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Actuator Mechanism using Rigid Body Dynamics

This example problem demonstrates the use of a Rigid Dynamic analysis to examine the kinematic
behavior of an actuator after moment force is applied to the flywheel.

Features Demonstrated
• Joints

• Joint loads

• Springs

• Coordinate system definition

• Body view

• Joint probes

Setting Up the Analysis System


1. Create the analysis system.

Start by creating a Rigid Dynamics analysis system and importing geometry.

a. Start ANSYS Workbench.

b. In the Workbench Project page, drag a Rigid Dynamics system from the Toolbox into the Project
Schematic.

c. Right-click the Geometry cell of the Rigid Dynamics system, and select Import Geometry>Browse.

d. Browse to open the Actuator.agdb file. A check mark appears next to the Geometry cell in the
Project Schematic when the geometry is loaded. This file is available on the ANSYS Customer Portal;
go to http://support.ansys.com/training.

2. Continue preparing the analysis in the Mechanical Application.

a. In the Rigid Dynamics system schematic, right-click the Model cell, and select Edit. The Mechanical
Application opens and displays the model.

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Actuator Mechanism using Rigid Body Dynamics

The actuator mechanism model consists of four parts: (from left to right) the drive, link, actuator,
and guide.

b. From the Menu bar, select Units>Metric (mm, kg, N, s, mV, mA).

Note

Stiffness behavior for all geometries are rigid by default.

3. Remove surface-to-surface contact.

Rigid dynamic models use joints to describe the relationships between parts in an assembly. As
such, the surface-to-surface contacts that were transferred from the geometry model are not needed
in this case. To remove surface-to-surface contact:

a. Expand the Connections branch in the Outline, then expand the Contacts branch. Highlight all of the
contact regions in the Contacts branch.

b. Right-click the highlighted contact regions, then select Delete.

Note that this step is not needed if your Mechanical options are configured so that automatic
contact detection is not performed upon attachment.

4. Define joints.

Joints will be defined in the model from left to right as shown below, using Body-Ground and
Body-Body joints as needed to solve the model.

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Prior to defining joints, it is useful to select the Body Views button in the Connections toolbar. The
Body Views button splits the graphics window into three sections: the main window, the reference
body window, and the mobile body window. Each window can be manipulated independently. This
makes it easier to select desired regions on the model when scoping joints.

To define joints:

a. Select the drive pin face and link center hole face as shown below, then select Body-Body>Revolute
in the Connections toolbar.

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Actuator Mechanism using Rigid Body Dynamics

b. Select the drive center hole face as shown below, then select Body-Ground>Revolute in the Connec-
tions toolbar.

c. Select the link face and actuator center hole face as shown below, then select Body-Body>Revolute
in the Connections toolbar.

d. Select the actuator face and the guide face as shown below, then select Body-Body>Translational in
the Connections toolbar.

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e. Select the guide top face as shown below, then select Body-Ground>Fixed in the Connections toolbar.

5. Define joint coordinate systems.

The coordinate systems for each new joint must be properly defined to ensure correct joint motion.
Realign each joint coordinate system so that they match the corresponding systems pictured in step
4 (p. 2). To specify a joint coordinate system:

a. In the Outline, highlight a joint in the Joints branch.

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Actuator Mechanism using Rigid Body Dynamics

b. In the joint Details view, click the Coordinate System field. The coordinate field becomes active.

c. Click the axis you want to change (i.e., X, Y, or Z). All 6 directions become visible as shown below.

d. Click the desired new axis to realign the joint coordinate system.

e. Select Apply in the Details view once the desired alignment is achieved.

6. Define a local coordinate system.

A local coordinate system must be created that will be used to define a spring that will be added
to the actuator.

a. Right-click the Coordinate Systems branch in the Outline, then select Insert>Coordinate System.

b. Right-click the new coordinate system, then select Rename. Enter Spring_fix as the name.

c. In the Spring_fix Details view, define the Origin fields using the values shown below:

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7. Add a spring to the actuator.

a. Select the bottom face of the actuator as shown below, then select Body-Ground>Spring in the
Connections toolbar.

b. In the Reference section of the spring Details view, set the Coordinate System to Spring_fix.

c. In the Definition section of the spring Details view, specify:

Longitudinal Stiffness = 0.005 N/mm


Longitudinal Damping = 0.01 N*s/mm

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Actuator Mechanism using Rigid Body Dynamics

8. Define analysis settings.

To define the length of the analysis:

a. Select the Analysis Settings branch in the Outline.

b. In the Analysis Settings Details view, specify Step End Time = 60. s

9. Define a joint load.

A joint load must be defined to apply a kinematic driving condition to the joint object. To define a
joint load:

a. Right-click the Transient branch in the Outline, then select Insert>Joint Load.

b. In the Joint Load Details view, specify:

Joint = Revolute - Ground To Drive


Type = Moment
Magnitude = Tabular (Time)
Graph and Tabular Data windows will appear.

c. In the Tabular Data window, specify that Moment = 5000 at Time = 60, as shown below.

10. Prepare the solution

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a. Select Solution in the Outline, then select Deformation>Total in the Solution toolbar.

b. In the Outline, click and drag the link to actuator revolute joint to the Solution branch. Joint Probe
will appear under the Solution branch.

This is a shortcut for creating a joint probe that is already scoped to the joint in question. Because
we want to find the forces acting on this joint, the default settings in the details of the joint
probe are used.

c. Click the Solve button in the main toolbar.

11. Analyze the results

a. After the solution is complete, select Total Deformation under the Solution branch in the Outline. A
timeline animation of max/min deformation vs. time appears in the Graph window.

b. In the Graph window, select the Distributed animation type button, and specify 100 frames and 4
seconds, as shown below. (These values have been chosen for efficiency purposes, but they can be
adjusted to user preference.)

c. Click the Play button to view the animation.

d. Select the Joint Probe branch in the Outline,

e. In the Joint Probe Details view, specify X Axis in the Result Selection field.

f. Right-click the Joint Probe branch, then select Evaluate All Results.

The results from the analysis show that the spring-based actuator is adding energy in to the system
that is reducing the cycle time.

End of tutorial.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal
Problem Description
This is the same problem demonstrated in Chapter 29: Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal in
the Mechanical APDL Technology Demonstration Guide. The following example is provided only to
demonstrate the steps to setup and analyze the same model using Mechanical.

This rubber boot seal example demonstrates geometric nonlinearities (large strain and large deformation),
nonlinear material behavior (rubber), and changing status nonlinearities (contact). The objective of this
example is to show the advantages of the surface-projection-based contact method and to determine
the displacement behavior of the rubber boot seal, stress results.

A rubber boot seal with half symmetry is considered for this analysis. There are three contact pairs
defined; one is rigid-flexible contact between the rubber boot and cylindrical shaft, and the remaining
two are self contact pairs on the inside and outside surfaces of the boot.

Features Demonstrated
• Hyperelastic Material Creation

• Remote Point

• Named Selection

• Manual Contact Generation

• Large Deflection

• Multiple Load Steps

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

• Nodal Contacts

Setting Up the Analysis System


1. Create a Static Structural analysis system.

a. Start ANSYS Workbench.

b. On the Workbench Project page, drag a Static Structural system from the Toolbox to the Project
Schematic.

2. Create Materials.

For this tutorial, we are going to create a material to use during the analysis.

a. In the Static Structural schematic, right-click the Engineering Data cell and choose Edit. The Engineering
Data tab opens. Structural Steel is the default material.

b. From the Engineering Data tab, place your cursor in the Click here to add new material field and then
enter "Rubber Material".

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c. Expand the Hyperelastic Toolbox menu:

i. Select the Neo-Hookean option, right-click, and select Include Property.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

ii. Enter 1.5 for the Initial Shear Modulus (μ) Value and then select MPa for the Unit.

iii. Enter .026 for the Incompressibility Parameter D1 Value and then select MPa^-1 for the Unit.

d. Click the Return to Project toolbar button to return to the Project Schematic.

3. Attach Geometry.

a. In the Static Structural schematic, right-click the Geometry cell and choose Import Geometry>Browse.

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b. Browse to the proper folder location and open the file BootSeal_Cylinder.agdb. This file is available
on the ANSYS Customer Portal; go to http://support.ansys.com/training.

Define the Model


The steps to define the model in preparation for analysis are described below. You may wish to refer
to the Modeling section of Chapter 29: Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal in the Mechanical
APDL Technology Demonstration Guide to see the steps taken in the Mechanical APDL Application.

1. Launch Mechanical by right-clicking the Model cell and then choosing Edit. (Tip: You can also double-
click the Model cell to launch Mechanical).

2. Define Unit System: from the Menu bar, select Units> Metric (mm, kg, N, s, mV, mA). Also select Radians
as the angular unit.

3. Define stiffness behavior and thickness: expand the Geometry folder and select the Surface Body object.
Set the Stiffness Behavior to Rigid and enter a Thickness value of 0.01 mm.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

4. In the Geometry folder, select the Solid geometry object. In the Details under the Material category, open
the Assignment property drop-down list and select Rubber Material.

5. Create a Cylindrical Coordinate System: Right-click the Coordinate Systems folder and select Insert>Co-
ordinate System. Highlight the new Coordinate System object, right-click, and rename it to "Cylindrical
Coordinate System".

Specify properties of the Cylindrical Coordinate System:

a. Under the Details view Definition category, change Type to Cylindrical and Coordinate System to
Manual.

b. Under the Origin group, change the Define By property to Global Coordinates.

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c. Under Principal Axis select Z as the Axis value and set the Define By property to Global Y Axis.

d. Under Orientation About Principal Axis, select X as the Axis value and select Global Z Axis for the
Define By property.

6. Insert Remote Point: Right-click on the Model object and select Insert>Remote Point.

7. In Details view, scope the Geometry to cylinder’s exterior surface, set X Coordinate, Y Coordinate, and
Z Coordinate to 0, and specify the Behavior as Rigid.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

8. Define Named Selections:

a. Right-click on the Model object and select Insert>Named Selection.

b. Select the exterior surface of the cylinder, Apply it as the Geometry, right-click, and Rename it to
Cylinder_Outer_Surface.

c. Right-click on the Surface Body object under the Geometry folder and select Hide Body. This step
eases the selection of the boot’s inner surfaces.

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d. Highlight the Named Selection object and select Insert>Named Selection.

e. Select all of the inner faces of the boot seal as illustrated below and scope the faces as the Geometry
selection. Make sure that the Geometry property indicates that 24 Faces are selected.

Press the Ctrl key to select multiple surfaces individually or you can hold down the mouse button
and methodically drag the cursor across all of the interior surfaces. Note that the status bar at
the bottom of the graphics window displays the number of selected surfaces (highlighted in
green in the following image).

f. Right-click the new Selection object and Rename it to Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

g. Again highlight the Named Selection object and select Insert>Named Selection.

h. Reorient your model and select all of the outer faces of the boot seal as illustrated below and scope
the faces as the Geometry selection. Make sure that the Geometry property indicates that 27 Faces
are selected.

The selection process is the same. Press the Ctrl key to select multiple surfaces individually or
you can hold down the mouse button and methodically drag the cursor across all of the surfaces
(except the top surface of the boot).

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i. Right-click the new Selection object and Rename it to Boot_Seal_Outer_Surfaces.

9. Insert a Connection Group and Manual Contacts:

a. Highlight the Connections folder, right-click, and select Insert>Connections Group.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

b. Right-click on the Connections Group and select Insert>Manual Contact Region. Notice that Connec-
tion Group is automatically renamed to Contacts and that the new contact region requires definition.

c. Create a Rigid-Flexible contact between the rubber boot and cylindrical shaft by defining the following
Details view properties of the newly added Bonded-No Selection To No Selection.

• Scoping Method set to Named Selections.

• Contact set to Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces from drop-down list of Named Selections.

• Target set to Cylinder_Outer_Surface from drop-down list of Named Selections.

• Target Shell Face set to Top.

• Type set to Frictional.

• Frictional Coefficient Value equal to 0.2.

• Set Behavior set to Asymmetric.

• Detection Method set to On Gauss Point.

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• Interface Treatment set to Add Offset, Ramped Effects.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

Note

The name of the contact, Bonded-No Selection To No Selection, is automatically


renamed to Frictional - Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces To Cylinder_Outer_Surface.

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d. Right-click the Contacts folder object and select Insert>Manual Contact Region. Set Contact at inner
surface of the boot seal. In details view of the newly added Bonded-No Selection To No Selection,
change the following properties:

• Scope set to Named Selection.

• Contact and Target set to Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces.

• Type set to Frictional.

• Frictional Coefficient value equal to 0.2.

• Detection Method set to Nodal-Projected Normal From Contact.

Note

The Bonded-No Selection To No Selection is automatically renamed to Frictional


- Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces To Boot_Seal_Inner_Surfaces.

e. Right-click the Contacts folder object and select Insert>Manual Contact Region. Set Contact at inner
surface of the boot seal. Self Contact at outer surface of the boot seal. In details view of the newly added
Bonded-No Selection To No Selection, specify the following properties:

• Scoping Method set to Named Selection.

• Contact and Target set to Boot_Seal_Outer_Surfaces.

• Type set to Frictional.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

• Frictional Coefficient Value equal to 0.2.

• Detection Method set to Nodal-Projected Normal From Contact.

Note

Bonded-No Selection To No Selection is automatically renamed to Frictional -


Boot_Seal_Outer_Surfaces To Boot_Seal_Outer_Surfaces.

Analysis Settings
The problem is solved in three load steps, which include:

• Initial interference between the cylinder and boot.

• Vertical displacement of the cylinder (axial compression in the rubber boot).

• Rotation of the cylinder (bending of the rubber boot).

Load steps are specified through the properties of the Analysis Settings object.

1. Highlight the Analysis Settings object.

2. Define the following properties:

• Number of Steps equals 3.

• Auto Time Stepping set to On (from Program Controlled).

• Define By set to Substeps.

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• Initial Substeps and Minimum Substeps set to 5.

• Maximum Substeps set to 1000.

• Large Deflection set to On.

3. For the second load step, define the properties as follows:

• Current Step Number to 2.

• Auto Time Stepping set to On (from Program Controlled).

• Initial Substeps and Minimum Substeps set to 10.

• Maximum Substeps set to 1000.

4. For the third load step, define the properties as follows:

• Current Step Number to 3.

• Auto Time Stepping set to On (from Program Controlled).

• Initial Substeps and Minimum Substeps set to 20.

• Maximum Substeps set to 1000.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

Boundary Conditions
The model is constrained at the symmetry plane by restricting the out-of-plane rotation (in Cylindrical
Coordinate System). The bottom portion of the rubber boot is restricted in axial (Y axis) and radial dir-
ections (in Cylindrical Coordinate System).

1. Highlight the Static Structural (A5) object and:

• select the two faces (press the Ctrl key and then select each face) of the rubber boot seal as illustrated
here.

• right-click and select Insert>Displacement.

2. Set the Coordinate System property to Cylindrical Coordinate System and the Y Component property
to 0.

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3. Highlight the Static Structural (A5) object and select the face illustrated here. Insert another Displacement
and set the Y Component to 0 (Coordinate System should equal Global Coordinate System).

4. Insert another Displacement scoped as illustrated here and set the Coordinate System property to Cyl-
indrical Coordinate System and the X Component property to 0.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

5. Insert a Remote Displacement from the Support drop-down menu on the Environment toolbar.

6. Specify Remote Point as the Scoping Method.

7. Select the Remote Point created earlier (only option) for the Remote Points property.

8. Change the X Component, Y Component, Z Component, Rotation X, Rotation Y, and Rotation Z prop-
erties to Tabular (Time) as illustrated below.

9. In the Tabular Data specify:

• Y value for Step 2 and Step 3 as -10 mm.

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• RZ value for Step 3 as 0.55 [rad].

Results and Solution


1. Highlight the Solution and then select Deformation>Total Deformation from the Solution toolbar.

2. Specify the Geometry as the boot body only, and set the Definition category property By as Time and the
Display Time property as Last.

3. Highlight the Solution and then select Stress>Equivalent (von-Mises) from the Solution toolbar.

4. Specify the Geometry as the boot body only, and set the Definition category property By as Time and
the Display Time property as Last.

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

5. Highlight the Solution and then select Strain>Equivalent (von-Mises) from the Solution toolbar.

6. Specify the Geometry as the boot body only, and set the Definition category property By as Time and
the Display Time property as Last.

7. Click the Solve button.

Note

• The default mesh settings mesh keep mid-side nodes in elements creating SOLID186 elements
(See Solution Information). You can drop mid-side nodes in Mesh Details view under the Advanced
group. This allows you to mesh and solve faster with lower order elements.

• Although very close, the mesh generated in this example may be slightly different than the one
generated in Chapter 29: Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal in the Mechanical APDL
Technology Demonstration Guide.

Review Results
The solution objects should appear as illustrated below. You can ignore any warning messages.

For a more detailed examination and explanation of the results, see the Results and Discussion section
of Chapter 29: Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal in the Mechanical APDL Technology
Demonstration Guide.

Total Deformation at Maximum Shaft Angle

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Equivalent Elastic Strain at Maximum Shaft Angle (at the end of 3 seconds)

Equivalent Stress (Von-Mises Stress) at Maximum Shaft Angle

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Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal

End of tutorial.

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