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# Lesson 6.

## 7: Pearson Coefficient of Correlation For examples 1 and 2:

The correlation coefficient computed from the sample Test Scores and GNI Use the following table. The table
data measures the strength and direction of a linear shows the average achievement scores of 15-year-olds
relationship between two quantitative variables. The in science and mathematics along with the gross
symbol for the sample correlation coefficient is r. national income (GNI) of nine countries for a recent
year. (The GNI is a measure of the total value of goods
and services produced by the economy of a country.)
(Adapted from Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development; The World Bank)

## Example 1: Earthquakes. A researcher wants to

determine if there is a linear relationship between the
magnitudes of earthquakes and their depths below the Example 1. At 𝛼 = 0.05, can you conclude that there is
surface at the epicenter. The magnitudes and depths (in a correlation between science achievement scores and
kilometers) of eight recent earthquakes are shown in GNI?
the table. Use 𝛼 = 0.01. (Source: U.S. Geological Example 2. At 𝛼 = 0.05, can you conclude that there is
Survey) a correlation between mathematics achievement scores
and GNI?
Lesson 6.9: The McNemar Change Test
A McNemar test ia a nonparametric categorical test t is
that used to evaluate the opinion of the same group
before and after a ceartain amount of time. It might be
Test the significance of the correlation coefficient. used to test the effectiveness of a particular treatment
Example 2. A researcher wishes to see if there is a (meeting, newspaper editorial, campaign speech,
relationship between the ages and net worth personal speech, personal visit, etc.) or voters'
of the wealthiest people in America. The data for a preferences among candidates for elective office.
specific year are shown. Formula:
(|𝑨 − 𝑫| − 𝟏)𝟐
𝒙𝟐 =
𝑨+𝑫
Example 1: A group of 120 policemen in Region VII were
before and after they had attended the seminar on
"Human Rights". Test whether there exists a significant
change of opinion of 120 policemen in Region VII about
the death penalty law after they had attended the
seminar at 0.05 level of significance.
At 𝛼 = 0.05, 𝑡est the significance of the correlation After the Seminar
coefficient. Agree Disagree
Lesson 6.8: Coefficient of Rank Correlation Disagree 33 47
Seminar
Before

## In Lesson 6.7, you learned how to measure the strength

the

Agree 25 15
of the relationship between two variables using the
Pearson correlation coefficient r. Two requirements for Example 2: A group of 136 policemen in Region V were
the Pearson correlation coefficient are that the asked about their opinion towards the banning of PNP
variables are linearly related and that the population members in entering Karaoke bars before and after they
represented by each variable is normally distributed. If had attended the seminar on "Professional Code of
these requirements cannot be met, you can examine Ethics for Policemen". Test whether there exists a
the relationship between two variables using the significant change of opinion of 136 policemen in
nonparametric equivalent to the Pearson correlation Region V about the banning of PNP members in
coefficient—the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. entering Karaoke bars after they had attended the
seminar at 0.05 level of significance.
Formula: After the Seminar
NO YES
YES 33 47
Seminar
Before
the

NO 25 15