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Thus

∀x ∈ A, [ ](x) = IA(x); it follows by 2.5 that = IA.

Fig.7
In Chapters 5 we will prove a companion theorem to 2.25, which will state the following: f : A → B is
surjective if and only if there exists a function g : B → A such that [ ]= IB. Theorem 2.25 and its
companion are often paraphrased as follows.
Let f : A → B be a function; f : A → B is injective if and only if it has a “left inverse” and
surjective if and only if it has a “right inverse”.

2.26 Theorem Suppose f : A → B, g : B → C, and : A → C are functions.


i) If f and g are injective, then is injective.
ii) If f and g are surjective, then is surjective.
iii) If f and g are bijective, then is bijective.
Proof
i) Suppose that f and g both satisfy : then

thus satisfies .
ii) Suppose that f and g both satisfy SURJ: if z ∈ C, then ∃y ∈ B z = g(y); since y ∈ B, ∃x ∈ A y = f(x);
thus z = g(f (x)) =[ ](x). Consequently, satisfies SURJ.
iii) This follows immediately from (i) and (ii).
It follows from 2.26(iii) that
the composite of two invertible functions is invertible.
Furthermore, by 1.35(iii),

EXERCISES 2.3

1. Let f : A → B be a function. Prove that and .


2. Suppose f : A → B and g : B → C are functions. Prove that if is injective, then f is injective;
prove that if is surjective, then g is surjective. Conclude that if is bijective, then f is
injective and g is surjective.
3. Give an example to show that the converse of the last statement of Exercise 2 does not hold.
4. Let f : A → B and g : B → A be functions. Suppose that y = f(x) if and only if x = g(y). Prove that f
is invertible and g = f −1.
5. Let g : B → C and h: B → C be functions. Suppose that = for every function f : A → B.
Prove that g = h.
6. Suppose g : A → B and h: A → B are functions. Let C be a set with more than one element;
suppose that = for every function f : B → C. Prove that g = h.
7. Let f : B → C be a function. Prove that f is injective if and only if, for every pair of functions g : A
→ B and h: A → B, = ⇒ g = h.
8. Let f : A → B be a function. Prove that f is surjective if and only if, for every pair of functions g : B
→ C and h: B → C, = ⇒ g = h.
9. Let f : A → C and g : A → B be functions. Prove that there exists a function h: B → C such that f =
if and only if ∀x, y ∈ A,

Prove that h is unique.


10. Let f : C → A and g : B → A be functions, and suppose that g is bijective. Prove that there exists h:
C → B such that f = g h if and only if ran f ⊆ ran g. Prove that h is unique.
11. Let f : A → B be a function, and let C ⊆ A. Prove that f[C] = EC, where EC is the inclusion
function of C in A (2.12).

4 DIRECT IMAGES AND INVERSE IMAGES UNDER FUNCTIONS

2.27 Definition Let f : A → B be a function; if C is any subclass of A, the direct image of C under f ,
which we write , is the following subclass of B:

That is, is the class of all the images of elements in C.

2.28 Definition Let f : A → B be a function; if D is any subclass of B, the inverse image of D under f ,
which we write (D), is the following subclass of A:

That is, (D) is the class of all the pre-images of elements in D.


If {a} and {b} are singletons, we will write (a) for ({a}) and (b) for ({b}).

2.29 Theorem Let f : A → B be a function.


i) if C ⊆ A and D ⊆ A, then C = D ⇒ = (D).
ii) if C ⊆ B and D ⊆ B, then C = D ⇒ (C) = (D).