. This can be
defined in various ways, and there was almost no an outstanding researchers and
theorists in this area who have not tried to determine the personality. One of the best
and the most in-depth definitions of a person, given by the author of this article is that
personality is a unique organization formed by interaction of an individual and the
environment and determines the general, the individual characteristic and the way of
behavior.
When we talk about a person as a psychological phenomenon, it can be sad that one
is able to change, evolve, transform. The development takes place under the
influence of the three groups of factors, which may include a number of influences.
These are primarily: biological and social activities as the factors of personality
development.
Biological factors of personality development usually talk about the biological basis
of personality. A man at birth bears in his biological heritage. Some of his potential
dispositions will appear with delay, some will be manifested later in life, during
growing-up, and some will never manifest.
The biological basis of personality is made up of the nervous system, endocrine
system and physical constitution. Among them, it is particularly important to mention
nervous system, as a bearer of important features for the development of intellectual
and other abilities. Temperament largely depends on the function of the endocrine
system, as well as a group of biologically inherited personality traits.
Biological features, although they have influences on personality development,
represent the basis for its formation and their development is reflected in them and
in the possibility of ultimate achievements of personality development. However, we
cannot guarantee that these opportunities will be realized. For the accomplishment
of the ultimate expressions of personality, a crucial factor is environmental impact,
particularly social environment.
The formation and development of personality is more dependent on social factors.
For some traits social environment has a crucial influence as to the character traits
that are almost exclusively the result of the operation of the social environment. Many
skills or special talents remain 'dormant'. The development of personality affects a
large variety of social factors, among which family, school, peers, culture are the most
important ones.

- 113 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The greatest influence on the formation and development of personality has a family.
In particular, the influence is strong in the first years of life. I think in that context ''
The child is the father of man ', that is to make the child develop a healthy and
balanced personality, it is necessary for them to grow up in a proper family
environment. Families should allow a child to develop a sense of security that his/her
parents should take care of. When it comes to the development of personality, a
sense of security does not only depend on the relationship of a parent and child, but
on the relationship between the parents and the general atmosphere in a house.
Going to school, coming to a new environment, means independence and the
establishment of new social relations for a child. The influence of the school is carried
through the contents of school programs, procedures performed in the organization
of teaching and school life. At a later stage similar influences on the formation of
individual abilities also occur in completing high school, college and later professional
work in different organizations, companies and the like. Particularly important are
cultural and socialization influences that are transmitted by multiple interactions of
individuals in the organization and the cultural milieu. In this sense, it is very important
that individuals possess individuality capabilities that will enable them to become
strong personalities.
For the influence of culture on personality are particularly important the position and
role that an individual occupies in a particular group or organization. By the status of
an individual I means that it has a function in a group, organization, society as their
member. To each position is connected expected behavior. In certain specific group
each member has its own position, and the related behavior, in hierarchies within the
organizational structure of the overall organization. Different people have different
behavior depending on the situation they are in. However, the situation does not
negate the personality because people behave differently occupying the same or
similar positions and having the same role. Different individuals of the same roles
perform in different ways. However, by identifying personality traits of an individual,
we must take into account the positions and roles that he/she has.
Culture and social system work on the formation and development of personality. The
social system works indirectly through many other factors. Society depends on family
relations, especially the school system. There are also many other social factors,
such as class affiliation, religious affiliation, financial status and other factors, through
which the social system acts directly on the development of a personality, and the
abilities of its members. Therefore, the social system can be considered a source of
socialization factor, school system and family development.

Keywords: organization, organizational behavior, individual characteristics, abilities


and personality.

- 114 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

PRIMENA NOVIH TEHNOLOGIJA NA ZAPOSLENE U SRBIJI


Jelena Ivanović
Pravni fakultet za privredu i pravosuđe, Novi Sad, Srbija
jekybratz@gmail.com
Marko Teslić
JKP Informatika, Novi Sad, Srbija

REZIME
Tehnologija potiče od grčke reči "technologia" ("τεχνολογία") — "techne", "τέχνη"
("veština") i "logia", "λογία" ("nauka"). Poslodavci su oduvek pokušavali kontrolisati
radnike. Kontrolisanje potiče još iz vremena starog veka, kada su robovi pravili
piramide, a nastavilo se kroz istoriju u cilju što potpunije kontrole radnika i što
efikasnijeg obavljanja poslova.
Međunarodna istraživanja su pokazala da mnoge kompanije imaju svoje profile na
društvenim mrežama kako bi se povezale sa potrošačima, uključujući i marketing i
usluge koje pružaju, kao i za zapošljavanje novih radnika. Najčešći vidovi saradnje
koji se praktikuju u srpskim kompanijama, u kojima su zastupljene nove tehnologije
su kratke poruke i razmena fajlova, dok video komunikaciju smatraju jako
popularnom i koristi je veliki broj ljudi.
Vreme provedeno na internetu za vreme radnog vremena u Srbiji je mnogo veća
nego u svetu. Gledanje video klipova za vreme radnog vremena je zastupljeno kod
91% zaposlenih, na društvene mreže svoje radno vreme troši 77% zaposlenih, 50%
radnog vremena zaposleni troše proveravajući elektronsku poštu i u onlajn
konverzaciji sa kolegama. Vlasnici kompanija sve češće instaliraju programe,
pomoću kojih stavljaju zabranu zaposlenima da idu na društvene mreže u toku
radnog vremena, pa ih otključavaju za vreme pauza ili instaliraju programe koji
nadgledaju šta zaposleni radi na računaru u toku radnog vremena. Ovakvi programi
su produkti globalizacije i tehnoloških otkrića. Cene takvih programa nisu velike tako
da se neki od ovakvih programa može naći skoro u svim firmama.
Pravo privatnosti je zagarantovano Ustavom, kao najvišim pravnim aktom države. Uz
dozvolu suda, pravo da presretnu internet komunikaciju imaju Bezbednosno-
informativna agencija (BIA), Vojnobezbednosna agencija (VBA), Vojnoobaveštajna
agencija (VOA), Služba za borbu protiv organizovanog kriminala (SBPOK). To znači,
da poslodavci ne smeju da presreću internet komunikaciju zaposlenih. Poverenik za
informacije od javnog značaja i zaštitu podataka o ličnosti pokrenuo postupak
nadzora nad operatorima javnih komunikacionih mreža i usluga kojih u Srbiji ima
ukupno 462. U Srbiji je 2012., kontrolisano i prisluškivano oko 800.000 ljudi. Policija

- 115 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

i tužilaštvo su podneli 4.400 sudskih naloga za pristup ovim podacima, a samo 90%
je odobreno. Iako je neovlašćeno prisluškivanje kažnjivo Krivičnom zakonikom, razne
privatne firme, mobilni operateri, detektivske agencije, obezbeđenje prisluškuju
građane. Načini za prikupljanje i obrade podataka o građanima mogu biti: praćenje
interneta, telefonske komunikacije ili razmene SMS poruka koje su postale javno
oglašavanje usluga, preko bankovnih kartica. Zakon o elektronskim komunikacijama
predviđa tzv. „zadržane podatke“ o komunikaciji. Ovi podaci ne otkrivaju sadržaj
komunikacije, ali mogu lako dovesti do otkrića identiteta sagovornika. Građane
svakodnevno snima preko 200.000 kamera, ali ko, zašto i u koje svrhe može da
snima, nije poznato. Zakon o zaštiti podataka o ličnosti propisuje obaveznu
saglasnost građana prilikom snimanja, ali za njihovu dozvolu u Srbiji gotovo niko i ne
pita.
U oktobru 2015. godine, poverenik za informacije od javnog značaja i zaštitu
podataka o ličnosti je upozoravao pravna lica i preduzetnike koji se bave poslovima
privatnog obezbeđenja da zadržavanjem ličnih karata posetilaca koji ulaze u objekte
koji oni obezbeđuju vrše nedozvoljenu obradu podataka o ličnosti i krše Zakon o
zaštiti podataka o ličnosti. Ovlašćenje i potreba za proverom nečijeg identiteta
uvidom u identifikacioni dokument nikad (osim kada je to izričito predviđeno
zakonom) ne podrazumevaju zadržavanje tog dokumenta. Zakon o privatnom
obezbeđenju ne daje osnov za zadržavanje ličnih dokumenata, pa njihovo
zadržavanje predstavlja nesvrsishodnu, nedozvoljenu obradu podataka o ličnosti.
Zadržavanje dokumenata, takođe (kao i eventualno fotokopiranje) izvesno povećava
i rizike mogućih zloupotreba. Prema Zakonu o evidencijama u oblasti rada potrebno
je preko 25 ličnih podataka koje zaposleni mora da dostavi, a pitanja na intervjuu za
posao poput: da li ste udati? Kada planirate decu i ostala zadiru u privatnost osoba,
naročito ženskog pola.
Najnoviji slučaj Evropskog suda za ljudska prava je uznemirio čitav svet, pogotovo
borce za ljudska prava. Evropski sud za ljudska prava je u januaru mesecu 2016.
godine presudio u korist poslodavca po tužbi rumunskog inženjera koji je otpušten
2007. godine jer je koristio Yahoo mesindžer na poslu, ne samo za komunikaciju sa
klijentima, već i u privatne svrhe - da bi slao poruke svojoj verenici i bratu, iako je
znao da je opštim aktima zabranjeno da zaposleni koriste programe za četovanje u
privatne svrhe tokom radnog vremena. Sud je obrazložio svoju odluku stavom da nije
nerazumna želja poslodavca da proveri da li zaposleni izvršavaju svoje profesionalne
zadatke tokom radnog vremena. Kompanija je u ovom slučaju "pristupila porukama
u uverenju da su sadržale profesionalnu komunikaciju". Sud je odbacio argumente
rumunskog državljanina koji je tvrdio da je nadgledanjem privatnih poruka prekršeno
njegovo pravo na privatnost. Svojom odlukom Evropski sud za ljudska prava je
potvrdio ranije donesene odluke rumunskih sudova.
Odluke Evropskog suda za ljudska prava su obavezujuće za sve potpisnice Evropske
povelje o ljudskim pravima. Kako je Srbija ovu Konvenciju ratifikovala 23. decembra

- 116 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

2003. godine presuda Evropskog suda za ljudska u korist prava poslodavaca da


nadgleda elektronsku komunikaciju zaposlenih, važi i kod nas.
U skladu sa preporukom poverenika za informacije o javnog značaja i zaštitu
podataka o ličnosti, Registar nacionalnog internet domena Srbije" (RNIDS) je izmenio
Opšte uslove o registraciji nacionalnih domena, u skladu, s kojim se od 19. oktobra
2015. godine, nazivi .RS i .SRB domena registruju bez obaveznog navođenja JMBG
registranta. „Usvajanje savremenih standarda zaštite podataka o ličnosti je krupan i
nimalo lako ostvariv cilj. Odluka RNIDS predstavlja rezultat aktivnosti koje nisu bile
nametnute odnosno uslovljene postupcima nadzora koje je Poverenik otvorio
povodom podnetih prijava građana. Prepoznavanje nepravilnosti u obradi podataka
od strane samog rukovaoca i njihovo otklanjanje bez intervencije Poverenika,
predstavlja činjenicu koja ohrabruje.
RNIDS je svojom odlukom ipak ostavio mogućnost korisnicima koji to žele, da uz
podatke o registraciji domena navedu i svoj JMBG, kako bi se izbegli eventualni
nesporazumi prilikom prenosa registracije domena na drugo lice. Eventualno
objavljivanje JMBG na internetu predstavljalo bi svakako prekomernu obradu
podatka o ličnosti i samim tim nedozvoljenu obradu podataka o ličnosti."
Pravo poslodavca da kontroliše proces rada ne bi smeo da vodi ka vodi totalnoj
kontroli, već mora imati dobre razloge. U suprotnom, posledice bi mogle da budu
"pravo" na slušanje svih razgovora, čitanje na poslu primljenih SMS poruka, snimanje
tokom celog procesa rada i slično. Potpuno ukidanje privatnosti na poslu bi bilo
direktno suprotno svim dosadašnjim shvatanjima i opredeljenjima relevantnih
subjekata uključujući i dokumenta Međunarodne organizacije rada.
Da li je ovo početak doba kada će privatnost u potpunosti nestati? Najnoviji trend koji
je u SAD-u je da ljudi budu čipovani. Lepo zvuči. Ljudi više neće morati da nose lične
karte, bankovne kartice, čak I vrata automobila će se sama otvarati. Sve što ljudi
treba da urade, jeste da popiju taj mali čip koji će se do kraja života puniti elektrolitima
iz tela čoveka. Ukoliko dođe do nezgode, lekari će moći odmah da vide zdravstveni
karton, vaše lične podatke, ali i stanje bankovnog računa. I ceo taj sistem je povezan
sa Internetom I kompjuterom. Ali, postavlja se pitanje, da li je zaista to budućnost
kojoj svi težimo, I da li takvu budućnost, koju smo samo gledali u filmovima, želimo
svojoj deci?

- 117 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES ON EMPLOYEES IN


SERBIA
Jelena Ivanović
Law Faculty of Economy and Justice, Novi Sad, Serbia
jekybratz@gmail.com
Marko Teslić
JKP Informatika, Novi Sad, Serbia

RESUME
Technology is derived from the Greek word technologia (τεχνολογία;) Techno τέχνη
(skills) and (Logia λογία science). Employers have always tried to control the workers.
Control goes back to ancient times, when they were slaves to the rules of the pyramid,
and continued through history towards full control of workers and more efficient
execution of tasks. International research has shown that many companies have their
own profiles on social networks to connect with customers, including marketing and
the services they provide, as well as to recruit new workers. The most common forms
of cooperation practiced in the Serbian companies that involve new technologies are
short messages and file sharing. Video communication is also considered very
popular and is used by a large number of people.
Time spent on the Internet during working hours in Serbia is much greater than in the
world. Watching video clips during work time is present in 91% of the employed, 77%
of employees spend their time on social networks, and 50% of working time is spent
in checking emails and online conversations with colleagues. Business owners are
increasingly installing programs which should ban employees from going on social
networks during work hours. Such programs are products of globalization and
technological breakthroughs. The prices of such programs are not so large that some
of these programs can be found in almost all companies.
The right to privacy is guaranteed by the Constitution as the highest legal act. With
the permission of the court, the right to intercept Internet communications with the
Security Information Agency (BIA) and Military Security Agency (VBA), Military
Intelligence Agency (VOA), the Service for Combating Organized Crime (SBPOK).
This means that employers are not allowed to intercept Internet communications of
the employees. Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and Personal
Data Protection, initiated proceedings for the control of the operators of public
communications networks and services in Serbia, which has a total of 462. In Serbia
in 2012, about 800,000 people were controlled and tapped. Police and prosecutors
have filed 4,400 court orders for access to this data, and only 90% were approved.

- 118 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Although unauthorized wiretapping is punishable by the Criminal Code, various


private companies, mobile operators, detective agencies, security wiretapped
citizens. Methods for collecting and processing data on citizens can be: monitoring
the Internet, telephone communication or exchange of text messages that became
public advertising services through bank cards. The Electronic Communications Act
provides for so-called. "Retained data" of communication. These data do not reveal
the content of the communication, but can easily lead to the discovery of the identity
of the interlocutors. Citizens daily records over 200,000 cameras, but when, why and
for what purposes is not known. The Law on Personal Data Protection provides for a
mandatory consent of citizens while they are being recorded, but in Serbia almost
nobody asks for permission.
In October 2015, the Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and
Personal Data Protection has warned of the legal entities and entrepreneurs who are
engaged in private security by maintaining identity cards of visitors who enter the
facilities. The authority and the need for checking someone's identity by examining
the identification document never (except when it is expressly provided for by the law)
includes the retention of the document. Law on private security does not give grounds
for keeping personal documents, and their retention represents the misuse,
unauthorized processing of personal data. Retention of documents also (and possibly
photocopy) certainly increases the risks of possible abuse. According to the records
in the field of work, there has to be more than 25 personal data that the employees
must provide, and the questions for the interview for the job, such as: Are you
married? When do you plan to have children? violate the privacy of people, especially
females.
The most recent case of the European Court of Human Rights has upset the entire
world, especially human rights defenders. The European Court of Human Rights in
January 2016 ruled in favor of the employer on the complaint of the Romanian
engineer who was fired in 2007 because he used Yahoo messenger at work, not only
to communicate with customers, but also for private purposes - to send messages to
his fiancee and his brother, even though he knew that the general acts prohibited
employees from using programs for chatting in private purposes during work hours.
The Court explained their decision by pointing out that it is not unreasonable desire
of employers to verify that the employees perform their professional duties during
working hours. The court rejected the arguments of the Romanian citizen who
claimed that the monitoring of private messages violated his right to privacy. The
European Court of Human Rights has confirmed earlier decisions by the Romanian
courts.
The decisions of the European Court of Human Rights are binding on all signatories
to the European Convention on Human Rights. As Serbia has ratified this Convention
on 23 December 2003, the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in favor
of employers to monitor electronic communication between employees, also applies

- 119 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

to us. In accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioner for Information


of Public Importance and Personal Data Protection, National Register Internet
Domain Names of Serbia; (RNIDS) amended the general terms and conditions on
the registration of national domains, consistent with that of 19 October 2015, the
names .rs and .SRB domain registered without specifying mandatory identification
number of the registrant. "The adoption of modern standards of personal data
protection is sturdy and not at all easily achievable goal. Decision RNIDS is the result
of activities that were not imposed or caused by control procedures which the
Commissioner opened on the submitted application citizens. Identifying irregularities
in the processing of data by the operator and eliminate them without the intervention
of the Commissioner, a fact that encourages us.
RNIDS still leaves open the possibility for users who want to submit their personal
identification number in order to avoid possible misunderstandings during the transfer
of domain name registration to another person. The publication of identification
number on the Internet would be excessive processing of personal data and therefore
unlawful processing of personal data.
The employer's right to control the work process should not lead to a total water
control, but must have good reasons. Otherwise, the consequences could be
listening to all conversations, reading at work receiving SMS messages, recording
throughout the work process and the like. Completely abolishing the policy at work
would be directly contrary to all previous understandings and commitments of
relevant entities including the document of the International Labour Organisation.
Is this the beginning of an era when privacy will disappear completely? The latest
trend in the US is that people are chipped. Sounds nice. People will no longer have
to carry identity cards, bank cards, even car doors will open for them. All the people
need to do, is to drink this little chip that will be the end of life rechargeable electrolytes
in the human body. If an accident occurs, doctors will be able to immediately see the
medical records, your personal information, and bank account balance. And the
entire system is connected to the Internet and computers. However, the question is,
is it really the future that we all aspire to? Do we really want the future that we could
see only in the movies for our children?

- 120 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ANALIZA KONKURENTNOSTI BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE U


KONTEKSTU PRISTUPNIH PROCESA EU
Sanja Jakovljević
ZP „Elektrodistribucija“ a.d, Pale, Bosna i Hercegovina
sanjajakovljevic87@yahoo.com
Tatjana Klincov Vujaković
Univerzitet za poslovne studije, Banja Luka, Bosna i Hercegovina,
tatjana.klincov@gmail.com

REZIME
Iako postoji više definicija pojma konkurentnost, OECD je istu definisao kako
sposobnost zemlje da u slobodnim i ravnopravnim tržišnim uslovima proizvodi robe i
usluge koje prolaze test međunarodnog tržišta, uz istovremeno povećanje realnog
dohotka stanovništva. Ova definicija konkurentnosti jasno ukazuje da pojedinu zemlju
možemo smatrati konkurentnom ne samo pod uslovom da ima značajnu ulogu u
proizvodnji i plasiranju roba na svjetska tržišta, nego da i građani te zemlje u
posmatranom periodu ostvaruju viši životni standard mjeren različitim pokazateljima.
Na žalost, nizak životni standard od svega trećine EU28 prosjeka jasno ukazuje da
BiH uveliko zaostaje za drugim tranzicijskim zemljama koje su prošle ili prolaze
proces evropskih integracija. Sa stanovišta ekonomske teorije faktori koji određuju
tempo ekonomske konvergencije su početna pozicija, očuvanje makroekonomske
stabilnosti i stepen uspješnosti u sprovođenju strukturalnih reformi.
Nakon globalne recesije, svjetsku ekonomiju karakteriše visok nivo nezaposlenosti,
slabiji rast produktivnosti, te prigušen ekonomski rast koji i dalje može biti opterećen
raznim neizvjesnostima, kao što su geopolitičke tenzije, cijene energenata i promjena
kursa valuta. Ovako nastalo stanje je dobilo naziv „nova normala“, tj. novo normalno
stanje. Međutim, nedavni razvojni trendovi su obećavajući. Takozvana četvrta
industrijska revolucija i novi načini potrošnje poput „ekonomije dijeljenja“ mogu
dovesti do novog vala inovacija za pokretanje rasta. Takođe, u mnogim zemljama,
ekonomske politike su sve više fokusirane na potrebe građana, i ugrađene su u
sveukupne društvene ciljeve i strategije razvoja.
Među 10 najkonkurentnijih u svijetu ove godine, nalaze se zemlje koje su i prošle
godine bile visoko rangirane, no ove godine sa malo drugačijim redoslijedom.
Švajcarska je zadržala titulu najkonkurentnije svjetske privrede sedmu godinu
zaredom, zahvaljujući inovacijama, uspješnom edukativnom sistemu i učinkovitosti.
Potom slijedi Singapur i SAD sa nepromijenjenim rezultatom, dok su Njemačka i
Holandija ove godine ostvarile mnogo bolje rezultate i zauzele 4. i 5. mjesto. Japan i

- 121 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Hong Kong su zadržale prošlogodišnje 6. i 7. mjesto, dok je Finska ove godine pala
sa 4. na 8. mjesto. Švedska je napredovala za jedno mjesto i sada se nalazi ispred
Velike Britanije koja je poslednja na tabeli top 10.
Zemlje u regionu imale su blagu promjenu ranga u odnosu na prošlu godinu. Najviše
je napredovala Slovenija koja se sa 70. popela na 59. mjesto, Hrvatska i Srbija su
zadržale prošlogodišnje pozicije, a Crna Gora je sa 67. pala na 70. mjesto. Bosna i
Hercegovina prošle godine nije bila na listi Svjetskog ekonomskog foruma zbog
nekonzistentnosti i nepouzdanosti podataka. Ove godine BiH je zauzela 111. mjesto
sa ocjenom 3,7 (maksimalna ocjena je 7, a minimalna 1).
Iako su ukupni izgledi za ekonomski rast i dalje pozitivni, očekivana stopa rasta je
ispod nivoa u većini razvijenih ekonomija, te u mnogim zemljama u razvoju. Izgledi
za rast mogu biti narušeni raznim neizvjesnostima kao što su usporavanje rasta
tržišta u razvoju, geopolitičke tenzije i konflikti, i širom svijeta novonastala
humanitarna kriza.
Jedan od osnovnih preduslova održivog ekonomskog rasta, te povećanja
zaposlenosti jeste makroekonomska stabilnost. Makroekonomska stabilnost
ostvariće se efikasnijim upravljanjem javnim finansijama kroz unaprijeđenje procesa
upravljanja državnim budžetom, fiskalnu konsolidaciju i efikasno upravljanje javnim
dugom, jačanje sistema unutrašnjih finansijskih kontrola i unutrašnje revizije, te
razvoja makroekonomske statistike. Makrostabilnost se održava jakom i adekvatnom
internacionalizacijom ekonomije, njenom otvorenošću za ideje o tome šta svijetu
treba da bi se uz pomoć savremene opreme i tehnologije utkalo u konkurentnost i
izvoz bh. roba i usluga.
Investicije u nove kapacitete su prijeko potrebne da bi se povećala niska kapitalna
opremljenost rada i podigla produktivnost, a samim tim i konkurentnost BiH privrede.
Pitanje konkurentnosti je izuzetno važno za BiH obzirom na veoma nizak životni
standard i visok vanjskotrgovinski deficit. Nepovoljno poslovno okruženje u poređenju
sa drugim zemljama je među glavnim razlozima nedovoljnog investiranja u BiH. Isti
uzroci vjerovatno odbijaju i strane investitore, pa otuda i nizak nivo direktnih stranih
ulaganja. U nedostatku mogućnosti uticaja na neke spoljne faktore i događaje BiH bi
trebala da obrati pažnju na ono što se može relativno jednostavno brzo promijeniti,
kao što su eliminacija nepotrebnih administrativnih prepreka i smanjenje broja
potrebnih dozvola za početak poslovanja i gradnje.
Socijalna kriza kao produkt ekonomske krize zahtijeva pažljivo balansiranje mijera
kako bi se ostvarili redistributivni efekti u korist dijelova stanovništva sa nižim
dohotcima i primanjima. Fiskalni deficit i preuzete obaveze nalažu hitne mjere
restruktuisanja budžeta svih nivoa radi osiguranja njihove održivosti. Zbog
naslijeđenih deficita iz prethodnog perioda u narednim godinama potrebno je ciljati
blagi fiskalni deficit da bi se osigurala fiskalna održivost u skladu sa kriterijumima EU.

- 122 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Poredeći prosječan rast ekonomija pet zemalja komparatora iz EU (EU-5) koje čine:
Bugarska, Mađarska, Hrvatska, Rumunija i Slovačka, sa rastom ekonomije BiH u
2014. godini može se zaključiti da je stopa rasta u BiH bila znatno niža, tj. iznosila je
tek trećinu prosijeka rasta pomenutih komparatora. Rast ekonomije zemalja EU28
iznosio je 1,3%. Od glavnih bh. trgovačkih partnera Njemačka je zabilježila rast od
1,6%, Slovenija 2,6%, a Italija i Hrvatska pad od 0,24%.
Prema procijeni Eurostata BDP po glavi stanovnika prema standardu kupovne moći
u BiH u 2014. godini bio je na nivou od 28% prosijeka EU28, što je najniži nivo u
poređenju sa zemljama u regiji. Albanija je nešto bolje rangirana (29% prosjeka
EU28), kao i Srbija 35%, dok su Makedonija i Crna Gora na nivou od 36% prosjeka
EU28.
Poslednjih par godina BiH nije imala velikih pomaka u kreiranju povoljnijeg poslovnog
okruženja ili ambijenta koji bi bio primamljiviji za investitore. Posebne poteškoće u
oblasti konkurentnosti odnose se na dobijanje kredita, početak poslovanja,
zapošljavanje radnika, ukupnu poresku stopu, registraciju nekretnina, dobijanju
dozvola i opštem kvalitetu infrastrukture. Prema lakoći poslovanja BiH je rangirana
na 107. mijesto od 189 zemalja gdje je prema praćenim indikatorima najlošije
rangirana za dobijanje dozvola (182/189), uvođenju struje (163/189), plaćanje poreza
(151/189) i za započinjanje poslovanja (147/189).
Niska konkurentnost bh. ekonomije ima svoje korijene i u niskom obuhvatu
obrazovanja, posebno u oblasti srednjeg i visokog obrazovanj, kao i u lošoj
obrazovnoj strukturi kadrova i obrazovnom sistemu koji ne priprema adekvatno
kadrove za moderno tržište rada. Struktura upisa na fakultete ne prati razvojne
potrebe BiH niti definisane globalne i EU trendove.

- 123 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ANALYSIS OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF BOSNIA AND


HERZEGOVINA IN THE CONTEXT OF EU ACCESSION PROCESS
Sanja Jakovljević
ZP „Elektrodistribucija“ a.d, Pale, Bosnia and Herzegovina
sanjajakovljevic87@yahoo.com
Tatjana Klincov Vujaković
University of Business Studies, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
tatjana.klincov@gmail.com

RESUME
Even though there are several definitions of the concept of competitiveness, the
OECD has defined it as an ability of a country to produce goods and services that
pass the test of international market in the conditions of free and equal market, while
increasing the real income of the population. This definition of competitiveness clearly
shows that each country can be considered competitive not only under the condition
that it has a significant role in the production and marketing of goods on the world
markets, but also that the citizens of this country in the observed period achieved a
higher standard of living, measured by various indicators. Unfortunately, the low living
standard of a third of the EU28 average clearly indicates that BiH lags far behind
other transition countries that have undergone or are undergoing the process of
European integration. From the standpoint of economic theory, the factors
determining the pace of economic convergence are a starting position, maintaining
macroeconomic stability and the degree of success in implementing structural
reforms.
After the global recession, the world economy is characterized by high
unemployment, lower productivity growth and subdued economic growth which
continues to be burdened by a variety of uncertainties, such as geopolitical tensions,
energy prices and changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Thus the resulting
situation was named "new normal", i.e. new normal situation. However, recent
development trends are promising. The so-called fourth industrial revolution and new
ways of spending such as "sharing economy" could lead to a new wave of innovation
to drive growth. Also, in many countries, economic policies are increasingly focused
on the needs of citizens, and are embedded in the overall societal objectives and
strategies of development.
Among the 10 most competitive in the world this year, are countries which last year
were highly ranked, but this year with a slightly different order. Switzerland retained
the title of world's most competitive economy for the seventh year in a row, thanks to

- 124 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

innovation, success and effectiveness of the educational system. It is followed by


Singapore and the United States with an unchanged score, while Germany and the
Netherlands this year achieved much better results and took the 4th and 5th place.
Japan and Hong Kong have maintained last year's 6th and 7th place, while Finland
this year fell from 4th to 8th place. Sweden has moved up one place and is now
located in front of Great Britain, which is the last on the table of the top 10.
The countries in the region had a slight change in ranking compared to the last year.
Most of the progress achieved Slovenia and climbed from 70th to 59th place, Croatia
and Serbia have maintained last year's position, and Montenegro dropped from 67th
to 70th place. Bosnia and Herzegovina last year was not on the list of the World
Economic Forum because of the inconsistency and unreliability of data. This year,
BiH was ranked 111th with a score of 3.7 (maximum score is 7, and minimum is 1).
While the overall outlook for economic growth remains positive, the expected growth
rate is below the level in most developed economies and in many developing
countries. The outlook for growth may be hampered by various uncertainties such as
the slowdown in emerging markets, geopolitical tensions and conflicts around the
world and emerging humanitarian crisis.
One of the basic preconditions for sustainable economic growth and increased
employment must be macroeconomic stability. Macroeconomic stability will be
achieved through more efficient management of public finances by improving the
process of managing the state budget, fiscal consolidation and efficient management
of public debt, strengthen the system of internal financial control and internal audit,
and the development of macroeconomic statistics. Macroeconomic stability is
maintained by strong and adequate internationalization of the economy, its openness
to the idea of what the world needs to be with the help of modern equipment and
technology incorporated into the competitiveness and export of BiH goods and
services.
Investments in new capacities are essential to maximize the low capital equipment of
labour and increase productivity, and hence competitiveness of BiH economy. The
question of competitiveness is extremely important for BiH given the very low
standard of living and a high foreign trade deficit. Unfavourable business environment
in comparison with other countries is among the main reasons of insufficient
investment in BiH. These causes probably refuse foreign investors, hence the low
level of foreign direct investment. In the absence of the possibility of impact on some
external factors and events, BiH should pay attention to what can be relatively easy
changed quickly, such as the elimination of unnecessary administrative barriers and
reducing the number of necessary permits to start a business and construction.
The social crisis as a product of the economic crisis requires a careful balancing of
measures in order to achieve redistributive effects in favour of the sections of the
population with lower incomes and salaries. Fiscal deficits and inherited obligations
require urgent measures for the restructuring of budgets of all levels in order to

- 125 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ensure their sustainability. Due to the inherited deficit from the previous period in the
coming years it is necessary to aim at a slight fiscal deficit in order to ensure fiscal
sustainability in line with EU criteria.
Comparing the average growth of the economies of five comparator countries in the
EU (EU-5), which are: Bulgaria, Hungary, Croatia, Romania and Slovakia, with the
growth of the BiH economy in 2014 it can be concluded that the growth rate in BiH
was much lower, i.e. amounted to only one third of the average of the growth of the
comparators aforementioned. Growth in the economies of the EU28 was 1.3%. From
the main BH trading partners, Germany has recorded a growth of 1.6%, Slovenia
2.6%, while Italy and Croatia recorded a decline of 0.24%.
According to estimates by Eurostat, GDP per capita in purchasing power standards
in BiH in 2014 was at the level of the EU28 average of 28%, which is the lowest level
compared to other countries in the region. Albania is ranked slightly better (29% of
the EU28 average) and Serbia 35%, while Macedonia and Montenegro at the level
of 36% average of the EU28.
In the last few years BiH had large gains in creating a more favourable business
environment or an environment that would be more attractive for investors. Specific
problems in the field of competitiveness relate to obtaining loans, starting a business,
employing workers, the overall tax rate, registration of property, obtaining permits and
the general quality of infrastructure. According to the Doing Business Report BiH is
ranked 107th out of 189 countries where, according to monitored indicators it is
ranked the worst for licenses (182/189), the introduction of electricity (163/189),
paying taxes (151/189) and for starting a business (147 / 189).
Low competitiveness of BH economy has its roots in the low coverage of education,
especially in secondary and higher education, as well as the poor educational
structure of staff and the education system does not adequately prepare human
resources for the modern labour market. The structure of enrolment at universities
does not follow the development needs of BiH nor defined global and EU trends.

- 126 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

POVEZANOST STRATEGIJSKOG PLANIRANJA I PROGRAMSKOG


BUDŽETIRANJA U OBLASTI KULTURE
Danijela Janjić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, „Union -Nikola Tesla“
Univerzitet, Beograd
exluzive@yahoo.com
Snežana Maksimović
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, „Union -Nikola Tesla“
Univerzitet, Beograd
galena.mcl@gmail.com
Slavoljub Veselinović
Studentski kulturni centar, Beograd
direkor@skc.rs

REZIME
Predmet rada je strateška analiza koja govori da je upravljanje delatnostima kulture i
primena programskog budžetiranja vrlo kompleksan zadatak sa mnogo problema, a
najveći je zapravo nedostatak pravog znanja iz menadžmenta kulture
ineprepoznavanje potrebe za njegovom primenom. Priprema budžeta po
programskom modelu zahteva posebna istraživanja i analize koji će definisati
osnovne probleme ove specijalizovane menadžment discipline, kroz opisivanje i
istraživanje postojećih oblika organizovanja unutar kulturnih delatnosti, kao i
razvijanje i ispitivanje novih, adekvatnijih i efikasnijih modela organizovanja. Cilj rada
jeste da se ispitaju faktori koji utiču na efikasnost i efektivnost merenja performansi i
da se apostrofira veza između strategijskog planiranja i programskog budžetiranja u
cilju olakšanja strategijski konzistentnog odlučivanja. Uvođenje strategijskog
planiranja u ustanove kulture zahtev je savremenog vremena, koje kulturi nameće i
potreba uspeha na tržištu, odnosno na ovaj način koncipirano unapređenje
upravljanja polazi od stanovišta da je i delatnost kulture sistem unutar koga se
svesnom ljudskom aktivnošću mogu organizovati uslovi kulturnog stvaralaštva i oblici
njegovog plasmana koji dovode do stope prinosa koja se može valorizovati u
ekonomskom, društvenom i kulturnom pogledu.
Dugoročni razvoj planira se na osnovu potreba i potencijala, kao i sopstvenih
mogućnosti i slabosti, ali uzimajući u obzir i prilike (spoljašnje faktore ) koje je mogu
ugroziti. Potrebno je da bude usklađen sa opštim interesom u kulturi, načelima
kulturnog razvoja, postojećom zakonskom regulativom, nacionalnim i lokalnim
strateškim dokumentima. Definisanim pravcima razvoja, a potom i njihovom

- 127 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

implementacijom, kulturna politika postaje eksplicitna i ciljno orijentisana, na osnovu


čega njeni rezultati postaju merljivi. Kulturni razvoj u savremenog doba zahteva
uvođenje strateškog planiranja, koje prema prirodi svog delovanja pripada tzv.
organizacionim, a prema smeru delovanja stimulativnim , podsticajnim instrumentom
kulturne politike U tom smislu, za izradu programskog budžeta kao operativnog
plana, akteri u oblasti kulture nužno moraju da primenjuju određene instrumente,
odnosno alate strateškog planiranja.
Unapređenje budžetskog procesa kroz programsko budžetiranje u sektoru kulture,
predstavlja deo šire reforme upravljanja javnim finansijama, koje stavlja naglasak na
utvrđivanje prioriteta i optimizaciju potrošnje kroz postojanje konkretnih programa, za
koje su u budžetu odvojene konkretno određene sume novca, u cilju pružanja
kvalitetnih usluga u delatnosti kulture. Na taj način vrši se usmeravanje sredstava na
rešavanje konkretnih problema, čime se kreatorima kulturne politike omogućava da
uspostave bolje odnose između resursa koji postoje u delatnostima kulture, strategija
kulturnog razvoja, programa i rezultata koji treba da se postignu. Ovim modelom
težište se stavlja na planiranje, odnosno očekivanje rezultata i praćenje šta je u
prethodnim periodima postignuto sa odobrenim, odnosno iskorišćenim sredstvima.
U drugom delu rada ukazuje se da reforma sistema budžetiranja podrazumeva
odgovarajuću posvećenost i dugotrajno ulaganje u kadrove u cilju ostvarenja boljih
organizacionih performansi. Povezanost merila performansi i organizacionih faktora
sa efektivnošću sistema pruža uvid u preovlađujuće organizacione uslove koji
podržavaju ostvarenje željenih ciljeva. Da bi opstali u uslovima savremenog
dinamičnog i turbulentnog okruženja, subjekti kulture moraju identifikovati svoje
postojeće pozicije, pojasniti svoje ciljeve i delovati na što efikasniji i efektivniji način.
Sistemi merenja indikatora upravo ovo omogućavaju. Efektivan sistem merenja
performansi omogućava organizacijama kulture da procene da li su njihovi
kratkoročni i dugoročni ciljevi ostvareni i da li je došlo do napretka u društvenom
smislu u celini u skladu sa definisanom strategijom. Treba napomenuti da se
uvažavaju kako finansijski, tako i nefinansijski indikatori koji odražavaju efekte
ključnih aktivnosti koji dodaju vrednost organizacije kulture u celini. Neki subjekti
kulture će smatrati da su na neki način „različiti“ i da nije moguće meriti njihov rezultat.
Međutim, ako se ne može izmeriti rezultat nekog programa, ili aktivnosti kako je onda
moguće upravljati istim? Ukoliko se stvarni uspeh projekta ili rezultati ne mogu
demonstrirati, kako onda opravdati dalje zahteve za budžetskim sredstvima. Ukoliko
se ne može meriti neka aktivnost u kulturi, da li će neko primetiti kada će ta aktivnost
da se završi? Iz svih ovim pitanja, proizilazi zaključak da je za subjekte kulture
najvažnije da odaberu prave indikatore (mere performansi) koji treba da budu
relevantni u pogledu strateških ciljeva subjekata kulture i operativnih ciljeva
programa, i da budu korisni u pogledu merenja uspeha ili napretka u skladu sa tim
ciljevima.Merenje kvaliteta izlaznog rezultata je još izazovniji zadatak i može
zahtevati sofisticiranije i skuplje tehnike, poput anketa za ispitivanje zadovoljstva

- 128 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

klijenata, tako da se u prvim fazama izrade indikatora preporučuje da se fokusiraju


na razvoj dobrih mera kvantiteta i kvaliteta izlaznog rezultata.
Istraživanje ukazuje da je pristup zasnovan na indikatorima osnov objektivne
procene , a osim toga koristi se za identifikaciju slabosti čije otklanjanje je neophodno
ako je namerai da se resursi kulture koriste za poboljšanje izlaznog rezultata u
ekonomskom ili opšte društvenom smislu. Takođe, preliminarne uporedne
informacije iz različitih zemalja su neophodne da bi se povećala uopštenost
zaključaka, tako da bi buduća istraživanja mogla da se fokusiraju na ulogu
instrumenata kulturne politike i kolika je uloga stručnjaka u procesima odlučivanja u
drugim zemljama, kako bi se osigurao kvalitet i transparentnost procesa odlučivanja
i smanjio rizik politizacije prilikom donošenja odluka značajnih za razvoj kulture.
U radu je primenjena kvalitativna metodologija, utemeljena na deskriptivnoj analizi
istraživačkog problema, a sintetizovanjem različitih stavova izvešće se generalni
zaključci za uticaj pojedinih faktora i uloga u procesu odlučivanja vezano za
efektivnost sistema merenja performansi i njihovu povezanost sa konkretnim
organizacionim faktorima u ustanovama kulture i opšte društvenim ciljevima u toj
oblasti, nakon čega će se izvesti relevantni zaključci i ukazati na moguća ograničenja
i buduće pravce razvoja.Ovaj rad daje smernice za upravljačke organe u oblastima
kulture, akcenat se stavlja na stratešku analizu kojom se definišu potrebe i potencijali,
kao i sopstvene mogućnosti i slabosti uzimajući u obzir i spoljašnje faktore koji je
mogu ugroziti. Potrebno je da planiranje bude usklađeno sa opštim interesom u
kulturi ,načelima kulturnog razvoja, postojećom zakonskom regulativom, nacionalnim
i lokalnim strateškim dokumentima uz ocenu zatečenog stanja i uvažavanje
osnovnog strateškog pravca Srbije ka članstvu u Evropskoj uniji. To znači da je
potrebno poznavati osnovne razvojne trendove i principe na kojima počivaju i
razvijaju se savremene kulturne politike evropskih zemalja (participacija, inkluzivnost,
decentralizacija, promocija savremenog stvaralaštva, očuvanje kulturnog nasleđa i
dr). Ovo upravo odgovara principu subsidijarnosti koji je afirmisao Ugovor iz
Mastrihta, a koji predviđa da donošenje odluka treba da se odvija što je moguće bliže
građanima, čime se ide u susret zadovoljavanju njihovih potreba.
Na osnovu zaključaka o potencijalima i problemima kulturnog sektora date su
preporuke za efikasnije, transparentnije i pravičnije upravljanje finansijama u sektoru
kulture koje će poboljšati kontrolu tokova novca, unaprediti fiskalnu disciplinu i ojačati
odgovornost u svim fazama budžetskog ciklusa.

- 129 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STRATEGIC PLANNING AND


PROGRAM BUDGETING IN THE DOMAIN OF CULTURE
Danijela Janjić
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union -Nikola Tesla“
University, Belgrade, Serbia
exluzive@yahoo.com
Snežana Maksimović
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, “Union -Nikola Tesla“
University, Belgrade, Serbia
galena.mcl@gmail.com
Slavoljub Veselinović
Student Cultural Center Belgrade, Belgrade
direkor@skc.rs

RESUME
The subject of this paper is a strategic analysis suggesting that cultural activities,
management and program budgeting applications are very complex tasks with many
issues, the major being the lack of adequate culture management knowledge and
disregarding the need of its application. The budget making according to a program
model requires special research and analyses which will define the basic problems
of this specialized management discipline, through description and investigation of
the existing organization forms within culture activities, as well as development and
investigation of new, more adequate and efficient organizing models. The aim of the
paper is to investigate the factors which affect efficiency and effectiveness of
performance measurement and to stress the connection between the strategic
planning and program budgeting for the sake of facilitating strategically consistent
decision making. The implementation of the strategic planning in cultural institutions
is a request of the modern era, which is also imposed on the culture by the market
success need. That is, thus conceived management improvement starts from the
point of view that cultural activities are also a system within which conditions for
cultural creativity can be organized by conscious human activity and the forms of its
placement. These help the income rate that can be valorized in economic, social and
cultural regard.
Long term development is planned based on the needs and potential, as well as on
our own strengths and weaknesses, but considering the circumstances (external
factors) which can jeopardize it. It needs to be coordinated with general interest in
culture, cultural development principles, the existing legislation and national as well

- 130 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

as local strategic documents. With defined development directions, and then with
their implementation, the culture policy becomes explicit and goal-oriented, which
makes its results measurable. Cultural development in the modern era requires
strategic planning implementation, which is seen as so called ‘organizational’
instrument of the culture policy regarding the nature of its operation, while it is a
stimulating instrument regarding its direction of operation. In this respect, in order to
make program budget as an operative plan, the agents of the cultural domain must
apply certain instruments or tools of strategic planning.
The budgetary process improvement through program budgeting in the cultural
sector is a part of a wider reform of public finance management, which underlines
priority establishment and spending optimization through the existence of concrete
programs. The exact amounts of budget money are defined for these programs, for
the purpose of rendering high quality services in the cultural domain. Thus the funds
are directed to solving the concrete problems, which enables the cultural policy
creators to form better relations between the cultural domain resources, culture
development strategies, programs and the results which should be achieved. This
model emphasizes the planning, that is, the result expectancy and monitoring of what
was previously achieved with the approved, used funds.
In the second part of the paper it is indicated that the budgetary system reform implies
adequate dedication and long term investment in the personnel for the sake of better
organizational performances. The connection between the performance measure
and the organizational factors with the system effectiveness gives us an insight into
the prevailing organizational factors which support the achievement of desired goals.
In order to survive in the circumstances of modern, dynamic and turbulent
surroundings, the culture subjects must identify their existing positions, clarify their
goals, and act in the ways as efficient and effective as possible. The indicators
measuring systems allow precisely this. An effective performance measuring system
enables cultural organizations to estimate whether their short-term and long-term
goals are achieved and whether the advance in the general social sense took place
according to the defined strategy. It should be mentioned that both financial and non-
financial indicators are recognized if they reflect the effects of key activities
contributing to the value of the cultural organization as a whole. Some culture
subjects consider themselves to be “different” in a way, and that it is impossible to
measure their results. However, if the result of a program or activity cannot be
measured, how can it be managed? If the real success of a project or results cannot
be demonstrated, how are further requests for budgetary funds to be justified? If a
cultural activity cannot be measured, will anyone notice when this activity finishes?
All this suggests that it is the most important for culture subjects to choose the right
indicators (performance measures) which should be relevant regarding strategic
goals of culture subjects and the operative goals of the program, and which should
be useful regarding success or advance measurement in accordance with these
goals. The output result of quality measurement is an even more challenging task

- 131 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

which can require more sophisticated and more expensive techniques, such as
questionnaires for the clients’ satisfaction examination. That is why in the initial
phases of indicators creation it is advisable to focus on the development of the good
output result quality and quantity measures.
The research shows that the approach based on the indicators is the basis of an
objective assessment, and it is also used to detect the shortcomings, the elimination
of which is necessary if the intention is that the culture resources should be used for
improvement of output result in the economic or general social regard. Also, what is
necessary is the comparative preliminary data from different countries in order to
increase the generality of conclusions. Thus, the future studies would be able to focus
on the role of culture policy instruments and the role of experts in the decision making
process in other countries. All this would help to ensure the decision making process
quality and transparency and decrease the risk of politicization in making the
decisions significant for cultural development.
This paper used qualitative methodology, which was based on the descriptive
analysis of the research problem. By synthesizing different attitudes general
conclusions will be made regarding the separate factors impact and roles in decision
making process regarding performance measuring system efficiency and their
association with the concrete organizational factors in the cultural institutions and with
general social goals. After this, relevant conclusions will be made and possible
limitations and future development will be suggested. This paper gives guidelines for
culture management bodies and underlines the strategic analysis which defines the
needs and potentials, as our own strengths and weaknesses considering the external
jeopardizing factors too. It is necessary for the planning to be coordinated with the
general interest in culture, with the culture development principles, the existing
legislation, national and local strategic documents, with the evaluation of the existing
situation and the recognition of the basic strategic direction of Serbia towards the EU
membership. This means that it is necessary to know basic developmental trends
and principles on which modern culture policies of the European countries are
founded (participation, inclusiveness, decentralization, the promotion of modern
creative work, cultural heritage preservation etc.). This is exactly in accordance with
the subsidiarity principles affirmed by the Maastricht Contract and which stipulate that
the decision making process should happen as close to the citizens as possible,
which means meeting their needs.
Based on the conclusions on the culture sector potentials and problems, the
recommendations are given for a more efficient, more transparent and more just
finance management in culture sector which will improve money flaws control,
advance the fiscal discipline and strengthen the responsibility in all phases of
budgetary cycle.

- 132 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZACIJA RADNIH MESTA KAO DELA PROIZVODNOG


CIKLUSA
Ljubinko Janjušević
Institut Goša, Beograd, Srbije
ljubinkoj@yah
Miroslav Radosavljević
Institut Goša, Beograd, Srbija

REZIME
Premda sama ideja o konstrukciji numerički upravljanih mašina ima dugačku istoriju
ekonomski i tehnološki uspon ovih sistema u potpunosti odgovara velikim
dostignućima mikroelektronike tokom poslednjih pedesetak godina. Prvi mikro
procesor za široku upotrebu proizveo je INTEL 1971 god. Mikroprocesorska
tehnologija je korak koji je stvorio sve uslove za prelaz sa tradicionalnih u osnovi
veoma glomaznih programskih rešenja za njihovo upravljanje na sisteme čija je
osnovna osobina laka prilagodljivost svim izmenama u proizvodnim programima.
Kompjutersko (numeričko) upravljanje obezbeđuje pored velikog povećanja
produktivnosti rada i značajno podizanje nivoa kvaliteta izrade pojedinih komponenti
u odnosu na sisteme tradicionalne mehanizacije. Korišćenje ovih automatizovanih
sredstava za rad višestruko pojednostavljuje mogućnost uvođenja novih tehnoloških
postupaka što je u uslovima III tehnološke revolucije od posebnog značaja u
postupcima i nastojanjima podizanja kvaliteta proizvoda u celini.
Dosadašnja istraživanja vršena u svetu upućuju na zaključak da primena numeričkog
upravljanja sigurno vodi ka povećanju produktivnosti rada, podizanju kvaliteta
proizvoda, skraćenju proizvodnih rokova. Ubedljivo najveći stepen rasta
produktivnosti rad na osnovu uvođena mašina sa kompjuterskom kontrolom je
prisutan u Japanu, koji ujedno po kriterijumu intenziteta razvoja fleksibilnih
automatizovanih sistema zauzima, tokom poslednjih godina, vodeće mesto u svetu.
Uzimajući u obzir etape tehničko-tehnološkog progresa, jedan od najznačajnijih
pravaca u razvoju automatizovanih sredstava za rad svakako je industrijska robotika.
Svojom razvojem i svojim ciljevima ova nova sredstva za rad su označila nastup
automatskog principa rada i na onim radnim mestima koja do njihove pojave nisu
podlegala ni principima mehanizacije.
Poslednjih godina učinjen je značajan doprinos teoriji modela, koja zajedno sa
razvojem tehnologije i tehnike mikroračunara otvara neslućene mogućnosti razvoja
više područja tehnike, posebno oblasti upravljanja sistemima i područjima gde se
primenjuje digitalna obrada signala. Sa razvojem mikroračunarske tehnike sve više
je prisutna težnja da se konvencionalni regulatori u upravljanju industrijskim
procesima zamenjuju digitalnim ekvivalentima. U dosadašnjim, veliko serijskim
sistemima upravljanje se uglavnom ne može menjati. Načini upravljanja znatno su

- 133 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ograničeni standardnim tipovima izvršnih organa i drugih komponenti za fizičku


realizaciju sistema. Međutim, u mikroprocesorski orjentisanim digitalnim sistemima
gde se upravljački zakoni i algoritmi podešavanja parametara upravljanja mogu
menjati programski, bez promene hardvera sistema upravljanja, uglavnom ne postoje
ograničenja. A sadašnjim velikom ulaganju u automatizaciju doprinosi brzi razvoj
mikroprocesora i svih pratećih tehnologija. Ovo je dovelo do drastičnog pada cena
ovim komponentama i omogućilo njihovu veliku primenu za upravljanje mašinama i
procesima.
Razvoj i primena savremenih manipulacionih sistema i uređaja u industriji
omogućava: kvalitativni skok u ukupnom rešavanju kretanja materijala i izvođenju
procesa, smanjenju međuskladišta i skladišta, fleksibilnost u radu, uravnoteženje
rada i smanjenje troškova energije i radne snage.
Od rešavanja sistema kretanja materijala direktno zavisi vreme zadržavanja
materijala i delova u procesu a time se bitno utiče na ukupno trajanje ciklusa. Ne
smeju se zanemariti troškovi transporta kao i troškovi koji nastaju zbog korišćenja
odgovarajućih uređaja, njihovog rada i održavanja. Dobro projektovan sistem
kretanja materijala omogućuje racionalno korišćenje sredstava rada (minimalne
troškove) i optimalno vremensko zadržavanje materijala i delova u sistemu.
Materijal se kreće duž cele mreže transportnog sistema, ali je evidentno da se na
čvornim tačkama više ili manje usporava ili privremeno zaustavlja. Iz ovoga se može
zaključiti da je potrebno povesti posebnu pažnju rešavanju ovih mesta, kako bi
mogao da se ubrza protok materijala.
Materijal se preko pojedinih putanja dovodi do čvorne tačke i odvodi se preko drugih.
Ako se posmatra ovaj proces u dužem vremenskom periodu količina materijala koja
se dovede u jednu čvornu tačku (Pu k ) mora da bude jednak količini materijala koja
se odvodi iz nje (Pi k ). U opštem slučaju važi izraz:

Značaj definisanja čvorne tačke ogleda se u mogućnosti proširenja njenih granica


tako da ona može da obuhvati podsistem radnog mesta ili ceo sistem (skladište,
fabrika). U tom slučaju problem kretanja materijala se svodi na analizu ulaza i izlaza
iz čvorne tačke koja sada predstavlja ceo sistem.
Pri razmatranju problema kretanja materijala u industrijskim sistemima uočava se da
postoji veliki broj alternativa koje mogu da se realizuju. Zadatak je da se iz skupa
mogućih rešenja izabere ono koje najbolje ispunjava tehničke i ekonomske uslove.
U tu svrhu se koriste razni modeli koji opisuju problem. Pri tome se težište stavlja na
elemente njihovog izbora i primene, što zavisi od niza faktora koji su značajni za
odlučivanje (dinamika, opterećenje, itd.).
Kako se automatizacija i razvoj fleksibilnih proizvodnih sistema sve više implementira
potreba za integracijom: proizvodnih operacija, kretanja materijala i logističkom
podrškom postaje sve značajnija. Organizacijom sistema mora se obezbediti
pravovremeno opskrbljivanje radnih mesta, funkcija distribucije komponenti i delova
i slično. To znači da sistem kretanja materijala mora da bude sposoban da podrži i
integriše proizvodnju, skladište, distributivnu funkciju.

- 134 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Tako da je jedan od osnovnih problema prilikom analize fabričkih postrojenja


definisanje layout-a u okviru opšteg zadatka projektovanja sistema. To je zbog toga
što se ovde direktno postavljaju određeni organizacioni zahtevi koji su vezani za
raspored opreme, radnih mesta. Međutim, kod projektovanja layout-a važi osnovni
princip da razmeštaj opreme sledi tokove materijala i da pri tome usvojeni sistem
manipulacije definiše glavne transportne puteve.
Ono što su konstruktivni crteži za izradu jednog proizvoda to je dispozicioni plan ili
layout za realizaciju jednog tehnološkog procesa. Sa njim se, obuhvata jedna
koncentrisana forma koja daje pregled prethodno zamišljenih oblika i prostornih
međuzavisnosti budućih tehnoloških procesa. Dispozicioni plan je nosilac informacija
o razmeštaju opreme i radne snage, tokova materijala, svim saobraćajnicama i
energetskim instalacijama. Pri izradi dispozicionih planova svih tehnoloških procesa
neophodno je voditi računa o ostvarivanju postavljenih ciljeva u pogledu: korišćenja
prostora, održavanja optimalnih radnih uslova, obezbeđivanja odgovarajućih mera
zaštite na radu, obezbeđenja visokog kvaliteta proizvoda, utroška materijala i sl.
U svetlu prethodnih razmatranja posebno je važno da projektovani layout poseduje
dovoljnu fleksibilnost tako da su moguće povremene zamene prostora, korišćenje
istih transportnih sredstava za prijem i otpremu, što daje šansu da se troškovi
rukovanja materijalom minimiziraju. Pored ovih neophodno je sagledavanje drugih
faktora koji u kasnijim rekonstrukcijama omogućavaju druga funkcionalna
poboljšanja. Neophodno je i da se pri projektovanju novih sistema, predvidi
mogućnost za kasnije eventualne rekonstrukcije. Prilikom projektovanje tehnoloških
procesa važno mesto zauzima i pitanje pouzdanosti sistema koje je istovremeno i
garancija kvaliteta projektovanog rešenja.
Računarsko upravljanje procesom fleksibilne proizvodnje deo je šireg sistema
računarske podrške poslovanju. Informaciono-upravljački sistem obezbeđuje
rukovodiocu pouzdane i blagovremene informacije o svim elementima proizvodnje i
poslovanja kao što su: trenutno stanje zaliha, stanje proizvodnje, ispravnost opreme,
kalendar isporuke naručiocima, potreba za repromaterijalom i rezervnim delovima,
finansijski podaci i sl. Na osnovu ovih podataka rukovodilac proizvodnje ili, pak,
odgovarajući ekspertni sistem planira rad proizvodnog sistema tako da zadovolji
određene prioritete, a istovremeno postigne maksimalno iskorišćenje mašina. Ovo
predstavlja najviši nivo upravljanja, a njegovi zahtevi se, u skladu sa hijerarhijskom
strukturom sistema upravljanja, spuštaju do pojedinih izvršnih jedinica kao što su
CNC mašine, robot, i sl.
U cilju sagledavanja međusobnih odnose koji vladaju unutar fleksibilnog proizvodnog
sistema navešćemo primer jednog radnog mesta u fabrici GOŠA.
Na ovom radnom mestu se od odlivaka Qa i Qb proizvode elementi Qaa i Qbb. Lokalno
skladište sadrži: komponente Qa , Qb,,Qaa i Qbb. a njegov deo je i automat koji vrši
izmenu obrađenih komada i odlivaka. Od magacina do lokalnog skladišta
komponente se na paletama prevoze trakastim transporterom.
Na osnovu projektnog zadatka i konfiguracije radnih mesta određuju se uslovi koje
mora ispunjeni i ceo sistem proizvodnje.

- 135 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PLACES AS A PART OF


PRODUCTION CHAIN
Ljubinko Janjusevic
Gosa Institute, Belgrade, Serbia
ljubinkoj@yahoo.com
Miroslav Radosavljevic
Gosa Institute, Belgrade, Serbia

RESUME
The idea of use of numerically driven machines has a long history. Their economical
and technological rise is in parallel with great achievements in microelectronics in the
last fifty years. The first microprocessor for mass application was made by INTEL in
1971. The microprocessor technology was a step that created conditions for
transition from traditional cumbersome program solutions for production governing to
system with adaptability to changes in regular production. Computer numerical
governing of production provide for significant rise in quality of product components
compared to traditional manufacturing, in addition to elevation of work productivity in
general.
Recent investigation points to the conclusion that implementation of numerical
governing certainly lead to augmentation of productivity, increase of product quality
and shortening of the production deadline.
The highest level of productivity increase, based on implementation of computer
control, was noted in Japan, which by criterion of development of flexible automatic
system conquers leading place in the world.
Taking into account stages of technical and technological progress, the industrial
robotics seems to be most significant direction in automation of working tools
production. Robotics development and its goals marked the triumph of principles of
automated production even at working places at which even mechanization was not
implemented.
The model theory, which has been developed recently together with development of
microcomputer technology, opens unexpected possibilities for upgrading of different
technical disciplines, especially in system management and areas with digital signal
processing. By development of microcomputer technology, the intention for exchange
of mechanical regulators for digital equivalents is becoming more present.
In big production systems the management concept is hard to change. Management
system is limited by standard types of effectuations and other components for

- 136 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

physical realization of system itself. However, in microprocessor oriented digital


systems, where governing rules and algorithms of production parameters could be
changed by programming, without changes in hardware system, these limits do not
exist. Fast increase of investments in automation is equally supported by
development of microcomputer development. The drastic price declining of electronic
components enabled their wide use for controlling of machines and processes.
The development in modern manipulation systems and apparatus in industry allowed
quantitative jump in general solution of material movement, decrease in depot
volumes, flexibility and reduction of energy and worker costs.
The time of material and parts retention directly depends on solution of material
motion problems and consequently determines the total duration of production. The
cost of transport and transport facilities servicing should not be neglected. Well
designed material motion system allow for rational use of work powers, minimal costs
and optimal time retention of material and parts in system. The objects are moved
through the total production network. However the flow at network line crossings is
slowed or temporarily stopped. The appropriate solutions for these places should be
of great concerns to speed up material flow.
Material is brought in node by one way, and drained away by other. It is clear that
quantity of material brought in one node (Pu k ), equals (in long time period) to the
quantity of material drained out (Pi k ).
Generally, the expression

holds.
The significance of node definition is reflected in possibility of enlarging its frontiers
so as to include subsystems of some working places or even system totality. Under
these conditions, problem of material move has to resolve analysis of material inputs
and outputs in large node, i.e. total system.
In considering of material move in industrial systems a number of alternatives could
be realized. The goal of the analysis is to separate best solution from a group of
possible ones. Different models are used for the purpose, which depend on elements
of their implementation and also on other factors general dynamics, load, etc.).
In parallel with automation and development of flexible production systems, more
frequently the integration of material moving and logistic support are gaining
importance. The system organization must provide for right-time delivery of materials,
component distribution etc. It means that the material moving through the production
process ought to support production, stocking and distribution of material.

- 137 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

One of the basic problems in analysis of factory premises is the definition of general
layout of general system architecture. In this part the practical demands connected
with configuration of equipment and working places are formulated. The configuration
of equipment follows the material move through the process; the manipulation system
accepted define main transport routes.
Layout or disposition plan for the realization of technological processes is quite the
same as construction plan for manufacture of individual product. The disposition plan
comprises the concentrated form giving previously imagined forms of future
technological operation. Disposition plan is bearer of information of equipment
arrangement and working places, material flow process, all transport routes and
energetic resources. In defining disposition plans of different technological
processes, the care for appropriate space utilization, maintenance of optimal working
conditions, material consumption, protection and high quality product should be
strictly followed.
In light of previous considerations it is extremely important that layout has the
appropriate flexibility so the exchange of working space, use of same transport
premises for material reception and delivery could be realized and the cost is
minimized. In development of technological processes, the comprehension of the
future need for reconstructions should be envisaged. The question of overall reliability
of the whole system must not be neglected as guarantee of anticipated solutions.
The flexible process and computerized control are a part of wide computer assistance
in management. Information and management system delivers secure and at-time
information about different production elements as current stock situation, equipment
condition, the schedule of product delivery, row material and spare parts situation,
financial situation, etc. Based on this information, the production manager or system
expert team plans future action to fulfill priorities as to secure maximal efficiency of
equipment.
As an illustration of interior relationship in a flexible production system, the example
of characteristic working place in GOŠA factory will be analyzed.
At working place, the final products Qaa and Qbb are produced from the material Qa
and Qb. The local stock contain components Qa , Qb,,Qaa and Qbb with automated
system for delivery of products and casted material. From the stock the components
are transported by belt conveyor. Based on project task and working place
configuration, the conditions that production system must realize are determined.

- 138 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

INDUSTRIAL INFLUENCE ON THE INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT


TRAFFIC OF THE LAND TRANSPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF
BULGARIA
Emil Jelezov
Higher School of Transport “T. Kableshkov”, Faculty of “Transport
Management”, Sofia, Bulgaria
ejelezov@abv.bg
Gergana Kirilova
Higher School of Transport “T. Kableshkov”, Faculty of “Transport
Management”, Sofia, Bulgaria
g.kirilova@mail.bg

OBJECTIVES
The market demand and supply of transport services are in direct functional
correlation with the industrial output and the consumption. The sectors “Mining and
quarrying” and “Manufacturing” in the Republic of Bulgaria are generating the basic
product flows thus determining the land transport market demand parameters in the
country.
The paper is investigating and analyzing the current state and development
tendencies of the industrial sector as well as the tendencies of basic indicators of the
international exchange of Republic of Bulgaria.
The goals of the analysis are:
 determining the modal shares of road and rail transport in international trade;
 determining the trends of the industrial development in Republic of Bulgaria;
 determining the development trends of international land transport;
 identification of the freight strucutre represented by different goods in
inernational road and rail transport;
 identification of main directions and key partners in the international stock
exchange based upon land transport;
 determining the influence rate of industry over the international freight.
METHODOLOGY
The objects of survey are international railway and road transport, industry and
international trade of Bulgaria. Using Eurostat statistical data, the trade turnover of
Bulgaria is analysed in physical units (tons) based upon the following sections and
combinations:

- 139 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 export and import divided by partner countries;


 export and import by groups of cargo per SITC ;
 differentiated freight structure by commodities;
 export and import divided by modes of transport (only for non EU member
countries) per classification SNT/R in physical units (tons).
The international trade is studied based upon physical units per classification SITC.
The reference period of the analysis is 2007 – 2013.
The trends of industrial development are studied based upon National Statitical
Institute data about the indices of production and per economic activities.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
3.1 Modal split in the international trade
 Basic share in international trade with tendency towards increasing belongs
to maritime transport both in import (75%-77%) as well as export (70%-81%).
 The overall share of land transport during the study period has increased
from 12.69% to 15.92%;
 The share of railway transport in import during the study period has
decreased from 3.25% to 2.39%;
 The share of railway transport in export during the study period has
decreased from 9.45% to 3.80%;
 The share of road transport in import has increased from 9.44% to 13.53%;
 The share of road transport in export has decreased from 16.49% to 14.53%.
 The share of road transport in international freight with land transport has
increased from 74.41% to 85.01% in import and from 63.58% to 79.28% in
export.
3.2 Main commodities per transport modes

 For import by road transport leading are the following commodity groups:
 machinery, transport equipment, manufactured articles and
miscellaneous articles;
 agricultural products and live animals;
 chemicals;
 metal products;
 foodstuffs and animal fodder.
These groups account for over 80% of the import with road transport.
 For export by road transport leading are the following commodity groups:
 crude and manufactured minerals, building materials;
 machinery, transport equipment, manufactured articles and
miscellaneous articles;
 chemicals;

- 140 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 ores and metal waste;


 agricultural products and live animals.
These groups account for over 79% of the export with road transport.
 For import by railway transport leading are the following commodity
groups:
 petroleum products;
 ores and metal waste;
 metal products;
 crude and manufactured minerals, building materials;
 machinery, transport equipment, manufactured articles and
miscellaneous articles.
These groups account for over 91% of the import with railway transport.
 For export by railway transport leading are the following commodity
groups:
 foodstuffs and animal fodder;
 ores and metal waste;
 chemicals;
 petroleum products;
 fertilizers;
 agricultural products and live animals.
These groups account for over 77% of the export with railway transport.
3.3 Key country-partners per transport mode

 The basic partner countries for road transport haulage are Тurkey, Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Russian federation. These
countries account for over 84% of the import and over 79% of the export
by road transport;
 The basic partner countries for rail transport freight in import are Serbia,
Кazakhstan, Russian federation and Ukraine. These countries together
account for accumulation of over 77% of the import by rail transport;
 The basic partner countries for rail transport freight in export are Тurkey,
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Russian federation.
These countries account for over 87% of the export by railway transport.
3.4 Impact of the industry on the international land transport
The industrial influence over the international freight carriages is estimated through
determining correlation rates between the freight carriage alteration indices and the
industrial output alterations indices.
The estimation of the strength of industrial influence over freight carriages the
following scale is applied:

- 141 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Correlation strength
0,3 < R < 0,5 – moderate
0,5 < R < 0,7 – considerable
0,7 < R < 0,9 – high
0,9 < R < 1,0 –very high
The estimation results are systematically represented, the economic activities are
determined and ranged according to their influence strength over the international
land transport.
 The results indicate six economic activities with very high influence over the
railway transport, while no economic activity has such influence over road
transport;
 19 economic activities belong to the high influential group over railway
transport, and 6 for the road transport;
 The export by railway transport is influenced by a greater number of
economic activities (20 altogether), compared with the import (11 altogether).
 The economic activities influencing the import by road transport (6
altogether) are more than those influencing export (3 altogether).
 The import by railway transport is most influenced by manufacturing of other
non-metallic mineral products, while the export by railway transport is most
strongly influenced by manufacturing of fabricated metal products, except
machinery and equipment;
 The import by road transport is most influenced by manufacturing of
beverages, while the export by road transport is most strongly influenced by
manufacturing of computer, electronic and optical products.

Keywords: Freight transport, industry, international transport.

- 142 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON


CONTROL
Svetlana Kamberdieva
North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (The State
Technological University), Vladikavkaz, Russia
skamberdieva@mail.ru

RESUME
In modern control systems Control performs multi-functional purpose of solving the
problem of increasing the efficiency and competitiveness of industrial enterprises.
Control connects and synchronizes the interaction of analysis processes, accounting,
control, planning, supports the management decisions with information in order to
minimize or eliminate deviations, mistakes and errors in the work, both at the stage
of operational management, and in the long term.
Control objects, depending on the purpose and range of problems to be solved are
the results, products, processes, information, personnel, etc., that determines
corresponding kinds of Control: Control of product; Control of reserves; Control of
efficiency; Control of costs; Control of staff, etc.
The process of factors management includes the following main functional steps:

 the collection, processing, analysis and evaluation of information on the


actual results of the activities of all divisions of the enterprise;
 comparing them with the basic, routine, average corresponding figures, as
well as the performance of competitors;
 identification of deviations from the forecast and planned quantities, a
comprehensive analysis of the causes of deviations;
 consideration of alternatives for the use of factors and measures for
management decisions that are necessary to achieve the intended goals.
Management of enterprise development factors are observed not only as a result of
the definition of development, but also as an indicator of deviations from the target
values, analysis of the causes of these deviations, the identification and study of
trends, as well as a way of further development of the enterprise on the basis of
management decision. In addition, the formation of deviations from the calculated
indicators even in one of the enterprise units requires the most urgent action relating
to the activities of specific departments.
The basis of the organization is the identification and development of measures for
the use of factors, it is impossible without an analysis of the market situation and the

- 143 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

state of the business, without measurement and analysis of factors - a framework


that allows you to objectively evaluate the regularity of the industrial enterprise
development, which requires the use of the factor economic analysis.
Identifying potential relationships factors and actual results of use allows you to
capture, analyze and evaluate the relationship they establish general and specific
reasons for the formation of reserves. The basis for the formulation of the decision-
making problem is the emergence of a new situation that could in any way affect the
operation of an industrial enterprise.
For the reasonable management of enterprise development factors, it is required a
comprehensive assessment of its activities, which allows to produce informed
management decisions to improve the efficiency of functioning. The identified
controllable factors of both internal and external kinds must be assessed, that could
be used further by the company to provide the necessary impact and to improve their
competitiveness on the market.
The essence of such an evaluation is to analyze several groups of indicators or
criteria of the company states that can characterize the necessary part of the
organization of work with the factors.
Specific types of indicators and the number that are forming each group may be
further elaborated by the company&aposs employees engaged in the analysis of
development factors, taking into account its features. Indicators should be compared
with each other by periods of use. Instead of specific indicators of characterizing
factors in the cost or natural values, there can be used expert estimation.
Decision-making process is guided to use the factors of development of the
enterprise and should be carried out simultaneously with the process of assessment
and analysis of its internal and external environment.
For the sound management of enterprise development factors will require a
comprehensive assessment of its activities, which allows to produce informed
management decisions to improve the efficiency of functioning. Assessment to be
identified controllable factors of external and internal nature, on which the company
can provide the necessary impact and to improve their competitiveness in the market.
The essence of such an evaluation is to analyze several groups of indicators or
criteria the company states that can characterize the necessary part of the
organization of work with the factors.
The essence of such an evaluation is to analyze several groups of indicators or
criteria the company states that can characterize the necessary part of the
organization of work with the factors. Further, in this example uses four groups of
indicators. The first group (A1) includes a number of indicators characterizing the
production management efficiency, such as the following: efficiency of costs incurred;

- 144 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

indicators for sustainable use of fixed assets; state of technology output; organization
of labor in the production process.
The second group (P2) included indicators that reveal the efficiency of working
capital, such as the following: the degree of independence of an economic entity from
external sources in financing activities; the company's ability to pay its debts;
availability of working capital in the markets; the acceptability of the price of current
assets.
The third group (P3) introduced the indicators characterizing the effectiveness of
sales management (sales and promotion of products) on the market. Among such
indicators could be, for example: market profitability of the enterprise; the validity of
the pricing of goods; Overstocked level on the finished product; the effectiveness of
the marketing and advertising services.
The fourth group (P4) constitutes indicators of the competitiveness of products:
product quality; the price of products; solvency of the consumer; the potential demand
for the products.
Specific types of indicators and the number of forming each group may be further
elaborated by the company's employees engaged in the analysis of development
factors, taking into account its features. Indicators should be compared with each
other by periods of use. Instead of specific indicators characterizing factors in the
cost of natural or gauges, expert estimates may be used (in points).
Decision-making process aimed at the use of factors of development of the
enterprise, should be carried out simultaneously with the process of assessment and
analysis of its internal and external environment.

- 145 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE HSR AS AN INNOVATIVE AND ECOLOGICAL MODE OF


TRANSPORT
Antoaneta Kirova
“Todor Kableshkov” University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
toni.kirova@gmail.com

RESUME
High-speed rail is an integrated railway system of specialized rolling stock and
dedicated tracks which differs from the so called “conventional” railways. Multiple
definitions for high-speed rail are in use worldwide. The European Union Directive
96/48/EC1 defines high-speed rail in terms of:
1. Infrastructure meaning specially constructed or upgraded track for high-
speed travel;
2. Minimum speed of 250 km/h on specially built lines and approximately 200
km/h on existing upgraded lines;
3. The operating conditions require rolling stock specially designed for
compatibility with infrastructure, providing the quality of service and safety
levels2.
High-speed rail connects major cities in developed countries, as listed in the table
below. Internationally HSR are developed only in Europe, aiming at the use of trans-
European transport network (TEN-T) to link all high speed lines on the continent into
a proper integrated European high-speed network. The liberalization of the mainline
international passenger railway market on 1 January 2010 will also allow operators
to compete and offer users a wider range of transport options.
According to Ginés de Rus, I. Barron, J. Campos, etc. [4], three different factors
contribute to the definition of HSR in economic terms, namely the costs of acquisition,
operating and maintenance of the specific rolling stock, estimated as “huge long-term
company investments” (over 20 years); the public support of HSR undertakings,
especially in Europe, with significant amounts of centralized investments; the raise of
demand for HSR services, which has brought forward the idea of the “different mode
of transport”. Arising from the conventional railways, HSR compete successfully with
the airline services over short and medium-sized distances within a continent,
particularly Europe.

1Annex 1, http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/rail/interoperability/doc/2003_high_speed_rail
_tsi_guide_en.pdf
2 http://www.uic.org/highspeed

- 146 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

According to the definition of the International Union of Railways (UIC) based upon
the above mentioned EC Directive 96/48, the high speed rail is a set of unique
features, apart from the train reaching certain speed. In other words, HSR is
connected to a certain level of service, mainly designed for passengers. The analysis
of the data presented shows a lot of European countries, members or outside EU
developing HSR. Simultaneously, 6 countries in Asia have 2.26 more constructed
lines and 3.67 more lines in process of construction.
The contemporary high-speed trains in operation are able to support speed 350-400
km/h, with 560-580 km/h during test runs. The possibility of developing speeds at this
rate increases their competitiveness to other modes of transport, for example the
airlines, while keeping the advantages of railway passenger transport like
comparatively lower price of travel with large number of the carried passengers.

Existing HSR
HSR in construction

Figure 1. Distribution of HRS – existing and under construction


Regular movement of high speed trains has started in Japan in 1964, implementing
the Shinkansen project, accordingly followed in Europe first by high-speed train
services in France3, then in Great Britain, Belgium4, Germany5, Austria, currently the
most of the territory of Western Europe being united by a high-speed railway network.
After the pioneer in high-speed railways Japan in Asia6, the beginning of XXI-st
century places China as a top world leader in high-speed trains’ development.
The general review proves, that besides discussing pros and cons, among which the
huge investments, the lack of certainty in the future use of HSR there are positive
signs of development. The new trends envisage HSR for freight as well passenger
traffic.

3 TGV, train à grande vitesse. The Paris-Lyon high-speed rail line serves a combined
population of 11.7 million people 255 miles apart
4 Eurostar, operating between Great Britain and the Continent, through Eurotunnel as well as

Thalys, connecting Brussels, Paris, Amsterdam, Cologne, etc.


5 ICE, The Intercity-Express trains
6 Shinkansen, ”New major line”

- 147 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The benefits from high-speed rail can vary wildly and building a network of high-speed
railways across huge territories makes sense in the case of countries like China and
the US, but in smaller countries the effect is less. When a government looks to build
a high-speed rail network, the scheme must offer a net social benefit greater than the
next best alternative. As HSR tends not to attract private investment, the burden on
the government is usually quite extreme. Air and road travel, on the other hand, is
more than likely to see heavy private investment, as the returns tend to be more
immediate.
De Rus concludes that the risks associated with high-speed rail investment, including
the relatively high long-term cost that is almost entirely undertaken by the state,
means that the particular circumstances should always be considered before
decisions have been taken7. Investing in HSR can prove beneficial if conducted in
the right environment. Also, there is a danger that newer technologies in
transportation will boost forward in the time necessary to build a high-speed route.
The question who will use the high-speed lines, when air travel provides the high
speed, the self-driven cars allow for independent travels and public carriers provide
Internet access and comfort to work on board remains.
In its strategic agenda for 2020, the European Rail Research Advisory Group
(ERRAC) identifies seven priority research areas for the future development of the
European rail sector8: intelligent mobility: implementing a passenger information
system which is harmonised at European level; environment and energy: increasing
the energy efficiency of trains, reducing environmental impacts (CO2 emissions,
noise) and researching alternative fuels, in order to minimise the dependency on
fossil fuels during electricity generation; safety: improving safety for passengers and
staff; homologation, testing and safety: speeding up product approval procedures and
minimising risks through better safety management; competitiveness and technology:
improving the interoperability and attractiveness of products for customers; economy
and strategy: developing new network infrastructure-related cost management and
forecast models; infrastructure: developing less costly maintenance methods and
maintenance-free interoperable infrastructure systems.
TRASECA, the transcontinental transport corridor Europe – Caucasus - Asia was
declared in 1993 at Baku, with participants Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kirgizstan,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Later, Ukraine, Mongolia and Moldova

7 “When the investment cost associated to new high-speed rail lines does not pass any market
test, and the visibility is reduced by industry propaganda, short-term political interests and
subsidised rail fares, conventional cost-benefit analysis can help to distinguish good projects
from simple ‘white elephants’”
8European Rail Research Advisory Council, ’Strategic rail research agenda 2020’, May 2007
(www.errac.org)

- 148 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

joined, and in 2000 Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey also became a part of it. The line
is crossing the ex-soviet middle Asia republics and Iran towards Turkey.
The Chinese government is interested in the construction of the railway infrastructure
for high-speed traffic on the route Ruse - Dimitrovgrad as well as in Ruse – Varna
section, which are parts of the revived “Silk Road”. The total length of the railroad
needed to be reconstructed is 227 km, with expected construction value of 383 million
Euros. The construction could be bound with concessions of the ports of Varna and
Ruse9.

Keywords: HSR, economic considerations, innovative mode of transport, political


issues

9 http://novinite.bg/articles/102809/Resheno-Kupuvame-visokoskorostni-
vlakove#sthash.GAB7NMCo.dpuf, http://novinite.bg/articles/102809/Resheno-Kupuvame-
visokoskorostni-vlakove

- 149 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

STATE RESERVE FUND MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA: PROBLEMS


AND PROSPECTS
Sergey Kirsanov
Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St. Petersburg, Russia
ksaimr@mail.ru
Safonov Evgeny
Russian State Humanitarian University, Moscow (Domodedovo branch),
Russia
ensafonov_55@mail.ru

RESUME
International experience on the use of state reserve funds for economic development
shows that in terms of improving the investment climate in the country a major
constraint to economic growth, it becomes a deficit of infrastructure capacity, has the
strongest negative effect on the development of non-extractive industries. Removing
economic growth infrastructure restrictions requires an active public investment
policy, an integral part of which is the effective investment of financial resources of
Russian reserve funds: The Reserve Fund and National Welfare Fund.
State reserve accumulation fund - a special cash fund which is used to stabilize the
state budget in times of public revenues decrease for state needs in the long term.
Reserve funds are created in those states where the budget is heavily dependent on
market factors, as a rule, global commodity prices, and perform two functions. Firstly,
it means may be used to cover the budget deficit at the time of unfavorable market
conditions. Secondly, the high prices for raw materials during the fund allows to
accumulate excess export earnings and to prevent the development of the Dutch
economy illness.
Apart from the purely economic objectives reserve fund carries political task to
prevent the rapid growth of public expenditure. Government spending, as a rule,
cannot be quickly reduced after the fall of income. As a result, during periods of
unfavorable conditions this can lead to large budget deficits, non-fulfillment of the
promised social obligations and default on public debt.
The following features of the formation and use of the National Welfare Fund of
Russia:
1. the formation of the Fund is due to:
 Oil and gas revenues after filling the Reserve Fund to the specified size;

- 150 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 Income from the Fund management.


2. National Welfare Fund may be used for co-financing of voluntary pension
savings of Russian citizens and to balance (the deficit), the budget of the
Pension Fund;
3. management of the National Welfare Fund by the Ministry of Finance of the
Russian Federation in the order established by the Russian Government;
4. individual responsibility for managing the National Welfare Fund may be
made by the Central Bank of Russian Federation.
In Russia, the economic situation of crisis, however, the amount of the Reserve Fund
amounted to 5.8 trillion rubles as of January 2015, and the National Welfare Fund -
5.1 trillion rubles. Investing funds is carried out on the basis of the principles of
diversification and reliability of financial instruments.
Among the problems of formation and use of reserve funds, the most urgent, in our
opinion, are:
 Information on the use of reserve funds is not in the public domain, so there
is no way to determine the real effectiveness of these management tools;
 Lack of a clear strategy for the management and use of financial means to
ensure the preservation and increase of the fund's assets.
Active management of Russia Reserve Fund should provide maximum benefit at a
reasonable level of risk. At the same time, in our opinion, are necessary:

 Long-term strategy of formation and use of resources, funds,


 A professional investment management.

 Independence from the political situation,


 Protection of accumulated funds from inflation,

 A single method of analysis of the efficiency of operations.


Able to operate fully and carry out the functions for which they were created, it is
necessary to increase the efficiency of investment of these funds in order to reserve
funds of the Russian Federation.
With respect to Russian conditions can offer the following options increase efficiency
and, as a result, the yield of reserve funds in Russia:

 To invest in projects to increase living standards and incomes of the


population, that is to invest in the "national wealth", it could be the
construction of stadiums, sports grounds, centers of education and retraining;

- 151 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 Invest in debt securities of foreign states with a high level of risk - up to 10%
of the funds (this change will help diversify the investment portfolio and
improve profitability in the long run will allow to find new economic partners);
 To invest in stocks, bonds, private foundations, infrastructure companies,
and real estate - up to 10% of the funds, drawing on the experience of foreign
funds;
 In the long term - improving competitiveness is not raw branches (one of the
main problems of the Russian economy - commodity dependence, so the
development of high technologies, agriculture, tourism and other sectors will
allow to become Russian manufacturers more competitive in the world
market and would make the economy less dependent on world prices for raw
materials);
 Financing of large investment projects (for example, the Trans-Siberian
Railway) - a necessary step for the development of the economy and
infrastructure in Russia;
 To the public must be notified the rules, mechanisms and criteria for
disbursement, as well as to officials responsible for improper use of the
reserve funds.
In addition, we consider it expedient to examine the issue of bringing the
management of the Reserve Fund of specialized financial institutions. In our opinion,
the study of foreign experience of formation and use of reserve funds will allow the
most efficient use of this experience in the Russian Federation.
Keywords: state reserve funds, National Welfare Fund, Central Bank of Russia,
investment

- 152 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

STRATEGIC PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT


Nevenka Kiteva Rogleva
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, “Ss Cyril
and Methodius” University, Skopje, Macedonia
nkiteva@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Andrej Vangelski
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, “Ss Cyril
and Methodius” University, Skopje, Macedonia
Vangel Fustik
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, “Ss Cyril
and Methodius” University, Skopje, Macedonia
vfustic@feit.ukim.edu.mk

RESUME
The research in the field of project management and leadership has shown that
today, big companies, face the challenges of modern living, constant technology
development, dynamic and uncertain environment, etc. However, this new
opportunities lead to new challenges, growing competition and a dynamic market, so
organizations are under pressure to develop and adopt best practices during
operation. Effective project management is already recognized as an important factor
for long-term success of the organization and its growth depends on the relationship
with the business policies and organizational strategy.
Project Management Institute (PMI) research shows that organizations are
increasingly recognizing that one of the most effective ways to ensure projects and
programs deliver expected value for the organization is through formal portfolio
management. Portfolio management includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing,
managing, and controlling projects, programs and other related work to achieve
specific strategic business objectives The PMI Standard for Project Portfolio
Management (PPM) (2008b) does suggest that changes to the strategy might result
in a re-alignment of the portfolio.
Empirical evidence shows that organizations facing higher uncertainty in dynamic
environments put in place different approaches to maintain efficiency while keeping
the organization flexible. This assumes that most of the employees in the organization
have to implement and adopt set of complex initiatives despite their current
responsibilities that usually leads to multitasking and dissatisfaction.

- 153 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

The research results show that organizations in Macedonia, working in dynamic


environments, usually face with changing project goals, re-planning, lack of or poor
quality of information, constant re-allocation of resources, missed deadlines, bad
estimation, poor quality deliverable, etc.
The focus of this paper is placed on project selection, prioritization and strategic
alignment of projects in large and medium companies; The paper further illustrates
that the ability to successfully lead and manage project depends on the organization
business strategy, effective project management practice and risk analysis. So the
main assumption of this research is therefore to define tools, techniques and
knowledge for managing project portfolios.
Five PPM phases will be observed (Levine H. A. (2005)). At first stage, the initial
proposals and ideas will be entered in the project list, and available project
information will be organized for portfolio analysis. Projects, which can be delayed,
current or proposed, will be analyzed using the tools and methods used in the
management of the project portfolio, and after the selection, the most appropriate
projects will enter in the planning stage.
Resources, time, cost and risk are integrated within the planning process; resource
allocation is performed and decision is made regarding schedule activities, taking into
account the whole portfolio of projects. In phase of portfolio monitoring, projects are
evaluated according to the earned value. The portfolio revision includes a new
verification of the key success factors of the portfolio. Changes in the environment,
as technology, market, availability of resources and changes in corporate strategy
affect the project portfolio, and revision is required for continuously optimizing and
streamlining of the portfolio to the goals of the organization.
The objectives of the research can be surnmarized as follows: to determine projects
that are able to achieve the objectives of the organization; to identify the organizing
mechanisms used to manage uncertainty affecting project portfolios in dynamic
environments; balancing the portfolio; monitoring the planning and execution of
selected projects; analysis of the performance of the portfolio and the ways of its
improvement; evaluating new opportunities versus momentary portfolio and
performance comparisons, taking into account the capacity of the organization to
carry out projects; provide information and recommendations to decision-makers at
all levels in the organization.
Approaches developed to manage single projects in dynamic environments (such as
different planning techniques, scope control, lifecycle strategies, planned flexibility,
controlled experimentation, and time-based pacing) could be used as a starting point
(Weick's Sensemaking Theory (1979, 1995a, 200 l, 2003) ).

- 154 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT CORRIDORS IN


BULGARIA BY PROMOTING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
Petya Koralova, PhD.
“Todor Kableshkov” University of Transport, Sofia, Bulgaria
pkoralova@vtu.bg

INTRODUCTION
Development of financial markets and the opportunities the European funding
resources provide could be perceived as prerequisites for attracting private
investment initiatives in terms of construction, maintenance, exploitation and
management of the transport infrastructure. What is typical for the transport sector is
that there is enough potential for long-term growth.On the other hand transport
infrastructure is a long-term tangible asset that generates direct and indirect benefits
for both the private sector and the society as a whole. In this regard, combining public
funding with private initiatives must be seen not only as a form of partnership, but
also as a way to stimulate effective management and exploitation of the public
infrastructure.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANS – EUROPEAN TRANSPORT NETWORK (TEN-T)
The trans-European transport network consists of structure at two layers:
comprehensive network which is a network that covers all the existing and planned
transport infrastructure of TEN-T, as well as the measures for stimulating sustainable
exploitation of this network from social and environmental point of view, and core
network – consists of these sections of the comprehensive network that are of
strategic importance for the development of the TEN-T (EP 2013). The main
objectives of the policy for building up the trans-European transport network are as
follows:
 Cohesion, based on better accessibility of the transport infrastructure,
insuring better quality of the services provided and better connectivity of the
sections included in the TEN – T network;
 Efficiency, based on removing bottlenecks and building up the missing links
at border crossings as well as development of the interoperability among
transport modes;
 Sustainability, based on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, promoting
clean fuel usage in passenger and freight transportation and internalization
of the external costs of transport;
 More benefits for the transport infrastructure users through better mobility of
citizens in EU and third countries;
 Boosting safety and quality of transport services and provide better
accessibility to the transport infrastructure for disabled people.

- 155 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

RAILWAY TRANSPORT CORRIDORS, CROSSING THE TERRITORY OF THE


COUNTRY
Orient/East-Med Core Network Corridor is of great importance for the economic
development of the country, as well as for the competitiveness of its transport system.
The corridor passes through the territory of Bulgaria from north to south and from
north to south-east.
Most of the transport connections among relevant member-states along the corridor
are carried out by railway transport. The main objective in this regard is to be
constructed a transport network that is low carbon, energy efficient and
environmentally friendly and support better interoperability among railway, sea and
inland waterway transport. This objective is easily achievable as most of the member-
states along the corridor are well provided with railway network. The density of the
railway network in member-states along the corridor is approximately equal to the
average values for EU-28 and even in some of the countriesit is higher. Czech
Republic (DGMT 2015) is one of the well provided countries with railway network –
120 km rail tracks of 1000 sq. m. of its territory. Higher density of the railway network
is also observed in Germany, Hungary, Slovak Republic and Romania. Bulgaria (37.7
km of 1000 sq. m. of the territory) ranks next to the last among the countries – Greece
(18.8 km of 1000 sq. m. of the territory), but compared to EU-28 its density of the
railway network gets closer to the average values. Consequently, the existing railway
network in the reviewed member states is enough for carrying out passenger and
freight transportation. This conclusion could be confirmed by the increasing number
of infrastructure projects, funded by the Connecting Europe Facility. The objective of
the most of the projects is modernization, rehabilitation and application of information
and communication technologies in railway transport network but not construction of
new railway tracks. The same process is applicable in Bulgaria.
FORMS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS, WIDELY USED FOR
FULFILLMENT OF RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS
A public-private partnership (PPP)is a partnership between the public and private
sector for the purpose of delivering a project or a service traditionally provided by the
public (DGRP 2003). PPPs recognise that both parties have certain advantages
relative to the other in the performance of specific tasks. Widely used PPP forms for
fulfillment of railway transport infrastructure projects are as follows (Гечев 2015):
Design-Bid-Build–this form of partnership allows the most appropriate and
competitive partner to be chosen for the fulfillment of the construction phase of the
investment project in order to provide better transport services.
Build-Operate-Transfer – according to this type of PPP, the financial risk is allocated
between partners, as the public partner is responsible for funding of infrastructure,
while the private partner must carry out the construction and exploitation phase of the
infrastructure. This results in total cost optimization and social and economic benefits
for the society achievement. Concession – this one is not a typical form of PPPand
is applicable for investment projects when no public funding is needed. In this regard,
the PPP premium for the private partner corresponds with higher total costs and
obligation for provision of public services.

- 156 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

REVIEW OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF


RAILWAY TRANSPORT CORRIDORS IN BULGARIA
To overcome the existing problems that hinder the development of the railway
transport in Bulgaria, the Ministry of transport, information technologies and
communication adopted a new Operational Programme Transport and Transport
Infrastructure for the horizon 2014-2020. The main objective of the programme is to
fund infrastructure projects of national and European significance. One of the
important projects to be fulfilled is the construction of railway tracks along the TEN-T
network. According to this priority axis, the purpose of most of the funding is directed
towards modernization and rehabilitation of the conventional railway tracks, as well
as application of information and communication technologies in the section Sofia –
Bourgas. Another infrastructure project which is of great importance for the
Orient/East-Med Core Network Corridor along the territory of the country is the
modernization and full electrification of the railway section Plovdiv – Svilengrad.
CONCLUSION
When analyzing the possibilities for stimulating public-private partnerships for
investment projects in railway transport infrastructure in their preparation and
realization phase, the following measures must be taken into account:
 risks, relative to the right project management and control of the activities for the
construction of railway infrastructure corridors, must be planned as early as
possible;
 fair risk allocation between public and private partners, depending on their
responsibilities for the fulfillment of the project must be made;
 the most appropriate and optimal form of PPP must be chosen, after taking into
account the considerations of the public partner;
 enhance effectiveness of project control phase as a result of the strict monitoring
of the obligations of both the private and public partner must be achieved.
WORKS CITED
DGMT, Directorate General for Mobility and Transport. "Statistical pocketbook for
2015." 2015.
DGRP, Directorate General for Regional Policy. Guidelines for successful public-
private partnerships. European Commission, 2003.
EP. "Regulation 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Union
guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network." EUR-Lex.
December 20, 2013. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32013R1315.
Gechev, R. et al. (2015). Politiki i instrumenti za stimulirane na investitsionniya
protses v Bulgariya na osnovata na publichno-chastnoto partn’orstvo. Sofia: Tsentur
po ustoyichivo razvitie, UNSS.

Keywords:public-private partnership; railway transport; core network corridors

- 157 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

UPRAVLJANJE ZNANJEM KAO ČINIOCEM RAZVOJA POSLOVNIH


SISTEMA
Jelena Krstić
Visoka poslovna škola strukovnih studija Leskovac, Leskovac,
krstic.jelena@vpsle.edu.rs
Ivana Zdravković
Fakultet organizacionih nauka, Beograd
inna.ivana6@gmail.com

REZIME
Cilj rada je da pokaže ulogu i značaj primene koncepta upravljanja znanjem, u
funkcionisanju i razvoju poslovnih sistema i organizacija.
Znanje koje poseduju uposlenici u organizaciji, najvažniji su njen resurs. Nekada
zapostavljen, danas neizostavan kao faktor napretka i ostvarivanja konkurentske
prednosti.
Čovek je iskonski nosilac znanja; on ga stiče, koristi, unapređuje, inovira. Što više
zna, čovek je bogatiji i snažniji. Kako on kao pojedinac, tako i organizacija kojoj
pripada. Svaki uposlenik svestan je količine znanja koju poseduje, te dolazi do
izražaja u poslovnim aktivnostima. Ukoliko je to znanje nedovoljno za efektivan rad,
čovek je spreman da stiče nova znanja kako bi radne aktivnosti obavljao na nov
način, čime bi ostvario lične benefite i zadovoljstvo.
Sa druge strane, ako nije dovoljno spreman da samoinicijativno upotpuni svoja
znanja, ulogu treba da odigra organizacija (kompanija) u kojoj je uposlen. Ovo stoga,
što je interes svake kompanije da prikupi što više radnika od znanja, kao glavnog
aduta u nastojanju da se razvija i da ostvari konkurentske prednosti. S tim u vezi,
kompanija mora da bude zainteresovana za ulaganje u obuke i edukacije svojih
menadžera i uposlenika.
Napredne organizacije neguju uposlenike koji su sposobni da proizvodnje znanja;
time omogućavaju organizaciji da se lakše nosi sa iznenadnim promenama na
tržištu, a što čini jednu povratnu spregu uzajamne dobrobiti.
Prva tačka predmetnog rada opisuje znanje kao strateški resurs kroz opis sticanja,
upotrebe i razmene znanja. Naime, u ranijim vremenima ljudi su sticali znanja tako
što su slučajno otkrivali neke pojave, dok se danas se znanja osvajaju konstantnim
učenjem i sistematičnim istraživanjem. Naučno istraživačka delatnost kao pokretač
iznalaženja novih znanja i proizvoda, dobila je značajno mesto u sistemu države, ali
i svake poslovne organizacije. Primera radi, u funkcionalnoj organizacionoj strukturi

- 158 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

dodat je još jedan funkcionalni sektor – Istraživanje i razvoj; u dualnoj postoji tzv.
inovativni deo, sastavljen od stručnjaka različitih profila, čiji je zadatak da iniciraju
nove ideje i kao produkt dobiju inovacije.
Razni su načini sticanja znanja. učimo kroz sopstveni rad i aktivnosti iz čega
izvlačimo pouke i bolje obavljamo posao; učimo i od drugih ljudi ili nas uče drugi ljudi;
u tom procesu uviđamo i njihove greške te kažemo da učimo i iz grešaka drugih;
stručna znanja stičemo i u naučno-obrazovnim institucijama...
U ovoj tački, takođe, analizira se i disperzija znanja kroz odgovore na pitanje kakva
su sve znanja potrebna uposlenicima a naročito menadžerima; da bi obavljali
aktivnosti za koje su zaduženi, svi uposlenici najpre moraju imati fundamentalna
znanja iz struke. Zatim, potrebna su tehničko-tehnološka, kao i znanja o strategijama
tržišnog nastupa. Naročito su interesantna znanja koja menadžeri moraju da
poseduju; oni su između ostalog, dužni da prate sve razvojne promene i otkrića iz
struke i šire, ali i da ih, u procesu transferisanja znanja prenose zaposlenima
dokumentovano ili usmeno. Jer, ako menadžeri usavršavaju svoja znanja i umeća, a
to i prenesu uposlenicima, na taj način će i oni postajati učeniji i uspešniji.
To znači da nije dovoljno da ljudi znanja samo poseduju, već da ih efektivno koriste i
dele. Naime, ljudi vrlo često nemaju svest o tome da je znanja potrebno razmenjivati
kako bi se oformilo tzv. kompanijsko znanje. Upravo proces razvijanja i podele
znanja treba da dovede do utemeljenja dobre informaciono-komunikacione
infrastrukture, neophodne za međusobno delovanje i povezivanje zaposlenih u
organizaciji, timova i poslovnih partnera. Prenos znanja sprovodi se jednostavno:
dovoljno je da ljudi zajedno rade i deluju, komuniciraju, diskutuju, analiziraju i
razmenjuju poslovna dokumenta. Jer, sticanje znanja nije samo po sebi cilj već je
svrha da se ono podeli i iskoristi u organizaciji, kao i da se ovaploti u novom
proizvodu/usluzi. Drugim rečima, treba znati služiti se znanjem kako bi ga pretvorili
u koristan rezultat. Samo na ovaj način upotrebljena znanja, mogu postati izvor
razvoja organizacije i postizanja konkurentske prednosti. Što je više tzv.
kompanijskog znanja, to je veća mogućnost superiornosti u odnosu na konkurente.
Upravljanje znanjem je postalo imperativ opstanka i razvoja poslovnih sistema, o
čemu se govori u drugoj tački predmetnog rada. Za razliku od ostalih resursa, na čiji
se obim ne može osloniti nijedan poslovni sistem, znanje predstavlja neiscrpan izvor
poboljšanja poslovanja: znanje inicira pojavu inovacija, znanjem se pravilno selektuju
strategije tržišnog delovanja, znanje je jezgro kompetencije organizacije, po znanju
se organizacija poznaje.
Značajnu ulogu u upravljanju znanjem u organizaciji imaju menadžeri, štaviše u
razvojno orijentisanim organizacijama to je jedna od najvažnijih aktivnosti koju
menadžeri sprovode, i to kroz sledeće aktivnosti:
 izazivaju svest o značaju znanja u organizaciji;
 identifikuju korisna znanja pojedinaca;

- 159 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 podstiču širenje znanja kroz celu organizaciju;


 omogući adekvatne obuke za pravilnu upotrebu računara, kao medija za prenos
znanja i informacija; osim toga da se unaprede već stečena znanja iz ove oblasti;
 kreiraju odgovarajući ambijent u kome će se uposlenici osećati kao deo
znanstvenog tima;
 procene vrste znanja koje kompaniji mogu proizvesti nove vrednosti;
 obezbede takav nivo motivisanosti uposlenika koji će izazvati nesebično deljenje
znanja;
 podržavaju i podstiču radnike od znanja zadajući im kreativne i specifične
poslove;
 u svemu daje lični primer.
Menadžment svakog poslovnog sistema teži da obezbedi fenomen poistovećivanja
uposlenika sa organizacijom i uparivanje ličnih, sa ciljevima organizacije. Ono što
umnogome može doprineti realizaciji ovakvog stremljenja, jeste upravo adekvatno
sprovođenje koncepta upravljanja znanjem.
Treća tačka rada, odnosi se na sprovedeno istraživanje u malim i srednjim
preduzećima i radnjama Jablaničkog okruga i zaključke koji proizilaze iz istraživanja.
Istraživanje je sprovedeno na čitavoj teritoriji Jablaničkog okruga (5 opština i grad
Leskovac) kao jedinstvene regionalne ekonomije, a obuhvatilo je 122 privredna
subjekta, od čega 63 privrednih društava i 59 preduzetničkih radnji. Oblast na koju
se istraživanje odnosi je znanje u organizacijama i stavovi uposlenika povodom ovog
pitanja. U istraživanje nisu uključeni oni privredni subjekti koji nisu u obavezi
dostavljanja finansijskih izveštaja Agenciji za privredne registre, te je analiza njihovih
stavova onemogućena. Takođe nisu obuhvaćena poljoprivredna gazdinstva koja
nemaju obavezu registrovanja kod Agencije za privredne registre, za koje je potrebno
izvesti posebno i metodološki drugačije istraživanje.
Uzorak je stratifikovan i proporcionalan. To znači da su ravnopravno zastupljeni
delovi ispitivane ciljne grupe u podgrupama ili stratumima koje karakteriše:

 teritorijalni raspored prema sedištu privrednog subjekta na području Jablaničkog


okruga u odnosu na prostor jednica lokalne samouprave u njenom sastavu,
 pravni status privrednog subjekta (privredno društvo ili preduzetnik)
 privredni sektor u koji je svrstan svaki privredni subjekat (razmenljivi i
nerazmenljivi sektor) ili dominantna privredna delatnost u okviru sektora; u
razmenljivom sektoru to je prerađivačke delatnost (sa proporcionalnim učešćem
svih zastupljenih industrijskih grana), u nerazmenljivom to je trgovinska
delatnost.

Ključne reči: znanje, upravljanje znanjem, razvoj, konkurentska prednost

- 160 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT


OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
Jelena Krstic
Business school Leskovac, Leskovac, Serbia
krstic.jelena@vpsle.edu.rs
Ivana Zdravkovic
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia
inna.ivana6@gmail.com

RESUME
The aim of this paper is to show the role and importance of the application of the
concept of knowledge management in the functioning and development of business
systems and organizations.
The knowledge held by employees of the organization is its most important resource.
Once neglected, it is now indispensable as a factor of progress and gain of
competitive advantage.
People are true bearers of knowledge; they gain, promote and innovate it. The more
we know, the richer and powerful we become, improving not only ourselves, but also
an organization we work at. Every employee is aware of the amount of knowledge he
has that comes to the fore in business activities. If this knowledge is not enough for
effective work, the man is ready to acquire new knowledge to work activities
performed in a new way by which to achieve personal benefits and satisfaction.
On the other hand, if one is not fit enough to complete their knowledge on their own
initiative, the role should be played by organizations (companies) in which they are
employed. Thereby, the interest of every company is to collect as many
knowledgeable workers as possible, in order to develop and achieve competitive
advantage. In this regard, a company should be interested in investing in the training
and education of its managers and employees.
Advanced organizations nurture employees who are able to produce knowledge,
thereby enabling the organization to cope with the sudden changes in the market,
which makes a feedback loop of mutual benefit.
The first point of the present work describes: knowledge as a strategic resource by
describing the acquisition, use and exchange of knowledge. In fact, in earlier times
people gained knowledge by accidentally discovering some phenomena, while today
the knowledge is gained by constant learning and systematic research. Scientific
research activities as an engine for finding new knowledge and products, has
received a significant place in the system of state and every business organization.
For example, the functional organizational structure added another functional sector

- 161 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

- Research and development. The dual structure consists of experts in various fields,
whose task is to initiate new ideas and innovation to the product.
There are various ways of acquiring knowledge. Some of them are: learning through
our own work and activities from which we draw lessons and better perform the job,
learning from other people by which we recognize both our and their mistakes, and
we can say that we learn from the mistakes of others. However, we can gain expertise
in scientific and educational institutions.
In this paper will also be analyzed the dispersion of knowledge and the answers to
the question of what kinds of knowledge is required from staff, and particularly
managers. In order to perform the activities for which they are responsible, all
employees must first have a fundamental knowledge of their profession. Further, the
necessary technical and technological knowledge about strategies for market
penetration should also exist. Managers are, among other things, required to follow
all development changes and discoveries from the profession and beyond, but also
to be in the process of transferring knowledge transmitted to employees documented
or verbal. If managers improve their knowledge and skills and share them with the
employees, they will become more knowledgeable and successful.
This means that it is not enough to have skills, but to effectively use and share them.
In fact, people often have no awareness of the fact that the necessary exchange of
knowledge could form the so-called corporate knowledge. It is the process of
developing and sharing knowledge that should lead to the establishment of good
information and communication infrastructure required for each operation and
connection of employees in organizations, teams and business partners. Knowledge
transfer is carried out simply: it is enough for people to work together and act,
communicate, discuss, analyze and share business documents. The acquisition of
knowledge is not a goal itself. It is important for it to serve its own purpose and to
help the development of a new product / service. In other words, we should know
how to use knowledge in order to convert it into a usable result. Only in this way can
one become a source of organizational development and achieve a competitive
advantage. The more knowledge a company has, the greater is a chance for its
superiority over the competitors.
Knowledge management has become an imperative for the survival and development
of business systems, as discussed in the second part of the paper. Unlike other
resources, for which the volume cannot rely on any operating system, knowledge is
an inexhaustible source of business improvement: knowledge initiates the
emergence of innovation and it is a precondition for the proper functioning of the
market strategy. Knowledge is the main competence of an organization.
Knowledge is one of the most important activities that managers implemented,
through the following activities:
 They provoke awareness of the importance of knowledge in the organization;
 identify useful knowledge of individuals;
 encourage the dissemination of knowledge throughout the organization;

- 162 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 provide adequate training for proper use of the computer as a medium for the
transfer of knowledge and information; In addition, they improve the already
acquired knowledge in this field;
 create an appropriate environment in which the employees feel like a part of the
research team;
 evaluate the nature of knowledge in order for a company to produce new values;
 provide that level of motivation of employees that will cause selfless sharing of
knowledge;
 support and encourage the workers of knowledge by having them creative and
specific tasks;
 lead by an example.
Menadžment svakog poslovnog sistema teži da obezbedi fenomen poistovećivanja
uposlenika sa organizacijom i uparivanje ličnih, sa ciljevima organizacije. Ono što
umnogome može doprineti realizaciji ovakvog stremljenja, jeste upravo adekvatno
sprovođenje koncepta upravljanja znanjem.
Treća tačka rada, odnosi se na sprovedeno istraživanje u malim i srednjim
preduzećima i radnjama Jablaničkog okruga i zaključke koji proizilaze iz istraživanja
The management of each operating system requires to provide the phenomenon of
an employee identification with the organization, as well as the match of personal
goals and goals of an organization. What can greatly contribute to the realization of
these goals is a proper implementation of the concept of knowledge management.
The third part of the paper refers to research conducted in small and medium
enterprises of Jablanica district and conclusions arising from the research.
The research was conducted on the entire territory of Jablanica district (5
municipalities and the city of Leskovac) as a regional economy. It included 122
economic entities, of which 63 companies and 59 are sole traders. The area to which
the study relates the knowledge and attitudes in organizations of employees on this
issue. The study does not include those entities which are not required to submit
financial reports to the Agency for Business Registers. The farms that do not have
the obligation of registration with the Business Registers Agency are not covered,
which should be the subject of different methodological research.
The sample was stratified and proportional. This means that they are equally
represented parts of the test target group in subgroups or strata characterized by:
 Territorial distribution according to the seat of the undertaking in the area of
Jablanica districts in relation to the space units of local self-government in its
composition,
 The legal status of the undertaking (company or entrepreneur)
 The economic sector in which is placed each business entity (tradables and
nontradables sector) or the dominant economic activity in the sector; the tradable
sector to the manufacturing industry (with proportional participation of all
industries represented), the non-tradable to the commercial industry.
Keywords: knowledge, knowledge management, development, competitive
advantage

- 163 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

EKONOMSKA DIPLOMATIJA – MOĆ I ULOGA U VRIJEME


GLOBALIZACIJE
Zlatan Lukić
Fakultet političkih nauka, Evropski Univerzitet, Brčko Distrikt, BiH
zlatan. lukic@hotmail. com.

REZIME
Snažan diplomatski ekonomski anganžman je postao bitna odlika diplomatija mnogih
država. Diplomatski ekonomski angažman, odnosno, ekonomska diplomatija postala
je najvažnija aktivnost u diplomatijama nacionalnih država, međunarodnih
organizacija i integracija, čak šta više moglo bi se reći da je ekonomska diplomatija
postala osnovno sredstvo prodora na svjetsko tržište. U današnjem svijetu u kome
međunarodni i ekonomski odnosi predstavljaju sistem odnosa moći, političke i
ekonomske, postepeno se oformljuje sistem koji sve više korporira privredne
subjekte. Privrede postaju sve manje nacionalne, a sve više globalne, pretvarajući se
tako u transnacionalni sistem proizvodnje, koji se temelji na međunarodnoj podijeli
rada. U međunarodnom sistemu ekonomska diplomatija dobija dodatno na značaju
sa ubrzavanjem globalizacije, misli se prije svega na dodatno jačanje stepena
međuzavisnosti između država, kao i integrativnih procesa na regionalnom i
globalnom nivou, i to u uslovima nedostatka adekvatnih pravila i institucija koje
postavljaju okvir nastupa ekonomskih subjekata planetarne tržišne borbe.
Budući da ekonomska diplomatija ima jasnu istorijsko razvojnu dimenziju, treba
konstatovati da je sam termin relativno novijeg datuma i korijene vuče iz francuskog
jezika.la diplomatie economique. Zatim, veoma brzo je prihvaćen od strane ruske
diplomatije pod tačnim nazivom ekonomičeskaja diplomatija. Sa druge strane imamo
anglosaksonske varijante, koje koriste termine trgovinska diplomatija, komercijalna
diplomatija, mada se u poslednje vrijeme i kod njih može zapaziti sve šira
zastupljenost termina ekonomska diplomatija. Savremeni svijet je oslikan
neprestanim promijenama u kojima ključ ekonomskog uspijeha leži u sposobnosti
njihovog razumijevanja i optimalnom prilagođavanju novonastalom poslovnom
okruženju. Taj novonastali socijetalni ambijent nije ništa drugo do globalizacija. Ako
imamo u vidu da se globalna ekonomija karakteriše visokim nivoom konkurentnosti,
otvara se pitanje kako ekonomski subjekti malih država, primjera radi, poput država
nastale raspadom Jugoslavije, mogu da ostvare zadovoljavajuća tržišna učešća,
odnosno kako mogu da ostvare komparativne prednosti koje bi omogućile adekvatno
pozicioniranje na tržištu? U tom smislu, istraživanja pokazuju da veoma važnu
pozitivnu ulogu može da ima efikasnost i efektivnost diplomatije, ili preciznije njene
ekonomske komponente za koju je sve prihvaćeniji naziv ekonomska diplomatija.

- 164 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Ekonomske sile su prave determinante u interpretaciji trenutne politike. Ekonomska


globalizacija posmatra se kao sila koja predstavlja najveću pretnju autoritetu
nacionalne države i koja umanjuje njenu moć. Stoga se na ovakav slijed dešavanja
posvećuje posebna pažnja. Globalizacija proizvodnje, saobraćaja, komunikacija i
finansija uvećava rascijep između države kao „ekonomske jedinice“ i države kao
„teritorijalne i administrativne jedinice“. Globalizacija podriva istorijsku konstelaciju,
koju karakteriše koekstenzivno istezanje države i ekonomije u okviru istih nacionalnih
granica, pri čemu se stvaraju transnacionalne ekonomije, u kojima su države
primarno locirane unutar tržišta, što je suprotno od nacionalne ekonomije, koja je
locirana unutar granica. Dakle, sposobnost države da dijeluje suprotno tržišnim
silama razara činjenica da država mora da snizi regulatorne standarde kako bi
privukla kapital. Teorija koja dovoljno dobro odražava suštinu globalizacije i
smanjenja regulatorne politike jeste „trka do krajnjeg cilja-dna,odnosno, hipoteza
polazi od toga da vlade nacionalnih država sve više moraju da deregulišu svoje
privrede, kako bi prodale svoje politike međunarodnim investitorima i kako bi pažljivo
razmotrile preference tržišnih učesnika. Tako se nacionalna država tokom
globalizacije suočava sa smanjenim budžetskim prihodima iz realnih izvora, kao i sa
nesposobnostima da interveniše kako bi obezbijedila punu zaposlenost i socijalnu
zaštitu svojim građanima. Globalizacija kao savremena.pojava, razara.državu na više
načina, a posebno njen ključni temelj - legitimnost, jer je ona prošla tranziciju od
kejnezijanske nacionalne države blagostanja ka šumpeterijanskoj postnacionalnoj
radnoj državi. Razlike između ovih tipova država leže u valorizaciji kapitala i
reprodukciji radne snage. Štaviše, u savremenim globalizovanim državama postoji
trend podređivanja socijalne politike potrebama strukturne konkurentnosti i
fleksibilnosti tržišta rada. Socijalna politika i tržište rada postaće fleksibilniji, a to se
postiže uklanjanjem „politički konstruisanih“ prepreka iz neprekinutih operacija
tržišnih sila. Stoga je, kada je riječ o globalizaciji, suštinska priroda nacionalne države
očigledno pretrpijela promijene i prošla transformaciju kako karaktera, tako i fokusa
politike. Nacionalna država više nema moćnu ulogu u obezbijeđivanju blagostanja
svojih građana. Sada više nego ikada, to zavisi od spoljnih faktora i zbog toga se
kaže da država stoji „na staklenim nogama“, jer njenu legitimnost tokom procesa
globalizacije mogu sve češće da ocijenjuju građani,primjera radi, štrajkovi, protesti,
vijerske netrpeljivosti i slično. Makroekonomski autoritet države je u velikoj mijeri
ograničen. To se posebno vidi u nesposobnosti države da vodi ambicioznu
monetarnu i fiskalnu politiku, kao i politiku plata. Nacionalna monetarna politika gubi
autonomiju, jer više ne može da bude introvertno okrenuta ka domaćim realnim
zalihama, već mora da bude ekstrovertno okrenuta ka tokovima međunarodnog
kapitala i mora da se uključi u međunarodnu makroekonomsku koordinaciju.
Evropska unija je dobar primer toga da je monetarna politika potpuno oduzeta od
nacionalnih država i da je uspostavljen evropski supranacionalni suverenitet
ekonomije i monetarnih pitanja. Evropska centralna banka jedina je odgovorna za
sprovođenje monetarne politike i ima slobodu da odlučuje o ciljanoj inflaciji ili o
štampanju novca i stabilnosti cijena. Globalizacija je otišla i korak dalje, razotkrivši

- 165 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

opadajuću moć nacionalnih država u oblasti međunarodnih finansija. Ekonomska


globalizacija, po mišljenjima mnogih, dovodi do ograničavanja kontrole nacionalnih
država nad samom ekonomskom politikom. Isto tako se smatra da je ekonomija više
internacionalna nego globalna, s obzirom da su nacionalne države i dalje najmoćniji
igrači na ekonomskom polju, kako u smislu domaće ekonomije, tako i u odnosu na
sporazume vezane za upravljanje ekonomskim odnosima van nacionalnih granica.
Kao rezultat tako obimnog savremenog procesa globalizacije, došlo je do toga da su
se međunarodna finansijska tržišta u svijetu povezala tako da su ekonomski talasi u
većini zemalja vrlo ujednačeni i ukoliko izbije kriza u nekoj državi, a sredstvo za
plaćanje je neka.rezervna svjetska valuta naprimjer, dolar, vrlo brzo bi se proširila na
čitav svijet. Posmatajući globalizaciju, odnosno međunarodne odnose koje su se od
hladnoratovske dominacije znatno promijenile, u suštini država više nije država koja
ima svoju moć. Odnosno, globalizacija ne uklanja nacionalnu državu sa njenih
temelja, ali joj oduzima moći najviše vlasti. To znači, da je državama sve teže, da
nametnu svoju fiskalnu i monetarnu vlast, kako bi na taj način stvorili nacionalni
prosperitet, nezavisno od međunarodnog tržišta, i samim tim da bi od globalizacije
ostvarile konkretnu dobit, države sve više djeluju kao pokretači globalizacije i tako
umanjuju svoju moć i postaju odgovorne vanjskim ekonomskim akterima.
U ovom radu biće primjenjene osnovne metode naučnog saznanja, sa težištem na
analitičke, komparativne, sinteze, induktivne i deduktivne metode.
Zaključuje se da razvijanjem i učvršćivanjem demokratskih vrijednosti, uprkos sve
većim globalnim promijenama, siromaštvu, društvenim razlikama, može omogućiti
stabilnija ekonomska diplomatija. Odnosno, bez obzira na ovaj evidentan trend u
međunarodnim političkim i ekonomskim odnosima uloga država i diplomatija, kao
instrumentarija promovisanja i zaštite interesa država ostaje vrlo značajna, a
posebno ona u oblasti ekonomskih odnosa, odnosno, ekonomska diplomatija.
Ključne riječi: diplomatija, država, ekonomska diplomatija, moć, globalizacija.

- 166 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE ECONOMIC POWER AND THEIR ROLE DURING


GLOBALIZATION
Zlatan Lukic
Political Science College, European University Brcko District, Bosnia and
Herzegovina
zlatan. lukic@hotmail. com

RESUME
Strong diplomatic economic arrangement became the essential feature of diplomacy
in many countries. Diplomatic economic engagement, in fact economic diplomacy,
became the most important activity for diplomacies of national countries. We can say
that economic diplomacy became basic tool for breakthrough to world market. In
today's world where international and economic relations represent the system of
power relations, political and economic, gradually forming the system which more
and more corporate the economic entities. The economies are becoming less
national and more global, in that way they are becoming transnational system of
production which is based on international work separation. In the international
system the economic diplomacy gets the additional importance in speeding the
globalization, which means additional strengthening of the degree of international
dependency between countries, also in integrative process on regional and global
level, with conditions of shortage of adequate rules and institutions which set the
framework of performances for economic operators of world's market fight.
Since the economic diplomacy has clear historical developmental dimension, there
is a need to say that this term is relatively of newer date and that roots are coming
from French language "la diplomatie economique". Then, it was accepted very fast
by Russian diplomacy under the exact name "ekonomiceskaja diplomatija". On the
other side we have Anglo-Saxon variants which use terms such as trade diplomacy
and commercial diplomacy, although in the last time it is, more and more noticeable
the use of a term economic diplomacy. The modern world is portrayed as a constant
change where the key of economic success is in the ability of their understanding and
the optimal adapting of the newly created business environment. This newly created
social environment is nothing else but globalization. If we take in consideration that
the global economy is characterized by high level of the competition, there is a
question: how economic operators of small countries, such as countries formed after
the fall of Yugoslavia, can achieve comparative advantages which would enable
adequate positioning on the market? In this sense, the research shows that the
efficiency and the effectiveness of the diplomacy can have a very important positive

- 167 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

role, or more precise that their economic components are becoming more and more
called as economic diplomacy.
Economic forces are real determinants of current political interpretation. The
economic globalization is seen as a power which represents the biggest threat to the
national country's authority and reduces their power. Therefore, this kind of the
sequence of events needs special attention. The globalization of production, traffic,
communication and finances increases the split between countries as an "economic
unit" and state as "the territorial and administrative unit". The globalization
undermines the historical constellation which is characterized by coextensive
stretching of the state and economy within the same national borders in which way
trans-national economies are created, primarily located within the market, which is
opposite of national economy which is located within states boundaries. The ability
of a state to act opposite to market forces is destroyed by the fact that the state has
lower regulatory standards to attract capital. The theory that supports the essence of
globalization and reduction of regulatory politics is "the race to the end-bottom".
Respectively, the hypothesis starts from the fact that governments of the national
states have to increasingly deregulate their economy in order to sell their policies to
international investors and to carefully consider the preferences of the market
participants. This way the national state is facing reduced budget revenue from real
resources during globalization, along with incompetence to intervene in order to
secure complete employment and social protection to their citizens. The globalization
as a modern phenomenon is destroying the state in more ways, particularly their key
foundation - the legitimacy, since it went through transition from Keynesian's national
state of well-being to Shumpeterian post national working state. The differences
between these types of states are lying in valorization of the capital and the
reproduction of the labor force. Moreover, in modern globalized states there is an
existence of subordination trend of social politics to the needs of the structural
competitiveness and the flexibility of labor market. Social policy and labor market will
become more flexible, and that is possible by removing "politically engineered"
obstacles from continues operation of market forces. Therefore, when it comes to
globalization, intrinsic nature of the national state obviously suffered the changes,
and it went through transformation not just of the character but of the focus of the
policy as well. The national state does not have a powerful role anymore in securing
the well-being of its citizens. Now as never before, this depends from outside factors
and because of this there is a say that the state stands "on glass feet", because its
legitimacy, during the process of globalization, can be evaluated by citizens more
often, for example, strikes, demonstrations, the religious intolerance, etc.
Macroeconomic authority of the state is largely limited. This is especially visible by
state's incompetence to lead ambitious monetary, fiscal, and salary policy. The
national monetary policy is losing autonomy because it cannot be turned internally
towards domestic realistic inventory, but it has to be turned externally towards
international flows of capital and it has to join into international macroeconomic

- 168 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

coordination. The European Union is a good example that the monetary policy is
completely taken away from the national states and there is the establishments of the
European supranational sovereignty of economy and monetary affairs. The European
Central Bank is the only one responsible for implementation of monetary affairs and
it can freely decide about targeted inflation or money printing and pricing stabilization.
The globalization went one more step further by uncovering the falling power of the
national states in the area of the international finances. The economic globalization,
judging by many, leads to restricting the control of the national states over the
economic policies. Also, it is considered that the economy is more international than
global, given the fact that the national states are still the most powerful players on the
economic field, both in terms of domestic economy, and in terms of the agreement
that are connected to managing the economic relations out of the national borders.
As a result of a such large modern globalization process, it came to connecting
international financial markets in the world by making economic waves equal in the
most of the countries. Therefore, if the crisis breaks out in some of the countries, it
would spread all over the world very fast. By observing the globalization, the
international relations, which have changed since the Cold War domination, it can be
said that countries do not have power any more. The globalization is not taking away
the national state from its roots, but it is taking away the power of the authorities. This
means that countries have a hard time to impose their fiscal and monetary power,
and in this way create national prosperity, independent from the international market
and to achieve a concrete profit by globalization, the states act as initiator of the
globalization and by doing this they are reducing their power and becoming
responsible to outside economic members.
In this research, there will be applied the basic methods of the scientific knowledge,
with the focus on analytical, comparative, inductive and deductive methods.
The paper concludes that by developing and strengthening of democratic values, in
spite of the larger global changes, the poverty and the social differences, can secure
stabile economic diplomacy. Respectively, no matter of this evident trend in
international political and economic relations, the role of countries and diplomacies,
as the instrument of promoting and protecting the interest of countries stays very
important, especially the one in the area of the economic relations and economic
diplomacy.
Key words: diplomacy, economical diplomacy, power, globalization.

- 169 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

APPLICATIONS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN TRANSPORT


BUSINESS
Maria Luskova
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovakia
maria.luskova@fbi.uniza.sk
Katarina Buganova
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina, Zilina, Slovakia
katarina.buganova@fbi.uniza.sk

RESUME
Any business that is realized in a certain business environment is affected by many
risks. These risks result from the variable nature of external as well as internal factors
affecting the business. The transport business as a specific kind of service must take
into account this changing nature of the environment. Specifically, transportation
business is one of the most problematic spheres in the Slovakian business. For
example, although the business in road freight transport over 3.5 tons belongs to the
frequent business sphere, authorization to perform the profession of operator of road
freight transport and the Community license for national / international transportation
over 3.5 tons even before the establishment of the company is required. However,
many entrepreneurs in developing business plans do not count on the fact that
obtaining permission and license can be a long and difficult process. In the worst
case the issue of permission can be rejected by the District Office, Department of
road transport. Except of the problems during establishment of the company when it
is necessary to document financial and professional competence, vehicle ownership,
technical base, etc. a variety of documentation and permissions are also needed for
carrying out the operation of transport business. The carrier must know national laws
and also the regulations of the European Union.
Most of the companies engaged in business activities in the transport sector can be
ranked among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on data from
Eurostat, out of the total number of new enterprises in Slovakia, only 74,9% were still
active at the end of the first year of existence and only 44,4% were still in business
after five years. This means that over 50% of new enterprises in Slovakia do not
survive longer than five years. According to the Eurostat data, Slovakia belongs
among the EU countries with an above average number of founded and wound-up
enterprises. It is also a country with the lowest enterprise survival rate within two
years from being founded.
Just for this reason, it is important to work with risks and manage them not only during
establishing the business but during the whole run of business activities. The aim of
this paper is to point out the possible forms of use of risk management in the transport
business.

- 170 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Risk management in business is the assumption that business risks will be properly
identified, assessed and managed and business opportunities will be fully exploited.
Risk management can be described as a rational behaviour in risk situation in order
to protect and enhance present and future assets of the company through the
systematic integration of risk in key management decisions. Risk management
cannot in small and medium-sized enterprises operate in isolation, detached from the
company action. It must be integrated into the system and respected by all
subsystems of company. The introduction of risk management in small and medium-
sized enterprises contributes to the maintenance or growth of the company's value
for its owners. It leads to higher quality of strategic management, increased stability,
faster responses to changing market conditions and reducing the likelihood of
mistakes, errors and frauds.

Establishing the
context

Risk
C Risk analysis
identification
O
M M
M Risk evaluation
O
U
N
N
I
I
C T
A O
Acceptable R
T
I risk? I
O N
N No Yes
G

Risk treatment

Fig.1: Adapted from STN ISO 31000:2011 Risk Management


In addition to other international standards the implementation of risk management
in Slovakia is realized in accordance with the Australian Standard STN ISO
31000:2011 Risk Management – Principles and guidelines.
The standard can be used by any public, private or community enterprise,
association, group or individual. It provides a common approach in support of
standards dealing with specific risks or sectors but it does not replace those
standards. Therefore, this International Standard is not specific to any industry or

- 171 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

sector. It can be applied to any type of risk, whatever its nature, whether having
positive or negative consequences.
The risk management process (Fig. 1) is formed by a set of the stages which are
defined as follows (STN ISO 31000:2011 and ISO/IEC Guide 73:2009):
 Establishing the context – defines strategical and organizational relations
to be taken into account when managing risk, sets the scope and risk criteria
for the remaining process.
 Risk identification – focused on identification of all risk sources which could
have an impact upon assessed subject and provides inputs to risk analysis.
 Risk analysis – involves developing an understanding of risk. Identified risks
are analysed on the basis of consideration of the causes and sources of risk,
determination of their positive and negative consequences, and the likelihood
that those consequences can occur. Mutual conjunction of the criteria i.e. the
likelihood and consequences represents the final point evaluation,
respectively, the risk level. The individual criteria of certain considered risk
must be selected on the basis of the current and potential future situation of
internal, external and financial continuity.
 Risk evaluation – involves comparing the likelihood of risk occurrence and
its consequences with defined criteria. Based on this comparison considered
risks are sorted according to management priorities followed by determining
the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable risks.
 Risk treatment – involves elaboration of proposal of measures only for
unacceptable risks that require development of a unique management plan
together with the financing of the proposal. Acceptable risks are monitored
because of the eventual future changes in the level of identified risks.
 Monitoring – this stage is focused on continuous monitoring and review of
the risk management system, by reason of the constant changes in the
internal, external and financial continuity. Subject to monitoring are
acceptable and also the residual risks.
 Communication – involves mutual reviewing of individual processes and
decisions in the system of risk management among stakeholders.
Involvement of all stakeholders enables continuous improvement of
processes and activities in the risk management system.
Since the transport companies now operate in environment with high degree of
uncertainty and are exposed to various risks it is not possible to define some stable
and exact process and exact solution that would guarantee risk elimination or
successful crisis encompassment. Risk management as well as solving each crisis
situation has individual and specific character, they are connected with various
circumstances, performed in different conditions and accompanied by different
events. Encompassment of each crisis situation requires great practical experience
and professional knowledge in various fields. At present, risk elimination and solving
crisis situations is understood as the top of managerial wisdom and the most
demanding manager task.

- 172 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MODELOVANJE POUZDANOSTI SLOŽENIH TEHNIČKIH


SISTEMA U INDUSTRIJI – SSA KONCEPT
Dragan Milošević
PD „RIO“ d.o.o, Kostolac, Srbija
prof.dragan.milosevic@gmail.com

REZIME
Rad prezentuje probleme u vezi sa modelovanjem složenih tehničkih sistema u
industriji ali i mogućnosti rešavanja putem Split System Approach koncepta. Cilj rada
je da se prikažu prednosti primene SSA koncepta u odnosu da druge modele. U radu
je objašnjeno nekoliko vrste složenih sistema i njihova podela prema broju i strukturi
komponenata. Izvedena je i podela sistema prema popravljivosti komponenata. U
daljem tekstu su navedena i ograničenja modelovanja pouzdanosti složenih sistema
u industriji. Razlozi za najveća ograničenja realizacije modela su: razumno vreme
kalkulacije, veliki broj preventivnih održavanja, mali broj otkaza po komponenti
sistema, dekomponovanje sistema itd. Navedeno je moguće rešenje u vidu semi-
Markovljevih lanaca za nepopravljive komponente sistema. Izloženi su i problemi
modelovanja imperfektnih akcija održavanja koje su realnost u industriji kada
popravljena komponenta nije „dobra kao nova“.
Dalje, prezentovani su slični do sada razvijeni modeli u svetu i u zemlji. Osim
mogućnosti modela iskazana su i njihova ograničenja. Modeli se oslanjaju na već
poznate metode kao što su blok dijagram pouzdanosti, Monte Carlo metod, Analizu
stabla otkaza, Bajesove mreže, Markovljeve lance itd.
Predikcija pouzdanosti sistema sa preventivnim održavanjem je prikazana takođe.
Predikcija pouzdanosti nije moguća bez oslanja na modele pouzdanosti i ima za cilj
da se izbegnu ili odlože otkazi sistema tokom nekog perioda. Navedene su opšte
karakteristike modela koji se najčešće koriste u ovu svrhu. Ovi modeli se usled raznih
slabosti često oslanjaju na predikciju MTTF - srednjeg vremena do pojave otkaza
nego na samo pouzdanost sistema. Značajan broj modela pokušava da predvidi
očekivani broj otkaza umesto pouzdanosti. Poseban problem koji značajno utiče na
modelovanje pouzdanosti način preventivnog održava sistema.
U daljem tekstu je prezentovan Split System Approach (SSA) koncept modelovanja
pouzdanosti. Ovaj model predstavlja odličnu polaznu osnovu za diferencijaciju na
popravljive i nepopravljive komponente složenog tehničkog sistema. SSA model
predstavlja proširenje Ebelingovog metoda u smislu uzimanja u obzir imperfektnih
popravki. Pretpostavke modela sistema su:

- 173 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 Svi otkazi su međusobno nezavisni a popravke na popravljivim


komponentama sistema ne utiču na pouzdanost nepopravljivih.
 Funkcije pouzdanosti i novih i popravljanih komponenata su poznate. Postoje
razvijene metode da se na osnovu postojećih podataka o otkazima dođe do
funkcija pouzdanosti pa je moguća primena različitih.
 Blok dijagram sistema je poznat kao i to koje su komponente popravljive a
koje ne.
 Vreme popravke je neznatno i irelevantno za proračun pouzdanosti.
 Vreme preventivne akcije održavanja je unapred determinisano.
Modelovanje pouzdanosti je zadatak koji najčešće ne bude adekvatno obavljen iz
razloga što većina modela ne bude primenljiva ili ne uvažava realno stanje stvari.
SSA model omogućuje da se ostvari kompromis između ovih zahteva. Dodatna
pomoć u implementaciji SSA modela predstavljaju kompjuterske tehnologije jer
omogućuju masovne kalkulacije.
SSA model je prikazan u tri scenarija. U prvom scenariju tehnički sistem ima samo
jednu popravljivu komponentu a sve ostale su nepopravljive. Veza između
komponenti je redna. U drugom scenariju sistem se sastoji iz jedne popravljive i
nepopravljivim komponenti sa paralelnom vezom. Za oba scenarija su dati grafički
prikazi funkcije pouzdanosti i nepouzdanosti tokom vremena, respektivno. Funkcije
su prikazane i u vidu formula. Ova dva scenarija su osnov svih struktura sistema koje
se prikazuju metodom blok dijagrama pouzdanosti. Treći scenario je najčešći slučaj
u dekomponovanju tehničkih sistema u industriji. Konačan broj komponenti je
popravljiv a ostale se smatraju nepopravljivim i prikazane su kao jedan podsistem.
Koraci primene SSA modela su:

 Prikupljanje podataka o otkazima.


 Dekomponovanje sistema i izrada blok dijagrama pouzdanosti sa
definisanjem popravljivih i nepopravljivih komponenti sistema.
 Određivanje pouzdanosti svake komponente posebno i celog sistema na
bazi blok dijagrama.
 Određivanje vremena preventivne akcijе t1 i komponenti koje će biti
popravljane u toj preventivnoj akciji održavanja.
 Proračun pouzdanosti svih komponenti i celokupnog sistema na bazi blok
dijagrama.
 Određivanje vremena preventivne akcije t2 i komponenti koje će biti
popravljane u toj preventivnoj akciji održavanja na bazi funkcija pouzdanosti
celog sistema i njegovih komponenti.
 Ovaj postupak se ponavlja sve dok je to potrebno.
Kao zaključak rada može se reći sledeće. Složena problematika modelovanja
pouzdanosti složenih tehničkih sistema u industriji najzahtevnija u domenu

- 174 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

implementacije na brojevno složene sisteme. Nasuprot tome, da bi se došlo do


kvalitetnijih podataka o pouzdanosti sistema potrebno je dekomponovanje sistema
na veći broj komponenti čemu se kao ograničenje nameće neretko mali broj podataka
o otkazima po komponenti. SSA koncept ima dobre osobine uz sve nedostatke kao I
svaki model.
Prednosti SSA modela su:
 Za razliku od većine primenjivanih modela koji se oslanjaju na unapred
određeno vreme preventivnih akcija održavanja, MTTF ili očekivanog broja
otkaza, ovaj model je puno podesniji za dugi period operativnog vremena
sistema i promene odluka o preventivnim akcijama održavanja kakve su
česta pojava u realnosti.
 Model je sposoban da da uvid u kretanje pouzdanosti pojedinačnih
komponenti i njihov uticaj na ukupnu pouzdanost sistema.
 U model je moguće implementirati i na imperfektne opravke poput onih koje
su karaktera “dobro kao novo”, “lošije od novog”, “loše kao staro”, “bolje nego
novo” itd.
 Nema ograničenja po pitanju teorijske raspodele otkaza koja se može
primeniti na model.
Nedostaci ovakvog pristupa su:
 Veoma teška primena modela za slučaj velike složenosti sistema po broju
komponenata ali i nedovoljno dobra slika o pouzdanosti sistema za slučaj da
se on slabo dekomponuje. Ipak, ukoliko sistem nema veliki broj otkaza onda
dekomponovanje nije nužno u takvoj meri a dominantan problem
modelovanja postaje mali broj otkaza.
 Takođe, ukoliko bi postojale interakcije komponenata sistema u smislu da
otkaz jedne utiče na pouzdanost druge komponente sistema, došlo bi do
krajnje ozbiljnih i grubih grešaka proračuna,
 Model ne uvažava korektivne akcije održavanja niti pruža mogućnost uvida
u broj mogućih otkaza sistema, tj. komponenti.
Jasno je da je ovaj model potrebno unaprediti po pitanjima u kojima ima nedostataka.
Nedostatak primenljivosti se može rešavati aproksimacijama kao i primenom
kompjuterskih tehnologija kako bi se vreme proračuna skratilo za sisteme sa velikim
brojem komponenata. Pitanje postojanja otkaza i posledica koje se dešavaju na
pouzdanost same komponente se može rešiti simulacijama putem kojih se može doći
do uvida u to šta se dešava sa pouzdanošću sistema na velikom broju. Na kraju,
pitanje interakcija komponenata nakon pojave otkaza u smislu uticaja na pouzdanost
drugo je pitanje koje se mora detaljnije rešavati.
Ključne reči: složeni sistem, model pouzdanosti, preventivno održavanje.

- 175 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

RELIABILITY MODELING OF COMPLEX TECHNICAL SYSTEMS


IN INDUSTRY, SSA CONCEPT
Dragan Milošević
PD „RIO“ DOO, Kostolac, Serbia
prof.dragan.milosevic@gmail.com

RESUME
The paper presents problems related to the modeling of complex technical systems
in the industry but also the possibility of troubleshoot via Split System Approach
concept. The aim is to show the benefits of applying the concept of SSA compared
to other models. In the paper are explained several kinds of complex systems and
their classification according to the number and structure of the components. The
division of the systems is made according to the components of reparability. Below
are listed the limits of reliability modeling of complex systems in industry. The reasons
for the biggest limitations of models realization are: reasonable calculation time, a
large number of preventive maintenance, a small number of failures by the system
components, system decomposition, etc. A possible solution is indicated in the form
of semi-Markov chains for unrepairable system components. The problems of
modeling imperfect maintenance actions are explored. They are a reality in industry
when the repaired component is not as "good as new".
Furthermore, the paper presents so far developed and similar models in the world
and in the country. Besides the features of the models, their limitations are presented
too. Models are based on the known methods such as reliability block diagram, Monte
Carlo methods, fault tree analysis, Bayesian networks, Markov chains, etc.
Predicting the reliability of systems with preventive maintenance is also presented.
Predicting the reliability is not possible without relying on the reliability models and
aims to avoid or postpone system failures over time. Those are the general
characteristics of the models that are commonly used for this purpose. These models
are due to various weaknesses, and often rely on prediction. A significant number of
models seeks to predict the expected number of failures rather than reliability. A
particular problem that significantly affects the reliability of the modeling system
maintains a preventive way.
In the paper is presented Split System Approach (SSA) concept modeling reliability.
This model is an excellent starting point for differentiation on the repairable and
unrepairable components of complex systems. SSA model is an extension of
Ebeling's method with imperfect repairs. The assumptions of the system model are:

- 176 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 All failures are independent from each other and the repairs of system
components do not affect the reliability of unrepairable components.
 Both new and repaired components reliability functions are known. There are
developed methods that are based on existing failure data to calculate
reliability function and it is possible to use some of them.
 Reliability block diagram of the system is known as well as which
components are repairable and which are not.
 The time of repair is not significant and irrelevant to the calculation of
reliability.
 The time of preventive maintenance is pre determinate.
Reliability modeling is a task that usually cannot be adequately done because most
of the models are not applicable in reality. SSA model makes it possible to achieve a
compromise between these requirements. Additional help in the implementation of
SSA models presents computer technology because they allow mass calculations.
SSA model is shown in the three scenarios. In the first scenario, the technical system
has only one component of a repair on all the others are unrepairable. The connection
between the components is regular. In the second scenario, the system consists of
one repairable and unrepairable components with parallel connection. Reliability and
unreliability are presented graphically on the timeline for both scenarios, respectively.
The functions are displayed as well as formula too. These two scenarios are the basis
for all system structures that are presented by reliability block diagram method. The
third scenario is the most common case in decomposing the technical systems in the
industry. The finite number of components is repairable while others are considered
to be unrepairable and they are shown as a single subsystem.
The SSА model application steps are:
 Failure data collecting.
 System decomposing and reliability block diagram creating with the definition
of repairable and unrepairable components of the system.
 Reliability calculating for each component and the entire system based on
the block diagram.
 Determination - time of t1 preventive maintenance and which components
will be maintained.
 Reliability calculating of all components and the entire system based on the
block diagram.
 Determination - time of t2 preventive maintenance and which components
will be maintained.
 This procedure is repeated until necessary.
To conclude, we can say the following. Complex issues of reliability modeling of
complex technical systems in industry are the most demanding in the field of

- 177 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

implementation for the systems with many components. Limitation for that task is a
small number of failures per component. SSA concept has good properties with all
the disadvantages like any other model.
The advantages of the SSA model are:

 Unlike most of applied models that rely on a predetermined time preventive


maintenance actions, MTTF or the expected number of layoffs, this model is
much more suitable for a long period of time operating system and change
decisions about preventive maintenance actions.
 The model is able to give an insight into the movements of the reliability of
the individual components and their impact on the overall reliability of the
system.
 The model can be implemented on imperfect repairs such as those that are
purely "good as new", "worse than the new", "bad as the old," "better than
new" etc.
 There are no limits in terms of the theoretical distribution of failures that can
be changed on the model.
The disadvantages of this approach are:

 Very heavy use of models for the case of the great complexity of the system
according to the number of components but also the lack of a good picture
of the system reliability in the event that it badly decomposed. However, if
the system does not have a large number of failures decomposition is not
necessarily measured, and the dominant problem of modeling becomes a
small number of failures.
 If there are interacting components of the system in the sense that dismissal
of one affects the reliability of other components of the system, there would
be a very serious and big calculation errors.
 The model does not accept corrective action to maintain or provide insight
into the number of possible system failures, i.e. components failures.
It is clear that this model needs to be improved where the shortcomings exist. The
lack of applicability can be solved as approximations and with application of computer
technology to shorten the time of the calculation for systems with a large number of
components. The question of the existence of failure and the consequences that
occur on the reliability of the components themselves can be resolved by simulations
that allow the insight into what is happening with the reliability of the system on a
large number of failures. The conclusions can be drawn on the basis of a large
number of simulation system reliability. In the end, the question of the components
interaction after a failure occurrence in terms of impact on the reliability should be
further modeled.
Keywords: complex system, reliability model, preventive maintenance.

- 178 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

GLOBALIZACIONE PROMENE I PROCESI


Nevenka Nićin
Univerzitet „Union – Nikola Tesla”, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski
menadžment, Beograd
nicinnevenka@gmail.com
Milija Bogavac
Univerzitet „Union – Nikola Tesla”, Fakultet za poslovno industrijski
menadžment, Beograd,
Anka Bulatović
Evropski univerzitet Brčko, Brčko distrikt
bulatovic.anka@gmail.com

REZIME
Globalizacija podrazumeva rasprostranjenje svih sfera ljudske delatnosti na
planetarnom nivou, uključujući internacionalizaciju novca, kapitala, hartija od
vrednosti, prava, tehnologije, informacija, organizacije, robne razmene, iskustva
preduzetničke prakse, menadžmenta i marketinga, koji se globalizuju tako što njeni
nosioci postaju multinacionalne kompanije. Globalizacija politike, bezbednosti,
privrede, ekologije, tehnologije, informacija, tržišta, finansija, preduzetništva,
konkurencije, marketinga i preduzeća posle 70-tih godina XX veka postaje realnost
sa kojom se ušlo u XXI vek, a koju istovremeno slede svi drugi oblici globalizacija
koju implicira globalizacija društveno-ekonomskog sistema. Osnovna svrha i cilj
strategija globalizacije i internacionalizacije preduzeća je snižavanja transakcionih
troškova, tako da se odlučuje na agresivno strateško internacionalizovanje poslovnih
aktivnosti sa jedne strane, a sa druge strane vođenja strategija i internacionalizacije,
kako bi se zadržale specifične konkurentske prednosti, odnosno omogućilo da
strateške prednosti ne dođu do spoznaje konkurencije.
Načelo slobodne trgovine, deregulacije, jedinstvene valute prisutne su više decenija
u ekonomskoj teoriji i praksi Zapada. Njihova implementacija podrazumeva da zemlje
različitih ekonomskih, kulturnih i socijalnih karakteristika prihvataju novi model
ekonomskog rasta i razvoja. Prvobitne definicije kategorija globalne ekonomije
naglašavale su njihovu kvantitativnu dimenziju odražavajući prostorno širenje
preduzeća i posledice takve orijentacije na svetsku ekonomiju, ekonomiju pojedinih
zemalja i preduzeća. Danas se one ne mogu razumeti i objasniti bez kvalitativne
dimenzije njihovog uzroka, implementacije i posledica.
Za razumevanje karakteristika globalne ekonomije neophodno je upoznati se sa
njenim osnovnim kategorijama, a to su:

- 179 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 globalizacija je proces promene pogleda preduzeća na uslove i mogućnosti svog


opstanka rasta i razvoja sa lokalnog na svetski nivo, odnosno proces koji stvara
nove pretpostavke za uspešno poslovanje u međunarodnim okvirima.
 globalno tržište je rezultat procesa integracije tržišnih segmenata širom sveta koji
dele određene zajedničke vrednosti. Danas je prisutan veliki broj tržišta
proizvoda koja su po dometu više globalna nego lokalna (tržišta ekonomije,
telekomunikacijske opreme, poluprovodnika, računara, poljoprivrednih mašina,
automobila i drugo.).
 globalna industrija je industrija u kojoj preduzeće puteve svog opstanka
sagledava iz perspektive globalnog tržišta (industrija aviona, automobila,
računara, satova, osiguranja i drugo).
 globalno preduzeće obavlja delatnost u više od jedne zemlje, privlačeći tržišta sa
velikim potencijalom stope rasta i zadovoljavajućom stopom rasta nacionalne
ekonomije (kompanije poput Coca-Cola, Sony, General Motors su globalne
kompanije).
 globalni proizvod pripada tehnološki intenzivnoj grani, nije kulturno specifičan,
može se standardizovati, poseduje svetsku marku, ima globalnu distribuciju i
promociju i kvalifikuje se kao globalni proizvod (Nike, IBM i drugi).
Početak globalizacijskih promena i procesa značio je ujedno i prekretnicu, kao i
napuštanje dotadašnjeg ekonomskog uređenja sveta uspostavljenog nakon Drugog
svetskog rata ma konferenciji Bretton-Woods. Koncept država-nacija i regulacija
međunarodne ekonomije, svojstvenih Bretton-Woods sistemu, napušteni su u ime
usvajanja koncepta nove ekonomije koja se zasniva na neo liberalnoj doktrini.
Današnji neoliberalni poredak je zapravo oživljena verzija ekonomskog liberalizma ili
liberalnog kapitalizma iz druge polovine XVIII veka. Osnovna ideja liberalizma je
nemešanje države u ekonomske procese i kretanja, te prepuštanje regulatorskog
mehanizma u ekonomiji slobodnom tržištu, odnosno „nevidljivoj ruci“, kako je to rekao
Adam Smith, najpoznatiji predstavnik liberalne doktrine.
Bretton-Woods sistem međunarodnog ekonomskog uređenja uspostavio je pravila
trgovinskih i finansijskih odnosa između glavnih svetskih industrijskih država. Taj
sistem je prvi primer ugovorenog monetarnog poretka u istoriji sveta, a namena mu
je bila uređenje monetarnih odnosa između nezavisnih naciji-država. Sporazumom u
Bretton-Woodsu osnovani su i Međunarodni monetarni fond (MMF) i Međunarodna
banka za obnovu i razvoj (sada Svetska banka), koje i danas imaju veliki značaj u
svetskoj ekonomiji.
MMF službeno počinje da deluje u decembru 1945. sa svrhom oporavka
međunarodne ekonomije. Ciljevi MMF-a i danas su isti kao i 1944. u vreme osnivanja
ove institucije. MMF je središnja institucija međunarodnog monetarnog sistema, tj.
Sistema međunarodnog plaćanja i međunarodnih valutnih kurseva koji omogućuje

- 180 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

poslovanje među različitim zemljama. MMF je zadužen za prevenciju kriza u sistemu


tako što potiče države na usvajanje odgovarajućih ekonomskih politika, a takođe-
kako mu i sam naziv govori-MMF je fond čija sredstva služe članicama za privremeno
finansiranje u slučaju nestabilnosti, neravnoteže i sličnih situacija.
Već posle Drugog svetskog rata političari Evrope su imali viziju njenog ujedinjena,
saradnje među vladama i građanima koji će moći slobodno, bez ikakvih ograničenja,
putovati iz jednog dela kontinenta u drugi i iz jedne države u drugu. I ti su se vizionari,
kao i današnji, morali boriti protiv skeptika, ali su na kraju ipak uspeli ostvariti svoj
cilj. Zemlje Zapada danas su u postindustrijskom razdoblju koje obeležava razvoj
savremenih tehnologija i razvoj savremenih ekonomskih i socijalnih politika koje se
održavaju na regionalnom, nacionalnom i globalnom nivou. Upravo te zemlje imaju
vodeću ulogu u svetskoj razmeni i trgovini. One su u prošlosti osnivale svoje kolonije
u novootkrivenim prekookeanskim zemljama, internacionalizovale svoje ekonomije i
poslovale preko velikih trgovinskih lanaca (npr. Istočno indijska kompanija VRESK,
1966.), te su na taj način uskoro postale jezgra svetske trgovine. Nakon tako
značajnog širenja trgovine dolazi i do razvoja globalizacije ekonomije u drugoj
polovini XIX, odnosno XX veka. Svet je danas bogatiji nego što je ikada bio, a
tehnologija i dalje neprestano napreduje. Kraj hladnog rata za mnoge je označio
početak novog svetskog poretka koji će svima doneti napredak. Na žalost, za mnoge
još uvek nije tako pa su razlike među zemljama sveta veće nego što su ikada bile.
Globalizacija je proces ujedinjavanja sveta u jednu celinu ili jedan sistem, što je
moguće zahvaljujući sveukupnom stalnom informacionom i komunikacionom
tehnološkom napretku. Svet postaje međusobno integrisan i sve što se događa
lokalno, može se odraziti i globalno. Globalizacijom započinju procesi koje se osećaju
u svim delovima sveta. Međusobno povezivanje i globalizacija nacionalnih privreda i
finansijskih tržišta uticali su na veliku ranjivost ukupne svetske ekonomije. Tako su
sva svetska tržišta kapitala vrlo brzo reagovala kada je došlo do sloma „azijskog
čuda“, nakon čega je sledilo i kolaps ruske privrede. Te godine indeksi svih
međunarodnih berzi naglo su pali i došlo je do usporavanja svetskog BDP-a. Danas
se procesu globalizacije širom sveta suprotstavljaju antiglobalisti. Česti su odgovori
na globalizaciju regionalizam, patriotizam i nacionalizam sa ciljem da se, u većoj ili
manjoj meri, očuvaju nacionalne i kulturne posebnosti te donekle zaštiti ekonomska
nezavisnost. Šta nosi globalizacija, globalne fabrike i ekonomija, pa i sam razvoj
sveta kao jedinstvenog sistema u budućnosti, ostaje neizvesno.
Ključne reči: globalizacija, finansijska tržišta, privreda

- 181 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

GLOBALIZATION CHANGE AND PROCESSES


Nevenka Nicin
“Union – Nikola Tesla” University, Faculty of Business and Industrial
Management, Belgrade, Serbia
nicinnevenka@gmail.com
Milija Bogavac
“Union – Nikola Tesla” University, Faculty of Business and Industrial
Management, Belgrade, Serbia
Anka Bulatovic
European University Brcko, Brcko District, Bosnia and Herzegovina
bulatovic.anka@gmail.com

RESUME
Globalization refers to distribution of all spheres of human activities on a planetary
scale, including internationalization of money capital, securities, law, technology,
information, organization of trade, experiences of entrepreneurial practices,
management and marketing, which are globalizing by their holders are becoming
multinationals. The globalization of politics, security, economy, ecology, technology,
information, markets, finance, entrepreneurship, competition, marketing and
enterprise operations in the 70s of XX century becomes a reality with which they
entered the XXI century, and which is, at the same time, followed by all other forms
of globalization implied by globalization of socio-economic system. The main purpose
and objective of the strategy of globalization and internationalization of a company is
reducing transaction costs. Therefore, it is decided on aggressive strategic
internationalization of business activities on the one hand and keeping strategy and
internationalization on the other hand, in order to maintain the specific competitive
advantages and not allow strategic advantages to know the competition.
The principle of a free trade, deregulation of the single currency has been present for
several decades in economic theory and practice of the West. Their implementation
implies that the countries of different economic, cultural and social characteristics
accept a new model of economic growth and development. The original definitions of
the categories of the global economy emphasize their quantitative dimension,
reflecting the expansion of enterprises and the consequences of such an orientation
in the world economy, the economy of individual countries and companies. Today,
they cannot be understood and explained without qualitative dimensions of their
causes, and consequences of implementation.

- 182 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

To understand the characteristics of the global economy it is necessary to become


familiar with its basic categories, which are:
 Globalization is a process of changing the views of enterprises on the conditions
and possibilities of its survival growth and development from the local to the
global level, and the process that creates new conditions for the successful
operation at an international level.
 Global market is the result of the integration process of market segments around
the world which share certain common values. Today, there are several product
markets, which are within range of more global than local (market economy,
telecommunication equipment, semiconductors, computers, agricultural
machinery, automobiles and more.).
 Global industry is the industry in which a company realizes its survival pathways
from the perspective of the global market (industry airplanes, cars, computers,
watches, insurance, etc.).
 Global company performs activities in more than one country, attracting a market
with great potential growth rate and satisfactory rate of growth of the national
economy (companies like Coca-Cola, Sony, General Motors are global
companies).
 Global item is a technologically intensive branch, not culturally specific, which
can be standardized and owns the world brand. It has a global distribution and
promotion and is qualified as a global product (Nike, IBM and others).
To start the process of change and globalization meant also the turning point as well
as the abandonment of the previous world economic order established after the
Second World War and Bretton Woods conference. The concept of the nation-state
and the regulation of the international economy, inherent to Bretton-Woods system,
is abandoned in the name of adoption of the concept of a new economy that is based
on neoliberal doctrine. Today's neoliberal order is actually a revived version of
economic liberalism or liberal capitalism in the second half of the eighteenth century.
The basic idea of liberalism is setting-up the state in economic processes and trends,
and abandonment of regulatory mechanism in the economy of the free market, in the
words of Adam Smith, the most famous representative of the liberal doctrine.
Bretton-Woods system of international economic arrangements established rules of
trade and financial relations between the world's major industrial states. This system
is the first example of the agreed monetary order in the world history, and its purpose
was arranging monetary relations among independent nation-states. The agreement
in Bretton-Woods has been established as well as the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now the World
Bank), which still have great importance in the world economy.
The IMF mission started in December 1945 with the purpose of recovery of the
international economy. The objectives of the IMF today are the same as in 1944 at
the time of the establishment of this institution. The IMF is the central institution of

- 183 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

the international monetary system. The system of international payments and


international currency exchange rates enables business between different countries.
The IMF is responsible for preventing crises in the system by encouraging the
countries to adopt the appropriate economic policies. Besides - as its name implies -
the IMF is a fund whose resources are the members of interim financing in the event
of instability, imbalance and other similar situations.
Soon after the Second World War, the politicians of Europe had a vision of their united
cooperation between governments and citizens in order to be free and without any
restrictions, in order to travel from one part of the continent to another and from one
state to another. Those visionaries, just like the ones today, had to fight against the
skeptics, but they eventually managed to achieve their goal. Western countries are
now in the post-industrial period which marks the development of new technologies
and modern economic and social policies that are held at regional, national and global
levels. Exactly these countries have a leading role in the world trade and commerce
today. In the past, they formed their own colonies in the newly discovered overseas
countries, internationalized its economy and operated through large retail chains (eg.
VRESK East India Company, 1966), and thus soon become the core of world trade.
Such a significant expansion of trade leads to the development of globalization of the
economy in the second half of the nineteenth, and twentieth century. The world is
richer today than it has ever been, and the technology continues to constantly
advance. The end of the Cold War for many marked the beginning of the new world
order that would bring prosperity to all. Unfortunately, for many, this is not the case.
The differences among the countries of the world are bigger than they have ever
been.
Globalization is the process of uniting the world into one entity or one system, which
is possible thanks to the constant overall information and communication
technological progress. The world is becoming integrated and all that is happening
locally, can be reflected globally. Globalization started the processes that are felt in
all parts of the world. Interconnection and globalization of national economies and
financial markets is influenced by the vulnerability of the world's economy. Thus, all
the world's capital markets reacted very quickly to a breakdown of the "Asian miracle",
after which followed the collapse of the Russian economy. That year, the indices of
all international stock markets had fallen rapidly and there was a slowdown in the
world GDP. Today, the process of globalization around the world opposes the anti-
globalists. Regionalism, patriotism and nationalism are common responses to
globalization, which all have the goal to preserve, to a greater or lesser extent,
national and cultural specificities and to protect economic independence. What
globalization, global factory and economy, or even the development of the world as
the Single system will bring in the future, remains uncertain.
Key words: globalization, financial markets, economy

- 184 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

COMPLEX VIEW ON STUDY DISCIPLINE OF CRISIS


MANAGEMENT
Ladislav Novak
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
Ladislav.Novak@fbi.uniza.sk
Zdenek Dvorak
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
Zdenek.Dvorak@fbi.uniza.sk
Veroslav Kaplan
University of Defence, Brno, Czech Republic
veroslav.kaplan@unob.cz

INTRODUCTION
At present more and more information sources are available to modern society.
Information provided to us, often purposefully, is mostly of negative character.
Inhabitants and society acquire a feeling that they live in a constant danger for their
life and property. Paradoxically, this reality created a favourable situation for higher
education institutions providing education in general and specific security. In the
Czech Republic and Slovak Republic several universities and faculties have reacted
to this situation and now they offer interesting study programmes oriented especially
on protection of inhabitants, rescue and security services, fire engineering, industrial
safety and others. At present none of these schools have any problems with
applicants for study, but none of them provides education which would be focused
on the complex study of crisis management. This reality was primarily influenced by
education and profiling of teaching staff of the university at the time when the study
programmes were prepared. They were especially lecturers and professors of former
military schools who were the most closely associated with these issues.
CRISIS MANAGEMENT AS STUDY DISCIPLINE
At our University of Zilina and Defemce University we have experiences from 1996.
Based on the experience gained within teaching in the study programme "Crisis
Management", in solving research projects and finished last accreditation at the
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina and information from other
domestic and foreign universities, the approach to crisis management as study
discipline can be formed from two views.

- 185 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

From a closer view we can formulate study program "Crisis Management" as


specialized preparation of specialists for single elements and institutions of security
system of the country or other legal entities, e.g. business sphere. Here could be
included e. g. study programmes Civil Protection, Protection of Inhabitants,
Protection from Emergencies. This type of education is typical for the first degree of
university study.
From a broader view, we can understand study program "Crisis Management" as the
complex discipline acting in a wide range of activities and society life, which uses a
number of common theoretical and practical tools, including scientific methods. In
thus formulated study program we can develop risk analysis, prevention of
emergencies, training of forces, resources and means, response to emergencies and
crisis events, recovery in study specializations (focuses, tendencies) aimed at:
 natural environment, including negative accompanying incidents
(hydrological phenomena, meteorological phenomena, epiphytic and
epizootic phenomena, etc.),
 industry, particularly in relation to major industrial and nuclear accidents,
 business and risks associated with the business,
 state, state administration and public administration in preventing and
responding to major emergencies, accidents and crisis events. (Filip, 2016)
From the logical point of view we can identify in crisis management sequence of
typical interlocking activities, which should be reflected also in the structure of
subjects of the crisis management study program. To this sequence we can include
especially these activities:
 identification of risks,
 analysis and assessment of risks and risk factors,
 measures to reduce risks and critical values of risk factors, prevention of
emergencies and crisis events,
 monitoring of risk factors,
 preparation of forces, sources and capabilities to respond to emergencies
and crisis events and dealing with their consequences,
 response to emergencies and crisis events,
 dealing with impacts of emergencies and crisis events on man and society,
 evaluation of the prepared measures effectiveness and efficiency,
 changes in the system and preparation of crisis management activities.
(Horak 2004)
CONTENT OF STUDY PLAN
Within the complex understanding of study program "Crisis Management“ it is
possible, regardless of the degree of study, to create several c groups of subjects:
1. profile subjects,
2. mathematical subjects (including informatics and physics)
3. managerial subjects,

- 186 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

4. humanities,
5. economic subjects,
6. technical subjects,
7. other subjects according to study specializations.
Structure of profile subjects should follow the typical crisis management activities
create a theoretical and practical knowledge base to realize them. Modifications of
the subjects according to study specializations are necessary, or according to the
graduates’ assertion. A typical example is the risk analysis and the subject “Crisis
Planning” where are different procedures in the processes of defence planning, civil
emergency planning and emergency planning. Concerning the cross-border effects
of emergencies and crisis events, it is necessary to include in education also courses
related to the international crisis management acting in terms of its institutions and
relations with organizations of national crisis management. All mentioned subjects
are necessary to be considered as compulsory. (Ivancik 2011)
CONCLUSION
Proposals for a new structure of study program "Crisis Management" are based on
experience in teaching at the Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina and
the information on study programs at other faculties and universities in the Czech
Republic and Slovakia, Serbia, Poland, Croatia and other countries. Most of them
focus on some aspects of the crisis management field, mostly on the civil protection.
Proposal for a complex study program "Crisis Management" does not demand final
solution, but it should generate discussion on the issue of crisis management
education, the study specializations and structure of subjects. It may not be the only
view of the preparation of crisis management experts. The structure of study
programme, according to the elements of the state security system or employment of
graduates in various central bodies of state administration, is also offered.
REFERENCES

Filip, S. (2006). Postavenie a ulohy verejnych vysokych skol v bezpecnostnom


systeme Slovenskej republiky In: Regiony - vidiek - životne prostredie.
Zbornik vedeckych, odbornych prispevkov a posterov z medzinarodnej
vedeckej konferencie. Nitra: Slovenska poľnohospodarska univerzita, 2006.
s. 114-119. ISBN 80-8069-709-4.
Horak, R., Krc, M., Ondrus, R., Danielova, L. (2004) Pruvodce krizovym rizenim pro
verejnou spravu - monografie. Linde Praha a.s. 2004. ISBN 80-7201-471-4.
Ivancik, R. (2011): Vojenske nastroje medzinarodneho krizoveho manažmentu. In:
Zbornik prispevkov z medzinarodnej vedeckej konferencie Crisis
Management in Public and Private Sector. FLKR Univerzita Tomase Bati ve
Zline, 2011. ISBN 978-80-7454-027-1.

- 187 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

"DOMINO EFFECT" OF INCIDENTS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF


MALA FATRA
Ladislav Novak
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
Ladislav.Novak@fbi.uniza.sk
Lubos Mahdon
Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina in Zilina, Zilina,
Slovakia
mahdon@zilinskyadvokat.sk
Jana Lopusanova
Institute of Continuing Education University of Zilina, Slovakia
jana.lopusanova@uniza.sk

REEESSSUME
In the valley Vratna dolina heavy snow and rainfall occur regularly. The extreme
situation occurred for example on June, 11, 1848 when during millennial floods
fourteen residents in the village lost their lives and the water level reached Tiesnavy
level that is shown in a symbolic chapel in the rock above the river Varínka.
Meteorological and hydrological conditions in daylight hours on July, 21, 2014
apparently did not reach the values from that millennial flood, but the consequences
of both were almost similar with catastrophic results. They were characterized by
converging currents and high air humidity and unstable stratification of the
atmosphere.
As a result, in the afternoon above western Slovakia a strong and well-developed line
of intensive and relatively slow-moving storms from west to east with some deviations
towards south or north was created. These storms arose mainly over the massifs of
Mala Fatra and continued moving further east.
Around 3.15 p. m. the first storm in Krivan part of Mala Fatra developed and just after
4 p. m. it was followed a second storm, whereas the intensity of rain gradually
increased and its value exceeded 50 mm / h. In the first wave of rainfall (between
3.15 and 3.55 p. m.) about 40 mm dropped, in the second wave (between 3.55 and
4.55 p. m.), about 50 mm of precipitation, which means in 1 hour 40 minutes about
90 mm.

- 188 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

According to a survey of the working group of the State Geological Institute of Dionyz
Stur the worst situation was created in fan-shaped glacier peaks Chleb, Steny and
Hromove whose erosion-formed valleys converge above the cottage Vratna with the
base terminal of the lift. At the height of 1500 - 1600 meters above sea level moraine
sediments and stone rubble were floated and they together with the vegetation
formed rocky and muddy streams – “mury” – of a thickness of 1 - 2 meters. Landslides
were conditioned by the favourable inclination of the bedrock together with the wetted
plant cover. As a result, many relatively small "plates" of slide material broke (each
of which reached the size of several 100 m2) and moved particularly through
avalanche gutters at the rate of 10 to 20 m/sec [2].
Approximately 800 meters above the cottage Vratna individual flows “mury” started
to meet. The stream continued through a narrow valley, and took with itself other
bottom sediments that had been accumulated there in the previous period and other
small streams from side valleys were affixing it up to the point when a mixture of
rocks, mud and trees reached thickness of about 2 meters. Most streams eroded
valleys down to bedrock.
At a distance of about 560 meters far from the lift station two main streams combined
(funnel connection of valleys). In these parts of the territory stone collapses such as
rock fragments and blocks falling down were likely to occur. The overall cubage of
the conveyed material was estimated by a working group of the Geological Institute
at least 100 000 m3.
The front part of rocky and muddy stream flow reached the cottage Vratna with the
base station of the lift, in which, although there was extensive material damage, there
was no serious damage to buildings and static lift columns.
The stream flow broke into the cottage and the building with cable cars and totally
devastated the interior up to the second floor. In the cottage at that time, there were
approximately sixty people, including children, in there who managed to escape to
the upper floors. In case of a total destruction of the buildings in the area their chances
would have been unpredictable.
Further stream course was incredibly devastating. On the terrain breakage under the
cottage it gained speed, swept away vehicles from the parking lots, destroyed and
took with itself an asphalt road in the length of several kilometres, whereas in wider
areas it stored drifting natural material, vehicles, cottage furnishings. Just having
observed the position of those damaged vehicles one can estimate the stream´s
height and strength.
The stream gradually took on additional side streams, destroyed a part of the ski
resort infrastructure in the local part called Stary dvor and then it reached the part
Tiesnavy. In the narrowest part the stream reached the height of about five metres,
it washed the original rock bed by about one metre and scoured the only access road
in length of about two-hundred metres as well. In some places it also demolished

- 189 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

retaining walls. After its intrusion to the village Terchova it spilled over and flooded
the village land, basements and some houses as well. The mainstream stayed in the
original, modified riverbed and demolished several local bridges and partially
destroyed stone trough lining.
The total damage amounted to 10 million euros. Consequential damages that arose
and still arise to operators of tourist facilities and secondarily to the village/region
itself, cannot yet be quantified. The government provided one-time financial
assistance to the municipality and the Self Governing Region Žilina for elimination of
negative consequences in a total value of 3.6 million euros. In the direct connection
with the natural disaster no loss of life occurred.
Lessons for further human (anthropogenic) activities and crisis management:
 The natural disaster could not have been prevented; it did not originate in
direct relation to human activities. Only remotely it is possible to seek some
connections with the global warming and increase of the intensity of
meteorological and hydrological phenomena.
 In order to identify similar phenomena, it is inevitable to carry out a risk
analysis based on expertise (in this case, meteorological, hydrological and
geological assessments). In case of an identified potential of natural
disasters and their consequences, no-one would consider any construction
activity in that area.
 Do not allow construction in areas where there is high probability of similar
disasters. Utilize the power of insurance companies, which would announce
the impossibility of property insurance in vulnerable locations.
 Due to the fact that there are hundreds of similar risky areas in Slovakia, it
would be necessary to carry out their new risk analysis and take effective
preventive measures to reduce the potential consequences of similar
disasters.
 Strengthen the role of crisis management in the building proceeding with the
task to highlight the risks associated with the implementation and operation
of buildings.
 Strengthen educational process of the management staff in the areas of risk
analysis and identification of potential emergencies and crisis events at all
levels of government bodies.
 Develop detailed risk maps and computer programs to simulate the course
of similar natural disasters and their consequences.
 Create rescue units of the Integrated Rescue System (IZS) and equip them
with the technology in relation to potential emergencies and crisis
phenomena in their areas of competence.
Keywords: Landslide, flash flood, emergency situation, crisis management.

- 190 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE


EUROPEAN UNION: THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF
IMMIGRATION RESOURCES
Valeriy Okulich-Kazarin
The University of Jan Dlugosz in Czestochowa, Institute of
Administration, Częstochowa, Polska
okvp@yandex.ru

INTRODUCTION
Labour migration is explored in the study. All developed countries of Western Europe
faced a situation where the working age population declined. All countries attracted
labour migrants very actively. The average annual growth rate of migrants was
500-600 thousand people in 2005 in Western Europe [1]. Poland may legalize
1.0 million labour migrants from Ukraine in 2016 [2].
The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of labour migrants: a) from the CIS
countries and Baltic States; b) from North Africa and the Middle East.
THE STUDY
The research was carried out on the principle "from the particular to the General". It
was used the scientific method to search for terms of use of migration resources. All
of methods were well-documented, economically justified and powerful methods of
analysis [3].
At the beginning the literature review was started in 2014. The key research
technique was to analyse a lot of scientific sources over the past 10 years. For two
years it was studied more than 50 scientific and Internet sources on that interesting
topic. After that, author choose the most important ones for a detailed analysis. The
theoretical material was investigated by standard methods.
Demography and education were not taken into account.
LITERATURE REVIEW
It has been demonstrated in [4, p. 342] that migrant workers have a key role in the
grass-roots sectors of the labour market, are not in demand from local workers. The
importance of migrants is high in “top” segment of the labour market also. For
example, the need for migrants of high qualification was 26.5% in Russia in late 2014
[5, p. 13]. Industries which need qualified professionals described in papers [4, 6-10]:
managers, scientists, employees of high-tech industries, IT specialists, etc. The
demand for specialists is the result of a shortage of qualified personnel in USA and

- 191 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

China [11], Europe and other countries [12, p. 29].


Earlier, European Union countries attracted labour migrants from the countries of
North Africa and the Middle East very active. As You can see, lately it is the worsening
of behaviour problems of labour migrants from these regions [13-16]. According to
later publications, people changed the attitude to such migrants [15, 17, 18]. And the
European Union has a problem: where it is possible to have labour migrants?
In the future, Ukraine may become a serious competitor for the European Union’s
market migration resources, because the demographic situation there is even worse
there [4, p. 340]. Russia may become a competitor also in terms of demographic
reason. Turkey [8] is a competitor for resources migratory – the growth of the
economy is the main reason.
RESULTS
The quality of labour resources in the CIS countries (and Baltic States); in North Africa
(and Middle East)
As shown by K.G. Tomilin, there is a difference in the quality of labour resources in
these two regions from the standpoint of the theory of S. Dellinger [19]:
1. labour resources of North Africa and the Middle East is similar to "Circle".
Positive properties of the "Circle" connected with service of people. Main
professions are: actor, hair stylist, bartender, chambermaid, waiter, nurse,
waiter, salesman, porter, stewardess, host, sales representative, etc.
Negative characteristics are: carelessness, extravagance, obsession, etc. It
is the carelessness what prevents them to find work: in Western Europe more
than 60% of immigrants living by allowance [2].
2. labour resources of the CIS countries and Baltic States is similar to the
"Zigzag". Positive qualities (creativity, dreaminess, wit, intuitiveness, etc.) are
associated with creative and analytical activities. Main professions are:
scientist, researcher, inventor, innovator, innovator, mathematician, PC
operator, programmer, etc. Negative characteristics are: lack of organization,
impractical, incontinence, etc.
The same shortcomings of the labour resources of these two regions are:
carelessness (lack of organization) and extravagance (impractical). These qualities
equalize the chances of labour migrants from these regions in an organized and
punctual Europe.
The main occupations of labour migrants from these regions have different demand:

 a very high quality service of people is in Europe and low skills are not in
demand for it;
 Europe there is an organized and punctual, it needs new ideas and
innovations;

- 192 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Therefore, “top” segment of the labour market (managers, scientists, employees of


high-tech industries, IT specialists, etc.) requires labour migrants from CIS countries
and Baltic States.
THE NUMBER OF MIGRATION RESOURCES IN THE CIS AND BALTIC STATES
The total migration potential of the CIS countries and Baltic States can be estimated
at 7-8 million people (excluding Russia) [4, p. 340]. Migrant workers from Russia
could be as high as about 8 million people. And the crisis in Russia [20] can provide
additional labour migrants.
16 million labour migrants are sufficient to meet the requirement of European Union
in the labour resources over the next few years. This time is enough to change the
Laws and eliminate situations that deal with migrants from North Africa and the Middle
East in Germany, France and other countries [13-16].
CONCLUSIONS
It may be reasonable to assume that:
1. The research showed the priority of the quality of labour migrants from CIS
countries and Baltic States.
2. The study showed a sufficient number of labour migrants from the CIS
countries and Baltic States.
3. It is recommended to simplify the entrance to the European Union for labour
migrants from the CIS countries and Baltic States.
REFERENCES
1. http://www.grandars.ru/student/mirovaya-ekonomika/m-trudovaya-
migraciya.html (18.12.2015)
2. http://zpp.net.pl/aktualnosci/run,legalizacja-1-mln-
ukraincow,page,1,article,1083.html? (29.01.2016)
3. BUS_9641_Business_Statistics_5M / Masters of Business Administration -
NY, Kingston University, 2009.
4. Upravleniye chelovecheskimi resursami: Uchebnik dlya bakalavrov / A. V.
Deyneka, V. A. Bespal'ko. - M.: Izdatel'sko-torgovaya korporatsiya «Dashkov
i K°», 2013. - 392 s.
5. Lavrent'yeva M.A. Vliyaniye trudovoy migratsii na regional'nyy rynok truda /
Avtoref. diss. na soisk. … kand. ekon. nauk. – M.: NII truda i sotsial'nogo
strakhovaniya,2015. – 27 с.
6. http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AMR143/senior-lecturer-associate-professor-
professor-of-european-studies/ (23.12.2015)

- 193 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

7. http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AMT121/lecturer-assistant-professor-associate-
professor-full-professor-in-applied-linguistics-tesol/ (12.01.2016)
8. http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AMR801/lecturer-assistant-professor-associate-
professor-full-professor-for-the-department-of-business-administration/
(29.12.2015)
9. http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AMR802/professor-in-computer-science/
(29.12.2015)
10. http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AMR375/professor-in-labour-economics-m-f/
(21.12.2015)
11. https://news.mail.ru/economics/24659856/?frommail=1 (27.01.2016)
12. Okulich-Kazarin V.P., Kazarinov YU.M. Osnovy menedzhmenta: Uchebnoye
posobiye, izd. 2-ye, pererab. i dop. - M., Prometey, 2009. - 76 с.
13. 13 http://echo.msk.ru/blog/arthur181044/1689774-echo/ (08.01.2016)
14. http://news-mail.by/2015/11/14/terakt-v-parizhe-14-11-2015/ (19.11.2015)
15. http://www.stoletie.ru/zarubejie/avstrija_multikulturalizm_mertv_484.htm
(21.01.2016)
16. http://www.newstube.ru/media/huligany-sozhgli-v-parizhe-804-avtomobilya-
za-odnu-noch (02.01.2016)
17. http://nv.ua/world/countries/vezd-vospreshchen-frantsuzskie-vlasti-otkazali-
tysjache-chelovek-vo-vezde-82811.html (28.11.2015)
18. http://www.svoboda.org/content/article/27356649.html (15.11.2015)
19. Tomilin K.G. Sotsial'naya ekologiya: psikhologiya, obucheniye, zdorov'ye:
Metodicheskiye ukazaniya dlya slushateley FPKP. CH.1. - Krasnodar,
Kuban. gos. tekhnol. un-t, 1999. - 35 p.
20. http://echo.msk.ru/blog/milov/1700566-echo/ (25.01.2016)

- 194 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

DEFINISANJE MULTIMEDIJALNE STRATEGIJE ZA POVEĆANJE


BROJA KORISNIKA USLUGA ŽELEZNICE
Zoran Pavlović
"Srbija Voz" a.d, Beograd, Srbija
zoran.g.pavlovic@gmail.com
Jelena Vuksanović
Ekonomski institute, Beograd, Srbija
jelenavuksanovic@yahoo.com
Željko Gavrić
Fakultet za informacione tehnologije, Bijeljina, Republika Srpska, BiH
zeljko.gavric@spu.ba

REZIME
Razvojem interneta transportne organizacije imaju bolje mogućnosti za povećanje
učešća na konkurentnom tržištu usluga. Povećanjem svog udela povećava se i broj
zadovoljnih korisnika usluge i naravno transportne organizacije ostvaruju veću
finansijsku dobit. Multimedije mogu da imaju široku primenu u svakoj organizaciji.
Multimedija je specifična i nju krase četiri osnovne karakteristike: interaktivna je,
personalna je, digitalna je i potrebno je korišćenje računara. Na osnovu napred
navedenog potrebno je definisati strategiju koja kroz multimediju ima osnovni zadatak
da zadovolji očekivanja korisnika usluga preko interneta i multimedijalnih
komunikacija. Pojedini autori multimediju karakterišu kao kombinaciju teksta, grafike,
zvuka, animacije i videa koje su isporučene uz pomoć računara, digitalnog ili
elektronskog sredstva. Kombinacija dva ili više medija reprezentovanih u digitalnom
obliku koji su dobro integrisani kako bi bili prikazani putem jednostrukog interfejsa sa
kojim se upravlja od strane jednog računarskog softvera. U svakom slučaju
multimedija je povezana sa iskustvom koje je interaktivno, lično i bazira se na
računaru. Bitno je istaći interaktivnost kao jednu vrstu dijaloga između korisnika i
aplikacije, gde je omogućeno korisniku biranje, odlučivanje kao i povratni uticaj na
program gde postoji viče navigacionih putanja. Reč je o ovim mogućnostima
multimedije gde svaka organizacija koja se bavi savremenim poslovanjem mora da
iskoristi mogućnosti i definiše strategiju za postizanje ekonomskih ciljeva.
Transportna organizacija ( železnica), mora da definiše i prezentuje takav sadržaj
multimedija korisnicima koji su i ujedno i posmatrači da kontroliše njihov doživljaj i
iskustvo. Ako je multimedijalna strategija tako napravljena korisnici mogu da očekuju
da postoji mogućnost da ostvare svoje ciljeve. Kada korisnici ostvare svoje ciljeve
ujedno se ostvaruju i ciljevi transportne organizacije, kroz kreiranu strategiju

- 195 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

multimedija i naravno kroz povećanu ekonomsku dobit. Putem multimedija korisniku


usluge se dostavlja informacija u formi podataka posredstvom pogodnog prenosioca,
medija u koji se utiskuju signali. Medij ima veliku ulogu prilikom interakcije čoveka i
računara. Korisnik usluge putem medija treba da dobije informaciju u realnom
vremenu, gde se podržava komunikacija sa korisnikom sa više fizičkih kanala koji
koriste: tekst, grafiku, animaciju, mirnu ili pokretnu sliku, muziku ili govor. Na osnovu
ovih podataka korisnik usluge treba da izvede odgovarajuću informaciju kojom
obogaćuje svoje saznanje i donosi odluku o prezentovanom sadržaju. Za transportnu
organizaciju u ovom slučaju železnicu bitno je da razlikuju sledeće: prezentacioni
medije gde je označen tip fizičkog sredstva koji se koristi pri komunikaciji čoveka i
računara, smeštajni medij koji podrazumeva tip fizičkog sredstva za skladištenje
podataka, prenosni medij je tip fizičkog sredstva za prenos podataka, medij za
razmenu označava tip fizičkog sredstva za razmenu podataka i može biti smeštajnog,
prenosnog ili kombinovanog tipa. Reprezentacioni medij podrazumeva termin koji se
koristi za označavanje načina predstavljanja medijskih informacija u određenoj formi
posredstvom skupa medijskih podataka i na kraju ostaje perceptivni medij koji
označava pojavni oblik nosioca informacija posmatran sa gledišta korisnika usluge.
Transportna organizacija najviše pažnje treba da posveti reprezentativnim medijima.
Za definisanje multimedijalne strategije tekst je ključan za komunikaciju sa
korisnicima usluge. Tekst se može koristiti kao tekst u navigaciji, kao tekst u
naslovima, objašnjenjima, kao pomoć korisniku, kao glavni sadržaj ili kao tekst hiper
linkova. Tekst je može posmatrati kao reprezentacija jezika gde se ujedno predstavlja
i kao grafički elemenat. Jezik je sredstvo komunikacije koji poseduju određene
karakteristike tako da se razlikuje jedan od drugog. Nastankom jezika nastalo je i
pismo. U fonetskom pismu svaki znak označava jedan glas. Za korišćenje teksta
potrebno je analizirati i vizualni aspekt koji je važan za novu strategiju koju
organizacija mora da primeni. Tipografija podrazumeva oblik znakova, razmak
između znakova, redova paragrafa, poravnjanje teksta kao i druge vizualne aspekte.
Zaposleni koji obavlja poslove tipografa mora da obezbedi kanal komunikacije
između autora u ovom slučaju transportna organizacija i čitaoca (korisnika usluge) i
samim tim obezbeđuje vizualnu reprezentaciju tekstualne informacije. Tekst u
digitalnom obliku mora zadržati osnovne osobine kao kod pisanog teksta. A to
podrazumeva da mora da zadrži značenje održavanjem reda znakova, njihovog
rasporeda i naravno vizualni aspekt. Pored teksta, slike i grafika čine osnovu
multimedijalnih aplikacija. Vizualni elementi mogu biti u obliku dugmadi na sajtovima
koje klikćemo, grafikona , loga... velika prednost grafičkih elemenata je u tome što
oni mogu biti različitih veličina , boja i teksture. Zaposleni na dizajniranju mogu
koristiti skenere, digitalne fotoaparate za dobijanje digitalnih fotografija. Oni imaju i
mogućnost kreiranja digitalne slike u softverima za obradu lika gde je moguće crtanje
i modeliranje. Moramo znati da termin grafika podrazumeva softverske i hardverske
tehnologije koje se koriste u računarskim mrežama za kreiranje, modifikovanje i
prikazivanje mirne slike u digitalnom formatu. Grafika i slike predstavljaju
netekstualnu informaciju koju korisnik usluge može da vidi na monitoru ili displeju ali

- 196 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ima i mogućnost štampanja. Za snažno prenošenja informacija putem multimedija


koristi se boja. Korisnici usluge mogu bez problema da funkcionišu bez boje ali imaju
manji opšti utisak. Uloga boja u multimediji ima zadatak da boje predstavi u
digitalnom obliku tako da reprezentacija odgovara originalnoj boji kao u prirodi. Pored
navedenih vizuelnih elemenata multimediju čini i zvuk koji identifikujemo čulom sluha.
Zvuk može da se koristi samostalno ili u multimediji kao podrška u kombinaciji sa
ostalim elementima (tekst, grafika, boja...). Mora se voditi računa da prilikom
upotrebe zvuka kroz multimediju isti ne bude iritirajući na korisnika usluge, već da što
bolje predstavi određenu tematiku koja će u ovom radu biti vezana za povećanje
broja putnika. Digitalizacija zvuka, snimanje i obrada vrši se uz odgovarajuće audio
ulaze i izlaze, specijalizovani hardver i softver na računarima. Zaposleni mora da zna
osnovne pokazatelje koko ne bih iritirao korisnika, kao sto su: zvuk u automobilu
70dB, zvuk saobraćaja koje je odaljen 10m 80dB , vikanje na udaljenosti od 1m
100dB, glasna muzika u diskoteci 110dB, uzletanje aviona na udaljenosti od 100m
120dB, granica bola 130dB i pucanj iz blizine 140dB. Navedene elemente koji
predstavljaju multimedije u ovom radu sa korisnikom usluge spaja Internet. Za
uspostavljanje kontakta preko Interneta između korisnika usluge i aplikacije koja je
vezana za transportnu organizaciju veliku odgovornost ima dizajner multimedija. U
zavisnosti od veličine transportne organizacije mogu da budu uključeni razni učesnici
koji kreiraju multimedijalnu strategiju. Tim za razvoj multimedijalnog proizvoda mora
da sadrži sledeće uloge za produkciju multimedije: kreativni direktor, umetnički
direktor, umetnici, scenarista, animatori, producent zvuka, producent videa,
programer multimedija, dizajner igara, dizajner interfejsa... definisanjem
multimedijalne strategije treba da se obuhvati pet osnovnih komponenti: sadržaj,
karakteristike, strukturu, kontrolu funkcionalnosti i izgled i osećaj. Multimedijalna
strategija treba da obuhvati: ciljne grupe, mesta izvršenja, svrhe, predmet aplikacije
i žanr.

- 197 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

DEFINING MULTIMEDIA STRATEGIES TO INCREASE NUMBER


OF RAILWAY SERVICES
Zoran Pavlovic
"Srbija Voz" a.d., Beograd, Srbija
zoran.g.pavlovic@gmail.com
Jelena Vuksanovic
Economics Institute, Belgrade, Serbia
jelenavuksanovic@yahoo.com
Zeljko Gavric
Faculty of Information Technology, Bijeljina, Serbian Republic, Bosnia
and Herzegovina
zeljko.gavric@spu.ba

ABSRACT
With development of the Internet transport, organizations are able to increase
participation in competitive services market.
By increasing their participation, they increase the number of satisfied users, and of
course transport organizations achieve greater financial gain. Multimedia can have
wide application in every organization. Multimedia is specific and it is distinguished
by four main features: it is interactive, personal, digital and requires the use of
computers. It is necessary to define the multimedia strategy as the fundamental task
to meet the expectations of service users over the Internet and multimedia
communication. Some authors characterize multimedia as a combination of text,
graphics, sound, animations and videos that are delivered by the help of computer,
digital or electronic means. A combination of two or more media, represented in digital
form that are well integrated in order to be shown via a single interface with which it
is managed by one computer software. In any case, multimedia is associated with
the experience suffered that is interactive, personal and computer based. It is
important to emphasize interactivity as a kind of dialogue between users and
applications, which allows the user choice, decision-making, as well as an influence
on the program where there are more navigation paths. It is about these possibilities
of multimedia where every organization that deals with modern business needs to
utilize the opportunities and define a strategy to achieve economic goals. Transport
organizations (rail), which must define and present such content for multimedia users
are also observers controlling their perception and experience. If the multimedia
strategy is designed in that way, the users can expect that there is a possibility to
achieve their goals. When the users reach their goals, the goals of transport

- 198 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

organizations are realized as well. This happens through created multimedia strategy
and of course through increased economic benefit. Through multimedia services to
be delivered in the form of information data through suitable transmission, media in
which are embedded signals. The media has a great role in human-computer
interaction. Through the media, a client should receive information in real time, where
the communication is supported by the user with a more natural channel using: text,
graphics, animation, quiet or movable picture, music or speech. Based on these data,
the customer must carry out the appropriate information that enriches their
knowledge and decide on the content presented. For transport organization in this
case the railways it is essential to distinguish between the following: media
presentation which is marked type of physical agent used in human-computer
communication, the accommodation includes a medium that type of physical
resources for storage, transmission medium is a type of physical means for data
transmission , a medium of exchange indicates the type of physical means for data
exchange and can be accommodation, transmission or combined type, the
representational medium includes a term used to refer to ways of presenting media
information in a certain form through a set of media data and ultimately remains
perceptive medium which means popup forms of information carriers, seen from the
point of view of the customers. Transport organizations should pay attention to
representational media. To define multimedia text is a key strategy for communication
with users of services. A text can be used as a text in navigation as a text in titles,
explanations, help for a user, as the main content or as text hyperlinks. The text can
be seen as a representation language which is also represented by a graphic
element. Language is a means of communication that has certain characteristics
distinguishing one from another. In the phonetic writing each character equals one
vote. To use it, it is necessary to analyze the text and visual aspect that is important
for a new strategy that organizations must apply. Typography means the forms of
characters, spacing between characters, lines paragraphs, text alignment and other
visual aspects. An employee who uses a typographer must provide a channel of
communication between the aurora in this case transport organizations and the
reader (user services) and therefore provide a visual representation of a textual
information. Text in a digital form must retain the basic characteristics as the written
text. That means it has to keep the meaning of the maintenance of order signs, their
arrangement, and of course the visual aspect. In addition to text, images and graphics
are the basis of multimedia applications. Visual elements can be in the form of buttons
on sites that rejoices, graphs, and logos. A great advantage of graphic elements is
that they can be of different sizes, colors and textures. Employees can use design
scanners or digital cameras for obtaining digital photos. We need to know that the
graphics and hardware-software technologies used in computer networks for
creating, modifying and displaying still images in digital format. Graphics and images
are non-textual information that a customer can see on a monitor or display, but it
also has the ability to print. For the transmission of information through powerful
multimedia the colors are used. Service users can easily operate it without color or

- 199 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

have a lower overall impression. The role of color in multimedia has the task to
present the colors in digital form so that it corresponds to the original color
representation as in nature. In addition to these visual elements, multimedia makes
the sounds that stir up the sense of hearing. Sounds can be used alone or in
multimedia as a support in combination with other elements (text, graphics, color).
Special care must be taken when using a multimedia sound. It should not irritate the
user of a service, but present specific themes that in this paper will be linked to the
increase in the number of passengers. Sound digitizing, recording and processing is
done with the proper audio inputs and outputs, specialized hardware and software
on the computers. Employees must know the basic indicators of coca would not
irritate users, such as: in-car sound 70dB, the sound of traffic, which has been located
10m 80dB, shouting at a distance of 1m 100dB loud music in the disco 110dB, takeoff
aircraft at a distance of 100m 120dB, the limits of pain 130dB and 140dB shot at close
range. Multimedia Designer has a great responsibility to establish contact on the
Internet between the service user and the application that is related to the transport
organization. Depending on the size of the transport organizations, various
participants that create a multimedia strategy can be involved. The team for the
development of multimedia products must contain the following roles for the
production of multimedia: creative director, art director, artists, writers, animators,
sound producer, producer of video, multimedia developer, game designer, designer
interface. Defining a multimedia strategy should include five basic components:
content, characteristics, structure, control functionality and look and feel. Multimedia
strategy should include: target groups, places of execution, purposes, subject to
application and genre.

- 200 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

KRIZNI MENADŽMENT KAO DEO STRATEŠKOG


MENADŽMENTA USLUŽNIH KOMPANIJA
Pero Petrović
Institut za međunarodnu politiku i privredu, Beograd;
pera@diplomacy.bg.ac.rs
Aleksandar Živković
Ekonomski fakultet, Beograd
aca@ekof.bg.ac.rs

REZIME
Uslovi privređivanja uslužnih preduzeća, u manje-više svim zemljama sveta,
karakteriše kompleksnost i fluktuacija. Posebni uslovi privređivanja, naročito u
uslovima intezivnih procesa globalizacije i svetske finansijske krize, pokazuju stalno
smanjenje zarađivačkih sposobnosti uslužnih preduzeća a time i pogoršavanje
finansijskog položaja. U pitanju je svojevrsna kriza poslovanja preduzeća u
nedovoljno adaptibilnom privredno-sistemskom ambijentu. Krizni menadžment dolazi
do izražaja pojavom krize preduzeća koja se, primarno, vezuje za situaciju razvoja u
kojoj je preduzeće dostiglo kritičnu tačku sa određenim obeležjima. Međutim, teško
je jednom definicijom obuhvatiti sva obeležja krize preduzeća. Ipak, u nešto užem
smislu, krizu preduzeća treba shvatiti kao proces u kojem se, neplanirano i
nepoželjno, ugrožavaju postavljeni osnovni ekonomski ciljevi preduzeća – cilj
očuvanja uloženog kapitala, cilj dobitka (rentabiliteta), cilj očuvanja likvidnosti i
solventnosti preduzeća. Stoga se prepoznaju četiri osnovne faze krize poslovanja
preduzeća: strategijska kriza, kriza rentabiliteta, kriza likvidnosti, nelikvidnost i
zaduživanje. Prepoznavanje i identifikovanje simptoma krize, te otkrivanje
relevantnih uzroka kriza preduzeća uopšte, a naročito u uslovima svetske finansijske
i ekonomske krize posebno, pretpostavke su za uvođenje posebne forme upravljanja
preduzećem u krizi, odnosno kriznog menadžmenta. Većina kriznih situacija se može
predvideti, tako da je moguće izvršiti pripreme iako su trajanje i intenzitet krize
neizvesne kategorije. Krizni menadžment treba shvatiti kao posebnu formu
upravljanja uslužnim preduzećem od najvišeg prioriteta. Rad u poslovnom okruženju
uslovljava uslužne kompanije da posluju pod značajnim pritiskom promena, koje
često dovode do kriznih situacija. Najveći broj kriza, bez obzira da li su endogenog ili
egzogenog porekla, predstavlja posledicu nedovoljnog i neadekvatnog
prilagođavanja promenama kompanija, koje ne posvećuju dovoljno pažnje
događajima u okolini i okruženju. Sve krizne situacije zahtevaju formulisanje i razvoj
strategije koja će omogućiti što kvalitetnije rešavanje problema koje sa sobom nose
krizne situacije. Različitost kriznih situacija nameće i izbor same strategije, koja treba

- 201 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

da odbrani hotelska kompaniju u javnosti. Prvi korak podrazumeva definisanje


problema korišćenjem pouzdanih informacija. Neophodno je i postavljanje merljivih
ciljeva komunikacije, kako bi se krizom moglo ovladati na najbolji način.. Neosporno,
problemi koji se ne rešavaju prerastaju u krizu ali i u kriznim situacijama neophodno
je da krizni menadžment obezbedi nastavak uobičajenih radnih aktivnosti .
Prilikom prikupljanja informacija o nastaloj situaciji, u kompaniji se formira posebni,
centralni sektor gde te informacije pristižu i gde se obrađuju. Takav centar se obično
naziva krizni štab. Krizni štab predstavlja neku vrstu logistike i daje podršku
celokupnoj komunikaciji tokom krizne situacije. U slučaju nesreća, koje prouzrokuju
velike krize, neophodno je organizovanje posebne lokacije za medije sa svim
neophodnim tehničkim uslovima za press-centar, sa koje će im se predstavnici
kriznog štaba obratiti. Krizni menadžment, pre svega, koristi računovodstveni
informacioni sistem (RIS) preduzeća zbog svojih karakteristika predstavlja veoma
pouzdan i relevantan podsistem u sklopu poslovnog informacionog sistema
preduzeća. Realizacijom računovodstvene procedure u poslovnim knjigama stvara
se baza računovodstvenih podataka, koja služi kao osnova za sastavljanje brojnih i
različitih računovodstvenih izveštaja namenjenih eksternim i internim informacionim
korisnicima.
Odnosi s javnošću moraju da obezbede i omoguće konstantan priliv informacija, čak
i kada je situacija nepromenjena ili se kreće u željenom pravcu. Svojom
transparentnošću i dugoročnim aktivnostima, kompanija demonstrira da su joj
sigurnost pojedinca (potrošača – korisnika usluga) i šire grupacije (društvene
zajednice) prioritet. Na taj način preuzima vidnu ulogu u društvenoj odgovornosti
kompanija kome se teži u savremenom poslovanju i u savremenim evropskim
integegracionim procesima.
Ključne reči: krizni menadžment, strategijski menadžment, uslužna preduzeća, kriza;

- 202 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CRISIS MANAGEMENT AS A PART OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SERVICE


COMPANIES

Pero Petrovic
Institut za medjunarodnu politiku i privredu, Belgrade, Serbia
pera@diplomacy.bg.ac.rs
Aleksandar Zivkovic
Ekonomski fakultet, Belgrade, Serbia
aca@ekof.bg.ac.rs

ABSTRACT
Economic conditions, service companies, in more or less all the countries of the
world, are characterized by complexity and fluctuation. Special economic conditions,
particularly in conditions of rapid globalization process and the global financial crisis,
have shown a constant decrease in profitability of service companies and
deterioration of financial position. It is a kind of crisis of operations of insufficiently
adaptable business-system environment. Crisis management comes to the fore
during a crisis of enterprises, primarily related to the development of the situation in
which the company has reached a critical point with certain characteristics. However,
in narrow sense, the company crisis should be seen as a process in which the
fundamental economic objectives of the company are endangered. These objectives
are: the goal of preserving the capital invested, the goal of profit (profitability), the
purpose of liquidity and solvency of the company. Therefore, there are four main
phases of the crisis of business enterprises: strategic crisis, the crisis of profitability,
liquidity crisis, insolvency and debt. Recognizing and identifying the symptoms of the
crisis, and discovering the causes of the crisis of relevant companies in general,
particularly in the context of the global financial and economic crisis, is of a great
importance. Most emergencies can be predicted, so it is possible to make
arrangements, even though the duration and intensity of the crisis is an uncertain
category. Crisis management should be seen as a special form of service
management company of the highest priority. Working conditions in the business
environment service of companies develop under significant pressure changes,
which often lead to a crisis. The largest number of crises, regardless of whether they
are of endogenous or exogenous origin, is a consequence of insufficient and
inadequate adaptation to changes in companies that do not pay enough attention to
events in their environment and surroundings. Each crisis require the formulation and
development of strategies that will enable the best possible solution of the problems
inherent in the crisis. The variety of crisis situations impose the choice of the strategy,
which should defend a hotel company in public. The first step involves defining the
problem using reliable information. It is necessary to set measurable goals of

- 203 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

communication, in order to master the crisis in the best way. Undoubtedly, the
problems are not resolved into a crisis but also in crisis situations. It is necessary for
crisis management to ensure the continuation of normal business activities.
In gathering information on the situation, the company forms a special, central sector
where the information is coming and where they are processed. Such a center is
usually called Crisis Staff. Crisis Staff represents a kind of logistics and supports the
entire communication during a crisis situation. In case of accidents, which cause a
great crisis, it is necessary to organize special locations for the media with all the
necessary technical conditions for the press center, with which they will be
representatives of the crisis staff pay. Crisis management primarily use accounting
information system (RIS) of the company due to its characteristics. It is a very reliable
and relevant subsystem in the business information system. Realizing an accounting
procedures creates accounting database, which serves as a basis for numerous and
various accounting reports to the external and internal information to users. Relations
must ensure and facilitate the constant flow of information, even when the situation
is unchanged or moving in the desired direction. With its transparency and long-term
activities, the company demonstrates that it has the security of an individual
(consumer - service users) and the wider group (community) priority. In this way, it
takes a visible role in the social responsibility of companies pursued in contemporary
business and in modern European integration processes.

Key words: crisis management, strategic management, hotel companies, the crisis;

- 204 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MEĐUNARODNI MERDŽERI I AKVIZICIJE (M&A) KAO OBLICI


KORPORATIVNOG RESTRUKTURIRANJA - STRATEGIJE I
TAKTIKE PREUZIMANJA I ODBRANE
Jelena Popov
Poreska uprava, Filijala Novi Sad, Novi Sad
jelenalelapopov@gmail.com

REZIME
Novi poslovni ambijent koji je nastao kao rezultat globalizacije svetskog tržišta
nameće privrednim subjektima potrebu prisustva na tržištima širom sveta, kao i
usmerenost na permanentno istraživanje i razvoj. Savremeno poslovno okruženje je
stvorilo brojne poslovne šanse čijim iskorišćavanjem se proširuje tržišno učešće i
dostupnim čine potrebni resursi, tehnologija i radna snaga. Istovremeno, privredni
subjekti su usled izloženosti globalnoj konkurenciji izloženi i brojnim opasnostima
koje dovode do značajnog povećanja rizika poslovanja, koji mogu ugroziti razvoj ali i
opstanak kompanije.
I pored visoke stope neuspeha usled brojnih pratećih rizika prilikom sprovođenja,
međunarodni merdžeri i akvizicije (M&A) kao oblik korporativnog restrukturiranja
veoma često se koriste kao rešenje za brzo reagovanje na tržišne promene.
Definisanje odgovarajuće strategije eksternog rasta putem međunarodnih M&A zavisi
od cilja koji kompanija ovim putem želi da ostvari, dok primena adekvatne taktike
zavisi u prvom redu od toga da li se radi o prijateljskom – dogovornom ili
neprijateljskom preuzimanju. Iako se dogovorna spajanja realizuju u kraćem
vremenskom periodu, podrazumevaju manje troškove i manji rizik neuspeha,
savremeni uslovi poslovanja i visoka konkurentnost među privrednim subjektima
uslovili su da akvizicije, odnosno neprijateljska preuzimanja budu češće primenjena
u praksi. Odabir odgovarajuće strategije i taktike preuzimanja dodatno usložnjava
“agencijski problem”, asimetričnost informisanosti i različitost interesa vlasnika
kapitala i menadžerske strukture. Postakviziciona profitabilnost je izvesnija ukoliko
su troškovi preuzimanja niži, tržišna vrednost ciljnog preduzeća adekvatno
procenjena, nisu ugroženi interesi zaposlenih, dobavljača i ostalih interesnih grupa,
a realizacija preuzimanja daje nedvosmislen doprinos porastu bogatstva akcionara.
Ostvarenje navedenih ciljeva kao i usklađenost sa zakonskim propisima obezbeđuje
preuzimanje preduzeća realizacijom javne ponude. Međutim, u praksi se koristi i bear
hug - taktika medveđeg zagrljaja, kupovina akcija na otvorenom tržištu, borba
punomoćnika koje predstavljaju nekada prikriveni ali češće otvoreni neprijateljski
napad. Uporedo sa intenziviranjem broja neprijateljskih preuzimanja razvijale su se i
vremenom usavršavale taktike odbrane od preuzimanja. Ukoliko ciljno preduzeće

- 205 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

zaključi da je potencijalna meta, a ne želi da budu pripojeno drugoj kompaniji, ono


može primeniti određene taktičke poteze u cilju obeshrabrenja potencijalne
sticateljske kompanije. Poznatije odbrambene strategije su: poison pills – strategija
otrovne pilule, golden parachute - zlatni padobran, Pac-Man –, ponuda za
preuzimanjem akcija ponuđača, Targeted block stock repurchase – strategija ciljnog
otkupa bloka akcija, white knight – beli vitez, white squires – beli štitonoša, i mnoge
druge. Proktivna odnosno responzivna primena navedenih taktika uslovljena je
okolnostima i situacijom u kojoj se nalazi ciljno preduzeće.
Republika Srbija kao tranziciona zemlja ima relativno skromna iskustva kako u
primeni strategija preuzimanja tako i u primeni strategija odbrane. Primena
navedenih strategija karakteriše zemlje čiji privredni subjekti imaju potencijal koji
omogućuje dominaciju na jednom regionalnom tržištu, dok se mali broj
multinacionalnih kompanija može pohvaliti mogućnošću prodora na bilo koji deo
svetskog tržišta. Saglasno tome moguća je i primena neke od strategija preuzimanja,
odnosno odbrane kontrole.
Ključne reči: merdžeri i akvizicije, strategije i taktike, korporativno restrukturiranje

- 206 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS (M&A) AS


FORMS OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING - TAKEOVER AND
DEFENSE STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
Jelena Popov
Tax Administration, Office Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
jelenalelapopov@gmail.com

RESUME
The new economic environment, that has emerged as a result of globalization of the
world market, imposes on businesses entities the need to be present in markets
around the world, as well as to be focused on permanent research and development.
Modern business environment has created numerous business opportunities, by
whose exploitation the market share is expanded and the necessary resources,
technology and labor are made available. At the same time, business entities are,
due to exposure to international competition, subjected to numerous dangers that
lead to a significant increase in the risk of doing business, which may jeopardize the
development and survival of the company.
Despite the high rate of failure due to a number of risks associated with the
implementation, cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M & A), as a form of
corporate restructuring, are often used as a solution for quick response to market
changes. Defining the appropriate strategy of external growth through cross-border
M & A depends on the objective that the company wants to accomplish. The use of
appropriate tactics depends primarily on whether it is friendly - agreed upon or a
hostile takeover. Although negotiated mergers are realized in a shorter period of time
and imply lower costs and lower risk of failure, modern business conditions and high
competitiveness among business entities have conditioned that acquisitions, or
hostile takeovers, that are often used in practice. Selection of appropriate strategies
and tactics is further complicated by the "agency problem", the asymmetry of
information and by the difference in interests of owners of the capital and the
management structure. Post acquisition profitability is more likely if the takeover costs
are lower. The market value of the target company is adequately evaluated, the
interests of employees, suppliers and other stakeholders are not endangered, and
the realization of takeover gives an unambiguous contribution to increasing
shareholders’ wealth. The achievement of these goals, as well as the compliance
with the legislation, provide the takeover of the company by the realization of a public
offering. However, in practice, the bear hug tactic, the purchase of shares in the open
market and the fight of assignees, which sometimes represents hidden, but more
often openly hostile attack, are also used. Along with increasing the number of hostile

- 207 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

takeovers, the defense tactics have been developed and perfected over time. If the
target company determines that it is a potential target, and if it does not want to be
merged into another company, it may apply certain tactical moves in order to
discourage the potential acquiring company. Better known defense strategies are:
poison pills, golden parachute, Pac-Man, Targeted block stock repurchase, white
knight, white squires, and many others. Proactive or responsive use of these tactics
is conditioned by the circumstances and the situation in which the target company is
at that moment.
The Republic of Serbia as a transition country has a relatively modest experience in
the applications of the takeover strategies, as well as defense strategies. The
implementation of these strategies is typical for the countries whose economic
entities have the potential which enables domination in a regional market, while a
small number of multinational companies have the possibility to penetrate any part of
the world market. Accordingly, it is possible to apply some of the takeover or defense
strategies.
Keywords: mergers and acquisitions, strategies and tactics, corporate restructuring

- 208 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

STRESS MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR INCREASING


EFFICIENCY OF OPERATIONS WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON
ENTERPRISES OF THE TOURISM SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF
MACEDONIA
Kiril Postolov
Faculty of Economics, University "St. Cyril and Methodius ", Skopje,
Macedonia
kirilp@eccf.ukim.edu.mk
Marija Magdinceva-Sopova
Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics in Gevgelija, University "Goce
Delchev" in Stip, Macedonia
marija.magdinceva@ugd.edu.mk
Tanja Angelkova Petkova
Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics in Gevgelija, University "Goce
Delchev" in Stip, Macedonia
tanja.angelkova@ugd.edu.mk

RESUME
Stress represents an everyday, normal phenomenon that occurs as a result of
reaction to threats and changes that are occurring in the environment, as well as the
requirements that are expected to be completed by a particular person. Stress is all
around us, whether viewed from the perspective of an entrepreneur, owner of the
enterprise or from the perspective of employees. There is no enterprise or work where
there is not a certain level of stress. The characteristics of the tourism market
expressed through the non-transferable resources, season character and specifics
about tourist services from the aspect of giving and using them, imposes the need to
harmonize the needs and demands of consumers and businesses in what enterprises
has to offer. New ways of working point out the importance of employees as a
resource that can be changed and adapted to increase the efficiency of working of
enterprises. Employees are not just simple executors of work tasks, but also
associates who are expected to work effectively, to have the appropriate education,
experience, to be creative, responsible and dedicated to work.
Human – resources employees are the most important factor that can be changed in
order to improve operational efficiency, and respect of the rule that every right person
needs to work at the right place represents a roadmap for implementing a successful
strategy for improving the operations. Normally the stress associated with the

- 209 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

enterprise’s employees, the organizational culture of the enterprise, the


communication in the enterprise, organization of work, the way of how to resolve
conflict situations in and out of work. Stress among employees in enterprises occurs
as a result of the impact of external and internal factors. The group of external factors
includes the factors derived from the enterprise itself and those factors are: enterprise
environment, structure of organizational processes, communication in the enterprise
organization of work and working time, which can be organized as shift work,
overtime and financial aspects of the work, not properly paid engagement,
inadequate criteria for rewarding and irregular payment for work salary and etc. The
challenges of introducing change in operations can cause stress in employees from
losing work to reducing the salary and financial benefits or causing conflicts. The
group of internal factors - causers of stressful conditions includes the factors that are
arising from the employee itself and those are personal expectations of the job that
can be overrated or underrated, the need for total control of the situation in the
enterprise, high sensitivity performance and enhanced sense of self responsibility in
all segments of the enterprise, empathy of the personal situation of the enterprise,
unsuitably behavior in terms of operating time, expressed sense of insecurity,
inadequacy and knowledge to perform their work duties.
Stress management as a strategy to increase the efficiency of enterprise in the
tourism sector in the Republic of Macedonia involves taking specific actions in a
certain period of time in order to identify the sources of professional stress and reduce
stress in particular, mainly identifying the sources that cause long-term, chronic
stress among employees. To maximize the efficient operation of enterprises,
management may initially implement preventive strategies to detect sources of stress
before facing employees with specific problems. Once analyzed the factors and
causes of stress, management should be able to implement a strategy to reduce the
impact of stress and strategy for controlled maintenance of adequate levels of stress
and where it occurs.
The strategy for detecting sources of stress before facing employees with specific
problems, represents a preventive strategy. This strategy is implemented through the
fostering of good interpersonal relationships, mutual trust, cooperation and
communication. Good communication is a requirement for improving the operation
because it contributes to the detection of factors causing stress among employees.
Negative, stressful situations in the enterprise should be shared with family members
and friends and vice versa, but should be resolved only within the enterprise, and
vice versa, negative feelings should be transferred in the family and shared with
colleagues at work.
In order to perceive and determine the condition in terms of application of specific
tools for understanding and controlling stress among employees in enterprises of the
tourism sector in the Republic of Macedonia meaning does the owners of the
management of the enterprises surveyed, applied appropriate action or strategies for

- 210 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

managing stress among employees conducted in practical research. During the


period from July to December 2015 through a questionnaire method which consisted
ten questions, 130 private enterprises in the country were examined, of which 105
enterprises completed the questionnaire as for the other enterprises, interest in
completing the questionnaire didn’t show.
According to the results of the conducted survey, it can be concluded that enterprises
from the tourism sector in the Republic of Macedonia still are not applying specific
tools or programs to detect, prevent and manage stress at work and outside of work.
Also the management of enterprises still has not provided organizational conditions
which consist in equipping a special room for socializing, entertainment, sports, etc..,
within the enterprise and the establishment of a separate department or employee,
doctor, psychologist, etc., where employees in case of need could seek appropriate
professional help. In general, the stress management needs to identify the causes or
sources of stress, preventing, reducing or eliminating the stress of the employees
and especially reducing chronic, permanent stress. Because the results of the
conducted survey show that enterprises in the field of tourism sector in the Republic
of Macedonia, which were the subject of research do not apply mechanisms to
manage stress and extra work, it means that their managers cannot perceive and
control stress among employees, which is acting negatively on their work and this
directly affect the efficiency of the operation of enterprises.
Effective stress management among employees consists of the ability of
management to identify, control or reduce and eliminate the causes of stressful
conditions. Therefore, managers need to implement the appropriate strategy in time
to detect sources of stress before employees can face specific problems, a strategy
for reducing the impact of stress after emerging specific problems and a management
strategy or maintaining a certain level of stress and place.
This paper aims to point out the importance of applying appropriate strategies to
manage stress. Based on the given results of the conducted survey, the practical
application of the stress management by the owners or managers of enterprises can
be achieved through the following specific tools that are actually recommendations
or model for managing stress: transparent organizational structure and predicting the
future behavior of the enterprise, appropriate programs for selection, development
and promotion of human resources, a clear description of the job description,
communication management-level employees, social environment and appropriate
organizational structure for implementing stress management strategies.

Keywords: stress, stress management, human resources, efficiency, tourism sector.

- 211 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

MODERN INSTRUMENTS OF INNOVATION FINANCING IN THE


CONTEXT OF ECONOMY DESTABILIZATION
Ludmila Prigoda
Maikop State Technological University, Maikop, Russia
lv_prigoda@mail.ru

RESUME
In modern conditions, at times when the volatility of the raw commodities markets
does not allow building the long-term forecasts, to ensure a sustainable economic
growth and the transition from the raw to innovative way of development is the main
benchmark for macroeconomic policy of Russia. Small business presents the most
popular form of business in the world leading economies, in many ways determining
the social-economic and innovative development. However, in Russia the level of
development of small business is insufficient for operative creation of work places
and revitalization of supply and demand in local commodity markets. In recent years,
the structure of small businesses is almost the same. Nonproductive environment of
activity in Russia remains more attractive than productive due to a higher profit rate,
and as a result the processes of generating innovations, diversification and
technological development are realized with extremely low speed.
In terms of sanctions and restrictions, the foreign partners imposed against Russia,
the importance of improving the state policy in the spheres of regulation and support
of innovative activity, and the stimulation of technological processes updating,
including small business, objectively increases. To agree with the possibility of using
the territorial economic levers for encouraging the progressive development of the
economy, it is necessary to change radically and simultaneously the state policy in
the field of regulation and support the innovative small business.
At the present stage the most important social-economic role plays a venture
business, as the most effective form of realization the achievements of scientific and
technical development of small innovative enterprises. The practical developments
of modern science allow the small firms to reduce the costs of small-scale production,
to improve the quality of manufactured products, to create new samples of products,
taking into account the needs of consumers, using their key benefit – a low
bureaucratic component of entrepreneurial processes. Successful world experience
defines the essential role of the state and of the programs of supporting the
development of venture entrepreneurship and its financing as a catalyst in creating
and developing the growth industry of venture business. The mechanisms of venture
business in Russia are still poorly developed, particularly in the realization of complex
challenging programs, conductive to the development of the venture business at

- 212 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

different stages and to the reduction of investment risks. At the present stage, it raises
the question of venture development problem that is updated for Russia, and
reinforce the innovation processes in the economy. All this requires the effective
government policy in the field of regulation and supporting the small innovative
business, reflected in special measures of functioning organizing, regulating and
financing of venture business. On the basis of theoretical and methodological
researches of business foundations and economic potential of innovative business
we have found that the most efficient form of investment for small innovative
businesses is venture capital financing with government participation. At the same
time, the main advantages of the systematic cooperation of small innovative
enterprises with high-tech systems are defined:
 the level of certainty of orders for small innovation enterprises is increased;

 appears the mechanism of moderating prices for the small enterprises goods,
through cooperation with large enterprises;
 raises the possibility of obtaining by small innovative enterprises the significant
investments for R&D from the large enterprises and corporations, that improves
the conditions of generating small firms’ innovations.
In our view, the improvement processes of venture financing, as a basic element of
modernization of the system of state regulation and supporting the development of
small innovative entrepreneurship, should include the following main directions:
making the legislation competitive regarding the other countries; generation of
sufficient for the prospective investments, without which the venture capital cannot
develop sustainably; ensuring wide access to technologies in the forefront of science;
creating tax incentives and removal of tax barriers; organization of training system for
potential entrepreneurs, the realization of which will improve the efficiency and
competitiveness of innovative - oriented enterprises, creation of favorable economic
environment.

- 213 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ERP SISTEMI KAO PODRŠKA ELEKTRONSKOM POSLOVANJU


ORGANIZACIJA: EVALUACIJA MOGUĆIH ALTERNATIVA
Žarko Rađenović
Ekonomski fakultet, Univerzitet u Nišu
zarkoradjenovic@hotmail.com

REZIME:
Ubrzani razvoj tehnike i tehnologije omogućio je mnogim organizacijama da u svom
poslovanju koriste i tehnologiju koja se bazira na web alatima. Takve organizacije u
tom slučaju moraju biti podržane jakim infrastrukturama i platformama koje im mogu
pružiti efikasno funkcionisanje, a jedan od njih jeste ERP (Enterprise Resource
Planning- Planiranje resursa preduzeća) sistem. Ovaj sistem upotrebljava se u
poslovnim procesima kod organizacija sa širokom lepezom aktivnosti, kako bi se
prevazišla uska grla lanca snabdevanja koja sprečavaju efikasan protok proizvoda
od trenutka kada su oni samo sirovine do trenutka njihove finalne isporuke
potrošačima/ klijentima.
Ovaj rad se upravo bavi evolucijom odnosa odnosno povezivanja između sistema za
planiranje resursa preduzeća i elektronskog poslovanja. U radu će biti izučavano na
koji način organizacije i kompanije mogu korišćenjem ovog sistema da ostvare koristi
u vidu konkurentskih prednosti u odnosu na svoje rivale evaluacijom i izborom
odgovarajućih alternativa za ERP. Kako bi se uspešno koristio princip rada ERP
sistema, neophodno je formirati odgovarajući okvir elektronskog upravljanja lancima
snabdevanja koji bi integrisao sve poslovne procese jednog lanca (E- SCM- Supply
Chain Management). Sve ovo se ostvaruje jednim novim sredstvom tehnologije koje
osposobljava elektronski lanac snabdevanja za funkcionisanje u jednoj takvoj
virtuelnoj sredini a to je cloud computing.
Zbog svega ovoga tradicionalne organizacije moraju ići u korak s vremenom i
pokušati da iskoriste sve prednosti koje se nalaze u Internet poslovanju, a put do toga
vodi uklanjanjem zastarele infrastrukture i sredstava koji su obeležje ovih bricks-and-
mortar („cigla- malter“) organizacija sa tradicionalnim i konzervativnim poslovanjem.
Korišćenje Internet tehnologija u poslovanju tradicionalnih organizacija jeste
poslednja faza njihove evolucije. Ovakvo poslovanje donosi brojne benefite, ukoliko
se pravilno upravlja ovim tehnologijama, koje vode ka ostvarivanju postavljenih
ciljeva u okviru privredne grane, kraćeg order- to- delivery procesa, globalizacije
poslovanja i personalizacije.
Bilo kako bilo bez povezivanja isporuke, proizvodnje, finansija, ljudskih resursa i
ostalih organizacionih delova na Internet, i organizacije sa razvijenim procesom

- 214 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

inoviranja ne mogu ostvariti uspeh. Najuspešnije su organizacije koje svoje


investiranje baziraju na implementaciji upravo ovih tehnologija što im otvara
neslućene mogućnosti u pogledu elektronskog poslovanja, koje naravno moraju biti
podržane platformama i infrastrukturama kao što je ERP. Kompanije moraju da
shvate da bez odgovarajućeg softvera za planiranje resursa preduzeća ne može doći
do razmene i deljenja informacija i trgovanje sa partnerima koji su on-line.
Današnje organizacije suočavaju se sa naglim i dinamičnim promenama tržišta kao i
specifičnim zahtevima potrošača sa elementima personalizacije. Kako bi se tome
prilagodile i podigle svoj stepen kastumizacije na neki viši nivo neophodno je da se
uključe u sistem elektronskog poslovanja kome podršku pruža sistem planiranja
resursa preduzeća. Ovakvi pritisci iz spoljnog poslovnog okruženja doslovno teraju
organizacije da pronalaze nove, inovativnije pristupe koji će im omogućiti efikasan
odgovor na sve izazove.
ERP sistem je taj koji pruža organizacijama sigurnosti u elektronskoj trgovini i
izazovima koji proizilaze iz elektronskog poslovanja. Ovo podrazumeva i aktivno
praćenje novih tehnologija poslovanja na Internetu koje doprinose profitabilnijem
poslovanju, a povezane su sa ERP-om i elektronskim lancem snabdevanja. Na ovaj
način se i sagledava evolutivni aspekt veze između ERP-a i elektronskog poslovanja
koji koriste različite ali međusobno komplementarne i dopunjujuće tehnologije za
svoje delovanje. ERP sistem doprinosi rentabilnijem poslovanju i upotrebom sistema
sa kojima je usko povezan a od kojih se izdvajaju kao što je navedeno sistem za
upravljanje podacima, sistem za upravljanje transportom, transakcijama kao i sistem
za upravljanje odnosima sa potrošačima. Svi ovi sistemi pružaju zajedno kvalitetniji
prenos informacija i veću sposobnost za deljenje informacija kao i donošenje odluka
koje izražavaju punu poslovnu inteligenciju jedne organizacije. Na ovaj način se
stvara poseban integracioni, višedimenzionalni portal za razmenu informaciju između
organizacije i njenih stejkholdera.

- 215 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ERP SYSTEMS AS A SUPPORT FOR ORGANISATIONAL E-


BUSINESS: EVALUATION OF POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES
Zarko Radjenovic
Faculty of Economics, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
zarkoradjenovic@hotmail.com

RESUME:
Rapid development of technology has enabled many organizations to use technology
based on web tools in their operation. Such organizations, in this case, must be
supported by a strong infrastructure and platforms that can provide them with
effective functioning, and one of them is the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
system. This system is used in business processes in organizations with a wide range
of activities, in order to overcome the bottlenecks of the supply chain that prevent the
efficient flow of products from the moment they are just raw material to the moment
of their final delivery to customers / clients.
This work is exploring the evolution of the relationship and connection between
systems for enterprise resource planning and e-business. The paper will research in
how organizations and companies can use this system to obtain benefit in the form
of competitive advantages over its rivals by choosing and evaluate ERP alternatives.
In order to successfully use the principles of ERP system operations, it is necessary
to establish the appropriate framework of the electronic supply chain management
that integrates all business processes of one chain (E-SCM Supply Chain
Management). All this is achieved by a new technology tool that enables electronic
supply chain to function in such a virtual environment and that is cloud computing.
Therefore, traditional organizations must keep pace with time and try to take
advantage of all the benefits provided by the Internet business, and the path to it
leads to the removal of outdated infrastructure and resources that are characteristic
for these bricks-and-mortar organizations with traditional and conservative business.
The use of Internet technology in the operation of traditional organizations is the last
phase of their evolution. This business brings many benefits, if properly manages
these technologies, leading to the achievement of the goals set in the context of an
industry, a short order-to-delivery process, business globalization and
personalization.
Either way, without linking supply, production, finance, human resources and other
organizational units with the Internet, even organizations with developed innovation
process cannot achieve success. The most successful organizations are those with
investments based on the implementation of these technologies, which open up

- 216 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

endless possibilities in terms of e-business and must be supported by platforms and


infrastructures such as ERP. Companies need to understand that without appropriate
software for enterprise resource planning they cannot reach the exchange and
sharing of information and trading with partners on-line.
Nowadays organizations are faced with rapid and dynamic changes on the market
and specific customer needs with elements of personalization. In order to adapt to it
and raised their customization level, it is necessary to engage in a system of
electronic commerce supported by enterprise resource planning. Such pressure from
the external business environment literally forces organizations to find the new,
innovative approaches that will enable them to efficiently respond to all challenges.
ERP system is one that provides organizations security in electronic commerce and
the challenges resulting from the electronic business. This includes keeping up with
new business technologies on the Internet that contribute to profitable operations and
are associated with ERP and e-supply chain. In this way, we could look up at the
evolutionary aspect of the relationship between ERP and e-business that use
different but mutually complementary and rechargeable technology for their
operation.
ERP system contributes to profitable operations dealing with systems which are
closely related with it such as data management system, transaction and transport
management systems and customer relationship management system. All of these
systems together provide a better transfer of information or greater ability to share
information and make decisions that express the full business intelligence of an
organization. In this way it creates a special integration, multidimensional portal for
the information exchange between an organization and its stakeholders.

- 217 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

EKOLOŠKI IZAZOVI PRIVREDNOG RAZVOJA


Kristijan Ristić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet Union –
Nikola Tesla, Beograd
kristijanristic.fpim@yahoo.com
Milanka Bogavac
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet “Union –
Nikola Tesla”
bogavac.milanka@gmail.com
Branko Petričević
Fakultet za poslovnu ekonomiju i menadžment
Univerzitet u Travniku
benibranko@gmail.com

REZIME
Svetska ekonomska kriza zajedno sa implementacijom neoliberalnog projekta
obelodanila je pomeranja glavnog težišta globalne ekonomije iz sektora proizvodnje
u sektor finansija, kao da privredna aktivnost više nije važna. Time je formalizovana
primitivna privatna sloboda da se profitira na siromaštvu u formi tajno osmišljene
privatne prednosti poput konkurencije, kao ključni podsticaj razvoja i generator
monopola. Neoliberalno ograničavanje demokratskog načina upravljanja gurnulo je
javno obrazovanje, zdravstvenu zaštitu i socijalne usluge u tržišni zagrljaj najurene
države i siromašni sprud nekadašnjeg javnog sektora. Samim tim, od ekonomije
održivog razvoja ostala su samo dokumenta u fijokama globalne svetske strukture
UN. Zato globalni lideri ingronišu društvenu inkluziju, dok multinacionalne prkosno
gaze ekološku održivost.
Svetski kapitalizam globalno neodrživog razvoja predstavlja savez korporativne
oligarhije, koji privatizuje profite i socijalizuje gubitke, sa izvedenom prisilom, koja se
zove „politika štednje", koja reflektuje ,,austerity policy", što nominuje „ politiku
nacionalnog oduzimanja“, koja ide u pravcu smanjenja socijalnih davanja, plata i
penzija, s jedne strane, i revidiranje radnog i penzijskog zakonodavstva, s druge
strane. Stoga je, i radnik na lizing postao nosilac neodrživog razvoja, ekološke
tragedije i socijalne antiinkluzije.
Dijagnostički aspekt ekološke sfere pokazuje da zemlja nije više beskrajni izazov
prostora već konačan termodinamičan sistem i da kriza okoline nije više samo
entropija ekosistema već posledica neadekvatne društvene organizacije,
prevaziđenog načina proizvodnje i klimakteričnog razvoja proizvodnih snaga.

- 218 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Suština politike zaštite čovekove sredine ne ogleda se samo u usklađivanju


društveno ekonomskog, socijalnog i tehnološkog razvoja nego i u usklađivanju
ekonomskog i ekološkog razvoja. To je ta novina na koju kreću pažnju teoretičari koji
doprinose afirmaciji shvatanja da očuvanje i unapređenje čovekove sredine postaje
"prvorazredna kategorija u sistemu vrednosti našeg društva" .
Čovekova sredina poprimila je karakter javnog dobra. Ekodržava je, stoga, ciljna
funkcija društvene zajednice. Samim tim, ekološko potrebe impliciraju društvenu
intervenciju, jer potencija samoreprodukovanja prirodne okoline postaje sve više
retardni faktor u regeneraciji okruženja, a i ekološki, troškovi se javljaju kao negativna
strana eksternih efekata. Stoga se valja setati Stokholmske deklaracije, u kojoj se
ističe : "Čovek je istovremeno tvorac i proizvod svoje okoline, koja mu daje sredstva
za život u fizičkom smislu i koja mu omogućuje intelektualni, moralni, društveni i
duhovni napredak. Prirodna bogatstva zemlje, uključujući vazduh, vodu, tlo, floru i
faunu, i, naročito reprezentativne uzorke prirodnih ekosistema, treba brižljivim i
odgovarajućim planiranjem i upravljanjem, sačuvati za dobrobit sadašnjih i budućih
generacija". Na to nas podseča i literatura, koja poručuje da čovekova sredina treba
da postane predmet čovekovog etičkog odnosa prema njegovoj kako prirodnoj tako i
društvenoj sredini.
Usklađivanje ciljeva privrednog razvoja i načina proizvodnje sa ekološkim zakonima
reprodukcije implicira inovaciju upravljanja proizvodnim procesima za restauriranje
"prirodnog" jedinstva prirode i ljudskog društva, i čoveka i njegove životne sredine.
To je ono što se naziva humana ekologija na kojoj se inače s pravom insistira u formi
tzv. ekologije čoveka, koja proučava odnose čoveka prema živoj i neživoj okolini,
odnosno uticaj sredine na čoveka i vice versa.
Privrednici osećaju svoju ključnu ulogu u zaštiti okoline, pošto su već shvatili da su
poslovni procesi dominantan izvor pritisaka na životnu sredinu. I kao što je
zapošljavanje ključni preduslov socijalnog osiguranja, tako je i zaštita okoline postala
vodeći preduslov poslovanja preduzeća. Ekološki senzibilna javnost pruža šansu
profitno orijentisanim menadžerima da oboje "zeleno" poslovno planiranje i da
diversifikuju pristupe organizaciji poslovanja, knjigovodstvu, bi lansiranju uspeha,
poslovnim finansijama, marketingu, menadžmentu i odnosima s javnošću, kako bi se
stekla ekološka reputacija, koja predominantno, opredeljuje odluke potrošača o
kupovini (ekološki kvalitetnih) proizvoda. Ekološki prosvećeni potrošači u
civilizovanim društvima tržišne orijentacije spremni su da koriste (na organizovan
način) potrošačku moć i na tržištu i da vrše pritisak na industriju. Proizvodjači su već,
osetili da tražnja ekološki, prihvatljivih proizvoda taeleži uzlazni trend na razvijenim
tržištima savremenog sveta. U međunarodnim razmerama, dramatičan zaokret u
preferencijama potrošača "guta" dodatna ekološka troškovna opterećenja. I to se
smatra novom šansom za konkurentski uspeh, koji pritiska vodeće menadžere da
priznaju naglašenu potrebu formalizovanja nove razvojne strategije firme, koja
uključuje novi marketinški pogled na svet. Nova poslovna filozofija mora posebno da
vodi računa o relativno snažnom segmentu sektora stanovništva koji je voljan da plati
proizvode koji zadovoljavaju ekološke standarde. Međutim, menadžer mora da vodi

- 219 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

računa o neumitnoj istini da će određeni proizvodi postati neprihvatljivi za potrošače


ekološkog kvaliteta. U kratkoročnim vremenskim sekvencama multinacionalne
kompanije mogu ostvarivati visoke profite zaobilaženjem ulaganja u ekološka
istraživanja kvaliteta proizvoda. Ali, u dugoročnim -vremenskim sekvencama ove
kompanije stiču imidž ekološki neosetljive kompanije, gube mesto na visoko
kompetitivnom tržištu, kasne u prestrukturiranju proizvodnih programa i teže podnose
stroge ekološke standarde u budućnosti.
Zemlje EU već se utrkuju u procesu promovisanja zaštite okoline kao svojevrsne
izvozne delatnosti, koja unosno plasira različite uređaje i opremu za kontrolu
zagađivanja vazduha i otpadnih voda. Tako ekološki izvoz postaje ekonomski bum,
sa dugoročno isplativim investicionim aranžmanima. Preduzetništvo već okupira
ekološku sferu reprodukcije, a zeleni marketing istražuje i preporučuje šta proizvoditi
bez narušavanja planetarne ravnoteže.
Od nedavno je u SAD uveden novi imidž u formi novog trgovačkog i tržišnog simbola
koji se nominuje kao zeleni krst. Zeleni krst, kao novi zaštitni znak, pojavljuje se samo
na specijalnoj ambalaži od veoma visokog procenta recikliranog materijala. Poslovni
uspeh "zelenog krsta" nagnao je američke propagandiste da lansiraju tzv. zeleni
pečat koji nose specijalni proizvodi koji najmanje štete okolini, prirodi i čoveku. Tako
je zeleni marketing, sa promocijom novih ekoloških ideja, postao novi instrument za
očuvanje harmonije prirode i čoveka. Na to se već nadovezuje tzv. ekološki
menadžment koji proizvođačima "uspešno nameće" tzv. proizvodnju ekološki
ispravne odeće. Zbog toga, proizvodnja koja respektuje ekološke principe ima sjajnu
ekonomsku budućnost.
Proizvodnja na ekološkim principima mora anticipativno uključivati zeleni marketing,
dakle, na početku samog proizvodnog procesa, a ne na kraju proizvodnog lanca kada
se proizvodi stavljaju u atraktivno našminkanu ambalažu. Jer, istraživanje tržišta sa
stanovišta ekoloških potreba postaje izuzetno važan segmant marketing komapanija
koje proizvođačima sugeriraju najisplativije načine povezivanja ekologije, estetike,
biznisa i etike. A ekološki dizajneri moraju biti podstaknuti da eksperimentišu sa
radikalnim potezima oslobađanja proizvoda od ambalaže ili višenamenske upotrebe
ekološke ambalaže, koje pametna ekonomska poltika treba da podrži kreditnim
beneficijama i poreskim koncesijama.
Ekologija je ušla u dnevnu konverziju između dužnika i poverilaca onog trenutka kada
je ukupna nominalna vrednost latinoameričkog duga neznatno smanjena zahvaljujući
snažnom amortizujućem efektu prakse konverzije duga. Dotičnim trampama relativno
značajna sredstva ubrizgavana su u razvoj privrede u vidu tzv. deoničarskog kapitala
preduzeća (debt- for equity swaps), koja se reprivatizuju. Dijalog interesa poverilaca
i dužnika je izuzetno olakšan primenom specijalnog vida konverzije duga koji se
očituje kroz otpis duga (dela) za ekološko očuvanje zelenog kontinenta (debt- for
nature swaps).
Današnji svet pati zbog povećanja zagađivanja čovekove okoline i smanjenja
ozonskog omotača. I naučnici pate, jer ne znaju da objasne kako će se to odraziti na

- 220 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

poljoprivredne prinose, na zdravlje stanovništva, na nivo mora, na dužinu života ljudi,


na porast temperature, na društveno- ekonomski razvoj, na životni standard građana.
Zbog toga, ekološka pitanja postaju sve više ekonomska, mada se ekološki problemi
sve više premeštaju u ravan ekonomske nauke, koja već kreira nove finansijske
instrumente za simultano rešavanje razvojnih i ekoloških problema. Jedan od
najnovijih finansijskih instrumenata, koji je pokazao svu svoju delotvornost, jeste
„debt for nature swaps“, putem koga se zaduženim zemljama oprašta deo inostranog
duga u zamenu za povećanje investicije države u domenu očuvanja ekoloških dobara
od značaja za celu u planetu. U suštini, tim procesom svim zarađuju: zemlja dužnik,
jer faktički otkupljuje inostrani dug domaćom valutom i to uz popust, i zemlje
poverioci, jer ne moraju da investiraju svež novac za očuvanje čovekove okoline već
upotrebljavaju novac od dužnika koji najverovatnije nije ni bio naplativ.
Danas se i ograničavanje stope rasta ispuštanja ugljen dioksida može rešavati na
ekonomski način (pored već poznatog tehnološkog racionalisanja upotrebe energije).
Visoki troškovi novih tehnologija, koje redukuju ispuštanje ugljen dioksida, sa
ekonomskog stanovišta nemaju opravdanje iz prostog razloga što nametnuto
povećanje proizvodnih troškova iz ekoloških motiva smanjuje konkurentnosti, firme i
tržišnu kompetitivnost zemlje. Zbog toga je lansiran sistem u kome sve države
savremenog sveta dobijaju dozvole za zagađivanje (na osnovu dozvoljene količine
ugljen dioksida). "Ideja o međunarodnoj trgovini kvotama za zagađivanje je zaokupila
svetsku pažnju, jer omogućava svakom ekonomskom agentu (u ovom slučaju državi)
da bira da li želi da investira u tehnologiju koja će sputavati dalje zagađivanje ili želi
da otkupi pravo neke druge države (koja zagađuje ispod svoje kvote) i tako nastavi
da proizvodi sa starom tehnologijom. Potencijalno tržište za investiranje u nove
tehnologije za reduciranje zagađenosti na ekonomsko-ekološkim principima jesu
gotovo sve postsocijalističke zemlje, koje bi na jeftiniji način došle do svežeg kapitala.
Ekološke sile današnjice nisu samo ikonografije "novog sveta" nego i neumoljivi
pokazatelji prikrivenih tendencija i povremenih erupcija modernog varvarstva
preobučenog u državni interes, ekotehnološku dominaciju, vojnoindustrijski
kompleks i etnocentričku politiku. Neodgovorne političke elite već rasipaju nacionalno
bogatstvo, prekomerno eksploatišu prljavu tehologiju i neekonomski iscrpljuju
prirodne resurse. Destrukcija sistema tako prelazi u destrukciju ljudi u vidu razaranja
materijalne i duhovne kulture, ljudske psihe i morala, životne i radne okoline. Ekološki
standardizovana hrana sveta je rezervisana samo za najelitnije segmente bogatog
sveta, dok je zagađena hrana prikovana kao privilegija samo za crne koji uopšte
nemaju šta da jedu. Tako se nasrnulo na čoveka i na ljudska osnovna prava uopšte,
čak i u monolitnim društvima čija se ruinirana ekonomsko-tehnološka struktura
raspada jednako kao i njihova ideo1oška matrica.
Ključnereči: zaštita životne sredine, privredni razvoj.

- 221 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC


DEVELOPMENT
Kristijan Ristić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet Union –
Nikola Tesla, Beograd
kristijanristic.fpim@yahoo.com
Milanka Bogavac
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet “Union –
Nikola Tesla”
bogavac.milanka@gmail.com
Branko Petričević
Fakultet za poslovnu ekonomiju i menadžment
Univerzitet u Travniku
benibranko@gmail.com

RESUME
The global economic crisis along with the implementation of the neoliberal project
has announced shifting of the global economy capital center from the manufacturing
sector into financial sector, just like the economic activity is no longer important. So
primitive private freedom to capitalize on poverty in the form of secretly designed
private benefits such as competition, as a key incentive for the development and
monopoly generator was formalized. Neoliberal restricting of democratic mode of
governance has pushed public education, health care and social services in the
market embrace of the prompt state and poor leftovers of the former public sector.
Therefore, the only thing that has left is the documents in the drawers of global UN
economists of the sustainable. That is the way global leaders ignore social inclusion,
while multinational infringe environmental sustainability.
World capitalism of unsustainable global development is an alliance of corporate
oligarchy that privatize profits and socializes losses with the correct coercion called
“austerity” which reflects “austerity policy” which nominates the “policy of national
subtraction” that goes in the direction of reducing social benefits, salaries and
pensions, on the one hand, and revising labor and pension legislation, on the other
hand. Therefore, a worker has become the holder of unsustainable development, the
environmental tragedy and anti-social inclusion.
The diagnostic aspect of ecological spheres shows that the country is not an infinite
challenge of the space, but the ultimate thermodynamic system and that the
environmental crisis is no longer just the entropy of the eco-system, but the result of

- 222 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

inadequate social organization, outdated production mode and climacteric


development of the productive forces.
The essence of the environmental protection policy is not only reflected in the
harmonization of social and economic or social and technological development but
also in aligning economic and environmental development. It is the innovation, which
the theorists warn of, that contribute to affirmation of understanding that preservation
and improvement of environment becomes a “first-class category in the value system
of our society.”
Environmentalism has taken on the character of a public good. Therefore, eco-state
is a function of the target community. Consequently, ecologic needs imply social
intervention, as potential self-reproduction. Environment is becoming more sustained
factor in the regeneration of the environment while ecological costs appear as a
negative side effects. Therefore, it is worth to remember the Stockholm Declaration,
which states: "Man is both the creator and the product of his environment, which gives
him the means to live in a physical sense, and that gives him the intellectual, moral,
social and spiritual development. Natural resources of the Earth, including the air,
water, soil, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural
ecosystems, should be carefully and proper planned and managed in order to
preserve for the benefit of present and future generations.” Literature says that
environmentalism should become the subject of people's ethical attitude towards
both, their natural and social environment.
Alignment of the objectives of economic development and modes of production with
environmental laws of the reproduction implies innovation in production management
in order to restore the “natural” unity of nature and human society, people and their
environment. This is what is called human ecology which explores the relationship of
man towards animate and inanimate environment, i.e. environmental influence on
man and vice versa.
Businessmen feel their role is vital in protecting the environment, since they have
realized that business processes are the dominant source of pressure on the
environment. Just like hiring is a key prerequisite of social security, so the protection
of the environment has become a leading precondition of business. Environmentally
sensitive public provides an opportunity to profit-oriented managers to “green
colored” business planning and to diversify business organization approaches,
bookkeeping, business finance, marketing, management and public relations, in
order to gain environmental reputation, which predominantly defines decisions of
consumers about purchasing (environmental quality) products. Environmentally
enlightened consumers in civilized societies of market orientation are ready to use
(in an organized manner) the spending power of the market and to put pressure on
the industry. Manufacturers have already felt that the demand of environmentally
friendly products records an upward trend in the developed markets of the modern
world. At international levels, a dramatic shift in consumer preferences "swallows"
additional environmental burden cost. That is considered to be a new chance for
competitive success that pressures leading managers to recognize the need of
formalizing the new development strategy of the company, which includes new
marketing views. New business philosophy must take care of the relatively strong

- 223 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

sector of the population willing to pay for products that meet environmental standards.
However, a manager has to take into account the inevitable truth that certain products
become unacceptable to consumers taking care of ecological quality. In the short
time sequences, multinational companies can generate high profits by bypassing
investment in ecological product quality research. Nevertheless, in the long term,
these companies acquire the image of environmentally insensitive companies; they
lose their place in a highly competitive marketplace, they are late in the restructuring
of production programs and have lots of problems to cope with strict environmental
standards in the future.
EU countries are already competing in the process of promoting the protection of the
environment as a sort of export activity, which profitably markets a variety of devices
and equipment for air pollution control and waste waters. In this way, the ecological
export becomes an economic boom with long-term profitable investment
arrangements. Entrepreneurship is already occupying the ecological sphere of
reproduction while green marketing investigates and recommends what to produce
without compromising the planetary balance.
Recently, the US introduced a new image in the form of a new shopping and market
symbol nominated as a green cross. Green Cross, as a new trademark, appears only
in a special packaging containing a very high percentage of recycled material. The
commercial success of "green cross" prompted the American propagandists to
launch the so-called Green Seal that only special products causing the smallest
damage to the environment, nature and humans can have. Thus green marketing
with the promotion of new environmental ideas, become a new instrument for the
preservation of harmony between man and nature. It follows so-called environmental
management that successfully imposes so-called production of ecologically correct
clothes to producers. Therefore, the production that respects ecological principles
had a great economic future.
Production according to ecological principles should include green marketing at the
beginning of the production process, not the end of the production chain when
products are placed in an attractive, enhanced packaging. Market research from the
standpoint of environmental needs is becoming an extremely important segment of
marketing companies that suggest to manufacturers the most economical ways of
linking ecology, aesthetics, and business ethics. The ecological designers must be
encouraged to experiment with radical strokes of releasing the product from the
packaging or multi-usage ecological packaging that smart economic policy should
support by credit benefits and tax concessions.
Ecology has entered into a daily conversion between debtors and creditors once the
total nominal value of the Latin American debt slightly decreased thanks to strong
spring-effect of the debt conversion practice. Thanks to these swaps, relatively
significant funds were injected into the development of the economy in the form of
so-called debt/equity swap, which are re-privatizing. Dialog of interests among
creditors and debtors is extremely facilitated by using a special type of debt
conversion that is manifested through debt write-off for ecological preservation of
green continent (debt-for-nature swaps).

- 224 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Today's world suffers from increasing pollution of the environment and the decrease
of the ozone layer. The scientists are suffering too because they do not know how to
explain how it will affect the agricultural yields, health of the population, level of the
sea, length of human life, rise in temperature, socio-economic development or the
living standard of citizens. Therefore, environmental issues have become more
economical, although environmental concerns increasingly moved to the plane of
economic science, which has created new financial instruments in order to
simultaneously address development and environmental problems. One of the latest
financial instruments, which showed all its effectiveness, is a debt-for-nature swaps,
through which the indebted countries forgive a part of their debt in exchange for an
increase in government investment in the field of preservation of ecological heritage
that is significant for the whole planet. In essence, it is a win-win for everyone: debtor
country, because it actually buys off foreign debt using domestic currency with a
discount, and the country's creditors, because they do not have to invest fresh money
for the preservation of the environment but they are using money from debtors,
money that probably was not even payable.
Today, the restricting of growth rates of the emissions of carbon dioxide can be solved
in economical way (in addition to the already known technology of rationalizing
energy use). High costs of new technologies that reduce the release of carbon dioxide
from the economic standpoint cannot be excused simply because the increase of
production costs from environmental motives reduces competitiveness, company and
market competitiveness of the country. Therefore, the system in which all countries
of the modern world receive pollution permits (based on allowable amounts of carbon
dioxide) was launched. “The idea of international trade quotas for emissions has
drawn worldwide attention because it allows each economic agent (in this case the
state) to decide whether they want to invest in technology that will hinder further
pollution or wishes to redeem the law of another country (which pollutes below its
quota) and thus continues to produce with the old technology. The potential markets
for investment in new technologies to reduce pollution based on the economic and
ecological principles are almost all post-socialist countries offering a cheaper way to
get to the fresh capital.”
Today’s environmental forces are not only the iconography of the “new world” but
also relentless indicators of hidden tendencies and occasional eruptions of modern
barbarism disguised in national interest, eco-technological dominance, the military-
industrial complex and ethno-centric politics. Irresponsible political elite has already
squandered the national wealth, over-exploited dirt technologies and exhausted
natural resources. BY doing so, the destruction of the system turns to the destruction
of people in the form of destruction of material and spiritual culture, the human psyche
and morals, the living and working environment. Ecologically standardized food of
the world is reserved only for the elite of the rich world, while the contaminated food
is imposed as a privilege only for black people who do not have anything to eat. That
is the attack on human and basic human rights in general, even in monolithic societies
whose ruinous economic and technological structure breakup as well as their
ideological matrices.
Key words: environmental protection, economic development.

- 225 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

GLOBALNA FINANSIJSKA KRIZA I IZAZOVI EKONOMSKE


STABILNOSTI
Žarko Ristić
Univerzitet za poslovne studije, Banja Luka
Milija Bogavac
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet “Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Beograd
Kristijan Ristić
Fakultet za poslovno industrijski menadžment, Univerzitet Union –
Nikola Tesla, Beograd
kristijanristic.fpim@yahoo.com

REZIME
Globalistički (nominalistički) pogled na svet logičan je nastavak liberalizacije, koja je
povezana sa privatizacijom državnih (javnih) preduzeća, povećanjem uloge privatnog
sektora i preduzetničke inicijative smanjenjem uplitanja države u privredne tokove
(deregulacija), povećanje slobode protoka finansija i stranih ulaganja. Globalizacija
je, samim tim, novo ishodište ponašanja transnacionalnih korporacija, promene u
tehnologiji proizvodnje i distribucije, ekonomije obima, ponašanja potrošača,
liberalisanje spoljne trgovine i protoka kapitala, proširenja geranica za lociranje
preduzeća i ignorisanja važnosti blizine sirovina, proizvodnje i tržišta, i naročito,
ekonomske uloge nacionalnih granica.Simbol globalizacije jesu transnacionalne
korporacije kojima se i domaće vlade udvaraju zbog stranih ulaganja u "globalnom
trendu" širenja pseudo-vrednosti. " Globalizacija, kao takva, ruši katedrale
nacionalnih vrednosti i nacionalne pripadnosti, i uništava lokalne zajednice da bi
popločala stazu ka globalnom kapitalizmu. Globalizacija, doduše, može da poveže
nacionalne privrede, proširi tržište, omogući pristup novim tehnologijama u
proizvodnji i distribuciji, osigura priliv stranog kapitala. Ali, globalizacija donosi i
nesreće: povećava ranjivost ekonomski slabijih, ubrzava zahteve za prilagođavanjem
i modernizacijom privrede, unosi nepredvidiva kretanja u tokovima kapitala, pridonosi
špekulativnim napadima na domaću valutu, izaziva finansijske krize, brza
prebacivanja proizvodnje i zaposlenosti iz zemlje u zemlju, i povećava ekonomsku i
socijalnu ranjivost malih, zemlja u razvoju.
Globalizacija nudi perfidno osvajanje vlasti i kontrolu nad kapitalom. Zato je invazija
bogatih na ekonomskoj unificiranosti u trendu sa stihijom nagomilavanja kapitala.
Nagon za bogaćenjem vodi u totalitarizam, pošto bogatstvo postaje nova agresija. A
radi se o tome da se ekonomija ipak mora spiritualizaovati, jer siromašne valja staviti
pod zaštitu. Etičko je pitanje ravnopravnija i ravnomernija raspodela bogatstva, a ne
samo ekonomsko ili socijalno (iako je novac već postao religija). Globalitarizam ne
sme da bude doktrinama razbarušen samo u ekonomskom smeru, jer bi na scenu

- 226 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

mogla da nastupi politika "upotreba čoveka". Tada bi, doista, Etiku i Prirodu zamenili
Politika i Profit, što bi gurnulo ljude u ropstvo plastične misii. Po prvi put.
mondijalistički intelektualci već ne mogu da prepoznaju vlasnike vlasti kapitala, a
njihova reč gubi bitku u odnosu na ekonomsku moć.
Najmanje tri uporedna procesa obeležila su trenutno doba globalne ekonomije, i to
neoliberalizam, globalizacija i financijalizacija. Financijalizaciju Gerald A. Epstein vidi
kao povećanje uloge finansijskih motiva, finansijskih tržišta, finansijskih saradnika i
finansijskih institucija u delovanju domaćih i međunarodnih ekonomija. U tom
kontekstu treba napomenuti da je proces finansijalizacije koji je započeo kasnih 70-
tih ili ranih 80-tih godina, postepeno prebacio gravitaciju ekonomske aktivnosti s
proizvodnje na finansije, dakle u sferu većih prinosa i „lakšeg“ profita, a time i u sferu
većih rizika. Prema Epsteinu, financijalizacija čini da finansijska tržišta postanu
sklona špekulacijama, dovodi do fenomena zaslepljene grupe ili čoporskog
ponašanja na tržištu i nestabilnosti.Kolaps finansijskih mehura, izražen kroz
poremećene cene aktive, kroz bekstvo radne snage, kroz bekstvo kapitala i kroz
interna bankrotstva doveo je do ozbiljne depresije, koja je oborila privredni rast,
snizila potrošnju i dvostruko povećala nezaposlenost.
Razvojni ciklus i privatizacija jesu ključne poluge izvlačenja privrede iz recesije koja
je iznuđena zbog obaranja inflacije. Sada je na potezu razvojni ciklus i obavljanje
stabilnog rasta na trajnim osnovama u čijem je epicentru otvaranje procesa
prestrukturiranja preduzeća. No, prestrukturiranje privrede nije moguće bez
integralne transformacije svojine i ubacivanja dodajnog kvantuma svežeg kapitala.
Razvojni ciklus integrisao bi preduzetnički i infrastrukturni tip. U teoriji izmodeliranih
razvojnih ciklusa preduzetnik je epicentralna tačka u prvom tipu razvojnog ciklusa,
koji daje pečat biznisu u predominantnim tržišnim uslovima predviđanja čiji je movens
poslovanja – profit. Država je, pak, nosilac drugog tipa razvojnog ciklusa, koji
obezbeduje razvoj infrastrukturalnih grana kao bazične pretpostavke razvoja
celokupne privrede (iako za njih nisu neposredno finansijski zainteresovani privatni
preduzetnici). I jedan i drugi tip razvojnog ciklusa moraju biti podržani poreskom
politikom, pogotovu ako su u funkciji prestrukturiranja preduzeća i privrede. Mere
fiskalne politike upravo iz tih razloga treba da stimuliraju ulaganja u razvojne projekte
koji garantuju, na kratak i srednji rok, povraćaj uloženih sredstava, ulaganja u izvozno
orijentisane projekte, ulaganja u nove tehnologije, ulaganja u revitalizaciju
ekoravnotеže, ulaganja u fond rizika kapitala (koji podržava biznis malih i srednjih
preduzeća), ulaganja u transformaciju matičnih preduzeća i privatizaciju, ali i ulaganja
u pre-duzetnički duh i menadžere. Iza toga treba da stoji promotivna uloga države,
koja preko inovativnih centara i agencijskih institucija i projektnih jedinica „osigurava“
privlačenje inostranog privatnog kapitala, svojinsko prestrukturiranje, finansijsku
podršku malim i srednjim preduzećima, poresku i kreditnu stimulaciju na kratak i
srednji rok, i pomeranje težišta sa energetsko-sirovinskog razvoja na visoko
produktivne i inovativno-tehnološke intenzivne projekte sa izvoznom propulzivnošću
i sa impulsiranjem amelioracije privredne strukture. Na to se nadovezuje
preduzetničko-menadžerski duh koji se ogleda u smanjivanju potrošnje energije i
sirovina, repromaterijala i radne snage po jedinici proizvoda, u podizanju
produktivnosti rada, nivoa organizacije i efikasnosti poslovanja, u podizanju
neophodnog kvaliteta i dizajna, i razvoju marketinga i propagande.

- 227 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Ali, novu tržišnu konkurentnost mora da prati i nova fiskalna konkurentnost, koja se
logikom „ekonomike ponude“ ispoljava kroz poresku redukciju (sniženje poreskih
stopa), koja se pozitivno-podsticajno efektuira povećanjem akumulacije i
produktivnog investiranja, proširenjem proizvodnih kapaciteta i povećanjem
zaposlenosti . Isto tako, i realokacija resursa, kao suština preduzetničkog procesa,
od manjih ka većim upo¬trebnim vrednostima mora da prati realokaciju fiskalnog
tereta od većih ka manjim poreskim stopama. Tako dolazimo do toga da i profitni
račun, koji se izvodi iz realokacije resursa sa poslovnim rizikom, mora da sledi poreski
račun kao stimulator za povećanje poslovnog efekta i kao nagodba za preuzeti rizik.
U današnje vreme, i posrednici i neposrednici, i radnici i menadžeri, i preduzetnici i
rentijeri, i službenici i nezaposleni želeli bi da utiču na poresku politiku, pošto bogati
uvek teže da plaćaju što manje poreza (dok siromašni smatraju da plaćaju
neposredno mnogo državi). To što važi za pojedince, važi i za preduzeća i za
područja. Ali to ne znači da poreska politika mora biti uniformna, pošto transformaciji
poreza pogoduje raznolikost.
Savremena svetska finansijska kriza, kako se to obično naziva i ispoljava, karakteriše
se takvom dubinom, složenošću u globalnim efektima, da to sada nije zabeleženo u
ekonomskoj istoriji. Kao i svaka do sada kriza nastala je u finansijskoj sferi, ali se
prenela na celokupan realni sektor i svetsku privredu u celini. Često se postavlja
pitanje: da li je do krize došlo namerno (dirigovano u SAD) ili je rezultat tektonskih
poremećaja u funkcionisanju savremenog neoliberalnog (kreditno-tržišnog) sistema.
Ne ulazeći detaljnije u analizu svetske krize neosporno je da je do sada donimrajući
(i nametnuti) neoliberalni i monetaristički model doživeo svoj potpuni slom, što je iz
temelja poljulalo sve stubove neoliberalnog kapitalizma. Međutim, neoliberalizam je
’’otvorio’’nacionalne privrede, učinio ih ranjivim i nezaštićenim za prodor zapadnog
kapitala i neviđenu eksloataciju reralnih dobara preko virtuelnog kapitala i dolara kao
nacionalnog i svetskog novca, bez bilo kakve realne osnove i pokrića. Bezvrednim
papirom kupovalo se po svetu sve do čega se dođe. U osnovi radi se o stvaranju
’’perifernih’’ država i privreda u interesu krupnog zapadnog finansijskog kapitala.
Neodgovorne i samoobmanjujuće tvrdnje da je ’’kriza naša šansa’’ i da će nas kriza
mimoići, samo potvrđuju ono što će se kasnije utvrditi, da se radi o ekonomskom
diletantizmu i sejanju iluzija nosilaca ekonomske politike.
Neoliberalna teorija, pod maskom monetarizma počela je da vrši uticaj u formi nove
ekonomske ortodoksije, koja reguliše javnu politiku, prihvativši ideju da kejnzijanizam
mora biti odbačen kako bi se ekonomika ponuda koristila za izlečenje privrede od
stagflacije. Centralne banke zajedno sa MMF postepeno napuštaju fiskalna
ograničenja i stroga budžetska pravila da bi se nova politika okrenula obuzdavanju
inflacije, ne obazirući se na posledice nezaposlenosti. Time je otpočela nova era
deregulacije svega i svačega u korist neograničenih tržišnih sloboda premoćnih
korporativnih interesa. Povećane su poreske olakšice za nove investicije radi
preusmeravanja kapitala ka višim stopama prinosa. Otvorena je institucionalna
praksa deindustrijalizacije i belosvetskog inostranog razmeštaja proizvodnih
kapaciteta bez sagledavanja posledica nove rastuće nezaposlenosti. Konkurencija i
inovacije postale su sredstvo u konsolidaciju monopolske moći sa najvećim
kresanjem direktnih poreza u istoriji čovečanstva.
Fleksibilni aranžmani tržišta rada omogućili su da svi benefiti, koji potiču iz rastuće
fleksibilnosti u alokaciji rada, odlaze na kapital. Nezaposlenost je rasla u skladu sa

- 228 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

neoliberalnom retorikom o dobrovoljnoj nezaposlenosti, koja raste zato što je


„rezervna cena“ radne snage previsoka.
Neoliberalni zaokret ekonomskih ideja svodio se na kompleknu fuziju monetarizma
(M. Fridmana), racionalnih očekivanja (R. Lucasa) , javnih izbora (Dž. Buchanan) i
ekonomije ponude (A. Laffera) kako bi se pokazalo i dokazalo da je državna
intervencija problem, a ne rešenje, i da je stabilna monetarna politika i radikalna
poreska skraćenja zasigurno proizvode zdravu privredu. Ove nove ideje podržavali
su svi prestižni univerziteti, koji su velikodušno finansirani sredstvima korporativnih
fondacija . Fakulteti , poslovne škole i instituti postali su centri neoliberalne
ortodoksije, koji su obučavali ekonomsite čitavog sveta, a naročito ekonomiste
zemalja u tranziciji i ekonomiste za MMF i Svetsku banku, kao institucijama
međunarodnih finansija. A to su bili ideali korporativnog liberalizma. Novoedukovani
kadrovi prodajom javne imovine povećali su budžet i reducirali gubitački balas javnog
sektra. Osmišena privatizacija sa smanjenjem troškova, kroz otpuštanje radnika,
stvoreni su podsticaji privatnom kapitalu; kreirana je poslovna klima u kojoj su
privatizacija i špekulativni prihodi išli ruku pod ruku kako bi se proširila lična i
korporativna odgovornost, i povećala individualna i korporativna inicijativa sa
inovacijama (radi konkurentske prednosti).
Neregulisana finansijalizacija sa deviznim špekulantima primorala je gotovo sve
vlade evropskih zemalja da olabave evropski mehanizam deviznog kursa i da ne
obrate pažnju na maglovitu i neistraženu ulogu hedž- fondova . Po Krugmanu hedž-
fondovi po pravilu špekulišu pozajmljenim sredstvima i privlače (navlače)
investitore. Kako je inače moguće da 25 menadžera hedž fondova zaradi oko 14.
milijardi dolara, što je tri puta više nego što zaradi 80.000 njujorških nastavnika
zajedno.
Deregulacija bankarstva, koja je proizvela špekulantske mehure u alokaciji kredita
na tržištu nekretnina i fiskalna politika skraćenja ličnih i korporativnih poreza (radi
podsticaja investicija) promenila su i misiju centralne banke , koja je do tada brinula
o očuvanju pune zaposlenosti , a od sada prešla na borbu protiv inflacije, odnosno
na makroekonomsku stabilnost.
Kolaps finansijskih mehura, izražen kroz poremećene cene aktive, kroz bekstvo
radne snage, kroz bekstvo kapitala i kroz interna bankrotstva doveo je do ozbiljne
depresije, koja je oborila privredni rast, snizila potrošnju i dvostruko povećala
nezaposlenost. Ekonomske ideje su putem međunarodne konvergencije utemeljile
neoliberalni program zasnovan na reduciranju fiskalnog deficita, na uravnoteženju
budžeta i na kontroli inflacije, zaobilazeći punu zaposlenost i pravičnu raspodelu
dohotka. Tako je neoliberalni program EU postao kamen temeljac makroekonomske
politike, koji se oslanjao na rastuću autonomiju, koheziju malih i srednjih preduzeća,
promenu uslova pozajmljivanja kapitala, lobiranje, mito, korupciju i involviranje u
izbore. Neoliberalzam ipak nije mogao funkcionisati bez univerzalne tendecije
uvećavanja društvene nejednakosti i rastiće marginalizacije, a da ne sakrije surovu
realnost narastanja klasne moći u glavnim finansijskim centrima globalnog
kapitalizma.
Ključnereči: globalizacija, finansijskakriza, ekonomskastabilnost.

- 229 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CHALLENGES OF


THE ECONOMIC STABILITY
Zarko Ristic
Univerzitet za poslovne studije, Banja Luka, Srpska Repulic, Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Milija Bogavac
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University “Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Belgrade, Serbia
Kristijan Ristic
Faculty of Business and Industrial Management, University “Union –
Nikola Tesla”, Belgrade, Serbia
kristijanristic.fpim@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Globalist (nominalistic) view of the world is a logical continuation of liberalization,
which is associated with the privatization of state (public) companies, increasing the
role of private sector and entrepreneurship by reducing state interference in the
economy (deregulation), increasing freedom of movement of finance and foreign
investments. Globalization is, therefore, a new starting point of the behavior of trans-
national corporations, changes in technology, production and distribution, economies
of scale, consumer behavior, liberalization of foreign trade and capital flows,
extensions of limits for locating companies and ignoring the importance of proximity
to raw materials, production and markets, and in particular, the economic role of
national borders. There is no culture, nor dialogue. The symbol of globalization is a
trans-national corporation to which even local governments are submissive because
of the foreign investments due to “global trend” of spreading pseudo-values.
Globalization as such crashes cathedrals of national values and national origin and
destroys the local communities in order to pave the path to global capitalism.
Globalization, however, can connect the national economy, to expand market access
to new technologies in production and distribution and to ensure foreign capital inflow.
In addition, globalization also brings bad luck, increases the vulnerability of
economically weaker, accelerates application for adjustment and modernization of
the economy, shows unpredictable movements in capital flows, contributes to
speculative attacks on the domestic currency, causes financial crisis, the rapid
transfer of production and employment from country to country, and increases the
economic and social vulnerability of small, developing countries.
Globalization offers perfidious conquest of power and control over capital. Therefore,
the invasion of the rich based on the economic unification is aligned with the trend of
a destructive capital accumulation. The instinct for enrichment leads to
totalitarianism, since wealth becomes a new aggression. But the point is that the

- 230 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

economy still has to be spiritualized because the poor should be protected. Equal
distribution of wealth is more ethical question, not just economic or social (although
the money had already become a religion). Globalism should not be a doctrine
pointing only in economic direction, because “use of man” strategy could occur. Then,
indeed, the Ethics and the Nature would be replaced by Politics and Profit, which
would push people into slavery of plastic thoughts. For the first time, mondialistic
intellectuals are not able to identify the owners of government capital, and their word
is losing the battle over the economic power.
At least three parallel processes marked the current era of global economy; those
are neo-liberalism, globalization and financialization. Gerald A. Epstein sees
financialization as a means to increase the role of financial motives, financial markets,
financial officers and financial institutions in the functioning of domestic and
international economies. In this context, it should be noted that the process of
financialization that started in the late 70's or early 80's, gradually shifted the gravity
of economic activity from manufacturing to finance, that is, in the sphere of higher
yields and “easier” profits, and therefore in the sphere of higher risks. According to
Epstein, the financialization means that financial markets become more prone to
speculation, leading to the phenomenon of blinded group or group behavior and
instability. The collapse of the financial bubble expressed through distorted asset
prices, through the escape of the workforce through capital flight and the internal
bankruptcy led to serious depression that destroyed economic growth, reduced
spending and increased unemployment.
Development cycle and privatization are the key levers of pulling the economy out of
the recession forced due to disinflation. Now, the focus is on development cycle and
performing stable growth on an ongoing basis. However, the restructuring of the
economy is not possible without integral transformation of ownership and adding a
fresh capital. The development cycle could integrate entrepreneurial and
infrastructure type. In theory of modeled development cycle, the entrepreneur is a
crucial point in the development cycle of the first type, which dominates businesses
in the predominant market conditions of prediction whose spiritus movens of business
is profit. The country is, however, the holder of another type of the development cycle,
which enables the development of infrastructural sectors as basic assumptions of the
development of the entire economy (although private entrepreneurs are not directly
financially interested in them). Both types of development cycles must be supported
by tax policy, especially if one restructures enterprises and the economy. For those
reasons, fiscal policy measures should stimulate investment in development projects
that guarantee, in the short and medium term, return on investment, investment in
export-oriented projects, investment in new technologies, investing in the
revitalization of the ecologic balance, investment in risk capital fund (which supports
the business of small and medium-sized enterprises), investments in the
transformation of parent companies and privatization, but also investment in
entrepreneurial spirit and managers. Beyond that there should be promotional role of
the state, which through innovative centers and agency institutions and project unit
“provides foreign private capital, ownership restructuring, financial support to small
and medium-sized enterprises, the tax and credit stimulate to short and medium term,
and moving the center of gravity from the energy and raw material development to a
highly productive and innovative technology-intensive projects with increasing export
and pulsing amelioration of the economic structure. Entrepreneurial and managerial
spirit reflected in the reduction of energy consumption and of raw materials and labor

- 231 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

costs per unit of output, raises labor productivity, the level of organization and
efficiency, to raise the necessary quality and design, and development of marketing
and advertising follow the above mentioned.
However, the new market competition must be accompanied by a new fiscal
competitiveness, which is expressed through tax reduction according to the logic of
“economics of offers (reduction in tax rates), which has positive-motivating effect
manifested by increasing the accumulation and productive investment, expanding
production capacities and increasing employment. Also, the re-allocation of
resources, as the essence of the entrepreneurial process, from smaller to greater
usage values must follow the re-allocation of the fiscal burden from larger to smaller
tax rates. So we come to conclusion that profit account, which is derived from the re-
allocation of resources with business risk, must follow the tax expense as a stimulator
to increase the effect of the business as a settlement to the risk taken.
At the present time, the mediators and non-mediators, workers and managers,
entrepreneurs and stockholders, employees and the unemployed would want to
influence tax policy, since rich people always tend to pay fewer taxes (while the poor
believe they are paying too much to a state). The same applies to individuals and
businesses. But that does not mean that tax policy should be unique, since the
transformation of the tax benefits serves diversity.
Modern global financial crisis, as it is usually referred to, is characterized by unseen
depth and complexity in global effects in economic history. Like any crisis so far, this
one emerged in the financial sphere too, but transferred to the entire real sector of
the world economy as a whole. The question arises: “Has the crisis occurred
intentionally (orchestrated in the US), or is it the result of tectonic disturbances in the
functioning of contemporary neoliberal (credit-market) system. Without going into
detailed analysis of the global crisis, it is undeniable that so far dominated (and
imposed) the neo-liberal and monetarist model reached its complete breakdown,
which fundamentally shook all the pillars of neoliberal capitalism. However,
neoliberalism “opened” national economies, made them vulnerable and unprotected
for the penetration of Western capital and the unprecedented exploitation of real
goods through virtual capital and the dollar as the national and global money without
any real basis or justification. Worthless paper was used for purchasing all over the
world. Basically it's about creating “peripheral” countries and the economies in the
interests of big western financial capital. Irresponsible and self-deceptive claims that
“the crisis is our chance” and that the crisis will bypass us, only confirms what was
later determined to be an economic dilettantism and sowing illusions of economic
policy.
The neo-liberal theory under the guise of monetarism began to influence the shape
of new economic orthodoxy, which regulates public policy, accepting the idea that
Keynesianism must be rejected in order for economic offer to be used to cure the
economy of stagflation. Central banks together with the IMF gradually abandoned
fiscal restraints and strict budget rules in order to turn a new policy against inflation,
ignoring the consequences of unemployment. Thus began a new era of deregulation
of everything in favor of the unlimited market freedom to more powerful corporate
interests. Tax incentives for new investment to divert capital towards higher rates of
return were increased. The institutional practice of de-industrialization and foreign
deployment of production capacity without considering the result of the new rising
unemployment was started. Competition and innovation has become a tool in the

- 232 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

consolidation of monopoly power with the biggest cuts in direct taxes in the history of
mankind.
Flexible labor market arrangements have enabled that all the benefits that stem from
the growing flexibility in the allocation of work, go to the capital. Unemployment rose
in line with neo-liberal rhetoric of voluntary unemployment, which is growing because
of the “reserved price” of labor force, which is too high.
The neoliberal turnaround of the economic ideas boiled down to a complex fusion of
monetarism (M. Friedman), rational expectations (R. Lucas), public choice (J.
Buchanan) and economics offer (A. Laffer) in order to demonstrate and prove that
the state intervention is the problem, not a solution, and that a stable monetary policy
and radical tax certainly produce healthy economy. These new ideas were supported
by prestigious universities generously financed by corporate foundations.
Universities, business schools and institutes have become centers of neoliberal
orthodoxy, which trained economists all over the world, especially in the countries in
transition and economists for the IMF and World Bank, as well as the institutions of
international finance. These were the ideals of corporate liberalism. Newly educated
staff increased budget by selling public assets and reduced losing streak of public
sector. Planned privatization with reduced costs through layoffs created incentives to
private capital; created a business climate in which privatization and speculative
income went hand in hand in order to expand personal and corporate responsibility,
and increase individual and corporate initiatives (for the competitive advantage).
Unregulated financialization with the foreign currency speculators forced almost all
European governments to loosen European mechanism of exchange rate and made
them not to pay attention to the vague and unexplored role of hedge funds. According
to Krugman, hedge funds as a rule, speculate with borrowed funds and attract
investors. That is the only way to explain how 25 hedge fund managers earn about
14 billion dollars, which is three times more than 80,000 New York City teachers earn
together.
Deregulation of banking, which produced speculative bubbles in the allocation of
credit to the real estate market and fiscal policy of shortening the personal and
corporate income tax (like investment incentives) have changed the mission of the
Central Bank, which had previously worried about the preservation of full
employment, and now has come to fight against inflation, and the macro-economic
stability.
The collapse of the financial bubbles expressed through distorted asset prices,
through the escape of the workforce through capital flight and the internal bankruptcy
led to serious depression, that decreased economic growth, reduced spending and
increased unemployment by factor two. Economic ideas justify neoliberal program
designed to reduce the fiscal deficit, balancing the budget and controlling inflation,
bypassing full employment and equitable income distribution through international
convergence. Thus, the neoliberal program has become a cornerstone of EU
macroeconomic policies that relied on the growing autonomy, cohesion of small and
medium enterprises, changing the terms of lending capital, lobbying, bribery,
corruption and involvement in the elections. Neoliberalism still could not function
without the universal tendency of increasing social inequality and the growing
marginalization, not to conceal the harsh reality of growing class power in the major
financial centers of global capital.
Key words: globalization, financial crisis, economic stability.

- 233 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

ALATI I ORGANIZACIONI ASPEKTI KRIZNOG MENADŽMENTA


Saška Sekulić
Fakultet zaštite na radu u Nišu, Niš
saskapan@gmail.com

REZIME
Krizni menadžment je skup procesa koji imaju za cilj da identifikuju moguće krizne
situacije koje će organizaciji omogućiti da spreči krizu ili da sa njom upravlja. Krizni
menadžment se može posmatrati kao proces i kao institucija. Kao proces on
obuhvata faze planiranja, sprovođenja i kontrole. U funkcionalnom smislu on
predstavlja vođenje preduzeća koje teži za ciljem da preduzeće izvede iz krize i da
ga učini dugoročno sposobnim za opstanak. Posmatran kao institucija krizni
menadžment podrazumeva osobe koje kao zastupnici vlasnika preduzeća ili snagom
zakona vode preduzeće u krizi sa ciljem njegovog saniranja. Oba načina posmatranja
kriznog menadžmenta je od značaja za efikasno upravljanje. Na taj način
organizacija će moći da prevaziđe i minimizira posledice krize i da se brže vrati u
normalno stanje. Krizni menadžment treba shvatiti kao posebnu formu upravljanja
preduzećem čiji je zadatak da savlada takve procese koji mogu bitno da ugroze ili
onemoguće dalji opstanak preduzeća, obuhvatajući seriju tekućih, međusobno
povezanih procena ili ispitivanja vrsta kriza i snaga koje mogu predstavljati veliku
opasnost za samo preduzeće, proizvode, usluge, zaposlene, okruženje i zajednicu.
Dakle, praktični i naučni značaj izučavanja kriznog menadžmenta i donošenja odluka
u kriznim situacijama van je svake sumnje. Naučni značaj istraživanja krize ogleda
se u prevazilaženju jaza između teoretskih i istraživačkih perspektiva različitih
disciplina, kao i jaza između stvarnog života i eksperimentalnog ambijenta.
Krizni menadžment se primenjuje se uglavnom u uslovima organizacionog haosa,
pod pritiskom brojnih medija, u stresnim okolnostima i nedostatku preciznih
informacija. Značaj kriznog menadžmenta uvidele su privredna i društvena
preduzeća u razvijenim zemljama. Pojedine privatne kompanije posebnu pažnju
posvećuju upravljanju krizama prepoznajući to kao veoma važnu funkciju i deo
organizacije. Sa druge strane državni organi razvijaju kapacitete za upravljanje
krizama putem osnivanja posebnih ministarstava (npr. Ministarstvo za katastrofe u
Rusiji) ili državnih agencija (npr. Federalna Krizna Menadžment Agencija u SAD) i sl.
Proces kriznog menadžmenta ne počinje u trenutku kada je problem objektivno
nastao nego kada je, kao takav, uočen od strane nadležnih organa u preduzeću i/ili
drugih. Tu se javlja generalna problematika svakog kriznog menadžmenta,
pravovremena identifikacija krize preduzeća. Pri nepravovremenoj identifikaciji krize
neiskorišćavaju se sve manevarske mogućnosti tokom vremena zbog čega se uviđa

- 234 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

značaj specifičnih informacija, pored analiza i prognoza, koje treba na vreme da


opomenu na latentnu krizu preduzeća, ali i na pojavu abnormalnih kriza. Abnormalne
krize nisu česta pojava, u većini slučajeva do nje se ne dolazi, ali njihova razorna
moć je velika ukoliko do nje dođe zbog čega je potrebno posebno izučavati. Dok su
normalne krize preovladavale osamdesetih, abnormalne su postale izraženije
devedesetih godina, zbog čega one danas uzimaju veliki značaj u proučavanju. To
je uslovilo nužnost iznalaženja alata za upravljanje ovim vrstama kriza.
Upravljanje ovakvim abnormalnim krizama iziskuje poštovanje sopstvenih principa.
Principi kriznog menadžmenta sagledavaju faze poput ograničavanja (sprečavanja),
pripreme, odgovora i oporavaka na određenu krizu. Na osnovu principa kriznog
menadžmenta uočava se sličnost sa principima upravljanja vanrednim situacijama.
Međutim razlika postoji u samim pojmovima. Ključni elementi za razlikovanje
vanredne situacije od krize su jasnoća prirode, karaktera i dimenzija događaja koji
postoje kod vanredne situacije a kod kriza ne. Vanredna situacija se uglavnom rešava
rutinskim procedurama u okviru postojećih kapaciteta organizacije (zajednice) za
razliku od krize. Takođe, ako odgovor na vanrednu situaciju prevazilazi kapacitete
institucije i pri tom izaziva znatna oštećenja tada vanredna situacija prelazi u krizu.
Dakle postoje neminovne razlike između ova dva pojma i ako sadrže podjednake
principe upravljanja. Pored opštih principa, postoje i određene specifičnosti koje se
odnose na upravljanje pojedinim vrstama kriza poput prirodne katastrofe, tehnološke
katastrofe, krize konfrontacije, zlonamerni akti, poremećene vrednosti
menadžmenta, akti obmane i loše upravljanje menadžmenta na koje ukazuje
Lebringer.
Nakon završetka svake krize treba da usledi proces učenja iz proteklog događaja
uzimajući u obzir poteškoće koje se tom prilikom javljaju. Na osnovu toga krizni
menadžeri moraju da prilagode raspoložive alate kriznog menadžmenta
specifičnostima pojedinih vrsta kriza. Ono nije nimalo lako budući da je za većinu ljudi
teško zamislivo da bi neko želeo da uništi njihovu organizaciju i poslovanje čak i kad
to podrazumeva ljudske žrtve. Na primer napad na Svetski trgovinski centar naterao
je mnoge kompanije da ,,misle o nezamislivom“ i prisile svoje zaposlene da prošire
vlastiti vidokrug kada su u pitanju krize. Sami alati imaju svrhu da uspostave i razviju
procese učenja koje kod menadžera stvara mentalne kapacitete, samopouzdanje i
fleksibilnost u susretu sa abnormalnim krizama.Neke organizacije pripremaju se za
abnormalne krize tako što o njima razmišljaju nasumično. To može biti efektivno
budući da je većina menadžera zaokupljena konvencionalnim kriznim planiranjem
tako da ni ne znaju kako da zamisle neuobičajene opasnosti, ili su pak u stanju da ih
analiziraju samo na ograničen način.
U cilju minimiziranja posledica krize značajan je i organizacioni aspekt odnosno
komponovanje tima za upravljanje krizama kako bi on bio što efikasniji uz nužno
poštovanje najvažnijih etičkih principa. Krizni menadžment kao funkcija javnih vlasti
ima različite organizacione oblike na lokalnom, regionalnom i nacionalnom

- 235 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

(centralnom) nivou u svakoj zemlji. Proaktivne kompanije uspostavljaju posebno


odeljenje za krizni menadžment ili krizni centar čiji šef odgovara najvišem
rukovodstvu. Brojnim nadležnostima poput dizajniranje portfolija kriza i scenarija
kriza, praćenje i pojačavanje signala ranog upozorenja i upozoravanje nadležnih
rukovodilaca i slično, rukovodeća tela, bilo da je u pitanju privatan ili društveni sektor,
postižu efikasnije upravljanje krizom, odnosno efikasnijim kriznim menadžmentom. Iz
perspektive kriznog menadžmenta organizacija se smatra odgovornom, zajedno sa
kriznim timom, za etičko ponašanje i vlastiti ugled, ne samo tokom krize već i pre
nego što ona nastupi. U tom smislu obaveze i odgovornosti organizacije ogledaju se
u periodičnom ažuriranju kriznog plana, učenju i savladavanju novih veština kriznog
tima, ponovnom razmatranju kriznih portfolija i poboljšavanju sistema kriznog
komuniciranja.
Važnost alata i organizacionih aspekata za efikasno upravljanje krizom, odnosno za
efikasan krizni menadžment, je neminovan. Iz tih razloga rad će biti posvećen upravo
ovim aspektima kriznog menadžmenta. Opisani aspekti imaće za cilj da se prevaziđe
jaz između teoretskih i istraživačkih perspektiva različitih disciplina, kao i jaz između
stvarnog života i eksperimentalnog ambijenta, koristeći se primerima scenarija nekih
od organizacija. Takođe, davanjem određenih predloga scenarija, pokušaće se
ukazati na ranjivost pojedinih organizacija u Republici Srbiji i značaj za uvođenje
kriznog menadžmenta u organizaciju preduzeća.
Ključne reči: krizni menadžment, alati kriznog menadžmenta, organizacioni aspekti
kriznog menadžmenta, krizni tim

- 236 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

TOOLS AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF CRISIS


MANAGEMENT
Saska Sekulic
Fakultet zastite na radu u Nisu, Nis, Serbia
saskapan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Crisis management is a set of processes which aim to identify potential crises that
will enable an organization to prevent the crisis or to manage it. Crisis management
can be seen as a process and institution. As a process it includes planning,
implementation and control. Functionally, it represents a corporate management that
tends to carry the company out of the crisis and make it fit for long-term survival.
Crisis management as an institution includes persons who advocate the business
owner or the force of law to managed the company in crisis situations with the aim to
its rehabilitation. Both methods of observation of crisis management are important for
efficient management. In this way the organization will be able to overcome and
minimize the consequences of the crisis and to quickly return to normal state. Crisis
management should be seen as a special form of company management whose task
is to overcome such processes which may can threaten and disable the further
survival of the company. Therefore, practical and scientific significance of studying
crisis management and decision making in crisis situations outside the doubt of its
importance. The importance of the scientific research of the crisis is reflected in
overcoming the gap between the theoretical and research perspectives of different
disciplines, as well as the gap between real life and the experimental environment.
Crisis management is applied mainly in terms of organizational chaos, under the
pressure of numerous media, in stressful circumstances and the lack of precise
information. The economic and social companies in developed countries have
realized the importance of crisis management. Some private companies pay special
attention to crisis management, recognizing it as an important part of the function and
organization. On the other hand, national authorities develop the capacity to manage
crises through the establishment of specific ministries (e.g. Ministry for disasters in
Russia) or government agencies (e.g. The Federal Emergency Management Agency
in the US) etc. The process of crisis management does not begin at the moment
when the problem is incurred objectively, but when the problem is observed by a
supervisor in a company. There arises a general problem of any crisis management,
the right time identification of crisis companies. For untimely identification of crisis,
the advantage of all the possibilities of maneuvering over time cannot be taken, which
is why it important that specific information is recognized, next to analyzes and

- 237 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

prognoses, which should be done on time, in order to warn and alarm the companies
of latent crisis. Abnormal crisis is not common in most, but their destructive power is
great once they happen, and therefore it is necessary to study them separately. While
the normal crises prevailed in the eighties, in the nineties they became more
abnormal, which is why today they are taking great importance in the study. This
caused the necessity of finding tools for managing these kinds of crises.
Management of these abnormal crisis requires respect for our own principles.
Principles of crisis management includes phases such as restricting (preventing),
preparation, response to and recovery from a particular crisis. Based on the principles
of crisis management there were noticed the similarities between the principles of
emergency management. Among these principles, there is a difference in the very
terms. The key elements for distinguishing the emergency situations from crisis
situations are the clarity of the nature, character and dimension of events that exist
in emergency situations, and in case of a crisis situation they do not exist. Emergency
situation is generally solved by routine procedures within the existing capacity of the
organization (community) as opposed to the crisis. Also, if the response to the
emergency situation exceeds the capacity of institutions and thereby causes
substantial damage then the emergency situation becomes a crisis. Therefore, there
are inevitable differences between these two concepts although they have equal
management principles. In addition to general principles, there are certain specifics
that relate to the management of certain types of crises such as natural disasters,
technological disasters, crises confrontation, malicious acts, impaired value
management, acts of deception and mismanagement, to which Lebringer indicates.
After the end of each crisis, follows a process of learning from the past events, taking
into account the difficulties appeared during the crisis. Based on that crisis managers,
we must adapt the available crisis management tools to the specifics of individual
types of crisis. It is not easy since it is very difficult for people to imagine that anyone
would want to destroy their organization and work even when it involves human
sacrifice. For example, the attack on the World Trade Center led many companies to
think the unthinkable" and force their employees to broaden their own horizons when
it comes to the crisis. The tools themselves have the purpose to establish and
develop the processes of learning among managers, by creating mental capacity,
confidence and flexibility in the cases when they face the abnormal crises. Some
organizations prepare for abnormal crisis by thinking about them. This can be
effective, since most managers are preoccupied with conventional emergency
planning, so they do not even know how to imagine unusual danger, or to be able to
analyze them only in a limited way.
In order to minimize the consequences of the crisis, the organizational aspects and
the team is very significant for crisis management, in order to be as efficient as
possible. Crisis management as a function of the public authorities have different
organizational forms of local, regional and national (central) level in each country.
Proactive companies have established a special department for crisis management

- 238 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

or crisis center which correspond to the head of the top management. A number of
responsibilities, such as designing a portfolio of crises and crisis scenarios,
monitoring and enhancing early warning signals and warning of competent managers
and the like, governing bodies, whether it is a private or public sector, achieve more
efficient management of the crisis, and effective crisis management. From the
perspective of crisis management, the organization is considered as responsible,
together with the crisis team, for ethical behavior, not only during the crisis but before
it occurs. In that purport the obligations and responsibilities of an organization are
reflected in periodical updating of the crisis plan, educations and mastering of new
skills of the crisis team, reviewing crisis portfolios and improving the system of crisis
communications.
The importance of tools and organizational aspects for effective crisis management
is inevitable. For these reasons, this paper will be devoted to these aspects of crisis
management. The described aspects will aim to bridge the gap between the
theoretical and research perspectives of different disciplines, as well as the gap
between real life and the experimental environment, using examples of scenarios of
some organizations. Also, by providing specific proposal scenarios, the vulnerability
of certain organizations in the Republic of Serbia and the importance of the
introduction of crisis management in the organization of the companies will be pointed
out.

Key words: crisis management, tools of crisis management, organizational aspects


of crisis management, crisis team

- 239 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

THE BALLANCE BETWEEN PROFESSION AND CAREER


Tetyana Shterma
Private Higher Educational Institutions "Bukovina University",
Chernivtsi, Ukraine
sht.tatjana@gmail.com
Svitlana Pelypchuk
Private Higher Educational Institutions "Bukovina University",
Chernivtsi, Ukraine
svetapelipchuk@mail.ru

RESUME
The world in which we live is constantly evolving and growing. Therefore, the
essential thing for long term business success is learning and professional growth of
employees. There are plenty of ways for career development of talented people. Each
employee is personally responsible for identifying new opportunities and determines
his own career path, but definitely he should receive full support and assistance.
Career – is a successful promotion in public, service, research and other activities. It
is an integral part of the way of life of a person who wants to be successful in life. To
organize your career, you need to learn to allocate your time and energy, to be able
to choose the needed goals to set objectives.
From the organizational point of view career is a set of interrelated decisions about
individual choice of a variant of the future, based on the opportunities that are open
to it, overcoming differences between the actual and desired official position.
Whereas these decisions are made under conditions of lack of information, subjective
evaluation of yourself and circumstances, lack of time or emotional instability, they
are not always consistent, rational, targeted, and justified.
XXI century put the meaning of the word "career" to a new level. Building a career in
the modern world is a prerequisite for self-realization in professional activities. It is
difficult to imagine a successful and stable company that would not be announced
career opportunities. Even harder to imagine a professional who would not have
dreamed of a position of head of department, company, holding. In the depths of
these aspirations was born such often used the word "careerist". For many, it has a
negative connotation, implying that unprincipled man, indifferent to the interests of
colleagues and company but for professional staffing market it is rather a positive
characteristic.
Of course, there are many aspects of a career, and they play a primary role in the
career development of young professionals. But the result is worth it: the success in

- 240 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

the profession - is primarily the success of you as a personality, it's your professional
and personal fulfillment. Climbing the career ladder has never been an easy thing,
especially in the present conditions of constant growth companies. The labor market
in Ukraine is gradually approaching the world standards, mastering new laws in the
field of employment and personnel management.
Professional experience - one of the most important areas of personal fulfillment. This
is where man discovers and reveals their skills, personal and professional qualities.
Moreover, professional activities, like no other, allow a person to feel their importance
to others, to society in general and get some compensation from it. Career is played
a special role in the professional work as a process of conscious realization
"professional or official promotion" that contributes to a person of a certain status,
which guarantees professional affirmation. On the one hand, career development
means that a person can realize himself as a subject of society, on the other - that
his activities are highly appreciated enough by others. Therefore, career is an
incentive to becoming a professional worker and development of his own potential,
career success largely depends on the efficiency of the first steps in education and
professional activities.
Successful career planning requires the participation of three concerned parties:
 The company responsible for creating conditions that promotes individual
development, learning and training employees in the working and non-
working hours. This allows employees to acquire the necessary professional
skills, get information about the possibilities of career progression in other
areas and use these features. Most newly hired employees have to start their
career from the lowest positions;
 The principal performs functions of a catalyst that stimulates implementation
of evidence-based planning for the future. In addition, the principle, knowing
the organization of work, can indicate the correct direction for the employee
with regard to the needs of the company. The principal also knows the
capabilities of his employees and takes into account their aspirations. Finally,
the principle is constantly in contact with subordinates and informs them of
the change in the company's needs and the impact of these changes on
professional growth. Leader encourages his subordinates properly evaluates
their work and provide advice;
 Employee plays the most important role. He should assess his strengths and
weaknesses, and be able to determine how and why he reached the present
state. Finally, the worker must determine the next step in his career
development, ways to assess progress and make the plan of possible future
steps.
The basis of the career planning can be assigned on the following methods:
1. Method of specification values. This method allows to determine the most
important life and labor interests. Such factors as prestige, company location,
diversity, the presence of stress, stimulate intellectual activity, authorities

- 241 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

examined and classified in terms of their relevance to humans.


2. Methods of identifying the level of job satisfaction. This technique is designed
to submit employee information on several activities that give him pleasure.
The employee also answers questions which purpose is to find out why a
particular activity gives him pleasure. Destination - determine the type of
preferred by specific employee.
3. The personal development and the importance of the work. This is a series
of techniques that a person can use to assess the importance of individual
elements. This takes into account factors such as professional development,
the emergence of new problems, new opportunities, a sense of belonging to
an important cause.
Managers need to understand that some subordinates fully satisfy the current
position and type of work performed. Such workers should never be subordinated to
focus on professional development and career. Simultaneously, the manager must
inform them about the additional opportunities that may be available to them.
The main thing in choosing of ways of promotion (career) is a human understanding
of influencing factors of promoting not just factors and personality but how they are
interacting. Head manager should be able to identify the needs of the employee and
the employee should have an idea of his existing and potential abilities to express
them in the future.
Consequently, the career and promotion should be based on the total participation of
both parties and on their shared responsibility for "their own" part of the process.
Career is not only determining the success or failure, as the proper sense of the
person. It has an internal attitude and behavior, a gradual change of skills, abilities
and professional opportunities associated with the activity.
"The philosophy of development" is simple: everyone is a master of his career and
gets the most benefit from active management of his activities.
The amendments expand humans’ outlook, open up new prospects, and give
opportunities to receive training, so that experts should be given opportunities to
participate in projects and short-term business trips abroad. As a result, the person
receives the maximum benefit, acquires experience with other categories of
customers, exploring new industry for themselves, starts a new life and immersed in
another culture. Each employee can be confident that the company will find the best
opportunity for his career.
Thus, career determines not only the success or failure, it has an internal attitude and
behavior, a gradual change of skills, abilities and professional opportunities
associated with the activity.
All in all for making career it is necessary to have professional skills, knowledge,
experience, persistence and some element of luck.

- 242 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

SYSTEM OF RANKING POSITIONS OF THE PERSONNEL AS A


FACTOR OF INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISE
ACTIVITY
Ekaterina Sidorenko
Russian State University for the Humanities Domodedovo Branch,
Domodedovo, Russia
esid-137@yandex.ru
Mariya Ferafontova
Russian State University for the Humanities Domodedovo Branch,
Domodedovo, Russia
kmv1980@yandex.ru

RESUME
Building any effective system of remuneration must begin with understanding of what
positions exist in the enterprise, how they compare with each other, as one
department can be compared with another division, or construct a hierarchy of posts.
This is achieved through evaluation and ranking of positions in the organization. The
purpose of the evaluation system and ranking of posts is to establish a clear,
understandable and manageable system of basic salaries.
Rating and ranking of posts gives the opportunity to make the wage system objective;
transparent, clear and managed.
Grade (band or grade) is the minimum unit of distinction from the point of view of
payment. This means that posts that fall in one grade, the difference in pay is
insignificant, how small is the difference of their "weights" or grades. The range of
pay for posts at the same grade can be called a tariff. It can be divided into pay grades
- a minimum unit of discernment of payment for posts.
Grading solves the following tasks:
 ranking of works of importance to the organization;
 billing (definition of wages) on the basis of importance of a specific job or
position for the organization. It allows you to pay not only the market value of
the employee, but the importance of his work for the company. Billing is a
career tool, and method of cost planning and personnel organization.
Because the grades are combined they are similar in content and different
hierarchical level of the post, it gives you the opportunity to "bind" to different
grades in different levels of additional financial and non-financial incentives:

- 243 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

differences in the scope and content of the social packages, benefits for
different categories of employees, etc.
 motivation. For this to be a career running motivation for job candidates - the
motivation of attraction. For example, in the enterprise, which is engaged in
programming and intellectual development, for managers will be a grade of
IT staff as the main earning and profitable, and only then will host the grade
servants (lawyers, managers, etc.)
There are three types of ranks, they are presented in table 1.
Table 1 The types of ranks in the enterprise

The types of ranks Definition

Vertical rank A numeric indicator that represents important characteristics of the


position: management level, level of tolerance, the nature of internal
and external communication

Horizontal rank A numeric indicator that identifies opportunities for professional growth,
an employee in the position. When the appointment is assigned rank
0. To assign the next grade must receive training and successfully pass
the test

Consolidated rank A numerical indicator representing a combination of horizontal and


vertical grades, specified in the format XY, where X is the vertical
grade, Y - grade horizontal

The definition of the consolidated rank of a matrix, and a private office. Consolidated
rank matrix post / private posts is a numerical indicator representing a combination
of vertical and horizontal forks of ranks specified in the format X1-Y, where X is the
vertical grade, Y - grade horizontal.
The consolidated rank of private posts is determined on the basis of the composite
rank of the matrix positions. The combined rank of the matrix positions is determined
by calculation. The basis of determining the vertical rank is job assessment on three
General parameters:
 the management level;
 communications;
 security clearance.
Once all positions in the enterprise are described, they are grouped. In the future,
assesses, and on the basis of assigned grades. The purpose of this procedure is the
appointment of a fair and competitive remuneration. For this purpose, the results are
not only internal evaluation, but also labor-market data. For these purposes it is
proposed to use nationwide surveys. It is necessary to clear the entire staff into
categories and assign each of them a position in the market in accordance with the
data of external research, including salary survey.
Source of information for analysis must be:
 job descriptions of employees;

- 244 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 consultation with managers or educational leaders.


To optimize the system of ranking positions of the company personnel must take the
following steps.
1. Development of complete package of documents regulating the
implementation of proposals for optimization of the system of ranking
positions, including the basic concept.
2. The formation of the Expert group on preparation of offers on optimization of
the system of ranking positions. Explanation and study of all of its members
with the methods.
3. The ongoing job evaluation and their functionality. Involving representatives
of these positions, conducting interviews with them, preparation of
questionnaires, etc.
4. The requirements for various posts. Clarification of the factors.
5. Ranking of factors by levels.
6. The score of each level.
7. Evaluation weight factors.
8. The calculation of the number of points for each post.
9. The distribution of scores according to grades.
10. The establishment of salaries and calculation of tax "brackets".
11. Analysis of the results.
Best results can be obtained with the introduction in the enterprise is not only the
practice of the use of grades, but also supplement the system of key indicators of
efficiency indicators of rank of positions which will help optimally balance the ratio
between constant and variable part of wages of the employee. The optimal ratio
between fixed and variable part for most employees is 60% first and 40% second.
However, the optimization of grading system at the enterprise is not finished. After
analyzing all of the options presented in the industry market compensation,
management has a certain way to position the company, i.e. to decide whether the
salary is average, below or above the average level. This takes into account strategic
business objectives, and financial resources.
Tasks that can be solved by means of optimization of grading in the enterprise:
1. Personnel:
 The elimination of the state enterprise "lazy" employees who are accustomed
not to earn money, and get.
 Understanding the business processes of an enterprise, and, consequently,
improving employee engagement. Grading makes the atmosphere at the
company is transparent and clear. This affects the involvement of employees
in achieving common goals, and according to research, the profits of
companies with a high level of employee engagement is 2.5 times higher
than the competition.

- 245 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

 Increase the level of motivation as a consequence of the previous factor.


 Obtaining a convenient instrument for determining the base salary of the
newly introduced positions.
 Comparison of level of payments of the enterprise with the market average
and bringing it to a competitive level.
 Determination of the mechanism and the size of bonuses or penalties.
 The employee gets a clear understanding of the possibilities of its
development in the company, and, in most cases, ceases to feel
undervalued.
 The grading system can become the locomotive of improving the
professional level of the personnel.
- Increasing the attractiveness of HR-brand. Candidates when choosing an
employer more and more interested in the existence of a grading on a par
with having health insurance, career opportunities, etc.
2. Management:
 Optimization of the management structure. Grading helps to optimize the
organizational structure.
 Elimination of duplicate functions.
 Integration of various units in holding structures.
 Improving the investment attractiveness and transparency.
3. Financial:
 Optimization of expenditure of the wage Fund by 20% on average. Through
the creation of a compensation system based on grading system,
optimization of staff costs, resulting in savings of 10 to 50%.
 Tools to track personnel costs.
 Determining the value of each position to the company.

- 246 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

METHODS, MODELS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DECISION


MAKING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS WITH SPECIAL
EMPHASIS ON THE BANKING SECTOR
Daliborka Simonovska
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, “Ss Cyril
and Methodius” University, Skopje, Macedonia
Simonovska.daliborka@gmail.com
Nevenka Kiteva Rogleva
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, “Ss Cyril
and Methodius” University, Skopje, Macedonia
nkiteva@feit.ukim.edu.mk

RESUME
The goals for the processing of the research project entitled "Methods, models and
techniques for decision making in the management of projects, with special emphasis
on the banking sector" is presented by: the importance which is given to the project
management process or the overall management of the projects as a manner of
keeping the enterprise on the desired path to success on one hand, and the decision-
making related to the development and implementation of projects on the other; and
the lack of extensive and rich literature that pays enough attention to these two
processes as a unity, which is necessary to perform the job successfully and
according to the plans of an organization.
The management of projects would not give the desired results if it is not guided by
the decision making process. Without following the rules of the decision-making
process we would only get the idea of a successful project but its successful
implementation would remain only a concept.
In popular literature, first and foremost a detailed explanation and separation of the
terms project management and project is given. Their significance and their role is
explained primarily as an element in the life of every individual and then as an
indispensable part of the operation of any establishment whose main goal is the
satisfaction of their customers and staff, and achieving profitability.
The next element is the decision-making process, its definition and its importance for
the success of an enterprise, following in detail how the decision-making process is
an indispensable part of the successful execution of a project. Next a brief analysis
is given of the possible situations in which the project manager and the project team
would be forced to make decisions and what results would it generate, or an

- 247 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

elaboration of a situation where they are to address this problem not by analyzing
and defining alternative and final decisions but rather through hasty and quick
solutions. This phase of the project will be represented by some more general cases,
typical of the selected industry, which will examine the actions of those who have
greater responsibility and authority in the project against those who do not have such
great responsibilities and authority to directly and independently influence the
process of project management and the process of decision-making. Following the
development of the most famous methods, models and techniques which are used is
explained, their advantages and disadvantages as well as in which situation their
usage would be most appropriate.
No matter how much attention is paid to the theory which addresses these two
processes, it will not be enough until the process is presented through a practical
example of how the major institutions in their daily operations deal with the way how
they use decisions to manage their projects. This is why this paper will cover all
methodologies used for decision-making in the process of project management at a
major bank in the Republic of Macedonia.
The findings on the functioning of this process are obtained through analysis and
research work of the department which is responsible for the management and
implementation of all projects. The analysis is conducted prior to the commencement
and during the project that the project team is working on, that is the migration to the
new system R15.
This paper is based primarily on my direct participation in the project as part of the
project team, interviews with the top management, the project manager and team
members, as well as through surveys mainly answered by members who have the
biggest stake in the decision-making process during the entire project.
Mostly the research and questions are directed at what methods and techniques are
used to arrive at a certain decision, if there is any information that will ease the
process, whether they referred back to similar situation from the past and the like.
As quoted by the practice, all decisions (no matter whether if it is financial, or election
of the members of the project team) will be adopted in accordance with certain
procedures and laws which are in turn selected and defined by the organization in
accordance with its needs and above all its objectives.
The organization itself has adopted its own rules under which prior to the start of a
project predetermined procedures are used for determining the needs of the project,
the team members, its activities and responsibilities, further dividing the team into
smaller teams following areas of action, etc. These policies and procedures are
changed depending on the nature of the project.
The selected and presented set of models and techniques are precisely the ones
used by the bank exclusively for these types of projects. This does not mean that
they could not be used for other projects, however in order to facilitate their work on

- 248 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

the different types of projects they have created a different set of techniques which
are used, and according to the needs of the project are modified and supplemented.
The choice for this project was reduced to a few models, models and techniques.
Some of them are:

 SWOT analysis – through which we perceive the pros and cons of the project,
what can be used as an opportunity, what deserves more attention, and towards
what should the negative impact be redirected to;
 Charts – normally used to display a comparison which should help to secure the
approval for the idea of starting a project. Charts are usually used to show the
benefits (financial performance, the increasing-decreasing number of
customers, etc.);
 Tree diagrams – this technique belongs to a package of assorted techniques
because it allows you to see each component of a problem, every idea and
opportunity or the ability to perceive the capabilities of a candidate, his thinking,
decisions, etc.; and

 Surveys and interviews with the employees - though not typical and essential
tool for decision making, it plays a major role in the execution of a project. Usually
this is a method that is used initially before the official launch of the project and
in the end to examine how all stakeholders are satisfied with the new system
and the new and improved functionalities.
Through these answers and analyses one can come to a crucial moment which also
represents the importance of project management first, and then its weakness
without the process of making realistic, timely and accurate decisions. How these
decisions help transform a problem into a huge opportunity and thus result in amazing
profit performance.
Out of this analysis a conclusion can be derived that also represents the result
through which it can be seen how the decision – making process changes the
direction of a project – from complete uncertainty, insecurity and possible loss to a
project that abounds with information and security in the end, as well as achieving
satisfactory profit levels.

- 249 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

CJELOŽIVOTNO UČENJE I VRIJEDNOST OBRAZOVANJA


Ana Skledar Ćorluka
Veleučilište Baltazar, Zaprešić
a.skledar.corluka@bak.hr
Sendi Deželić
Veleučilište Baltazar, Zaprešić
sendi.dezelic@bak.hr
Helena Štimac
Ekonomski fakultet Osijek, Sveučilišta Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u
Osijeku, Osijek
stimac.helena@gmail.com

REZIME
U današnje vrijeme tehnoloških promjena, ekonomski čimbenici potiču nas da radimo
na sebi, da se razvijamo jer životni vijek se znatno produžio isto kao i radni vijek.
Starenje stanovnika istovremeno stvara teškoće i prilike. Ono povećava pritisak za
povećanje javne potrošnje, ali isto tako i smanjuje gospodarski rast. Ne postoji razlog
da svoje iskustvo na poslu i kasnije u mirovini ne upotpunimo specifičnim znanjima.
Današnje generacija predstavlja društvo inovacija, informacija te informatizacija, kao
i multikulturalno društvo željno novog načina rada i pristupa postizanju uspjeha. Da
bismo se uhvatili u koštac sa svim novinama potrebno je prilagoditi se promjenama,
a promjene većini ljudi teško padaju. Ukoliko ne želimo da nas ovo moderno vrijeme
pregazi potrebno je okrenuti se novim načinima učenja i stjecanja određenih
kompetencija. Mlađe generacije već su zahvaćene novim valom učenja. U današnje
vrijeme sve je popularniji timski rad još od najranijih faza obrazovanja, također tu se
spominje i kreativni rad koji je nezaobilazan dio svih institucija koje žele pružati svojim
učenicima veću vrijednost i na kraju vrlo bitno je spomenuti e-učenje, zahvaljujući
kojem je učenje postalo dostupno apsolutno svakoj osobi željnoj znanja. Iz svega
spomenutog javio se koncept cjeloživotnog učenja koji je uzeo znatnog maha kod
osoba neovisno o životnoj dobi. Cilj rada je ukazati na važnost obrazovanja i na
koristi koje nam donosi cjeloživotno učenje. Obrazovanje je uvijek bilo važna
odrednica kako za pojedinca tako i za narod u cjelini. Znanja, vještine, kreativnost,
odgoj, komunikativnost, stjecanje identiteta, profesionalne i stručne kompetencije,
koje se razvijaju kroz proces obrazovanja, glavni su faktori koji se odražavaju na
osobnost, uspjeh, zapošljavanje i u konačnici, prosperitet društva. Koristi od
obrazovanja za pojedinca (i društvo) su dalekosežni. Svi napori na poboljšanju
kvalitete tog istog obrazovanja pomiču granice ljudskog znanja i osnova su ljudskog
napretka. Ono obrazuje i osposobljava naciju za doba u kojem dominira znanje.

- 250 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Stoga se često koristi sintagma „društvo znanja“ koja upućuje na ulogu znanja kao
najvažnijeg suvremenog resursa. Korisnicima obrazovne usluge daje osjećaj
osobnog i intelektualnog postignuća. Dostupnost i kvaliteta obrazovanja pokazatelj
je stupnja uključenosti u društvo, njegovog napretka, pozicioniranja, konkurentnosti,
prosperiteta i sl. U svijetu koji obilježava sveopća konkurencija i u kojem se sve brzo
mijenja, uloga obrazovanja u osposobljavanju radne snage (na svim razinama), u
poticanju inovativnosti, podržavanju konkurentnosti i obogaćivanju kvalitete života je
dominantna. Koristi koje dobivamo od kvalitetnog obrazovanja su dalekosežne. Ako
bismo analizirali razloge uspjeha visokorazvijenih zemalja danas mogli bismo
zaključiti da je većina njih svoj ekonomski razvoj temeljila i temelji na kvaliteti
obrazovanja te prilagodbi obrazovanja potrebama i zahtjevima suvremenog tržišta.
Proučavajući obrazovanje u prošlosti uviđamo težnju da se obrazovanjem oblikuje
dobar, mudar i skladan čovjek, dok je politika društva uvjetovala tko će biti obrazovan.
Devetnaesto je stoljeće obrazovanjem težilo k razvoju svestrano harmonično–
obrazovane osobe, građaninu demokratu, dok se u dvadesetom stoljeću pojavio
zahtjev ka razvoju sveobuhvatne osobnosti. Tijekom 19. i 20. stoljeća razvio se
moderni obrazovni sustav. Građanstvo se zanimalo za više stupnjeve obrazovanja
poput gimnazija i sveučilišta jer je diploma omogućavala vodeći položaj u državi.
Industrija, znanost i tehnologija donijeli su goleme promjene u društvu pa se
obrazovanje počelo shvaćati kao instrument nacionalnog razvoja. Klasična nastava
unutar postojećeg odgojno–obrazovnog sustava više nije dovoljno djelotvorna,
obzirom da učenik pasivno sudjeluje u školskim, a kasnije i životnim aktivnostima.
Brojna istraživanja pokazuju da su učenički pristupi učenju povezani s tim koliko
pozitivno učenici vrednuju obrazovanje i doživljavaju li ga instrumentom za postizanje
određenih životnih ciljeva. Što pojedinac može učiniti za sebe, kako bi si
osigurao dugoročnu konkurentnu prednost na tržištu rada? Klasični odgovor
je: ulagati u znanje. Ipak, u današnjem brzom i često zbunjujućem svijetu
racionalno se je zapitati: treba li zaista, i isplati li se, ulagati u znanje? Prvo i
najstandardnije pitanje koje nam se nameće je: vrijedi li studirati? U današnje
vrijeme mnogi poslodavci za poneka radna mjesta više ne zahtijevaju formalne
kvalifikacije. Ipak, analize pokazuje da je završetak studija i stjecanje visoke stručne
poslodavci i radnici se slažu kako je znanje te
spreme vrlo isplativo. Naime,
adekvatno obrazovanje odlučujuća konkurentska prednost za pojedince i
tvrtke. Nakon stjecanja odgovarajućeg stupnja obrazovanja kroz život je dalje
potrebno baviti se raznim oblicima cjeloživotnog učenja. Cjeloživotno učenje ne
zamjenjuje tradicionalno školovanje, što se u početku smatralo mogućim, a zbog
nedostataka školovanja i poželjnim, nego je to fleksibilni sustav oblika učenja koji
omogućuje cjeloživotno stjecanje i razvijanje kompetencija koje su ljudima potrebne
za život u odrasloj dobi. Ljudi su postali temeljni kapital poduzeća, a ne više samo
sredstvo obavljanja određenih poslova. Postali su investicija koju valja razvijati te u
koju je potrebno ulagati da bi dala što bolje rezultate te postala rentabilna. U
današnjem užurbanom i turbulentnom svijetu čovjek je prisiljen trajno učiti kako bi bio

- 251 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

u mogućnosti pratiti promjene, zadovoljiti svoje potrebe i interese i biti aktivni član
društva. Motivacija i raznolikost mogućnosti obrazovanja osnovni su uvjet za
uspješno učenje. Vrijednosti obrazovanja svi ćemo spoznati u jednom trenutku naših
života. Znanje i obrazovanje je nešto što nam nitko ne može oduzeti i zato bismo
objeručke trebali prihvaćati svaku novinu u tom području te bismo trebali stremiti što
većoj znatiželji i zainteresiranosti različitih sfera učenja. Cjeloživotno učenje potrebno
je svim naraštajima zbog osiguranja jednakih prava na kvalitetan i aktivan život.
Nikada nije kasno dodatno se obrazovati, steći konkretna znanja, nadopuniti
postojeće „rupe“ obzirom da današnje tržište rada vrvi nezaposlenim osobama
kojima bi možda baš određena kompetencija nedostajala da ostvare daljnju karijeru.
Ljudski potencijal zaista predstavlja potencijal koji valja razvijati i nadopunjavati jer
mogućnosti su beskonačne.

Ključne riječi: obrazovanje, cjeloživotno učenje, ljudski potencijali, znanje, kreativni


rad

- 252 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

LIFELONG LEARNING AND THE VALUE OF EDUCATION


Ana Skledar Corluka
Baltazar University, Zapresic, Croatia
a.skledar.corluka@bak.hr
Sendi Dezelic
Baltazar University, Zapresic, Croatia
sendi.dezelic@bak.hr
Helena Štimac
Faculty of Economics, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek,
Osijek, Croatia
stimac.helena@gmail.com

RESUME
In today’s world of technological changes, economic factors encourage us to work on
ourselves and to develop since life expectancy has significantly prolonged, as well
as professional life. Population aging is both a challenge and an opportunity. It
increases the pressure to increase public spending, but also reduces economic
growth. There is no reason not to make our professional experience and later
retirement experience complete with specific knowledge. Today's generation
represents a society of innovation, information and computerization, as well as a
multicultural society eager for new modes and approaches to achieving success. To
get to grips with all the novelties we need to adapt to the changes, but changes are
challenging for most people. If you do not want to be run over by this modern time it
is necessary to turn to new ways of learning and acquisition of certain competencies.
Younger generations have already been affected by the new wave of learning. At the
present time team work has become more popular starting from the earliest stages
of education, creative work should also be mentioned as an indispensable part of all
institutions that want to provide their students with a greater value and ultimately it is
very important to mention e-learning, thanks to which learning becomes available to
absolutely everyone who thirst for knowledge. From all the aforementioned, the
concept of lifelong learning has emerged and has taken significant waving at people
regardless of their age. The aim is to emphasize the importance of education and the
benefits that lifelong learning brings. Education has always been an important
determinant of both the individual and for the nation as a whole. Knowledge, skills,
creativity, education, communication, acquisition of identity, professional and
technical competence, which are developed through a process of education, are the
main factors affecting personality, success, employment and, ultimately, the
prosperity of society. The benefits of education to individuals (and society) are far-

- 253 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

reaching. All efforts to improve the quality of education push the boundaries of human
knowledge and are the basis of human progress. It educates and empowers the
nation for an era dominated by knowledge. Therefore, the phrase "knowledge
society” is often used, which refers to the role of knowledge as the most important
contemporary resources. It gives to users of educational services a sense of personal
and intellectual achievements. The availability and quality of education is an indicator
of the degree of involvement in society, its progress, positioning, competitiveness,
and prosperity etc. In a world marked by universal competition in which everything
changes quickly, the role of education in training the workforce (at all levels), in
encouraging innovation, supporting competitiveness and enriching the quality of life
is dominant. The benefits we get from quality education are far-reaching. If we
analyse the reasons for the success of developed countries today, we could conclude
that most of them based their economic development and is still basing it on the
quality of education and on adaptation of the education to the needs and demands
of the modern market. By studying education in the past, we see a tendency of
education to produce a good, wise and harmonious man, while the policy of the
society has dictated who is to be educated. The nineteenth century education
pursued the development of all-round harmonic-educated person, a democrat citizen,
but in the twentieth century the request to develop a comprehensive personality
arose. Modern education system had been developed during the 19th and
20thcenturies. The citizens became interested in higher levels of education such as
high school and university diplomas because it allowed a leading position in the
country. Industry, science and technology have brought enormous changes in
society, and the education was soon considered as an instrument of national
development. Classical teaching within the existing educational system is not
effective enough, considering that the student passively take part in school activities,
and later in life activities. Numerous studies show that students’ learning approaches
are related to how positively students value education and experience it an instrument
for achieving certain goals in life. What an individual can make for themselves to
ensure long-term competitive advantage in the labour market? The classic answer is:
Invest in knowledge. However, in today's fast paced and often confusing world of
rational it is rational to ask oneself should you “invest in knowledge and is it worth it?
The first and most standard question that arises is: Is it worth to a achieve university
degree? Today, many employers do not require formal qualifications. However, the
analysis shows that the completion of studies and the acquisition of professional
qualifications is very profitable. Specifically, employers and workers agree that the
knowledge and adequate education are the decisive competitive advantages for
individuals and businesses. After acquiring the appropriate level of education, it is
necessary to deal with the various forms of lifelong learning throughout life. Lifelong
learning does not replace traditional education, which has been initially thought to be
possible, nor does it make more desirable due to a lack of education, but it is a flexible
system that allows a lifelong acquisition and development of competencies that
people need in their adult life. People have become the basic capital of companies,

- 254 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

and not just a means of carrying out certain tasks. They have become an investment
that should be developed and in which employers need to invest in order to achieve
better results and become profitable. In today's busy and turbulent world an individual
is forced to continuously learn in order to be able to track changes, to meet his / her
needs and interests and to be an active member of society. Motivation and variety of
learning are necessary requirements for successful learning. We will all realize values
of education at some point of our lives. Knowledge and education are something that
nobody can take away from us and therefore we should eagerly accept any
innovation in this area and we should strive to be as curious and interested as
possible in the various spheres of learning. Lifelong learning is necessary for all
generations to ensure equal rights to quality and active life. It is never too late to
obtain additional education, acquire practical skills to complement the existing "holes"
due to today's labour market teeming with unemployed people who perhaps lack
specific competencies to achieve further career. Human resources indeed represent
a potential which should be developed and supplemented, because the possibilities
are endless.
Keywords: education, lifelong learning, human resources, knowledge, creative work

- 255 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

UTICAJ STAROSNE DOBI I STEČENOG OBRAZOVANJA NA


KORIŠĆENJE INFORMACIJA I DONOŠENJE ODLUKA
Saša Stamenković
Siemens doo Beograd, Beograd, Srbija
sasa.d.stamenkovic@gmail.com
Milan Stamatović
Univerzitet “Union - Nikola Tesla”, Beograd, Srbija
stamatovicm@sbb.rs

REZIME
U današnje vreme, nakon svetske finansijske krize iz 2008 godine, usled
nepoverenja koje raste na relaciji finansiranje i izvođenje projekata dolazi do
drastičnih promena postojećih biznis modela. Kao odgovor na svetsku krizu svaka
kompanija pokušava da ublaži uticaj krize brzim promenama koje su odgovor na brzo
promenljivo i fluktuirajuće tržište. Svoje pozicioniranje na tržištu bez obzira da li je
ono lokalnog ili internacionalnog karaktera kompanije definišu implementacijom
strateških odluka tj aktivnim korišćenjem strateškog menadžmenta.
Brzinu kretanja kompanija na tržištu definiše količina i kvalitet dostupnih informacija
donosiocima odluka u kompanijama. Sprovodjenje i postavljanje strategija u
kompanijama takodje je u upravnoj vezi sa kvalitetom dobijenih informacija. Načini
dolaženja do informacija, danas, su različiti.
Komuniciranje u poslovnom okruženju danas stvara složen dinamički sistem.
Poslovno komuniciranje predstavlja istovremeno davanje i primanje informacija radi
postizanja poslovnih ciljeva. (Stamenković, Vukajlović, & Stamatović, 2015)
Mediji kao prenosioci informacija, moraju da budu razdeljeni i prilagođeni primaocima
i informacijama koje predstavljaju. Informacije donosiocu odluka moraju uliti propisan
nivo poverenja i sigurnosti da informacija sadrži tačne podatke. (Čomski, N., 2009).
Informacije su potrebne za rešenje bilo kog problema. Bez njih nije moguće shvatiti
suštinu problema i sagledati konsekvence alternativnih načina rešavanja problema.
Čovečanstvo je naučilo da prikuplja informacije, prenosi ih, sortira, filtrira i usklađuje
(Glevick, J, 2012). Informacije su i podaci koji u pravom momentu u odgovarajućoj
formi stoje na raspolaganju organu ili pojedincu, tako da donošenju odluke i
preduzimanju akcije može da se pristupi pri optimalnom stepenu informisanosti.
Termin informacija se sve više koristi u značenju znanja koje može da se koristi da
se predivdi šta će se desiti ako se naka akcija preduzme. Informacija je znanje na
kome se bazira donošenje odluka (Milisavljević, 2001).

- 256 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

Grupa istraživača sa američkog univerziteta Južne Kalifornije analizirala je razvoj 60


osnovnih tehnologija skladištenja, obrade i prenosa informacija u periodu od 1986.
do 2007. godine i zaključila je da se ukupno uskladišteni podaci celog čovečanstva
procenjuju na 295 eksabajta (1 eksabajt = 1018 bajta). Najveći deo informacija danas
se nalazi u numeričkom obliku, dok su do 2002. godine dominirali analogni načini
skladištenja i obrade podataka. Očekuje da će se prostor na serverima
udesetostručiti do 2020. godine, dok će broj ljudi koji rade na procesovanju
informacija porasti za svega 1,5 odsto. Brzina obrade informacije u razmatranom
periodu raste za oko 58 odsto godišnje, količina prenetih informacija za 28, a ukupne
uskladištene informacije za 23 procenta.
Informacije su danas najskuplja roba, svima dostupne, treba prepoznati njihov izvor.
Sve veći i veći procenat populacije zamenjuje tradicionalne izvore informisanja
savremenim, a u poslovnom svetu to predstavlja osnovu dolaženja do podataka na
kojoj se bazira većina odluka. Sve veći i veći procenat populacije zamenjuje
tradicionalne izvore informisanja savremenim, a u poslovnom svetu to predstavlja
osnovu dolaženja do podataka na kojoj se bazira većina odluka. Bitan podatak je koji
su to mediji koji se najviše koriste i koji je kvalitet informacija koji se dobijaju za
odlučivanje i sprovođenja aktivnosti. (Stamenković, Stamatović, & Vukajlović, 2014)
Pojam informacija, koji ima uopšteno značenje, često je vrlo neprecizan ali kao takav
prihvatljiv u dnevnoj komunikaciji. Obično se pod informacijom podrazumeva pojam
kvantifikovanog i merljivog objašnjenja. U drugu ruku obaveštenje se često meša sa
pojmom podatak. Podatak nosi infomraciju koju kao takvu prenosi i čuva. Da skratimo
informacija sa tehničkog aspekta predstavlja protumačeni podatak. Na kraju analiza
tržišta predstavlja prikupljanje i obradu podataka, njihovu razmenu i transport preko
rastojanja i njihovu analizu na odredjenim hijarahijskim nivoima organizacione
strukture. U skladu sa tim informaciona tehnologija je alat koji omogućava da se
zadovolje potrebne informacije na individualnom nivou (Stamatović, & Kruij, 2003).
Informacije koje primaoci dobijaju, zavise od samog primaoca, njegovog
obrazovanja, mogućnosti obrade i slično. Subjektivna vrednost informacije (Wang, &
Strong, 1996) znači:
 Korisniku svojstvena vrednost (Intrinzična): tačnost, objektivnost, poverljivost,
reputacija izvora,
 Kontekstualna vrednost: relevantnost, dodana vrednost, pravovremenost,
 Reprezentacijska vrednost: lakoća razumijevanja, interpretabilnost,
konciznost reprezentacije, konzistentnost reprezentacije,

 Pristupna vrednost: pristup i sigurnost pristupa.


Načini dobijanja i prikupljanja informacija danas predstavljaju veliki brojo e-mailova,
poruka, vesti i slika kojim nas dnevno zatrpavaju razni mediji. Previše informacija
kojema je izložen korisnik Digitalnih (novih) medija, podrazumeva rastući broj e-
mailova, glasovnih poruka, fleš vesti i elektronskih slika kojima smo svakodnevno

- 257 -
MENADŽMENT 2016 – MANAGEMENT 2016

zatrpavani što rezultira stresom, konfuzijom, smanjenom mogućnošću da se


kontroliše sopstveni život.
Ako ne postoje zahtevane informacije za određene aktivnosti, mora se odrediti
najbolji način za njihovo sakupljanje. Postoje tri osnovna pristupa sakupljanja
primarnih podataka – posmatranje, eksperiment i anketa. Posmatranje je bazirano
na ideji da je, ponekad bolje gledati ljude šta rade, nego ih pitati šta rade. Prednost
je u tome što se eliminiše svaki problem pristrastnosti ispitanika i izbegava se
poteškoća da ljudi zaboravljaju svoje radnje. Eksperiment je način pristupa mogućem