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# CLAVIUS

HEAT

## What is this thing which you call as heat?

 You wrap up in blankets in the winter,
 Hold your hands out to feel the warmth of a fire,
 Jump when touch any hot object.

## Heat is form of energy.

Greater the heat energy content, hotter will be the body.

Flow of heat:

Two substance.
Difference temperature.

Hot Milk

Flow of heat

Cold Water

## Heat flows from hotter substance (hot

milk) to the colder one ( cold water),
until their temperatures are equalized.
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CLAVIUS

## SPECIFIC OF HEAT CAPACITY

How much the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature
by 1 o C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance?

20oC 21oC
1 kg 1 kg
water water

Amount of
4.200 Joule heat Water has a specific
Heat supplied heat capacity of
4.200 J/kgoC

## 𝑄 = heat (Joule or calorie)

𝑸 𝑚 = mass (kg or g)
𝑐 = specific heat (Joule/kg o C) or (calorie/g o C)
𝒎 × 𝒄 × ∆𝑻
∆𝑇 = the change in temperature

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HEAT CAPACITY

degree Celsius.

## 𝑄 = heat (Joule or calorie)

𝑸 𝐶 = heat capacity (Joule/ o C) or (calorie/ o C)
𝐶 = mass x specific of heat = m x c
𝑪 × ∆𝑻
∆𝑇 = the change in temperature

## The difference between specific heat capacity and heat capacity:

1 kg water 2 kg water

## Specific heat of Specific heat of

Still equal.
water, 4.200 J/kgoC water, 4.200 J/kgoC

## Heat cpacity of Heat cpacity of Difference.

water, 4.200 J/kgoC water, 8.400 J/oC

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LATENT HEAT

## Latent Heat of Fusion.

Heat can change the state of an object.

## Add 3,36 x 105 J Some heat is required to

or 80 calories change 1 kg of the substance
in solid form into liquid form
called latent heat of fusion.

𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝑳𝒇

## 𝑄 = heat (Joule or calorie)

𝑸
𝑚 = mass (kg or gram)
𝒎 × 𝑳𝒇
𝐿𝑓 = latent heat fusion (J/kg or cal/g)

Latent heat doesn’t raise its temperature. The energy added to change its
phase.

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## Latent Heat of Vaporization

Heat can change the state of an object.

## Add 22,6 x 105 J

or 540 calories
Some heat is required to change
1 kg of the substance in liquid
form into gas form called latent
heat of vaporization.

## 𝑄 = heat (Joule or calorie)

𝑸
𝑚 = mass (kg or gram)
𝒎 × 𝑳𝒗 𝐿𝑣 = latent heat vaporization (J/kg or cal/g)

Latent heat doesn’t raise its temperature. The energy added to change its
phase.

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CHANGE STATE

𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝒄 × ∆𝑻 𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝒄 × ∆𝑻 𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝒄 × ∆𝑻

𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝑳𝒇 𝑸 = 𝒎 × 𝑳𝒗

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CLAVIUS

BLACK’S PRINCIPLE

## According to Black’s observation,

“the amount of heat released by objects with high temperature equal the amount
of heat received by low-temperature objects.”

## If metal and water are mixed, the mixture

temperature will be obtained (𝑇𝑀 ).

## Water (low temperature).

𝑄𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒𝑑 = 𝑄𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑
𝑚𝑚 × 𝑐𝑚 × (𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑀 ) = 𝑚𝑤 × 𝑐𝑤 × (𝑇𝑀 − 𝑇𝑤 )

## 𝑇𝑚 = temperature of metal (oC) 𝑇𝑚 = temperature of metal (oC)

𝑇𝑀 = temperature of mixture (oC)

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CLAVIUS

TRANSFER OF HEAT

The process of heat The process by which The process by which
transfer along a body heat is transmitted heat is transferred from
from one molecule to through liquids and one body to another
another, without actual gases from places of along straight lines
motion of molecule. higher temperature to without affecting the
lower temperature by intermediate medium.
e.g. Heating of metal
actual movement of
handle of a pan. e.g. In microwave the
molecules.
food gets heated without
e.g. Heating of water in heating the intermediate
a pan. medium.