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Basic Service Training Materials

Student Study Guide

Basic Hydraulics

This material is proprietary to Komatsu America Corp. and is not to be reproduced, used, or
disclosed except in accordance with written authorization from Komatsu.
It is our policy to improve our products whenever it is possible and practical to do so. We
reserve the right to make changes or add improvements at any time without incurring any
obligation to install such changes on products sold previously.
Due to this continuous program of research and development, periodic revisions may be made
to this publication. It is recommended that customers contact Komatsu America Corp. Training
Department for information on the latest revision.

KT800693-R1 Basic Hydraulics – 4006


April 2005
Basic Hydraulics – 4006 KT800693-R1
April 2005
Foreword
Purpose of This Manual
The purpose of this manual is to train the reader on basic topics before attending factory
service schools. Completion of the Basic Service Training Materials is the first step necessary
for becoming a skilled technician. After completion of the Basic Subjects, the next step is
attendance in a factory-troubleshooting course followed by other courses as necessary.
Learning the basics contained in this manual allows the Komatsu America Corp. Training
Department to design factory schools which are cost efficient and which emphasize “need to
know” tasks and topics while avoiding non-essential information and activities.

How to Use This Manual


This manual can be used as a handout to support local in-house training or as a self-study
reference that can be used by new employees, shop trainees, experienced technicians new to
our product line, and as a refresher for trained technicians.
Start with Chapter 1 and study the chapters in sequence. At the end of each chapter is an
assessment. When you feel that you thoroughly understand the key points of each chapter,
you are ready to take the assessment. There are two methods for completing each chapter
assessment:
1. Instructor-Led Course
If you are taking this Basic Subject course as an instructor-led course, your instructor will
provide a copy of each chapter assessment and an Answer Sheet. Answer the questions
by circling the most correct answer on the assessment itself, then fill in the Answer Sheet
according to your answers you marked on the assessment. When you have completed all
the assessments turn them into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet. The
instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your assessment and will input
your scores into the Komatsu Learning Management System. The instructor will also
return your graded assessment to you indicating missed questions. You must receive a
combined 80% score or better for all chapter assessments to successfully complete this
course.
Note: Do no mail your assessments or Answer Sheet to Komatsu.
2. Self Study Course
If you are taking this Basic Subject course as a self-study course, you will need to either
print or make a copy of each chapter assessment and answer each question by circling
the most correct answer. When you are satisfied with your answers, you can:
a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet. The instructor
is provided with an answer key and will grade your assessment and will input your
scores into the Komatsu Learning Management System. Or,
b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your extranet
username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic Subject course, after
your enrollment has been approved, you can launch the course, then click on the

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April 2005
Assessment link and answer each question. Your grade will be scored and tracked
automatically. Note: Online questions are in random order. You will receive a Score
Sheet summary at the end of each chapter assessment that will indicate which
questions were missed, if any. You must receive a combined 80% score or better for all
chapter assessments to successfully complete this course.
Should you change employers, you should inform us so we can move your Komatsu America
Corp. training records to the new dealer and location.
If your score is less than 80%, you are not ready to attend factory schools. When you have
studied the problem areas, retake the assessment and follow the instructions as before.

Manuals in the Basic Service Training Series


Komatsu America Training Department has prepared a complete series of “Basic Service
Training Manuals.” The titles of these manuals are:
ƒ Basic Engine
ƒ Basic Electric
ƒ Basic Hydraulic
ƒ Basic Power Train
ƒ Basic Undercarriage

In-House Training Materials


An instructor guidebook has been prepared for each topic in the Basic Service Training Series.
Each instructor guidebook is comprised of the following component parts:
1. Introduction with course description, objectives and preparation for training.
2. Instructional guide with a sequence of instruction chart and lesson plans.
3. Lesson outline for each lesson.
4. A list of support media.
5. Slide masters and PowerPoint program.
6. Assessments.
7. Answer key for assessments.

Basic Hydraulics – 4006 KT800693-R1


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Table of Contents

Chapter Topic Page


1 Fundamentals of Hydraulics 1-1
2 Hydraulic Terms 2-1
3 Hydraulic Fluids 3-1
4 Hydraulic Symbols 4-1
5 Hydraulic System Components 5-1

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April 2005
Basic Hydraulics – 4006 KT800693-R1
April 2005
Chapter 1
Fundamentals of Hydraulics
INTRODUCTION
There is evidence in the earliest recorded history of man's use of hydraulics. In this chapter we
will review the history of hydraulics and study the basic principles of hydraulics. The following
topics will be presented in this chapter:
• History of Hydraulics • Pressure and Flow
• Pascal's Law • Force
• Hydrostatics vs. Hydrodynamics • Flow Rate and Speed
• Advantages of Hydraulics • Flow and Pressure Drop

HISTORY OF HYDRAULICS
It is quite possible that the science of hydraulics
originated because ancient Egypt did not have enough
rainfall to grow sufficient crops to sustain life. To solve
this problem, the Egyptians built a system of water
wheels to lift water from the Nile to irrigate their fields.
You may be wondering why a water wheel is
considered to be hydraulically operated. In order to
understand this, you must understand hydraulics.
Hydraulics is “the science of using confined fluids to Figure 1. 1 - Egyptian water wheel.
transmit force and/or motion.” The water flowing down
the Nile struck the paddles with enough force to cause
the wheel to turn and to lift the water. The force of the
water caused motion, and the Egyptians created a
simple hydraulic device. This brings another thought to
mind. Where did the word hydraulics originate?
Hydraulics comes from the Greek word hydros, which
means water.
Just before the Christian era a mathematician named
Archimedes made great strides in hydraulics by
inventing a water-pumping device called the
Archimedes Screw. This device was a hollow tube Figure 1. 2 – Water pumping device.
formed around another piece of material. It turned
manually to pump water from one level to another.

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About the same time that Archimedes invented the
pumping device, Hero of Alexandria built his Aeolipile,
or ball of winds, which used steam jets for rotation.

Although the aeolipile was the First known working


turbine, it was at best a toy because a clear
understanding of pressure had not been developed.

It wasn't until about the 16th century that the first steps
were made toward understanding pressure. An Italian,
Evangilista Torrecelli, did this. He observed the Figure 1. 3 – First working turbine.
principle of the mercury barometer and related it to the
weight of atmosphere.

PASCAL'S LAW
About a hundred years later, a French scientist, Blaise
Pascal, used Torricelli's findings to develop the
principle of hydraulic leverage. This principle, known as
Pascal's Law, is the basis for modern pressure
hydraulics.
Pascal's Law simply stated is: “pressure on a confined
fluid is transmitted undiminished in every direction, and Figure 1. 4 - Beginning to understand
acts with equal force on equal areas, and at right pressure.
angles to the container walls.” Since fluids are nearly
incompressible, Pascal's Law means that mechanical
forces can be transmitted, multiplied, or controlled by
fluid under pressure.
The apparatus Pascal used to develop his law probably
consisted of two cylinders of different diameters
connected as shown in Figure 1.5. He found that a
small force on a small piston would balance a larger
force on a larger piston, provided that the piston areas
are in proportion to the forces. He might as well have
called this apparatus the hydraulic lever, since it proved
that leverage can be gained hydraulically as well as Figure 1. 5 – Pascal’s hydraulic lever.
mechanically.

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Joseph Bramah, in 1795, was the first to use pressure
hydraulics in a practical application. Guided by Pascal's
observations, Bramah developed a hydraulic press,
which used water as the hydraulic medium. With
Bramah's invention, the door was opened to the
development of countless hydraulic devices to make
man's life easier.

Figure 1. 6 - Bramah's hydraulic press.

HYDROSTATICS & HYDRODYNAMICS


Today, there are many thousands of pressure operated
machines and they are so distinct from earlier devices
we must divide hydraulics into two sciences -
hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.

Hydrodynamics can be called the science of moving


liquids, hydrostatics, and the science of liquids under
pressure. A water wheel or turbine represents a
hydrodynamic device.

In a hydrostatic device, pushing on a confined liquid


transmits power. The liquid must move or flow to cause Figure 1. 7 - - Hydrodynamic device.
motion; but the movement is incidental to the force
output. A transfer of energy takes place because a
quantity of liquid is subject to pressure.

Most of the hydraulic machines in use today operate


hydrostatically; that is, through pressure. This book is
limited to the study of pressure hydraulics, therefore
when the terms hydraulic or hydraulics is used, we will
be discussing hydrostatics.

Figure 1. 8 – Hydrostatic device.

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ADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULICS
There are specific reasons why the use of hydraulic systems has become so popular. Lets
briefly review the advantages of hydraulics over other methods of power transmission.

1. Design is simpler - In most cases, a few pre-engineered components will replace


complicated mechanical linkage.
2. Flexibility - Hydraulic components can be located with considerable flexibility. Pipes and
hoses in place of mechanical elements eliminate location problems.
3. Quiet - Hydraulic systems are smooth and quiet in operation.
4. Step less control - Control of a wide range of speeds and forces is possible.
5. High efficiency - High efficiency with minimum friction loss keeps the cost of transmitting
power low.
6. High-pressure relief - Valves automatically protect the system against a breakdown from
overloading.

Of course, there are some disadvantages when using hydraulics. These systems contain
precision parts, which will not tolerate dirt, corrosion, or oil deterioration. But these problems
can be avoided with a good preventive maintenance program.

PRESSURE AND FLOW


What is pressure? Pressure is the resistance to fluid
movement or flow. This means that if there is no
resistance to fluid flow there will be no pressure.

How is resistance created? Resistance is caused by


putting the fluid to work - for instance, lifting a load.
Therefore, when pressure is observed in a hydraulic
system, it usually means that work is being performed.
Pressure can also be caused by a force, which
attempts to make the fluid flow. For example, in the
ocean, pressure increases with depth. Figure 1. 9 - Pressure is due to resistance to
flow.

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Often the term head is used to describe pressure. A
head of one foot of water is equivalent to 0.433 psi; a
five-foot head of water equals 2.165 psi and ten feet of
head equals 4.33 psi.

Pressure is measured using gauges and is usually


expressed in units of kg/cm2 (psi) in Komatsu Limited
publications and in units of kg/cm2 (psi) in Komatsu
America manuals. One kg/cm2 = 14.223 psi.

Quite frequently, especially for large pressures, the unit


used for atmospheric pressure is an atmosphere. One
atmosphere represents the average atmospheric
pressure at sea level. One kg/cm2 (14.223 psi) and one
atmosphere (14.696 psi) are almost the same. Figure
1.11 illustrates one atmosphere in metric units.
Figure 1. 10 – The weight of fluid causes
For accurate measurement of low pressures, they are pressure.
often expressed in terms of the equivalent height of
manometer liquid (e.g. mm or inches of mercury). The
U-tube manometer expresses the pressure difference
between both ends of the tube. If one end of the tube is
connected to the pressure to be measured and the
opposite end is exposed to the atmosphere, the
manometer reads the difference between the test
pressure and pressure of atmosphere. Actually, at sea
level with the ambient temperature of 0°C (32°F), the
test pressure is one atmosphere (29.921" or 760 mm
Hg) higher than the value read. To obtain even lower
pressures accurately a water manometer is used. A test
pressure, which pushes a column of mercury 1 mm, Figure 1. 11 – Atmospheric pressure.
would push a column of water 13 mm.

• A mercury manometer is often used to measure


intake manifold (boost) pressure of turbocharged
engines.
• A water manometer can be used to measure
engine intake air restriction and engine blow-by.

In practice, pressures are obtained in two kinds of


readings. One indicates the difference between the
actual pressure being measured and the pressure of
the atmosphere. This is called gauge pressure. The
other reading indicates the actual pressure of a Figure 1. 12 – Testing with a mercury
confined gas or liquid, irrespective of the atmosphere manometer.
outside. This is called absolute pressure.

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In most practical applications the pressure desired is
the gauge pressure. Figure 1.13 shows the relationship
used to determine either pressure if the other is known.
What is backpressure? If two hydraulic cylinders are
connected to operate in series, the pressure required to
move the second cylinder is effective against the first
cylinder as a backpressure. If each cylinder requires
500 psi (35.1 kg/cm2) separately to raise its load, the
500 psi (35.1 kg/cm2) of the second cylinder adds to
the load of the first cylinder. Figure 1. 13 – Pressure gauge.

The piston areas as shown are equal, so the first


cylinder would have to operate at 1000 psi (70.3
kg/cm2), 500 psi (35.15 kg/cm2) to lift its load and 500
psi (35.15 kg/cm2) to overcome backpressure.
Series operation is not common. We used it here to
illustrate that pressures add up in series.
Construction equipment using hydraulics today has
parallel hydraulic circuits. When several loads are
connected in parallel, the oil takes the path of least
resistance. Since cylinder A requires the least pressure,
it will move first. Furthermore, pressure won't build up Figure 1. 14 – Pressure in a series operation.
beyond the needs of A until it has reached its travel
limit. Then pressure will rise just high enough to move
cylinder B. Finally, when cylinder B is at its limit,
pressure will rise to move cylinder C.
Parallel operation is possible because of the use of
control valves, which can meter a portion of the pump
flow to each load.

Figure 1. 15 – Pressure in parallel circuits.

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FLOW MAKES IT GO
What is flow? Flow is much easier for us to visualize
than pressure, because we see it every time we turn on
a water faucet. It is the movement of the hydraulic fluid
caused by a difference in pressure at two points.
In a kitchen sink there is atmospheric pressure. The city
water works has built up a pressure or head in our
pipes. When the tap is opened, the pressure difference
forces the water out.

In a hydraulic system, flow is usually produced by the Figure 1. 16 – The power source creates flow.
action of a hydraulic pump, a device used to
continuously push on the hydraulic fluid. This pump then is the power source.
The sole purpose of a pump in a hydraulic system is to create flow; pressure is caused by a
resistance to flow. Although there is a common tendency to blame the pump for loss of
pressure, further investigation will usually prove that there was a leakage path, which diverted
all the flow from the pump.

FORCE
Force is any push or pull.
If we trap the liquid under a piston, and that piston has
an area of 10 square inches (0.00645 mm squared),
and place a weight on the piston so that it pushes down
with 43.3 pounds (19.64 kg) of force, we would get a
pressure of 4.33 psi (0.30 kg/cm2). The same is true if
we pushed on a lever with a force of 43.3 pounds.
Of course, it is not necessary to push downward with
force to create pressure in a fluid. It is only necessary
to apply any kind of force. We could have just as easily
turned the container in Figure 1.17 on its side and
pushed on the piston with a spring.
One of the really great things about hydraulics is the
ability to multiply force. Figure 1. 17 – Pressure created by force.

Force multiplication is the ability of a small amount of force to increase to a greater working
force. For example, the weight of a 200-pound man exerted on a piston with a one square inch
area will result in a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch. As the formula states, pressure
(P) is equal to the weight (in pounds) divided by the area of the piston (in square inches).
Thus, 200 pounds divided by one square inch results in a pressure of 200 psi. Hydraulic force
(F), on the other hand, is the result of multiplying the pressure (in pounds per square inch) by

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the area of the piston in square inches. Thus, the 200
pound man on the one square inch piston creates 200
pounds of force in the hydraulic system.
According to Pascal's law, the 200 psi pressure will be
transmitted to every square inch in the hydraulic
system. The 200 psi acting on the 36 square inch
piston will produce 7,200 pounds of force - sufficient to
support the wheel loader. In this situation the system is
balanced or in a static condition and no movement
takes place.

The weight of the wheel loader has been reduced from Figure 1. 18 – A large force balanced by a
7,200 pounds to 7,164 pounds. This revised weight small force.
results in a pressure of only 199 psi and a total force of
1764 pounds. However, the 200 pound man exerting
weight on the one square inch piston still creates
pressure of 200 psi in the hydraulic system. This 200
psi pressure exerted on the 36 square inch piston,
results in a total force of 7200 pounds and is sufficient
to raise the wheel loader.
Another important factor to consider here is the amount
of movement. In order for the 200 pound man to raise
the wheel loader one inch, he must move the piston
he's standing on 36 inches.
Figure 1. 19 – A small force moves a large
Figure 1.20 shows that the man's weight has been weight.
reduced from 200 to 199 pounds but the wheel loader
weight is 7,200 pounds. The man on the one square
inch piston is producing a pressure of 199 psi and a
force of 199 pounds. The wheel loader, however, acting
on the 36-inch piston, produces a 200-psi pressure on
the system, and therefore a force of 200 pounds is
exerted on the small piston. The 200-pound force is
sufficient to overcome the resistance of the man's
weight, and the small piston moves up.
Here, the wheel loader initiates movement in the
system. For every inch the wheel loader moves down,
the man will be raised 36 inches.
Figure 1. 20 – A large force moves a small
weight.

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FLOW RATE AND SPEED
There are two ways of measuring flow; velocity and flow rate.
1. Velocity - Velocity of a fluid is the average speed of its particles past a given point. It is
usually measured in feet-per-second (fps) or meters-per-second (m/s).
Velocity is an important consideration in sizing the hydraulic lines that carry the fluid
between components.
2. Flow rate - Flow rate is the measure of how much volume of the liquid passes a point in a
given time. It is usually measured in gallons-per-minute (gpm) or liters-per-minute (l/min).
Flow rate determines the speed at which the load moves, and therefore is important to the
consideration of power.
We can very easily relate flow rate (gpm or l/min) to the speed at which the load moves, if
we consider the cylinder volume we must fill in the distance the cylinder piston travels. The
volume of the cylinder is simply the length of the stroke multiplied by the piston area.
Squaring the diameter and multiplying by 0.7854 can find the piston area. (Figure 1.21)
Volume (cubic inches or cubic meters) = Area (square inches or square meters) x Length (inches or
meter)
Area = 0.7854 x Diameter Squared

This will give you the volume in cubic meters. A gallon is 231 cubic inches. To convert cubic
inches to gallons:

CUBIC INCHES CUBIC METERS


Gallons = -------------------------- Liters = -------------------------
231 100,000

Imagine that cylinder A in Figure 1.21 is 2 feet (0.6096


m) long and holds one gallon (3.785 l). Cylinder B also
holds one gallon (3.785 l), but is only one foot (0.3048
m) long. If we pump one gallon (3.785 l) per minute into
each, both pistons will move their full travel in one
minute, but cylinder A will move twice as fast because it
has twice as far to go in the same amount of time.

A small diameter cylinder moves faster with an equal


flow rate into it. If we increase the flow rate to two gpm
(7.57 l/min) the speed of both pistons would double and Figure 1. 21 – The speed of a cylinder.
the cylinders would fill in half the time.
So there are two ways of increasing the speed at which the load moves; decrease the size of
the cylinder or increase the flow to it. We could slow down the load by reducing the flow rate or
increasing the size of the cylinder.

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The speed of a cylinder then must be proportional to flow and inversely proportional to the
piston area (or the diameter squared).

FLOW AND PRESSURE DROP


A basic rule of hydraulics is; that wherever there is flow,
there must be a pressure difference (pressure drop).
Conversely, where there is a difference in pressure,
there must either be flow or at least a difference in the
level of the liquid.
When a liquid is not subject to a pressure difference, it
simply seeks a level. Everywhere in the containers, the
liquid is subject only to atmospheric pressure; therefore
it does not move.
If pressure is increased or decreased at any one point,
the fluid will flow until a balance or equilibrium is Figure 1. 22 – Liquid seeks a level.
reached. In the equilibrium state, the measured
difference in height will be equal to the "head" that the
difference in pressure would make. For instance, if the
liquid is oil, a pressure difference of 4 psi (0.28 kg/cm2)
is equivalent to a difference in height of 10 feet. A foot
of oil is equivalent to 0.4 psi (0.28 kg/cm2).

If the pressure difference is too great to create


equilibrium, continuous flow results.
The pressure difference when a liquid is flowing is used
to overcome friction and lift the fluid where necessary.
When a fluid is flowing, the pressure is always highest Figure 1. 23 – Pressure difference causes flow.
upstream and lowest downstream. That is why we refer
to the difference as pressure drop.

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Chapter 1 - Assessment
Fundamentals of Hydraulics
Instructions: There is only one correct answer to each question. If there appears to be more
than one answer, select the most correct answer.
If an in-house instructor is administering this test, turn your answers in to the
instructor when you are finished. Your instructor will input your scores into the
Komatsu Learning Management System.
If you are taking the Basic Hydraulics course as self-study, mark your answers
in the appropriate space on the answer sheet provided in the back of the
booklet. When you have completed all of the assessments for the entire book,
either:
a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet.
The instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your
assessment and also input your scores into the Komatsu Learning
Management System. Or,
b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your
extranet username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic
Subject course, after your enrollment has been approved, you can launch
the course, then click on the Assessment link and answer each question.
Your grade will be scored and tracked automatically. Note: The online
assessment questions are in random order.
1. Who built the first known working turbine?
a. Archimedes.
b. Hero.
c. Torricelli.
d. Bramah.
2. What does Pascal’s Law say?
a. Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in every direction.
b. Pressure acts with equal force on equal areas.
c. Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted at right angles to the container walls.
d. All of the above.

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3. Which of the following is an example of Hydrodynamics at work?
a. The floodgate of a dam.
b. A nozzle squirting water onto a turbine.
c. A lift cylinder in a bulldozer.
d. A windmill.

4. Which of the following is not an advantage of using hydraulics?


a. Cheaper manufacturing costs.
b. Quiet.
c. Flexibility.
d. High efficiency.
5. How is pressure created?
a. By an operating pump.
b. By the fluid movement or flow created by a pump.
c. By resistance to fluid movement or flow.
6. Which of the following types of hydraulic circuits is most commonly used in
construction equipment today?
a. Series.
b. Parallel.
c. Series parallel.
d. Horizontal.
7. What is force?
a. Resistance to flow.
b. The movement of fluid caused by a difference in pressure at two points.
c. The ability of a small push to increase to a larger push.
d. Any push or pull.
8. How can you make a cylinder move faster?
a. Increase the flow rate.
b. Increase the size of the cylinder.
c. Reduce the flow rate.
d. All of the above.
9. Suppose you have two 500-gallon tanks (called “A” and “B”) sitting on level ground,
which are interconnected by a 1/2-inch inside-diameter pipe, and you fill tank “A”
with water. Several days later you look at the water level in both tanks. Now, which of
the following statements is most likely to be true?
a. The water level in tank A will be higher than tank “B”.
b. The water level in tank B will be higher than tank “A”.
c. The water level in both tanks will be equal.
d. The water would continuously flow from tank “A” to tank “B” until tank “A” is empty.

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10. Suppose that all the conditions shown in question 9 are the same except that tank
“B” is sitting on ground one foot lower than tank “A”. Several days after filling tank
“A” you again look at the water level of both tanks. Which of the following
statements is most likely to be true?
a. The water level in tank “A” will be higher than tank “B”.
b. The water level in tank B will be higher than tank “A”.
c. The water level in both tanks will be equal.
d. The water would continuously flow from tank “A” to tank “B” until tank “A” is empty.

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Basic Hydraulics - 4006 KT800693-R1
Page 1-14 April 2005
For Instructor Use Only
Score: ________

IMPORTANT: This is a multi purpose answer sheet designed especially for the Basic Service Training Materials series. This
answer sheet can be used for in-house and/or self study manuals. This answer sheet is used to validate your
study of each chapter or lesson.

BASIC SUBJECT TITLE: BASIC HYDRAULIC-4006 STUDENT’S NAME: __________________________________


DISTRIBUTOR NAME: _______________________________ DISTRIBUTOR BRANCH: ______________________________

INSTRUCTIONS:
NOTE: If you are taking this Basic Subject course online – you will not need to use this form.
A. All answers are based upon the contents of the Basic Service Training Manual.
B. Read each question and all answers carefully.
C. When there are fewer than 12 questions, mark your answer for the number of questions asked per chapter and leave remaining boxes
blank.
D. There is only one correct answer for each question. If there appears to be more than one correct answer - select the most correct
answer.
E. Please circle the appropriate letter for each answer.
F. Make corrections by drawing a BOLD "X" through any incorrect answer and place a circle around new selection.
G. Upon completion, turn the answer sheet in to your instructor or KLMS Administrator.
H: DO NOT MAIL YOUR ANSWER SHEET TO KOMATSU.

Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 9


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Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 10
1. A B C D 1. A B C D 1. A B C D
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8. A B C D 8. A B C D 8. A B C D
9. A B C D 9. A B C D 9. A B C D
10. A B C D 10. A B C D 10. A B C D
11. A B C D 11. A B C D 11. A B C D
12. A B C D 12. A B C D 12. A B C D
Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 11
1. A B C D 1. A B C D 1. A B C D
2. A B C D 2. A B C D 2. A B C D
3. A B C D 3. A B C D 3. A B C D
4. A B C D 4. A B C D 4. A B C D
5. A B C D 5. A B C D 5. A B C D
6. A B C D 6. A B C D 6. A B C D
7. A B C D 7. A B C D 7. A B C D
8. A B C D 8. A B C D 8. A B C D
9. A B C D 9. A B C D 9. A B C D
10. A B C D 10. A B C D 10. A B C D
11. A B C D 11. A B C D 11. A B C D
12. A B C D 12. A B C D 12. A B C D
Chapter 4 Chapter 8 Chapter 12
1. A B C D 1. A B C D 1. A B C D
2. A B C D 2. A B C D 2. A B C D
3. A B C D 3. A B C D 3. A B C D
4. A B C D 4. A B C D 4. A B C D
5. A B C D 5. A B C D 5. A B C D
6. A B C D 6. A B C D 6. A B C D
7. A B C D 7. A B C D 7. A B C D
8. A B C D 8. A B C D 8. A B C D
9. A B C D 9. A B C D 9. A B C D
10. A B C D 10. A B C D 10. A B C D
11. A B C D 11. A B C D 11. A B C D
12. A B C D 12. A B C D 12. A B C D
Chapter 2
Hydraulic Terms
INTRODUCTION
This chapter will describe the basic hydraulic terms not previously discussed in Chapter 1.
Hydraulic terms, which relate to specific hydraulic system components, will be addressed with
each type component in Chapter 5.
A thorough understanding of these terms will make it easier to understand Shop Manual
descriptions of hydraulic system functions.
The many common terms have been organized for discussion into the following sub-
categories:
• General Terms
• Terms Related to Pressure
• Terms Related to Flow
• Hydraulic Circuit Terms
• General Component Terms

GENERAL TERMS
Aeration - The presence of air in the hydraulic oil.
Excessive aeration causes the fluid to appear milky and
components to operate erratically due to the
compressibility of the air trapped in the fluid. This
condition is sometimes referred to as entrained air.

Figure 2. 1. – Aerated hydraulic fluid

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When aeration occurs in machines equipped with
hydraulic cylinders, the action of the cylinders becomes
spongy, leading to instability.

This condition is sometimes called a hydraulic vapor


lock. It is well known that if air gets trapped in an
automobile's brake fluid, the air/fluid mixture can be
easily compressed, reducing its ability to push the
wheel cylinder piston and thus lowering brake
effectiveness.

Cavitation - A condition where the available fluid Figure 2. 2 – Aeration of hydraulic cylinder.
doesn't fill the existing space. This often occurs when
sufficient oil is not supplied to a pump inlet. Cavitation
can be caused by excessive pump speed, using an oil
with too high a viscosity, too much restriction in the inlet
line, or if the reservoir oil level is located too far below
the pump inlet.

One of the easiest ways to prevent this type of


cavitation is to charge or supercharge the pump inlet.

Charge or supercharge - This text refers to supplying


oil to the hydraulic system with fluid above atmospheric
pressure. This is usually done by either locating the
reservoir higher than the pump inlet, (see "head
pressure" in chapter 1), or by charging the inlet port
with pressurized oil, through the use of another
centrifugal pump or by using an accumulator.

Figure 2. 3 – Aeration decreases brake


efficiency.

Figure 2. 4 – Gear pump cavitation.

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Compressibility - The change in volume of a fluid
when it is subjected to a change in pressure. Gases are
compressible while liquids resist compression.

Contaminate - Hydraulic fluids are contaminated when


there is a presence of an undesirable and harmful
substance such as air, water, or dirt.

Drift - Leakage of oil past hydraulic cylinder seals. A


slow and weak circuit operation is produced when a
cylinder piston seal leaks. If the leakage increases past
a certain point the circuit will not operate at all.
Figure 2. 5 – Liquids resist compression.

The cylinder on the left has no piston seal leakage. The


working area on the piston side of the cylinder is four
(4) square inches. The working area on the rod side is
three (3) square inches, indicating that the rod takes up
one square inch of area. If an 8,000-pound load is
placed on the rod end of the cylinder it will take
approximately 2,000 psi on the piston side of the
cylinder to raise the load. The pressure of the oil on the
rod side of the cylinder will be 0 psi.

The cylinder on the right has a worn piston seal. It will


still take approximately 2,000 psi to raise the load, as Figure 2. 6 – Hydraulic cylinder leakage.
indicated. But the load will be raised slower because of
the volume of pump oil moving past the leaking piston
seal to the return side of the cylinder.

Komatsu shop manuals provide cylinder drift


specifications.

A drift test is used to verify internal leakage within a


circuit. Typically the blade or bucket is raised to a
specified position (so many inches or millimeters above
the ground) and the control valve is placed in HOLD.
After a specified amount of time, often 15 minutes, the
rate at which the cylinder rods travel out of the cylinder,
or the amount that the bucket or blade has dropped, is
measured. This amount is then compared to the Figure 2. 7 – Measuring cylinder drift.
acceptable amount specified in the shop manual.

Be aware that a leaking cylinder piston seal is not the only cause of excessive drift. Often
internal leakage in a circuit component such as the control valve or check valve will create the
same symptoms.

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Efficiency - The ratio of output to input and is normally expressed as a percent. When
discussing hydraulic system efficiency one is talking about pump efficiency, torque efficiency,
or volumetric efficiency.

Volumetric efficiency - Volumetric efficiency of a pump is the actual discharge (in gpm or
l/min.) divided by the theoretical or design discharge, expressed as a percentage.

Actual discharge
————————— X 100 = Volumetric efficiency of hydraulic pump
Theoretical discharge

Torque efficiency - The theoretical torque (derived from the working pressure and the
theoretical discharge) divided by the shaft torque of the prime mover and expressed as a
percentage.

Theoretical torque
————————— X 100 = Pump torque efficiency
Shaft torque of
prime mover
Pump efficiency - The volumetric efficiency times torque efficiency.

Fluid - A liquid or gas. However, when discussing hydraulic systems, the term is related to a
liquid that is specially compounded for use as the power-transmitting medium in a hydraulic
system.

Heat - The form of energy that has the capacity to create warmth. Any energy that is wasted or
used to overcome friction is converted to heat. Heat is normally measured in calories or British
Thermal Units (BTU's). One BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

Hydraulic balance - This is a condition of equal


opposed forces acting on a part in a hydraulic
component. For example, Figure 2.8 shows two valves
with a balancing port. The valve on the right illustrates
a valve with a balancing port that is plugged. The valve
cannot move because the pressure values on both
sides of the valve are equal to each other.

The valve on the left has a balancing port that is open,


consequently, when oil flows into this valve the
pressure on the inlet side will be higher and the valve
will move to the left. Figure 2. 8 – Hydraulic balance of spool valve.

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Meter - To meter is to regulate the amount or rate of fluid flow. To meter-in means to regulate
the amount of fluid flow into an actuator or system. To meter-out is to control the flow of
discharge fluid from the actuator or system. Sometimes metering of hydraulic fluids is
accomplished with the use of an orifice.

Orifice - A restriction or small opening placed in a


hydraulic passage to control flow and/or to create a
pressure differential to shift a spool. It should be noted
that the pressure drop occurs only if there is flow. If the
flow is blocked, pressure will equalize or balance.

Replenish - Adding fluid to maintain a full hydraulic


system.

Sequence - The order of a series of operations/


movements, or to divert flow to accomplish a
subsequent operation/movement. Figure 2. 9 – An orifice is a restriction in the
line.
Slip (slippage) - Internal leakage of hydraulic fluid such
as previously discussed when explaining the drift of a
hydraulic cylinder. Often this term is used to describe
the effects of seal failure on the clutch apply piston of
an automatic transmission.

Figure 2.10 shows hydraulic flow from a control valve to


an automatic transmission clutch apply piston. If the
seal on the clutch apply piston is broken, hydraulic fluid
will slip past the seal, resulting in a loss of clutch apply
force (pressure).

Figure 2. 10 – Slippage in transmission clutch


pack.

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Suction - A word commonly used to describe pump
inlet. Many people will refer to a suction filter or the
suction side of a pump. However, this is a misuse of
the word “suction.”

Hydraulic fluids are pushed by outside pressure into


the inlet port of pumps. The pump then creates flow by
pushing the fluid into lines or passages where it can be
directed to specific locations and put to work.

Suction line - The hydraulic line connecting the Figure 2. 11 – Pumps do not suck up oil.
reservoir or sump to the pump inlet port. A suction filter
would be located between these two points.

Vacuum - The absence of pressure. A perfect vacuum is the total absence of pressure; a
partial vacuum is a condition less than atmospheric pressure. Vacuum is measured in inches
or millimeters of Mercury.

Velocity - This term is used in two ways. To describe the flow through a hydraulic line, which
is measured in liters per minute (l/min) or gallons per minute (gpm). Velocity also refers to the
speed of a rotating component, measured in revolutions per minute (rpm).

Viscosity - A measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow. The related term, viscosity index
usually refers to a chart or graph, which shows how much thinner, or thicker a fluid gets with
cooler or warmer temperatures.

Volume - Usually refers to the size of a space or chamber in cubic units. It is also used to
describe the output of a pump in gallons per minute or liters per minute.

TERMS RELATED TO PRESSURE


Pressure - Force per unit area; usually expressed in
pounds per square inch (psi) or kilograms per square
centimeter (kg/cm2). The resistance to flow creates
pressure. If there is no flow or resistance to flow, there
will be no pressure.

A simple hydraulic circuit is illustrated in Figure 2.12. It


shows that atmospheric pressure is pushing fluid into
the pump and that the pump has created flow through a
control valve to a hydraulic cylinder, where it meets
resistance at the cylinder piston. P1 is the pressure
caused due to the resistance of the piston.

Figure 2. 12 – Pressure and backpressure.

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Backpressure - The pressure on the backside of a load. It increases the pressure P1 required
to move the load. P2 in Figure 2.12 represents backpressure.

Line pressure - Pressure in the line between the pump and the actuator in use.

Charge pressure - Pressure above atmospheric pressure, created by head pressure,


accumulator, or another pump to force adequate replenishing fluid into the hydraulic system.
For example, a centrifugal impeller pump is used on Komatsu hydraulic excavators to force oil
under no less than 21-psi (1.5 kg/cm2) pressure into the main variable piston pumps inlet ports.
Cracking pressure - Pressure at which a pressure-activated valve begins to pass fluid.
Pilot pressure - Auxiliary pressure used to activate or control hydraulic components.

Pressure pulsations - Fluctuations in the pressure of


hydraulic oil discharged from a pump under actual
operating conditions, when the oil flow has been stable.
It excludes transient pressure fluctuations.

The discharge volume of a pump will fluctuate at a rate


proportional to the number of gear teeth, impeller
blades, or pistons depending upon the type of pump.

Rated or set pressure - The maximum pressure which


can be applied to the hydraulic system continuously. It
is the main relief setting pressure, sometimes called the Figure 2. 13 – Pressure pulsation.
base pressure.

For example, if the pump can be operated continuously under 250 kg/cm2 (3,556 psi), the
rated pressure will be 250 kg/cm2 (3,556 psi), even if the pump can withstand momentary
pressure of up to 300 kg/cm2 (4,267 psi).

Surge (spike) pressure - The maximum value of a


momentary rise of pressure in a hydraulic system.

If a directional control valve in a hydraulic circuit


operating at a rated pressure of 110 kg/cm2 (1,565 psi)
is suddenly shut off, the pressure may rise to 180
kg/cm2 (2,560 psi) momentarily. Such a phenomenon is
known as a surge pressure.

When a hydraulic cylinder in the system is operating at

Figure 2. 14 – A momentary rise of pressure. a load of 110 kg/cm2 (1,565 psi) and reaches the end of
its stroke, the fluid pressure will suddenly reach the
rated value of the hydraulic system. Assuming that the
rated value is 140 kg/cm2 (1,991 psi), the relief valve

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will start to open the instant the pressure reaches 140 kg/cm2 (1,991 psi). There will be a time
lag due to inertia and frictional resistance before it opens. As a result, a surge pressure will be
generated in an extremely short time interval.

TERMS RELATED TO FLOW


Flow - The movement of fluid within the hydraulic system.

Flow rate - The volume of fluid, which moves in a unit of time, and is expressed in gallons per
minute (gpm) or liters per minute (l/min.).
There are several methods for measuring the flow rate of oil, but the method preferred by
Komatsu is the volumetric method. If the time required to fill a container was one minute, and
the volume of fluid collected was one gallon (3.785 liters), then the flow rate would be 1 gpm
(3.785 l/min.).
Trying to measure flow rate on construction equipment,
as shown in Figure 2.15, is not practical and could get
quite messy, since most pumps output are rated at
over 30 gpm (114 l/min.). Therefore, Komatsu
recommends the use of a flow meter.

When properly installed in a system, the flow meter


allows the service technician to check the output of the
pump and to check for internal leakage in a system
component both under load or no-load conditions.

Figure 2. 15 – Measuring the flow.

To test a pump and the pump inlet line, place the tester
in the lines between the pump and the valve.

Figure 2. 16 – Check the flow rate with a flow


meter.

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When the installation is completed, start the engine and
accelerate to the rated speed of the pump. The rated
speed and flow rate is usually provided in the system
schematic drawing shown in the appropriate shop
manual. If the pump delivers far less than the specified
amount, check the fluid level; pump inlet line for
tightness, and inlet strainer for plugging.

If the pump delivery is up to specifications, increase


pressure by turning the pressure control handle on the
tester. Check the pump output at two pressure
Figure 2. 17 – Testing a pump with a flow readings against the manufacturer's specifications.
meter. These checks are usually made at 50% and 90% of the
systems rated pressure. Pump output should be about
the same as at 0 pressure, otherwise the pump is worn.

Flow force - When oil flows from the high-pressure


side to the low-pressure side of a spool valve, it will
cause the flow speed to increase. As a result, the
pressure at that point will be correspondingly locally
reduced. In other words, the pressure at AB will
become lower than the pressure at CD; therefore, force
will act on the valve causing it to move to the right. This
is called flow force.

Delivery or discharge - The volume of fluid


discharged by a pump in a given time, usually
expressed in gallons per minute or liters per minute. Figure 2. 18 – The force of flow can move a
valve.

Theoretical discharge - The theoretical discharge rate refers to the amount of fluid a unit
would put out at a given speed under ideal conditions. This volume is based upon the design
measurements of the unit. In a gear type pump, the size and number of teeth, and area
between teeth are major considerations. Even with a new pump, the theoretical discharge
volume cannot be achieved due to leakage of some fluid between the units moving parts.

Actual discharge - The actual discharge rate takes into consideration the normal internal
leakage factors and is the actual value of the discharge when measured using a hydraulic test
bench, which satisfies actual test specifications (rpm and pressure).

Displacement - The quantity of fluid, which can pass through a pump, motor, or cylinder in a
single revolution or stroke.

Drain (drain line) - A passage in, or line from, a hydraulic component, which returns leakage
fluid independently to the reservoir or to a vented manifold.

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Turbulent flow (turbulence) - A condition where the
fluid particles move in random paths rather than in
continuous parallel paths.

Fluid can flow in two patterns. Laminar or streamlined


flow is the type of flow that is smooth and causes a
minimum of internal friction. In turbulent flow, the fluid
molecules tumble against each other and cause
harmful heat build-up through internal friction.

Cycle times - Previously we discussed flow rate and


Figure 2. 19 – Turbulent and normal flow. how to measure it using a flow meter. However, what
do you do if you do not have a flow meter? Well, never
forget," Flow Makes It Go." Flow is what causes our
blade to rise, bucket to curl, and hydraulic motor to rotate. Measuring the cycle time of these
functions therefore is an effective way to verify if the system flow rate is correct or if there is
internal leakage within the circuit.

The measured cycle time can be compared to the original specifications shown in the machine
shop manual. If the cycle time is slower than the specification, circuit internal leakage is
indicated.

Comparing the actual cycle time to the manufacturer's specifications does not take into
account the condition of the rest of the machine components.
A more accurate cycle time is obtained by
comparing the circuit loaded versus unloaded. A
higher pressure is required to raise a bucket when it
is full than when it is empty. This increased
operating pressure will increase the oil volume lost
through internal leakage and slow the cycle time
down. If no internal leakage is present, the cycle
time of the loaded circuit should be approximately
the same as the cycle time of the unloaded circuit.

Figure 2. 20 – Using cycle times to test flow rate.

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HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT TERMS
All hydraulic circuits or systems are basically the same regardless of application. There are
four basic components used in every hydraulic circuit; a tank or reservoir to hold the fluid, a
pump to force the fluid through the system, valves to control the system pressure and direct oil
flow, and an actuator (i.e. a cylinder for linear motion or a motor for rotary motion) to convert
the fluid's energy into mechanical force to accomplish the work.

Circuit - Figure 2.21 illustrates a simple circuit with a


pump, reservoir, valves and a hydraulic actuator.

Hydraulic systems can include two or more pumps,


numerous valves of different types, and several
cylinders and/or rotary motors.

Figure 2. 21 – A simple hydraulic circuit.

Circuit diagram - Circuit diagrams show


the reader how the fluid flows through a
particular hydraulic system. The information
shown is essential to understanding how
the system works and helps the
troubleshooter to find the problem if one
should occur. There are two ways of
depicting a machines hydraulic system with
circuit diagrams. One method is a cutaway
diagram. This type circuit drawing is
sometimes called a hydraulic circuit system
in Komatsu Publications. You can see that
cutaway diagrams not only show the circuit
layout, but also show the construction and
operation of the components as well.

Figure 2. 22 – Cutaway type circuit diagram.

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The other way of depicting a hydraulic
system is a graphic diagram. This type is
the most widely used. The graphic
diagram consists of internationally
recognized hydraulic symbols. These
symbols are combinations of simple
geometric figures, designed to show the
Junction of the component in the system,
not its shape, internal construction or
operation. In fact, the same type of
component can often be shown by
different symbols, depending upon its
use in the system. This type circuit
diagram is referred to as a hydraulic
schematic. Both types of circuit diagrams
may be found in Komatsu publications.

The standard hydraulic symbols used in


Komatsu publications are shown in
Chapter 4.

Figure 2. 23 – Graphic diagram type circuit diagram.

Bleed off - To divert a specific, controllable portion of pump delivery directly to the reservoir.

By-pass - A secondary passage for fluid flow.

Closed circuit - A closed circuit is a piping


arrangement in which pump flow is directed back to the
pump inlet after passing through other hydraulic
components. It bypasses the reservoir.

Figure 2. 24 – Closed (closed lope) circuit.

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Open circuit - An open circuit is a piping arrangement wherein the pump flow begins and ends
at the reservoir.

Most hydraulic systems are laid out using an open type


circuit.

Pilot pressure - This type pressure is sometimes


referred to as signal pressure. It is a pressure
secondary to the hydraulic system main pressure,
which is used to control a function within the main
system.

Port - The point where fluid enters or leaves a


component.
Figure 2. 25 – An open circuit.
Route - The hose, tube, or passageway through which
the fluid flows.

Return line - A line used to carry fluid from the actuator back to the reservoir.

Suction or Suction line - An often used, but incorrect term used to describe the inlet port or
line of the pump. Pumps do not suck up oil. Actually, the hydraulic fluid is pushed into the
pump inlet by outside pressure, which is higher than the pressure at the pump inlet. The pump
simply moves the fluid from its inlet to outlet ports creating flow.

GENERAL COMPONENT TERMS


In the following discussion of component terms we will
define the terms as we follow the normal flow of fluid
through a typical hydraulic system.

The fluid flow in a hydraulic system must have a


starting point and a finishing point. For this reason a
hydraulic system can be viewed as a large circle. The
circle in Figure 2.26 represents the many hydraulic
lines that connect the components to each other
forming the total system.
Lines - The hoses, tubes, or passageway through Figure 2. 26 – The lines of a hydraulic system.
which the fluid must flow when traveling from one
component to another within the system.

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Reservoir or Sump - The place where the hydraulic
fluid is stored. It helps to dissipate the heat from the
fluid and also helps to remove air and other
contaminants from the fluid.

The correct fluid level must be maintained in the


reservoir for proper operation of the hydraulic system.
The reservoir is designed to hold a sufficient amount of
fluid to cover the pump inlet line even when all
cylinders are fully extended. If the fluid is allowed to
drop below the specified level, air can be drawn into the Figure 2. 27 – Reservoir or sump.
pump inlet causing aeration or cavitation to occur.

Most reservoirs have a strainer. It is usually a 100-


mesh wire screen. Its purpose is to prevent foreign
material from flowing out of the reservoir and into the
pumps. In some systems the reservoir also houses the
main filtration system and/or valve body.

Pump - A device, which converts mechanical force and


motion into hydraulic fluid power. The purpose of a
pump is to push the fluid and create flow through the
system. The pump does not create pressure. Pressure
is created in the system only when there is resistance Figure 2. 28 – Reservoir.
to the flow. If the resistance to flow is a load on the
cylinder, only enough pressure is created to move the
load.

The number of pumps, pump design and size will vary depending on the specific application.
Most Komatsu crawler tractors, wheel loaders and dump trucks use positive displacement gear
type pumps. Hydraulic excavators and other hydrostatic machines usually rely on piston type
pumps for their main hydraulic systems.

Figure 2. 29 – A pump creates flow.

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Fixed delivery pumps - There are three main types of fixed delivery, or positive displacement:
pumps. The efficiency of these pumps depends upon a minimum of wear throughout its life.
Abnormal wear causes increased internal slippage of the fluid within the pump. This results in
power loss, reduced output, and increased operating temperature.

External gear pump - The external gear pump pushes


fluid through the system with a meshed set of gears.
Fluid is trapped between the gear teeth and the
housing and is carried from the pump inlet to the outlet.
The other drives one gear and timing is not necessary.
The efficiency of gear pumps is determined by the
close fit of its moving parts. These pumps are used
when relatively low pressure, low volume, and
restrictive space are characteristics of the system.
Some Komatsu machines are using external gear
pumps, which have been provided with pressure-
loaded wear plates. Pressures up to 3000 psi are Figure 2. 30 – External gear pump.
available with these pumps.

Internal gear pump - Internal gear pumps, commonly


referred to as gerotor or trochoid pumps, operate on
the same basic principle as external gear pumps.

The difference between an internal and external gear


pump is that with the internal gear pump, one gear
rotates inside the other and fluid is trapped between
the gears. Sealing from the inlet to the outlet is
accomplished by having the teeth in constant sliding
contact. It is important to remember that there is one
less tooth on the internal gear than on the external gear
to provide space for picking up the fluid. Figure 2. 31 – Internal gear pump.

Vane pumps - Vane pumps are also fixed delivery


pumps and are capable of handling large volumes at
relatively high pressures. Wear does not greatly reduce
their efficiency because the vanes can move farther out
of their slots and maintain contact with the cam ring.

Figure 2. 32 – Vane pump.

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Variable displacement - A characteristic of a pump or motor which allows the flow through
them to be controlled depending upon the desired system performance.

Variable delivery pump - Variable


delivery or variable displacement
pumps are usually run at a constant
speed and are designed so that the
volume of output can be varied from
zero to the maximum capacity of the
pump. In this type of pump a number of
pistons, reciprocating in individual
bores in a rotating cylinder block, are
responsible for moving fluid from inlet
to outlet. The number of pistons and
the size of the bore determine the
capacity of the pump. There are two
basic designs in use with Komatsu
Dresser products and these differences
will be explained in Chapter 5. Figure 2. 33 – Variable delivery pump.

Control valve - The control valve which is sometimes


called the, control or control device, is used to direct or
proportion the fluid flow from the pump to one or a
combination of circuits where the work is done.

Figure 2. 34 – Control valve.

Directional control valve - Directional control valves


have spools, which are used to control the direction of
flow. By increasing the number of lands and by adding
ports, one spool can be made to handle flow in many
directions.

Figure 2. 35 – Directional control valve.

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The spools in a valve body usually have annular
grooves. These grooves are machined around the
spools outer diameter and collect small contaminants to
prevent sticking or locking of the spool.

Figure 2. 36 – Spool with annular grooves.

Spool valve notches - Most spools also have notches


cut into them. If these notches were not there, oil will
start and stop flowing abruptly when the spool is used,
resulting in extremely high pressures. This would make
fine control impossible.
The notches cut into spool valves allow smooth build up
of pressure and thereby provide for fine control of the
flow when the spool starts to open or close.
There are two basic types of directional spool valves,
the open center and the closed center. These types and Figure 2. 37 – Spool valve with notches.
other construction features will be discussed in Chapter
5.

Spool valve detent - When it is


necessary to know where the spool
valve is positioned, or if it is desirable
to prevent the spool from changing
from that position, a detent and
spring is fitted to the spool. Figure
2.38 shows a detent (notch) on the
right end of the spool, which is used
to hold the blade in the "float"
position. This is a common
application of a detent.
Figure 2. 38 – Spool held by detent.

Manifold - A fluid conductor, which provides multiple connection ports.

Manual control - A control actuated by the operator, regardless of the means of actuation. A
pedal or lever.

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Manual override - A means of manually actuating an automatically controlled device.

Throttle - To permit passing of restricted flow. It may control flow rate or create a deliberate
pressure drop.

Unload - To release flow, usually directly to the reservoir, to prevent pressure build up in the
system or in a portion of the system.

Chattering - This term refers to noise


(vibrating) caused by a liquid passing
through certain types of valves (i.e. relief
valve).
The oil causes the valves, particularly
poppet type valves, to strike the valve
seat, resulting in a relatively high-pitch
sound.

Figure 2. 39 – Noise as oil is relieved.

Figure 2. 40 – Chattering.

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Actuator - A device for converting hydraulic energy into
mechanical energy. A motor or cylinder.

The actuator is the final component in our hydraulic


circle. The actuator is really the beginning point in the
design of a hydraulic system. If there is no bucket to be
lifted, blade to be lowered, sprocket, wheel or upper
structure to be rotated, there is no need for a hydraulic
system.

Figure 2. 41 – Completed hydraulic circle.

Cylinder - The cylinder converts the fluid flow from the pump to mechanical motion. Each
cylinder is selected in sire and design to produce the required motion and force to perform the
desired job.

There are several different designs of cylinders. These differences will be shown in Chapter 5.

Cylinder base side - The side of a cylinder opposite the piston rod. This side is also referred
to as the base.

Cylinder head side - The side of a cylinder through


which the rod protrudes. This side is often called the
rod side.

Double acting cylinder - A cylinder in which fluid force


can be applied in either direction. Figure 2. 42 – Cylinder head and bottom.

Reciprocation - Back-and-forth straight-line motion. The type of motion produced by a


hydraulic cylinder.

Single acting cylinder - A cylinder in which hydraulic energy can produce thrust or motion in
only one direction. Can be spring or gravity returned.

Telescopic cylinder - A cylinder with a multistage tube type rod that provides a long operating
stroke. This type cylinder is found in dump trucks and motor scrapers.

Motor - A rotary motion device that changes hydraulic energy into mechanical energy; a rotary
actuator.

There are several different designs of hydraulic drive motors. All of the types found in Komatsu
machines will be shown in Chapter 5.

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The basic components and operating principles of a motor are similar to those of pumps. The
difference is that pumps create fluid flow, but the force of the flow drives the motor.

Figure 2. 43 – Vane type motor.

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Chapter 2 - Assessment
Hydraulic Terms
Instructions: There is only one correct answer to each question. If there appears to be more
than one answer, select the most correct answer.

If an in-house instructor is administering this test, turn your answers in to the


instructor when you are finished. Your instructor will input your scores into the
Komatsu Learning Management System.

If you are taking the Basic Hydraulics course as self-study, mark your answers
in the appropriate space on the answer sheet provided in the back of the
booklet. When you have completed all of the assessments for the entire book,
either:

a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet.
The instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your
assessment and also input your scores into the Komatsu Learning
Management System. Or,

b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your


extranet username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic
Subject course, after your enrollment has been approved, you can launch
the course, then click on the Assessment link and answer each question.
Your grade will be scored and tracked automatically. Note: The online
assessment questions are in random order.

1. Which of the following statements is true regarding aeration?


a. Aeration and cavitation is the same thing.
b. Aeration and implosion is the same thing.
c. An aerated hydraulic fluid causes erratic operation of components.
d. Aeration is a condition where the available fluid doesn't fill the existing space.

2. Which of the following could be the cause of cavitation in a hydraulic system?


a. Too much restriction in the inlet line.
b. Using oil with too high a viscosity.
c. The reservoir is located to far below the pump inlet.
d. All of the above.

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3. What does excessive cylinder drift mean?
a. That the cylinder piston seals are leaking.
b. That the control valve is leaking.
c. That a check valve is leaking.
d. All of the above are possible.
4. Why is/is not the word suction correct for describing the inlet side of a pump?
a. It is correct because the pump sucks up oil through its inlet port on this side.
b. It is correct because fluid is pulled into the pump at this inlet port.
c. It is incorrect because fluids are pushed into the pump inlet by outside pressure.
d. None of the above is true.

5. What is viscosity?
a. Refers to the speed of a rotating component.
b. A measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow.
c. The size of a space or chamber in cubic units.
d. All of the above.

6. Which of the following best describes flow rate?


a. The volume of fluid, which moves past a given point in a unit of time.
b. The movement of fluid within the hydraulic system.
c. When oil flows from the high-pressure side of a spool valve to the low-pressure side, it
will cause the flow speed to increase, this is flow rate.
d. The quantity of fluid, which can pass through a pump, motor, or cylinder in a single
revolution or stroke.

7. The measurement of cycle times is an effective way to verify which of the following?
a. If the system flow rate is correct.
b. If the system pressure is normal.
c. If there is excessive pressure in one or more of the machines circuits.
d. If the theoretical discharge of the pump is correct.

8. Which of the following types of hydraulic circuit diagrams are used in Komatsu
publications?
a. Graphic diagram type.
b. Schematic diagram type.
c. Cutaway diagram type.
d. All of the above.

9. Which of the following types of pumps are most likely to be a variable displacement
type?
a. Vane type.
b. Piston type.
c. External gear type.
d. Internal gear type.

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10. What is the purpose of the notches cut into spool valves?
a. To prevent sticking or locking of the spool.
b. To provide for fine control of flow when the spool starts to open or close.
c. To act as counterbalance surfaces, which prevent uneven pressure, build up on one
end of the spool.
d. To hold the valve in one desired position (such as "float").

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Chapter 3
Hydraulic Fluids
INTRODUCTION
The selection of the proper fluid for use in hydraulic systems is important for assuring
satisfactory performance and life of system components.

The following topics will be discussed in this chapter:

ƒ Purpose/Functions of Oil
ƒ Factors for Selecting Oil
ƒ Hydraulic Fluid Recommendations
ƒ Komatsu Oil & Wear Analysis
ƒ Importance of Cleanliness

PURPOSE/FUNCTIONS OF OIL
The hydraulic fluid within our hydraulic system has five purposes. These purposes are:

ƒ To transmit power
ƒ To lubricate
ƒ To cool
ƒ To clean
ƒ To seal

Following is a discussion of each of these purposes and their related functions.

1. To transmit power - The first and primary purpose


of fluid in a hydraulic system is to serve as the
power transmission medium.

When transmitting power, the pump is pushing the


fluid to the drive motor. There is no room in the
motor for additional fluid; therefore, the fluid exerts a
force to the actuator (cylinder or motor). The force
of fluid is converted to useable power for doing
work.

Figure 3. – Power transmission.

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2. To lubricate - Moving parts within the hydraulic
system components, such as the piston moving
within a barrel of a variable displacement pump, or
the in and out movement of the vanes of a vane
type motor within the slots in the rotor, are
constantly rubbing together. If the hydraulic fluid
did not lubricate these parts, the components
would wear out very rapidly and fail prematurely.

The function of lubrication is to reduce wear and


control friction.
Figure 3. 2 – Lubrication of vanes in motor.
3. To cool - Friction is when any two bodies, such as
the metal parts of a pump or motor, are rubbing
against each other or even when oil rubs against the inner walls of hoses. This rubbing
creates heat. More rubbing and higher flow through a hydraulic system's lines create
greater heat. For these reasons, most systems are equipped with a cooler to dissipate the
heat generated in the system.

The hydraulic fluid carries the heat through the lines to the cooler. Another function of oil is
to limit the temperature to acceptable limits.

Figure 3. 3 – Hydraulic system with cooler.

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4. To clean - All Komatsu products also have a filter in their hydraulic system. The hydraulic
oil contains additives, which suspend contaminants so that they will be carried to the filter
and prevented from entering other system components.

Heat, which is reduced by the cooler and contamination that is trapped by the filter, are the
number one and number two enemies of any hydraulic system. Most hydraulic system
failures can be attributed to the malfunctioning of one of these two functions.

5. To seal - Proper operation of system components,


such as the vane motor, can only be attained if the
fluid pushes on the vanes and does not leak past
them. The example show that as the fluid flows
past the cam ring, a thin film of fluid stays on the
cam ring to act as a seal between the vanes and
ring. The final function of oil is to form a seal.

Figure 3. 4 – Sealing within a motor.


FACTORS FOR SELECTING AN OIL
There are four factors that are considered before a manufacturer recommends oil for use in
their hydraulic systems. These factors are:

ƒ Viscosity
ƒ Viscosity Index
ƒ Additives
ƒ Chemical Stability

1. Viscosity - Viscosity is the physical property of a fluid that resists flow. It is a measurement
of a fluid's ability to lubricate under specific speed, temperature and pressure conditions.

Oil must have sufficient body to provide an adequate sealing effect between the working
parts of pumps, valves, cylinders and motors. This body cannot be so great that it causes
cavitation or sluggish valve operation. At the same time, the fluid must continue to provide
adequate lubrication and anti-friction capabilities.

Proper viscosity is a balance between a high enough viscosity to hold wear to a minimum
and reduce internal leakage, and low enough viscosity to permit the oil to flow readily
through the system.

2. Viscosity index - The viscosity of fluids changes with temperature. Viscosity varies more
in some fluids than in others. The viscosity index is simply a measurement of the rate of
change of viscosity over a certain range of temperature. If a fluid becomes thick at low
temperatures and very thin at high temperatures, it has a low viscosity index. If the viscosity
remains relatively the same at varying temperatures, it has a high viscosity index.

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The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has set up a standard method for selection of
oils in various viscosity grades for use in engines and automotive gear systems. Testing
laboratories compare their viscosity results with this SAE standard.

Komatsu Operation and Maintenance Manuals always provide SAE classification


recommendations such as that shown in Figure 3.5.

.
Figure 3. 5 - SAE viscosity recommendations.

The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) sets the standards for testing oils
that the laboratories must use. No matter which laboratory tests oil, the results will always
be the same.

3. Additives - Research has developed a number


of additive agents, which materially improve
various characteristics of oil for hydraulic
systems. These additives are selected to reduce
wear, oxidation, corrosion, rust, and foaming.
For example, zinc and sometimes-copper are
added to combat oxidation. Figure 3.6 shows
erosion around the portholes of a piston pump
cylinder block that could have been caused by
oxidation and/or foaming.

Figure 3. 6 – Oxidation damage.

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Zinc and phosphorus are used to reduce rust and
acid corrosion. A compound of zinc and
phosphorous protects against wear.
A frequent problem in hydraulic systems is the
formation of foam, which is caused by the constant
pumping and churning action of the fluid in the
system. Silicon is the most common anti-foaming
agent added to oil.

Figure 3. 7 – Rust damage on valve seat


surface.

Air, transported to and then trapped in a cylinder,


caused the damage shown in Figure 3.8 to the
seals of the piston.

Calcium is added to act as a detergent and acid


neutralizer.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) has set up a
widely recognized Service Classification system,
which identifies the additives blended with particular
oil. The API service classification is normally printed
on the oil container, as is shown in Figure 3.9.

Figure 3. 8 – Air damaged piston seal rings.

4. Chemical stability - Oxidation and thermal stability


are essential characteristics of oils for use in
construction equipment hydraulic systems. The
combination of petroleum companies base stocks
and additives should remain stable during the
expected lifetime of the oil when exposed to the
environment of these systems.

Figure 3. 9 – Container with service


classification.

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April 2005 Page 3-5
HYDRAULIC FLUID RECOMMENDATIONS
Komatsu service publications make hydraulic fluid recommendations based upon application
and expected ambient temperature. Both SAE viscosity and API service classifications are
identified as shown in Figure 3.10.

Figure 3. 10 – Typical recommendation.

It should be noted that Figure 3.10 is an example only. Usually SAE 10 engine oil with API
service classifications CD/CC or CE/CC is recommended for Komatsu products. Certain types
of machines operate under different operating conditions. Therefore, always refer to the
lubricant chart found in the machine Operation and Maintenance Manual.

KOMATSU OIL & WEAR ANALYSIS


Komatsu Oil and Wear Analysis (KOWA) is a scientific
preventive maintenance service system. It is designed to
prevent troubles from occurring by predicting the extent of the
internal wear of machines and components without
disassembling them. Oil samples are taken from customer's
machines on a regular basis in order to monitor the
concentration of metallic powder resulting from wear and other
contaminants.
Figure 3. 11 – Scientific analysis.

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Page 3-6 April 2005
When a machine system is in a normal condition, the concentration of metallic powder should
always be found within a constant range every time the oil is changed. Where the
concentration deviates largely from the standard value or the level registered for that machine
in the past, you can safely assume that something is abnormal with the sliding parts of the
machine and that there is a possibility of a failure in the near future.

It should be noted that the wear rate is not always constant. It depends on the operating
conditions, variations in environment, performance of maintenance, and subtle differences that
may occur when the machines are assembled.

Small differences in wear rate are normal. The main point is the amount that the wear rate has
increased from the previous constant value for the system in question. Oil analysis is effective
only when performed on a continuing basis. The customers must have a good understanding
of the concept and value of the oil analysis before they will take samples on a continuing basis.

Benefits of Oil Analysis - Komatsu equipment owners and operator’s benefit from
participating in KOWA in the following ways:

1. Receive advance warning of abnormal component and fluid conditions.


2. Get extended equipment life.
3. Obtain increased productivity and reduced operating costs.
4. Have improved control over maintenance scheduling.
5. Have a full line of fuel and coolant testing programs available.
6. Have access to computerized maintenance management services.

Oil sampling procedure - The proper taking of an oil


sample is a relatively simple process. First, you must
have a tool that will allow you to take a sample from
the center of the oil reservoir, in such away that it will
not be contaminated during withdrawal. Figure 3.12
shows the recommended suction pump (part #799-
801-1300) for this task.

Also needed is a sample kit (part #799-801-1501). It


includes a sample taking procedure manual, sample
bottles, tubes and data sheets also shown in Figure
3.12. Figure 3. 12 – Sampling kit.

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April 2005 Page 3-7
Care must be taken to prevent contaminating the sample
when taking it. Otherwise, an incorrect analysis may occur.
Figure 3.13 shows the preferred method for taking a sample.
Use the following steps when taking a sample:

1. Attach the tube and sample bottle to the suction pump as


instructed in the sampling procedure manual.

2. While the oil is still warm, take a sample. This is best


accomplished by inserting the plastic tube through the oil
level gauge or plug opening, until the end of the tube
rests approximately 50 mm (2 in.) into the oil.

3. Immediately mark the sample bottle and data sheet so Figure 3. 13 – Taking an oil sample.
that this sample will not get mixed with others you may
take.

Figure 3. 14 – Oil sample processing form.

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4. Send the sample, along with another sample bottle filled with new unused oil of the same
type used in the component (mark it as "reference oil"), to the KOWA processing laboratory
closest to your location.

Eastern Laboratory: Midwest Laboratory:


3075 Corners North Court, N.W. 2450 Hassell Road
Norcross, GA 30071 Hoffman Estates, IL 60195

Western Laboratory: Southwestern Laboratory:


2910 Ford Street 12715 Royal Drive
Oakland, CA 94601 Stafford, TX 77477

KOWA Laboratory Responsibilities - The KOWA analysis programs are designed to support
reliable, accurate predictive maintenance for engines, transmissions, geared drives, and
hydraulic systems. Using physical and spectrochemical analysis procedures to measure the
properties of the lubricant, and determine the type and amount of wear or contamination
present does this. This structured series of tests, each supporting the others, is essential to
KOWA oil analysis.

Physical analysis measures the following lubricant physical properties and contaminants:

1. Viscosity - The fluid's resistance to flow at a specific temperature in relation to time. This is
the single most important property of a lubricant. Changes in viscosity indicate dilution or
contamination, oil breakdown in service, or improper servicing.

2. Fuel dilution - Indicates the relative amount of residual fuel present in engine lubricant.
Excessive fuel dilution reduces lubricant load carrying capacities and promotes lubricant
breakdown. Higher levels of dilution increase the risk of fire or explosion.

3. Glycol - The presence of glycol is an indication of cooling system leaks. Glycol


contamination promotes bearing wear, lubricant breakdown, sludging, and internal
corrosion.

4. Water - Contamination from an outside source or from internal condensation. The presence
of water promotes lubricant breakdown and component part corrosion.

5. Fuel Soot - This is the relative amount of insoluble carbon contaminating the engine oil.
Abnormal results indicate an improper air-fuel ratio or other causes of reduced combustion
efficiency.

6. Oxidation - Compounds formed when oxygen mixes with oil. Abnormal results indicate
overheating, over-extended oil drain intervals, or oil additive depletion. NOTE: A new oil
reference is needed to accurately measure oxidation.

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April 2005 Page 3-9
7. Nitration - Compounds formed when nitrogen in the air combines with engine oil during the
fuel combustion process. Abnormal results indicate combustion byproducts are escaping
past the compression rings and entering the engine oil.

Spectrochemical analysis - Accomplished by use of atomic emission spectrometers to


measure important chemical elements found in new and used fluids. These elements were
selected based on their ability to provide specific information on chemical composition, type,
and amount of wear metals, contaminants, and additives present in the sample. The test
results are reported in parts per million (PPM) by weight. The items reported by KOWA
spectrochemical analysis are iron, chromium, nickel, aluminum, lead, copper, tin, silver,
titanium, silicon, boron, sodium, potassium, molybdenum, phosphorus, zinc, calcium, barium,
magnesium, antimony and vanadium.

When comparing KOWA to the oil analysis recommendations of our competitors, you will find
that there is no better oil analysis system in the construction equipment industry.

Within twenty-four hours after receipt, the testing of your sample is complete and the results
are on their way back to you. If a severe abnormality is detected, KOWA's professional
analysts will telephone to inform you of this critical matter the same day that the results are
obtained.

Evaluation of Analyzed Results - Several


factors must be considered before a proper
interpretation of analyzed results can be
achieved. The wear rate of sliding parts in a
component will fluctuate depending upon the
operating conditions, differences in
environment, performance of maintenance, the
amount of oil which needs to be added, and
the amount of time the oil is used. Scattered
values will eventually concentrate themselves
into a certain range as long as the machine is
in normal condition, and can be rounded to a
certain constant value in the long run.

The key to success in reading oil analysis


reports is to find the constant value particular
to each machine in the shortest possible time.
For example between the initial oil sampling
and the second or third sampling.

The results of analysis are evaluated then in


comparison with the constant value to find out
how much change occurs each time and the Figure 3. 15 – Test results.
trend of wear. The accuracy of the constant
value should improve as more samples are taken.

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The following considerations should be made at the time of evaluation:

1. Do not assume that a rapid increase in the analyzed value indicates a machine failure.
First, examine all conceivable causes. For example, a sudden change in operating
conditions, or perhaps the component was recently overhauled. Consider if anything other
than abnormal wear could have caused the increase.

2. Remember that oil changes and number of service hours have a large influence on
changes in concentration. After an oil change the concentration will be lower. The longer
the service hours, the higher the concentration.

3. When an oil analysis is first used after the delivery of a new machine, it is necessary to take
the initial wear into consideration.

4. The standard values for evaluation are based on 250 hours of oil use for the engine and
500 hours of oil use for other systems. For engines whose oil is changed at 500-hour
intervals or systems whose oil is changed at 1,000-hour intervals, the standard values
should be increased accordingly. In this case, be advised that the pattern of wear varies
with the kind of element, and that the wear is not always proportional to the number of
hours that the oil has been used.

5. The evaluation of the analyzed results is based on a combination of the highly concentrated
elements and the rate of increase.

6. When it is difficult to evaluate fine results or when KOWA data is lacking, resampling at
shorter intervals should be performed.

7. The analyzed results should not be evaluated for every sampling. Instead, base the
evaluation on trends noticed on a continuing basis. It is also necessary to know how the
trend value compares with the standard value for the machine involved.

Figure 3. 16 – Compare analyzed result to trends.

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April 2005 Page 3-11
Note: Recently, large amounts of copper have been used as an additive in oil if the KOWA
data for the copper value is abnormally high; test a sample of unused oil to confirm the amount
of copper used as an additive. Then use the results of this test to set new guidelines for use
when analyzing future KOWA results on that oil.
KOWA Procedure Manual. Acceptable concentrations of certain wear metals will be different
for most systems (i.e. the presence of aluminum in engine oil as compared to
transmission/torque converter). You should refer to the Komatsu Procedure Manual for basic
concentration limits for whichever machine or system you are analyzing.

Following is a summary of possible problems with a work equipment hydraulic system when
certain concentrations of elements are unusually high.

• In hydraulic oil, the content of all the elements is low. This is because of the large volume of
oil in relation to the sliding parts involved. Even if a failure occurs, the rate of increase in
concentration of the element will be so small that extra care must be exercised to get an
accurate evaluation.

• If the Cr (chromium) content is increasing, the cylinder rod may be warped or scratched. In
this case, dust seals and rod seals may also be defective. The presence of oil leakage is
also an important factor.

• If the Si (silicon) content is increasing, it may be because of defective dust seals on the
rods or improper fitting of the hydraulic tank cap. Water is likely to enter the hydraulic oil
together with Si.

• An increase in Al (aluminum) content may be caused by either Al powder coming from the
pump body or dust entering from outside. Since the absolute amount of Al is small it is
difficult to judge. Just because the analyzed value showed an increase in Al, does not
mean that the pump is defective. Attention should be paid to other symptoms in order to
locate the trouble.

• An increase in Fe (iron) content usually will indicate damage inside the cylinder and/or wear
of the pump. Confirm this damage by checking other possible symptoms such as hydraulic
drift or loss of power.

• An increase in Cu (copper) content may be caused by defects on the pump side plate and
plain bearings. Its absolute value is too small to make judgment easily. Some cylinders
have metallic (Cu) piston rings. In these cases, a high Cu content may be detected even
under normal conditions. The Cu content is also high for those dump truck hydraulic
systems which also cool the rear (retarder) brakes, because the brake discs are sintered
alloy.

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IMPORTANCE OF CLEANLINESS
Thorough precautions should always be taken to insure that the hydraulic system is clean. The
following guidelines are provided to assist you in this effort:

1. When a system component fails, always flush the entire system to remove contaminants
which may have by-passed the filter. Install a new filter element.

2. Take care to ensure that new replacement oil is not contaminated when introduced into the
system.
3. Make certain that the system is protected from intrusion of airborne contamination by
sealing the system. Make certain the oil fill cap is installed properly.

4. Proper preventive maintenance, such as proper oil fill levels and servicing of filters,
breathers, reservoirs, etc., cannot be over-emphasized.

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Page 3-14 April 2005
Chapter 3 - Assessment
Hydraulic Fluids
Instructions: There is only one correct answer to each question. If there appears to be more
than one answer, select the most correct answer.

If an in-house instructor is administering this test, turn your answers in to the


instructor when you are finished. Your instructor will input your scores into the
Komatsu Learning Management System.

If you are taking the Basic Hydraulics course as self-study, mark your answers
in the appropriate space on the answer sheet provided in the back of the
booklet. When you have completed all of the assessments for the entire book,
either:

a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet.
The instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your
assessment and also input your scores into the Komatsu Learning
Management System. Or,

b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your


extranet username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic
Subject course, after your enrollment has been approved, you can launch
the course, then click on the Assessment link and answer each question.
Your grade will be scored and tracked automatically. Note: The online
assessment questions are in random order.

1. Which of the following is the single most important property of a lubricant?


a. Viscosity.
b. Ability to lubricate.
c. Ability to cool.
d. Ability to seal.

2. What is the primary purpose of fluid in a hydraulic system?


a. To lubricate.
b. To cool.
c. To transmit power.
d. To clean.

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April 2005 Page 3-15
3. What is a fluid's resistance to flow at a specific temperature in relation to time
called?
a. Viscosity index.
b. Viscosity.
c. Hydrostatics.
d. Hydrodynamics.

4. Which of the following is not an advantage of using hydraulics?


a. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
b. The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).
c. The American Petroleum Institute (API).
d. The Organization for Uniform Oil Standards (OUOS).

5. Which of the following organizations classify a hydraulic fluid by its weight?


a. SAE.
c. ASTM.
c. API.
d. None of the above.

6. Which of the elements listed below would most likely increase in PPM on a
spectrochemical analysis if a cylinder rod in the hydraulic system was warped or
scratched?
a. Chromium.
b. Iron.
c. Lead.
d. Nickel.

7. Which of the following terms is used to describe the mixing of oxygen with oil to
form a compound?
b. Oxidation.
c. Contamination.
d. Aeration.

8. Oil samples are processed at KOWA laboratories within how many hours after
receipt?
a. Two hours.
b. Five hours.
c. Twelve hours.
d. Twenty four hours.

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9. Suppose you have received a KOWA analyzed report of a dump truck hydraulic
system sample, and it shows a high concentration of copper. What does this mean?
a. That the pump side plate may be wearing out.
b. That the disc's of the rear brakes may be wearing out
c. That the hoist cylinder piston rings may be wearing out.
d. That additional troubleshooting tests are needed to locate exactly which component/part
is wearing.

10. How could our customers benefit by participating in the KOWA program?
a. Any of the following reasons.
b. Receive early warning of abnormal component wear.
c. Get extended life from their equipment.
d. Have improved control over the scheduling of their maintenance.

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Chapter 4
Hydraulic Symbols
INTRODUCTION
Hydraulic systems are usually composed of a complex arrangement of various devices.
Internationally recognized symbols are used in hydraulic circuit diagrams to show hydraulic
components, flow, connections and other features in a simplified and uniform manner. Their
use eliminates the need for complex notes and sketches, and provides a common system of
communication by eliminating language translation. This leads to consistent interpretation
worldwide.
In this chapter you will study the common hydraulic symbols found in Komatsu publications.
You should become familiar with all these signs and symbols so that you will easily understand
hydraulic circuit diagrams. This will enhance your hydraulic troubleshooting abilities.
The hydraulic symbols have been organized for discussion in the following order:

ƒ Basic Symbols
ƒ Functional Symbols
ƒ Component Symbols

BASIC SYMBOLS
Continuous lines - A continuous or solid line is used to
show a main hydraulic working line. The working line
carries the major flow of oil in a hydraulic system.
Usually it also indicates “Continuous” use or pressure.

Long dash lines - A line consisting of long dashes Figure 4. 1 – Lines.


represents a hydraulic intermittent line. This intermittent
line carries a small volume of oil used as an auxiliary flow to activate or control a hydraulic
component. The length of the line will be drawn at least ten times its width. Komatsu diagrams
may use these lines for pilot, LS, or special circuits.

Short dashed lines - A dashed line is also used to show a drain line, which carries leakage or
unused oil back to the reservoir. However, the drain line is illustrated as a dashed line
consisting of dashes that have a length less than five times its width.

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Chain line - A chain of long lines with short dashes is
often used to enclose several components assembled
as one unit, or to show “Removable” sections.

Figure 4. 2 – Chain line = enclosure.

Hoses - Hoses are curved lines with a solid circle at each end to show their connection with
the main working lines (tubing or pipes).

Figure 4. 3 – Curved line = hose. Figure 4. 4 – Double lines = mechanical


connection.

Double lines - Double lines are used to show a mechanical connection such as where a pump
is driven by an engine.
Line or pipe connections - A graphic symbol illustration will have working lines, pilot lines
and drain lines crossing each other. Drawing a half circle in one line over the other line at the
crossing point draws by simply showing the two lines crossing each other or the crossing. No
connection between the two lines can be assumed unless a junction dot is shown.
A junction dot is used to show where lines connect.
If the junction is at a tee, the junction dot may be
omitted because the connection is evident.

Figure 4. 5 = Line connections.

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Restriction - The sign shown in figure 4.6 is used to
show where the amount of flow is throttled or restricted
in the path of flow. This illustration shows the restriction
in a line, but most often this symbol is used to show an
orifice within a valve or valve body.

Figure 4. 6 – Restriction = orifice.

Variable orifice - As can be seen in figure 4.6 an


orifice or restriction is shown as a half circle on each
side of a flow line. If the orifice is variable, an arrow is
added across the basic symbol as shown in Figure 4.7.

Figure 4. 7 – Variable restriction.

Port - Where an "X" is shown at the end of a line is a


point where a take off port is located. These ports are
usually kept closed.

Figure 4.8 - Port & gauge port.

Figure 4. 8 – Port & gauge port.

If a port has been strategically located and sized for


taking oil pressure, a symbol representing a pressure
gauge may be shown to connect to the port.
Another instrument, which is sometimes shown in
graphic illustrations, is a temperature gauge.
Figure 4.9 - Instruments.

Figure 4. 9 – Instruments.

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Quick-acting coupling - Quick-acting (quick
disconnect) couplings are illustrated as shown in Figure
4.10. There are two types. Shown on the top left is an
uncoupled open-end type. At the left bottom is a
connected, quick coupling. Both of these types would
leak if disconnected.

Figure 4. 10 – Quick acting couplings. Most quick couplers in use today contain one-way
check valves (shown as circles), which prevent leakage
when they are disconnected. On the right (top) of
Figure 4.10 is shown an uncoupled quick-acting valve and on the bottom right is a connected
coupler. Oil will not escape from this type quick coupler if left uncapped.
Circle, semi-circle - Usually, circles represent
actuators such as pumps or motors. But depending
upon their size and placement in the graphic
illustration, they could also represent an instrument, a
non-return valve, rotary connection or the roller of a
mechanical link. Additional symbols are added as
shown later, which serve to further identify what
specifically the circle is representing.
A semi-circle represents a semi-rotary actuator. Figure 4. 11 – Circle & semi-circle.

Square, rectangle - Single squares represent non-


return valves and two or more squares linked together
represent control valves. If, for example, three squares
were linked together, this would represent a three-
position control valve. More specific data on control
valve symbols is presented later.

Figure 4. 12 – Square or rectangle.

Diamond - Diamonds are used to illustrate conditioning apparatus such as a


filter, screen, cooler or heat exchanger.

Figure 4. 13 – Diamond filter or cooler.

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Zigzag line - a zigzag line represents a spring.

Figure 4. 14 – Spring.

FUNCTIONAL SYMBOLS

Triangle - A triangle represents the flow direction. The triangle is solid in


hydraulic schematics. The triangle is in outline (bottom triangle in Figure 4.15)
when representing pneumatic flows or exhaust to atmosphere.

Figure 4. 15 – Triangle = the direction of flow.

Arrows - Arrows such as those illustrated in the top third of Figure 4.16
show direction. The curved arrows in the middle of Figure 4.16 show
direction of rotation. And other arrows, like those on the bottom of Figure
4.16 indicate the path and direction of flow through valves.

Figure 4. 16 – Arrows indicate direction.

Sloping arrow - A sloping arrow is an indication of the possibility of regulation


or of progressive variability.

Figure 4. 17 – Sloping arrow.

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Control methods - There are several different
methods used to control the movement of an actuator
or valve. These control methods can be divided into
four types, muscular (or manual), mechanical, electrical
or combined control.

1. Muscular or manual control.

Figure 4. 18 – Manual control.

2. Mechanical control.

Figure 4. 19 – Mechanical control.

3. Electrical control.

4. Combined control. Figure 4. 20 – Electrical controls.

Figure 4. 21 – Combined control.

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Shut off valve - The symbol shown in figure 4.22 is used to represent a
manual shut off valve or cock.

Figure 4. 22 – Shut off valve.

Mechanical components - The following symbols represent mechanical components.

1. Rotating shafts - Rotating shafts are mechanical


connections and therefore are illustrated using
double lines as previously shown in Figure 4.4.
Since they also rotate, curved arrows overlap these
lines to indicate the direction of rotation.

Figure 4. 23 – Rotating shafts.

2. Detent - A detent is a device for maintaining a given position.

Figure 4. 24 – Detent

3. Over-center device - An over-center device prevents the


mechanism from stopping in a dead center position.

Figure 4. 25 – Over-
center device.

4. Pivoting devices - There are three types of pivoting devices as


shown in Figure 4.26.

Figure 4. 26 – Pivoting
devices.

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Sources of energy - The symbols to the
right are used to show the source of energy
when needed.

Figure 4. 27 – Sources of energy.

COMPONENT SYMBOLS

Reservoirs - A hydraulic reservoir is shown as a


three-sided container if vented to the atmosphere or
as an enclosed container, usually a rectangle, if
pressurized.

Working, pilot and drain lines which draw or return oil


below the normal fluid level in the reservoir are shown
connected to the reservoir symbol. A line that stops
before touching the bottom of the reservoir symbol
returns oil back to the reservoir above the normal fluid
level.
Figure 4. 28 – Reservoirs.

Pumps and motors - A pump or motor is used in almost every hydraulic system. The symbol
for a single-element, fixed displacement pump or motor is a circle with a triangle inside. The
pump symbol has the triangle pointing out in the direction of flow, and the motor symbol has
the triangle pointing inward representing inlet flow.
The basic symbols can be combined to show multiple
element pumps or motors.

The symbol for a pump or motor that is also


reversible has two triangles inside the circle, each
pointing in the direction of flow.

A variable displacement pump or motor is shown as


the basic symbol with a sloping arrow drawn across it. Figure 4. 29 – Pumps and motors.

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Filter or strainer - A filter or strainer is drawn by using a
diamond with a dashed line running through it in the direction
opposite the main hydraulic flow. It should be noted here that
hydraulic symbols can be placed on a graphic illustration in
any manner that is convenient for the illustrator. Therefore,
both the symbols shown in Figure 4.30 are correctly
representing a filter or strainer. Figure 4. 30 – Filter or strainer.

Valves - There are many types of valves, each with a


specific purpose. We will study the valves from the
simplest to more complex.

1. Check valve - Check valves are also called non-


return valves and one-way check valves.

The symbol for a check valve, which allows free flow in


one direction while blocking flow in the opposite
direction, is shown as a ball with a seat. If the check is
held on its seat by a spring, a spring symbol is added to
the original symbol.

Figure 4. 31 – Check valves.

2. One-way restrictor or speed reducer - Many


times two or more basic symbols are joined
together to represent a component part. In
Figure 4.32 the orifice and check valve symbols
are joined to show a one way restrictor or speed
reducer. This speed reducer is used to allow
free flow in one direction through the check and
restricts the flow in the opposite direction by
forcing all flow through the orifice.
Figure 4. 32 – One-way restrictor or speed reducer.
A component enclosure line is used to group
individual symbols which represent a complete component assembly contained in its own
housing. By connecting the component enclosure line to the cylinder symbol, the location of
the speed reducer can also be shown. The speed reducer is located between the cylinder
piston side inlet passage and the supply line.

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3. Shuttle valve - The symbol for a shuttle valve consists of a ball
check with a seat at each of two inlet ports. Both of the inlets are
connected to a common outlet port in the middle of the valve
assembly.

In a shuttle valve there are two inlet ports and one outlet. The Figure 4. 33- Shuttle valve.
inlet port with the higher pressure is automatically connected to
the outlet port while the other inlet port is closed.

4. Rapid exhaust valve - A rapid exhaust valve is constructed


similar to a shuttle valve.

Figure 4. 34 – Rapid exhaust


valve.
Before we proceed let us now review some common
valve operations.

Figure 4. 35 – Common valve operations.

5. Relief valve - The basic symbol for a relief valve


is a square box with an arrow inside. Figure 4.36
shows the relief valve inside the component
enclosure line. The dash pilot line connecting a
working line to the right side of the box indicates
this valve is pilot-operated.

Figure 4.36 is an example of a relief valve


protecting a pump once the cylinder reaches the
end of its stroke. The spring on the left side of the
box holds the relief valve in its normally closed
position. This prevents pump flow from returning Figure 4. 36 – Relief valve.
to the reservoir.

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When the cylinder bottoms, the oil pressure in the working line between the pump and the
cylinder will increase. This increased pressure is also felt through the pilot line on the right
side of the box. Once the force created by the increased oil pressure overcomes the force
of the spring on the left side of the box, the box shifts to the left. As the box is moved to the
left, the flow arrow in the box will allow excess pump flow to return to the reservoir, which
reduces the pressure. This type valve is also called a. pressure relief valve or safety valve.
6. Proportional pressure relief valve - In a proportional pressure
relief valve the inlet pressure is limited to a value proportional to
the pilot pressure as shown in figure 4.37.

Figure 4. 37 – Proportional pressure relief valve.

7. Proportional pressure regulator – The output pressure in a


proportional pressure regulator is reduced by a fixed ratio with respect to
its inlet pressure.

Figure 4. 38 – Proportional pressure regulator.

8. Differential pressure regulator - With a differential pressure regulator


the outlet pressure is reduced by a fixed amount with respect to the inlet
pressure.

Figure 4. 39 – Differential pressure regulator

9. How control valves - There are two ways (detailed


or simple) to illustrate flow control valves. These
valves are used to control the rate of flow regardless
of variations in inlet pressure.

In Figure 4.40 the detailed symbols provide more


insight as to how these valves work, unfortunately
illustrators usually use the simple form of symbol.

Figure 4. 40 – Flow control valves.

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10. Flow dividing valve - In Figure 4.41 the symbol for a flow-dividing valve
shows the main flow from the pump coming in at the top where it joins two
output ports. The output flow is divided into two flows in a fixed ratio
(depending upon the restriction size), which is independent of pressure
variations.

Figure 4. 41 – Flow dividing valve.

As previously mentioned, valves are represented using squares or boxes. Additional symbols
are added to these boxes to clarify how the valve works. (Figure 4.35)

Directional control valves - The lines within each


square of a directional control valve indicate how the oil
will flow. These lines are referred to as flow paths.

A major consideration of the valve design engineer is


how to set up the non-activated spool within the valve.
There are two basic designs called, closed center and
open center.

Figure 4. 42 – Flow paths. Figure 4. 43 – Open and closed center.

When a valve is set up so that the inlet and outlet ports are aligned and a directional flow arrow
connects them such as is shown on the left, the port is open. Such a port setting with the spool
in its normal at rest position would show the valve to be an open center type. The flow usually
goes back to the reservoir relatively unrestricted with this type of arrangement and there is
very little heat built up by the flowing fluid.

When the inlet and outlet ports of a valve are blocked while the valve is in its normal rest
position, the valve is said to be a closed center type. The flow in a closed center system is
usually directed back to the reservoir through a relief valve located near the control valve inlet.

Directional control valves can be set up to send oil to different locations within a hydraulic
system depending upon the number of spools within the valve. Each spool position is therefore
represented by a square or box. A three-position spool would have three boxes attached
together and a four-position spool, four boxes.

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Arrows within each box will show the
flow path for that spool position.
Figure 4.44 shows a basic hydraulic
system. Three-position and four-
position spools are illustrated but
arrows have only been added to the
three-position spool.

The spool symbol is always drawn in


an illustration in the inactivated
position. The center box represents
the inactivated position for the three-
position spool shown in Figure 4.44.

The next series of illustrations will

build a two-spool control valve around Figure 4. 44 – Control valve spool symbol.
the basic three-position and four-
position spool symbols. The three-
position spool will be covered first.

In Figure 4.45, the pump receives the


oil from the reservoir through a strainer
and directs it to the valve spools past
the relief valve. The open center
design of both spools allows the pump
flow to pass through a passage in the
spools and return to the reservoir. The
three-position spool is also considered
a closed-port design because the
remaining four ports in the center box
are blocked.

Figure 4. 45 – Three position spool “HOLD”.

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April 2005 Page 4-13
When the three-position spool is
activated, either the top box or bottom
box is moved visually to the center
position. Using the flow paths of the
top box, the open center port is
blocked, and pump flow is directed by
the flow arrow to the piston (or
bottom) side of the cylinder. The other
flow arrow to the reservoir return
passage directs oil forced out of the
rod side of the cylinder.

When the bottom box flow paths are


used, the pump flow is directed to the
rod side of the cylinder. Oil forced out
the piston (or bottom) side is again Figure 4. 46 – Three-position spool “ACTIVATED”.
directed to the reservoir return passage.

This illustration also shows the flow paths for the four-position spool. The only difference
between the flow paths of the three-position and four-position spools is the additional box,
which shows a "FLOAT" position. Notice also that the three-position spool has priority over the
four-position spool for pump flow.

Using the same two spools as in the


previous illustrations, let's add some
secondary symbols, change a working
line and enclose the spools with a
component enclosure line.

The additional working line now


connects the two spools in parallel.
This allows both spools to be activated
simultaneously.

Check valve symbols have been


added to both spools and represent
load checks. The three-position spool
load check is located in the valve
housing. The four-position spool has Figure 4. 47 – Two-spool control valve.
its load check located inside the spool
itself. The component enclosure line
shows the system relief valve and the three-and four-position spools contained in a common
housing. If a component enclosure line was drawn between the two spools, this would indicate
that the spools are contained in separate housings. This type of valve is known as a stack
valve and may contain many individual valve sections bolted together to form one control valve
assembly.

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Adding secondary symbols to the
basic box spool symbol can show the
method of spool actuation and
positioning.

A spring symbol added to each end of


the spool symbol makes the spool
spring centered. A push/pull lever
symbol added to the basic spool
symbol shows hand control of the
spool through a lever. Adding a
rectangular box with notches on one
side indicates the spool is
mechanically detented. Only one
notch is shown on this detent. When
the spool is pushed into the housing, Figure 4. 48 – Spool actuation.
the notch in the detent will be moved
towards the small line next to the detent symbol. When the notch is aligned with this line, the
spool is detented.

The parallel line on each side of the spool symbol indicates the spool is featherable. That is,
the spool is designed to vary the flow with spool travel. Sometimes this capability is called, fine
control.

Accumulator - Figure 4.49 shows the symbol, which represents an


accumulator. This is a devise, which maintains the fluid under pressure by a
spring, weight or compressed gas.

Figure 4. 49 – Accumulator.

Cylinders - The symbol used to represent a hydraulic


cylinder looks very much like a cross-sectioned
cylinder.

The simple single-acting cylinder is not commonly


used, but the double-acting differential and non-
differential types are used in many applications.

The small lines on the right side of the cylinders shown


in Figure 4.50 represent the location where oil enters or
leaves the cylinder. Figure 4.50 – Cylinders.

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April 2005 Page 4-15
The major difference between the two double acting cylinders in Figure 4.50 is design. The rod
of the double acting differential cylinder will move quicker when oil enters the rod end due to
the difference in area. With the double acting non-differential cylinder illustrated on the right,
the rod will move up or down at equal speeds because the areas on both sides of the piston
are equal.

Another type of cylinder is shown in Figure 4.51.

Many applications use cushion type cylinders. These


cylinders have special built-in features, which cause the
cylinder to slow down as the rod reaches the end of its
stroke. This feature is usually added to extend the
service life of the cylinder or decrease shock loads on
other machine parts.

Figure 4. 51 – Cushion cylinders.

Another type of cylinder is often used in dump trucks. It


is a telescopic cylinder shown in Figure 4.52. In the
single acting telescopic cylinder shown on the top, fluid
pressure always acts on the forward stroke side. With a
double acting type, fluid pressure operates alternately in
both directions.

Heat exchangers - Heat exchangers are devices used


to heat or cool the circulating fluid. The basic symbol for
heat exchangers is a diamond with lines running from
corner to opposing corner as shown in the following Figure 4. 52 – Telescopic cylinders.
three illustrations.

The arrows inside the diamond symbol for a cooler


indicate the extraction of heat.

Figure 4. 53 – Cooler

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Another variation of the cooler symbol is shown in Figure 4.54 and found in
Komatsu publications.

Figure 4. 54 – Komatsu cooler symbol.

Figure 4.55 shows the symbol for a heater. The arrows in a heater indicate the
introduction of heat.

Figure 4. 55 – Heater.

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KT Basic Hydraulics – 4006 800693-R1
Page 4-18 April 2005
Chapter 4 - Assessment
Hydraulic Symbols
Instructions: There is only one correct answer to each question. If there appears to be more
than one answer, select the most correct answer.

If an in-house instructor is administering this test, turn your answers in to the


instructor when you are finished. Your instructor will input your scores into the
Komatsu Learning Management System.

If you are taking the Basic Hydraulics course as self-study, mark your answers
in the appropriate space on the answer sheet provided in the back of the
booklet. When you have completed all of the assessments for the entire book,
either:

a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet.
The instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your
assessment and also input your scores into the Komatsu Learning
Management System. Or,

b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your


extranet username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic
Subject course, after your enrollment has been approved, you can launch
the course, then click on the Assessment link and answer each question.
Your grade will be scored and tracked automatically. Note: The online
assessment questions are in random order.

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April 2005 Page 4-19
Study the hydraulic circuit diagram below, then select the most correct name or
description for the numbered components in the illustration.

1. a. Strainer.
b. Pressurized reservoir.
c. Non-return valve.
d. Cooler.

2. a. Strainer.
b. Pressurized reservoir.
c. Non-return valve.
d. Cooler.

3. a. Variable displacement pump


b. Variable displacement motor.
c. A non-reversing positive displacement pump.
d. A reversing positive displacement pump.

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4. a. A port for taking oil pressure.
b. A port for taking oil temperature.
c. Pressure gauge.
d. Temperature gauge.

5. a. A one-way restrictor.
b. A proportional pressure regulator.
c. A differential pressure regulator.
d. A system protecting pilot-operated relief valve.

6. a. Filter.
b. Cooler.
c. Heater.
d. Non-return valve.

7. a. Filter.
b. Cooler.
c. Heater.
d. Non-return valve.

8. a. Five position spool valve.


b. Four position spool valve.
c. Three position spool valve.
d. Two position spool valve.

9. a. A proportional pressure regulator.


b. A differential pressure regulator.
c. A system protecting pilot-operated relief valve.
d. A system protecting non-pilot relief valve.

10. a. Single acting cylinder.


b. Double acting differential cylinder.
c. Double acting differential cylinder with single fixed cushion,
d. Double acting differential cylinder with double fixed cushion.

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Page 4-22 April 2005
Chapter 5
Hydraulic System Components
INTRODUCTION
Every hydraulic system is made up of special purpose components. The system design
engineer makes his choice of what type component design is best suited for the system. In this
chapter we will examine the design of various hydraulic components and discuss differences of
types where appropriate.

The following components will be discussed in this chapter:

• Reservoirs & Accessories • Control Devices


• Filters • Actuators
• Piping, Hoses, & Quick Couplings • Heat Exchangers
• Pumps

RESERVOIRS & ACCESSORIES


The primary function of the reservoir is for the storage
of the hydraulic oil. There are a wide variety of
reservoir sizes, shapes and mounting locations used
on Komatsu construction equipment. The hydraulic
tank or reservoir has several functions besides storage
for the reserve oil needed by the system.

First of all, the reservoir must maintain a fluid level high


enough to prevent pump cavitation. Larger reservoirs
have access covers for cleaning of the tank. Most also
have a strainer that is usually a 100 mesh wire screen

to prevent foreign material from flowing out of the Figure 5. 1 – Reservoir & accessories.
reservoir and into the pumps. Many times the tank drain
plug is fitted with a magnet to attract and trap metal
particles.

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The tank helps to dissipate heat and often contains
baffles which helps prevent oil turbulence or sloshing
when the machine is moving.

The baffles also permit any contaminants to settle to


the bottom of the reservoir and air to rise to the top of
the tank.

There are two distinct types of reservoirs used on


modern hydraulic equipment. The first type is called a
non-pressurized or open reservoir because it is vented

to the atmosphere. Figure 5. 2 – Tanks dissipate heat & prevents


turbulence.
When the oil level in the reservoir lowers or rises, air
flows through the vent to maintain atmospheric
pressure above the oil. A filter is installed in the vent to
prevent contaminants from entering the reservoir.

The second type is called a pressurized or closed


reservoir because it does not have free access to the
atmosphere. A pressure regulated valve and a one-way
check valve allow air to flow in freely if the air pressure
inside the reservoir is less than atmospheric pressure.
They will not allow air to escape until pressure inside
the tank reaches the regulated set pressure. Air
pressure increases with an increase in air temperature Figure 5. 3 – Non-pressurized reservoir.
or rise in oil level. At this time the regulator valve will
open to maintain a low air pressure in the reservoir,
usually less than 25 psi. The pressurized reservoir will
also use an air filter or strainer to prevent
contamination.

Figure 5. 4 – Pressurized reservoir.

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Some machines have the control valve assembly
mounted inside the hydraulic tank.
This arrangement prevents oil leaks from escaping
into the environment, but has the disadvantages of
complicating troubleshooting, having to drain, and
open the reservoir to make inspections and
adjustments.

Contamination is the single greatest cause of


hydraulic system failure. Most systems have several
types of fluid conditioners to help prevent
contamination. These include filters, strainers and Figure 5.5– Control valve inside reservoir.
coolers at various points in the system. As can be
seen in Figures 5.6 a paper type filter element is often
placed in the hydraulic tank at its oil return port.

Oil is cleaned as it returns from the system. These


filters have a by-pass valve that allows oil to by-pass
the filter should it become plugged. A course mesh
strainer is located near the outlet to the pump to
remove large particles from the oil on most machines.

FILTERS
Filters are generally rated by the size of particles they
allow to flow through them. The units for measuring
this rating are called microns. One micron equals 39 Figure 5. 6– Filter & strainer inside tank.
millionths of an inch and is therefore too small to be
seen by the naked eye. For comparison, a grain of
salt is about 100 microns. Filters found in Komatsu
products that have paper elements have a micron
rating between 10 and 25 micron.

Most metal strainers are rated at about 100 micron.


Extreme care should be taken to prevent
contaminants from entering the system when the Figure 5. 7 – Micron.
elements are replaced. This can happen especially
when replacing the element of a filter located inside
the reservoir.

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In the cross-sectional view of a typical paper
element filter shown in Figure 5.8, (1) is the by-pass
valve, (2) is the paper element, (3) is a by-pass filter,
and (4) is a filter check valve. In this case a small
secondary by-pass filter has been added for extra
protection should the main filter become clogged
and oil starts to bypass.

It should be noted that many hydrostatic type


machines also have in-line filters at the oil outlet of
their main piston pumps. These are metal strainers
designed to prevent the spread of metal
contaminants should the pump fail. Figure 5. 8 – Typical paper element type filter.

PIPING, HOSES & QUICK COUPLINGS


Hydraulic lines, hoses and fittings are handled more
by the technician than any other hydraulic system
components. Besides replacing them when they fail,
the technician must disconnect lines or fittings
whenever a major system component is removed for
service. For these reasons, the technician must
become familiar with all types of tubes, hoses, steel
pipes, threaded fittings, o-rings, seals and gaskets.
Most Komatsu construction equipment use tubing or
hoses and related connector fittings. We are not
going to describe the sizing or strength Figure 5. 9 – Inlet line installation.
characteristics of them, but rather the importance of
proper installation.
Any restriction in the inlet line between the reservoir and the pump can cause excessive
vacuum, resulting in cavitation and eventual pump damage. This line must be air tight to
prevent aeration. If you must replace the inlet line, be sure it is of sufficient size and avoid
excessive fittings and sharp bends.

Some shop manuals refer to the hydraulic system


plumbing as piping. This term is obsolete.
For many years the components of a hydraulic
system were linked together with threaded pipe of
assorted materials, and were assembled with
various standard pipe fitting shapes, unions and Figure 5. 10 – Old piping method.
nipples. Such systems when under high pressure
were plagued by leakage problems and were
cumbersome, inefficient and costly to assemble and

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Page 5-4 April 2005
maintain. As you can see in Figure 5.10, the corners are sharp which produces excessive
turbulence and heat build up. Therefore, the use of pipe in construction machinery has been
largely replaced by tubing.

Today, tubing is used where rigid conductors of


hydraulic fluids are desired. Tubing is stronger,
requires less fittings and has thinner walls that make
it easy to bend, this makes tube fabrication simple.
Because of the smooth bends, the hydraulic fluid
has less turbulence and the thin walls also dissipate Figure 5. 11 – Modern tube method.
heat more easily.

Main work lines that are exposed to maximum system pressure failure more frequently than
inlet or return lines.
Several things can cause failure, including:
vibration, flexing, rubbing against moving parts,
excessive heat or shock (spike) pressures. So
naturally, when main lines are replaced, precautions
should be made to prevent these harmful conditions.
Avoid unnecessary restrictions that will cause
excessive heat and noise. Secure the hose or tube
making sure it will not rub against any moving parts.
Use replacement lines with adequate strength to
withstand system pressure surges.
The return lines usually carry oil at relatively low
pressure and for that reason may last longer than Figure 5. 12 – Main working lines.
main work lines. Restriction in the return line causes
backpressure. Any unnecessary restriction results in
wasted energy and less actuator capacity. It is
important to make certain that the return lines are
airtight. This is important because air can enter the
system through a fitting where oil will not.

Figure 5. 13 – Return lines.

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Reinforced hydraulic hoses are used to connect
areas where the movement of components requires
a flexible connection.
Hydraulic hoses are constructed with an oil resistant
synthetic liner, wire or yarn reinforcement, and an
outer cover. The oil resistant synthetic rubber inner
liner is compounded to withstand specific
temperatures and to contain the pressurized fluids.
The reinforcement layers are applied either by
spiraling or braiding at a controlled pitch in order to
give the utmost performance. Generally, the
number and type of reinforcement material used is
dependent upon the maximum amount of pressures
the hose is built to withstand. The outer cover is
applied over the liner and reinforcement layers of
the hose to protect it against abrasion and
environmental damage.

Figure 5. 14 – Basic construction of hoses.

There is a wide assortment of hose end fittings available. These end fittings are attached to the
hose by a crimping machine. Specific dies are used in the crimp machine so that the fittings
can be crimped to exact and proper diameter.

The primary supplier of replacement hoses within


the United States and Canada is Parker Hannifin
Corporation for Komatsu (metric thread) products.
The proper installation of hydraulic hoses is very
important. Hydraulic hose will elongate or contract
during its normal operation. Allowance for this
characteristic should be made when calculating the
length of a replacement hose. Always allow a
sufficient deflection to compensate for this change
in length. Check to see that there is no tension in
the line after installation or during operation. Figure 5. 15 – Hose end fittings.

Figure 5. 16– Compensate for changes in length.

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Hose life will be reduced if it is installed in a twisted
condition. A visual check of a twisted hose
assembly can be made by looking at the lay line or
hose brand. As shown on the left in graphic Figure
5.17, a screw effect indicates the hose is twisted.

Figure 5. 17 – Do not twist hose.

Flexing beyond the recommended bend radius will


shorten hose life. If the mounting tube is deformed,
the hose may be bent to an extreme in the vicinity of
the fitting as shown below.

Before leaving our discussion on hoses there is one


hose application found on hydrostatic machines that
are sometimes confusing to the apprentice Figure 5. 18 – Extreme flexing shortens hose life.
mechanic. This is the installation of a branch hose.
The branch hose is installed on the outlet of the
pump.
A branch hose has two functions. First, it reduces
the oscillations (pulsations) of pressure in the pump
delivery hoses. This increases the durability of the
hoses and hydraulic components. Secondly, by
reducing the pulsations caused by pressure
changes, it acts as a muffler to suppress noise.

In many hydraulic equipment applications it is


necessary or desirable to be able to disconnect and
connect the hose quickly. In order to protect our
environment, care should be taken to prevent the
spilling of oil. This need is met through the use of
self-sealing couplings called, quick couplings. Figure 5.19 – Branch hose.
These are slip-in-to-connect and pull-off-to-
disconnect joints that do not need a wrench for
tightening. Figure 5.20 shows a quick coupling.
Notice that the joint faces are sealed with an "O"
ring. Locking balls are used to prevent the inserted
member from slipping off. Mere pulling will not undo
this type coupling.

Figure 5. 20 – Quick coupling.

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April 2005 Page 5-7
To disconnect the coupling, take a firm grip on the
sleeve and pull it back.

Pulling the sleeve back removes the force, which


pushes the locking balls into their detent. Now,
slide the coupling half off its mate by pulling it.

Inside the quick coupling is a spring-loaded valve


for each coupling half.
Severing the two halves of a quick coupling permits
the respective valves to seat. This closes the end
openings and prevents oil from escaping. What
seals the valve in the seated position is the o-ring. Figure 5. 21 – Unlocking a quick coupling.
Any rise of internal pressure will force the o-ring
against the seat face, making the valve even tighter.

Figure 5. 22 – Sliding the coupling half off.

Figure 5. 23– O-ring in quick coupling.

Caution: Do not undo a quick coupling while the system is in a pressurized condition.
Oil under high pressure will burst out with enough force to put out an eye or inflect
bodily harm.

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PUMPS
Pumps are classified as positive or non-positive
displacement types.
Non-positive pumps have their inlet and outlet ports
connected. They will merely circulate fluid within the
pump housing when there is a pressure build-up in
the system. The engine water pump is a good
example. Mobile hydraulic systems do not use non-
positive displacement pumps and because of this
the remainder of our discussion of pumps will
address positive displacement types.
Figure 5. 24 – Non-positive displacement pump.

Most hydraulic systems use positive displacement


pumps, which have the inlet and outlet ports sealed
from each other by the pumping chamber or
chambers. If oil is available at the inlet and the
pump drive shaft is turned, oil will be pushed into
the system regardless of the system pressure.
Therefore, it is necessary to install a pressure relief
valve in systems using positive displacement
pumps to prevent circuit damage. External gear,
gerotor and piston pumps are all examples of
positive displacement types.
Figure 5. 25– Positive displacement pumps.

Positive displacement pumps can be further classified as having a fixed or variable delivery
rate for a given rpm. A fixed delivery pump (often called, fixed displacement) is one that will
displace an equal amount of fluid for each revolution. Flow can only be increased by turning
the pump faster because the pumping chambers always remain the same size.
A variable delivery pump (often called, variable
displacement:) is one that 'Can change its
displacement for each revolution. Flow can be
increased by turning the pump faster, increasing the
size of the pumping chambers or both.

Figure 5. 26 – Fixed and variable delivery.

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April 2005 Page 5-9
An excellent example of a fixed delivery pump is the external gear type. Operation of the
external gear type pump is quite simple. If the gears are turned in the direction shown, a
vacuum will be created at the pump inlet by the un-meshing of gear teeth. The un-meshing
gear teeth also create an opening that is filled
immediately with oil from the reservoir, which is then
carried to the outlet side of the pump. As the teeth
re-mesh, oil is forced out of the pumping chambers
and into the outlet line. The capacity of the pump for
one revolution is determined by multiplying the size
of each pumping chamber by the total number of
chambers. The end result is usually given in cubic
inches or cubic centimeters per revolution, but this
is only a theoretical value.

Figure 5. 27 – External gear pump.

It is only a theoretical value because even in a new pump, a certain amount of internal
slippage will take place. The amount of slippage will increase as system pressure increases.
The efficiency of a pump can be calculated by dividing the actual output by the theoretical
output. As the pump wears, the actual output decreases and the pump becomes less and less
efficient. External gear pumps are more tolerant of
contaminants than other types of positive
displacement pumps and usually lose their
efficiency over a longer period of time.

Figure 5. 28 – Pump efficiency.

Another type of positive displacement pump is the


gerotor (sometimes called, trochoid) pump. Its
operation is similar to the external gear pump in that
meshing gear teeth create vacuum to cause oil to
flow from the reservoir, and that oil is carried to the
pump outlet where it is forced into the outlet line by
meshing of gear teeth. The gerotor pump consists
of a drive gear with external teeth and a driven gear
with internal teeth. They turn together in a housing
that has an inlet and outlet port.

Figure 5. 29 – Gerotor or trochoid.

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Notice that the drive gear has fewer teeth than the driven gear. This means that the drive gear
turns faster than the driven gear and, in so doing, the teeth of the drive gear must constantly
change position in relation to the teeth of the driven gear. This action causes the pumping
chambers to increase in size at the pump inlet and decrease at the pump outlet. The two gears
maintain a sliding contact at all times which provides the seal between the inlet and outlet
ports. Sometimes this type of pump is called an internal gear pump.

The last type of fixed delivery or positive displacement pump found on Komatsu products is the
vane pump.

Vane pumps are capable of handling large volumes of


fluid at relative high pressures. Wear does not greatly
reduce efficiency because the vanes can move farther
out of their slots and maintain contact with the cam
ring.

As the vane rotates near the elliptically shaped cam


ring, vanes move further out of the rotor and the area
between vanes increases in size to pick up the fluid.
Further rotation of the rotor causes the vanes to move
past the wider opening of the cam ring and then to
move back into the rotor, thus decreasing the area
between the vanes and pushing the fluid out of the
pump.

The vane pump shown to the right is hydraulically Figure 5. 30 – Vane pump.
balanced. It has two each diametrically opposed inlets
and outlets.

As pressure is built up in the pressure quadrant, a


thrust is applied away from the port on the rotating
member. With two pressure quadrants 180° apart, the
two thrust forces cancel each other. The result, is
longer life for the pump.

This concludes our discussion of fixed delivery type


pumps. Now we shall examine the two designs of
variable delivery pumps found on Komatsu construction
equipment.

The variable displacement pumps are piston pumps.


Piston pumps use a back and forth pumping action
rather than a rotary motion. Figure 5.31 shows the
pumping action of a simple piston pump. Two one-way Figure 5. 31 – Pumping action of piston pump.
check valves are used to control the direction of flow.
On the down-stroke, the piston creates a vacuum

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April 2005 Page 5-11
causing oil to flow from the reservoir. The one-way check valve on the outlet side prevents oil
from entering the pumping chamber from that direction. On the up-stroke, the oil is pushed into
the outlet line and prevented from going back to the reservoir by the inlet check valve.

There are several different configurations of piston pumps but in this chapter we will limit our
discussion to the two variable delivery types most often used in the hydraulic systems of
hydrostatic machines.

Variable delivery pumps usually run at a constant speed and are designed so that the volume
of output can be varied from zero to the maximum capacity of the pump. In this type of pump, a
number of pistons reciprocating in individual bores in a rotating cylinder block, are responsible
for moving fluid from inlet to outlet. The capacity of the pump is determined by the number of
pistons and the size of the piston bore.

These types of piston pumps are called, axial piston


pumps. The first axial piston pump is the bent axis
type.

In a bent axis type piston pump, the cylinder block


rotates in proportion to drive shaft rotation. When
the cylinder block angle is moved, the pistons are
forced to make reciprocating movements.

Figure 5. 32 – Operational principle of bent axis


piston pump.

The inlet ports are positioned so that oil will enter


the piston bores as the pistons are retracted. By the
time the piston is fully retracted, the bore is nearly
aligned with the outlet port, through which the oil is
forced as further rotation of the drive shaft pushes
the piston into the cylinder block.

Figure 5. 33 – Piston movement.

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When the angles of a cylinder block and drive shaft
are smaller, the piston stroke is shortened so the oil
discharge volume is reduced. If the angle is
increased, the discharge volume is also increased.
When there is no angle, there will no pumping
action and oil discharge will be zero.

Figure 5. 34 – Angle of bent axis pump.

The second design of axial piston pump found in


Komatsu hydrostatic machines is the swash plate
type.

In the swash plate design, the ends of the pistons


riding against the swash plate cause piston
movement. Because the swash plate is free
swinging, its angle can be changed which in turn
changes the stroke of the piston, and,
consequently, the output volume.

The variable displacement axial piston pumps are Figure 5. 35 – Swash plate type axial piston pump.
more complex than fixed displacement types and
they are more expensive. For these reasons, the use of these types of pumps is limited to
applications where the need for variable delivery is a necessity.

CONTROL DEVICES
Check valve - The check valve or one-way check
valve is the simplest form of flow control valve. As
seen in the drawing below, it allows flow in one
direction but blocks flow in the opposite direction.

There are many styles of one-way check valves.


Most of them are marked as to the direction of free
flow and they are often an integral part of a more
complicated valve.

Figure 5. 36 – Check valve.

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April 2005 Page 5-13
One-way restrictor - The one-way restrictor is some
times called a flow control valve or speed reducer.
These valves are widely used for control of the flow
rate of fluids. They are required in hydraulic systems
where a constant flow rate must be supplied even
when the load varies.

The one-way restrictor valve is kept closed by its


spring when there is no flow in the system.

Figure 5. 37 – One-way restrictor valve.

When the oil flows in the direction shown by the arrow


in Figure 5.38, the one-way restrictor valve is fully
open and a large flow rate of oil passes through ports
A, B, and C without much resistance.

Figure 5. 38 – One-way restrictor (open).

When oil flows in the reverse direction, the valve


remains closed and only restricted oil flow can pass
through port B.

Figure 5. 39 – One-way restrictor (closed).

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Shuttle valve - When it is required that a second
hydraulic function should begin or if a pilot signal is
needed to show when a primary hydraulic function
has started, a shuttle valve is often used.

Within a shuttle valve there is a free floating ball


check. The inlet port connected to the higher
pressure is automatically connected to the outlet Figure 5. 40 – Shuttle valve.
port while the other inlet port is closed.

A good example of the use of a shuttle valve is


found in the Pressure Proportional Control system
of Komatsu hydraulic excavators. When the swing
or work equipment circuits are operated, the pilot
pressure from the PPC valve is supplied to the
straight-travel valve, swing priority valve or arm
throttle valve through a shuttle valve to actuate
these secondary functions.

When pilot oil flows in from the PPC valve, ball (3)
is pushed and the low-pressure circuit is closed.
Therefore, pilot pressure oil from the PPC valve on
the side being activated is supplied to the ports of
the travel shuttle valve.

Rapid exhaust valve – The hydraulic symbol for a


rapid exhaust looks similar to that of a shuttle valve
(compare Figures 5.40 and 5.42), but its
construction and function are quite different.

With a rapid exhaust valve, if the inlet port is Figure 5. 41 – Shuttle valve operation.
unloaded, the outlet port is freely exhausted.

A type of rapid exhaust valve is used in the blade


circuit of some Komatsu bulldozers. We added a
spring and call it a quick drop valve. This valve is
attached at the bottom or base end of each blade lift
cylinder. Its function is to allow the blade to lower
quickly, by relieving oil pressure at the cylinder
bottom end when the blade is lowered freely by its
own weight. This prevents the possibility of a
vacuum being created in the cylinder bottom.

Figure 5. 42 – Rapid exhaust valve.

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April 2005 Page 5-15
When the blade control lever is moved to the lower
position, the oil from the control valve enters the
cylinder bottom through port A and pushes the
cylinder piston. In the mean time, the oil in the
cylinder head (rod side) is pushed out of the
cylinder through port B, and flows to the tank.
Notice that the oil returning to the tank is restricted
between ports B and C. This causes a difference in
pressure before and after the orifice.

Figure 5. 43 – Quick drop valve (start of lowering).

When the differential pressure becomes greater


than the force of the spring, it compresses the
spring and moves spool (3) and valve (4) to the
right.

When the spool and valve have moved, part of the


oil flowing from the cylinder head to the tank now
enters the passage to the cylinder bottom together
with the oil flowing from the control valve.

The blade lowering speed increases in accordance


with the amount of oil that flows to the bottom of the
cylinder and reduces the formation of vacuum at the
cylinder bottom.
Figure 5. 44– Quick drop valve (while lowering).

Relief Valve - A relief valve is sometimes called a.


pressure relief valve or safety valve.

Within this valve, a spring-loaded valve is pressed


into a valve seat. The valve remains closed as long
as the oil pressure is lower than the spring force.

Figure 5. 45 – Function of relief valve.

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-There are three basic types of relief valves, the poppet
type, the spool type or the pilot type. The hydraulic
symbols to the right represent a poppet type on the left
and a pilot type on the right. Notice that relief valves
normally relieve oil back to the tank.

Poppet type relief valve - The poppet type relief valve


is kept closed when the circuit oil pressure is lower than
spring force.

The pressure at which the poppet type relief valve will


relieve is dependent upon the tension of the valve Figure 5. 46 – Relief valve symbols.
spring. This can be set by adding or subtracting shims
at the back of the spring, turning the setscrew, or both.

The small hole shown in the setscrew above is used to


prevent oil or air from becoming entrapped in the spring
housing. If this should happen, the air or oil could
restrict the movement of the valve.

When the circuit oil pressure rises high enough to


overcome the spring force, the valve cracks open. Figure 5. 47 – Poppet type relief valve.

With continuous rising oil pressure, the valve opens


more and more, increasing the relieved oil flow until the
rise of oil pressure stops.

It is not desirable to use a poppet type relief valve in a


system where the poppet valve must relieve the system
pressure frequently. When this happens, the valve
wears out quickly and. the valve makes an irritating
chattering noise. Figure 5. 48 – Poppet relief valve starts to
relieve at set (cracking) pressure.

Figure 5. 49 – Poppet relief valve (fully open).

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April 2005 Page 5-17
Spool type relief valve - In the spool type relief valve
shown below, circuit pressure is applied to the end of
the relief valve piston or spool.

Figure 5. 50 – Spool type relief valve (closed).

When circuit oil pressure rises above spring force, the


oil pressure moves the spool, compressing the spring
and opens the relief port.

Figure 5. 51 – Spool type relief valve (open).

With further increases in oil pressure, the relief port is


opened wider, increasing the amount of oil relieved.
The difference between set pressure and cracking
pressure is greater with the increase of relief oil flow in
this type of relief valve. However, the difference is
much smaller than that of the poppet type valve,
because the spool type valve has a relatively wide oil
passage to relieve oil when compared to the width of
the valve in a poppet type.

Figure 5. 52 – Comparison of spool (left) and


poppet (right) relief areas.

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Pilot type relief valve - The pilot type relief valve is the most popular type in use today. It uses
a pilot valve attached to the main valve. The pilot relieves a slight quantity of oil that acts on
the main valve to move it so that the main relief port is then opened to relieve a large quantity
of oil.

The main valve is held in the closed position by a light


spring. When circuit oil is present, it passes through an
orifice called the balance hole into the spring chamber.
When the circuit oil pressure is too low to overcome the
spring force of the pilot valve, the pilot valve is kept
closed. Also, the main valve is kept closed because the
oil pressure on both sides of the main valve is equal so
the light main spring holds it closed.

Figure 5. 53 – Pilot type relief valve (closed).

With increase of circuit oil pressure, the pilot valve


starts relieving oil. As oil starts flowing through the
balance hole, a difference in pressure occurs between
each side of the main valve. When the difference in
pressure becomes high enough to overcome the main
spring force, the main valve starts moving against the
main spring force and the main relief port is opened to
allow circuit oil to pass through it. The main port is
opened wider as the circuit oil pressure increases.

Because of its two-step action (pilot valve then main Figure 5. 54– Pilot type relief valve (open).
valve movement), this type valve operates smoother
and lasts longer than other types. It also features a
smaller difference between main valve set pressure
and cracking pressure when compared with the poppet
and spool valves and is quieter.

Pilot type relief valves are adjustable. An increase in


relief valve set pressure is achieved by increasing the
pilot valve cracking pressure in one of two methods.

The first method for adjusting relief valve set pressure


is shown to the right. To increase the spring pre-load, Figure 5. 55 – Adjusting relief valve set
reduce the shim thickness so that the spring is further pressure (shim adjustment type).
compressed (has greater tension). To lower the
pressure, increase the shim thickness.

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April 2005 Page 5-19
The second method of adjusting relief valve set pressure
applies to those types that utilize an adjusting bolt or
screw. With this type, loosen the lock nut, then turn the
bolt in or out to vary the spring compression so that the
desired relief valve set pressure is obtained. Important:
Although relief valve pressures are adjustable, never
attempt to set any pressure higher than the value
specified for the system. Also use a suitable pressure
gauge to ensure set pressure accuracy.

Figure 5. 56 – Adjusting relief valve set


pressure (adjusting bolt type).

Proportional pressure relief valve - When a relief valves set


pressure is controlled by pilot oil pressure instead of by spring
tension, it is called a proportional pressure relief valve. This is
because the main valve pressure will change proportionally
with the pilot oil pressure it receives.

Figure 5. 57 – Proportional pressure


relief valve.

Proportional pressure regulator - A proportional pressure


regulator is similar to a proportional pressure relief valve
except that the outlet pressure is reduced by a fixed ratio
(back pressure) with respect to the inlet pressure.

Figure 5. 58 – Proportional pressure


regulator.

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Differential pressure regulator - As you can see by
comparing Figures 5.58 and 5.59, the major difference
between a proportional pressure regulator and a differential
pressure regulator is the addition of a spring. The outlet
pressure is reduced by a fixed ratio (spring tension plus back
pressure) with respect to the inlet pressure.

Figure 5. 59 – Differential pressure


regulator.

Flow dividing valve - Sometimes it is desirable to split the


main flow in two directions. A flow-dividing valve is used for
this purpose. The flow is divided into two flows in a fixed ratio
substantially independent of pressure variations.

Figure 5. 60 – Flow dividing valve.

Directional control valves - The valve, which the


machine operator moves to direct the oil flow to a
hydraulic actuator such as a hydraulic motor or
cylinder, is the most common form of directional
control valve.

The directional valve is relatively simple. It receives


oil from the main oil pipe and delivers it to the right
and left branches, alternately, with the right and left
movement of the valve spool. This valve could also
be referred to as a 2-way valve because oil can be
directed through one of two possible oil paths.
Figure 5. 61 – Directional valve.

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April 2005 Page 5-21
The directional control valve illustrated in Figure
5.62 is slightly different. It offers three directional
choices.

A description of how the oil flows within the three


directional valve is shown.

Figure 5. 62 – Three directional control valve.

Pressurized oil being delivered by the pump enters


the inlet. (Figure 5.63) The two outlet ports to the
hydraulic cylinder are closed, so the oil from the
pump goes back to the sump because the inlet port
is open to it.

Figure 5. 63 – Spool in middle position.

Figure 5.64 shows this same valve with the spool


moved to the right. In this position, the oil flows to
the base end of the hydraulic cylinder to effect
movement. At the same time, the left-side outlet port
from the rod (head) side of the cylinder is open so
that oil from that side flows through the valve and
back to the tank.

Figure 5. 64 – Spool moved to the right.

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Page 5-22 April 2005
Figure 5.65 shows the spool moved to the left.
Oil now flows to the left-side outlet port and the rod
side of the cylinder. At the same time, oil exits the
base (bottom) side of the cylinder to the sump via a
port on the right end of the spool valve.

Figure 5. 65 – Spool moved to the left.

One of the most common types of directional


control valves in use today is the 4-way valve. The
two main types of 4-way valves are the open center
and the closed center types. The open center type
allows full pump output to be directed to the
reservoir when the valve is in neutral. The closed
center type blocks pump flow when the valve is in
neutral. This valve is called a 4-way valve because
it has four flow paths. Two types are shown in
Figure 5.66, the line from the pump and the line to
the reservoir. The two remaining passages are the
work ports to the actuator.
Figure 5. 66 – Open and closed center 4-way valve.

There are two different arrangements of work ports


that give further classification as to the type of 4-
way directional valve. They can have open or
closed center work ports.

Open work ports allow oil in the work lines to have


free access to the reservoir when the 4-way valve is
in neutral. This would allow the actuator to float or
coast. Closed work ports block flow from the work
lines to the reservoir when the 4-way valve is in
neutral that prevents actuator movement.
Figure 5. 67 – 4-way directional control valves
Figure 5.67 shows four different arrangements of (classified by open or closed ports).
the 4-way directional control valve. As you can see,
open and closed center valves can have either open or closed work ports. Any or all of these
arrangements could be found in the hydraulic system of a machine depending upon what the
system is designed to do.

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April 2005 Page 5-23
Before we complete our discussion of directional control valves there are three features about
the valve spools that should be pointed out.

Most control valves are manually operated with a control lever. The lever, when released, is
usually returned to the neutral position by the force of a return spring at the opposite end of the
spool or by centering springs on both sides of the spool. However, for some spools, particularly
those with a hold and/or float position, a detent may be provided to maintain the lever in that
position even if the lever is released. For instance, the blade control lever on a bulldozer is
held in the FLOAT position during fine grading operations. To reduce operator fatigue, the
control valve spool is provided with a notch, into which the detent ball is engaged, to lock the
spool in that position when the control lever is placed in the FLOAT position.

As shown in Figure 5.68, when the control lever is


released from any position other than FLOAT, the lever
is returned to the HOLD position by action of the spool
return spring.

Figure 5. 68 – Any position other than


FLOAT.
When the lever is placed in the FLOAT position, the
detent ball is engaged with the notch to lock the valve
spool in that position.

Figure 5. 69 – Lever in FLOAT position.

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Page 5-24 April 2005
Many of the spool lands used in our illustrations thus far
have been smooth as shown on the top in Figure 5.70.
Actually, most spools have annular ring groves as
shown on the right.

The annular ring-like grooves on spools allow some oil


to center the spool in its bore. Theoretically, there will
be no metal-to-metal contact between the spool and
bore so the spool will move easily.

Notice how the sharp-shouldered land (on the top in Figure 5. 70 – The purpose of annular ring
Figure 5.71 above) opens the oil passage. The moment grooves on spools.
the shoulder part departs from the bore, oil begins to
flow in and around the shoulder. This initial flow will be
considerable and could cause a shock load to be
applied to the actuator and fine control would be
difficult. With small notches provided at the shoulder,
very small initial flow is produced, shock loads are
avoided and fine control is possible.

ACTUATORS
The actuator converts fluid power back into mechanical Figure 5. 71 – The purpose of the notches on
power. It can be a cylinder or a motor, depending on the shoulders of spool lands.
the type of motion required by the machine. A cylinder
will be used where linear or back and forth motion is required and a motor where rotary motion
is needed. In either case, the actuator must be strong enough to do the desired amount of
work.

Actuator sizing is usually the first thing done by the


engineer when he designs a hydraulic system.

The design engineer's main concern is with the total


output force of the actuator. There are two ways to
increase actuator output force. One is to increase the
system pressure, the other is to increase the work area
in the actuator that is exposed to the system pressure.

Simply increasing the diameter of the piston increases Figure 5. 72 – Two ways to increase actuator
the work area in a cylinder. This will increase the output output force.
force of the actuator without increasing system
pressure. It must be remembered though, that if the flow rate does not change, the larger
cylinder will be slower. Area is increased in the gear type motor by increasing the width of the

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April 2005 Page 5-25
gears. This too, will increase output force and turn slower if system pressure and flow rate
does not change.
Hydraulic cylinders - There are three basic types of hydraulic cylinders: single acting, double
acting and telescopic. Before we discuss these cylinders in detail, let's first look at a cylinder
design and nomenclature.

When viewing a hydraulic cylinder the side through


which the piston rod extends is either called the
head side or rod end. The opposite side is either
called the bottom side or the base end.

As you can see in the Figure 5.74, cylinders consist


of a cylinder, cylinder head, cylinder bottom, piston
rod, and piston with piston ring, U-packing and wear
ring.
Figure 5. 73 – Cylinder nomenclature.
Notice that one end of the piston rod protrudes from
the cylinder and the other end is fitted with a piston.
During movement, the piston rod slides through the
oil seal and dust seal in the cylinder head. To resist
wear, the entire piston rod surface is hardened with
a heat treatment and finished by hard chrome
plating.

A scratched rod surface will shorten the life of the


cylinder head, bushing and packing. Due to this, Figure 5. 74 – Hydraulic cylinder construction.
extreme caution should be used when assembling a
piston rod so as not to scratch its surface. If
scratched, repair or replace the piston rod.

The cylinder is made by welding a closed-end head


to a pipe and honing the bore to provide an
accurately sized sliding surface for the piston
packing. Scratch marks or similar surface flaws on
the surface of the bore, caused by solid particles
stuck between the piston and its bore, will damage
the piston packing and rings. Cleanliness when
rebuilding a hydraulic cylinder or handling hydraulic
fluids can never be overemphasized. Figure 5. 75 – Piston.

The sliding clearance between the piston and its cylinder bore is several millimeters so a
packing or rings are fitted to the piston to seal this clearance.

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It is the packing or rings that slide along and make direct contact with the cylinder bore. This
prevents the steel piston from rubbing the steel bore. Some piston rings are metallic (cast iron)
but their rubbing surfaces are made of a special material designed for non-abrasive sliding
contact. Some pistons are lined with a wearing material called a wearing ring, which prevents
damage to the cylinder bore if there is any chance of the piston body coming into contact with
the bore.

The U-packing on the cylinder pistons, has lips


formed on both sides. (Figure 5.76) The back of the
lip seal is fitted to a back-up ring. The lipped face
with a concave middle part is subjected to
pressure, against which the packing seals the
clearance. As pressure acts on this face, the lips
are pressed against the bore and piston. This
closes the clearance. This is illustrated in the left
hand drawing of Figure 5.76.

Pressure acting from behind, as shown in the


center drawing of Figure 5.76, which may be
possible through the clearance when the rod and Figure 5. 76 – U-packing.
piston is moved in the opposite direction, tends to sever the lips from the bore. When this
happens, the packing does not seal.

There are two lip seals, one facing inboard and one facing outboard on the double-acting
cylinders that are most often used on Komatsu machines. With a U-packing at both ends, one
works when the piston extends, and the other works when the piston retracts.
The lips of the U-packing are very important. Great care should be used so as not to damage
or position it in the wrong direction during assembly.

As mentioned earlier, some pistons use a wear ring


rather than U-packing.

Most piston rings are made of teflon. Their backing


rings are made of rubber. A piston ring and its
backing ring fit into the groove as a pair. (Figure
5.77)

Although U-packing is more effective than piston


rings in sealing the sliding clearance, piston rings
are generally used on those pistons having a built-
in valve.

Figure 5. 77 – Piston ring.

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April 2005 Page 5-27
The dust seal has the important function of
protecting the piston rod packing against dust and
dirt that is the major cause of a scratched packing.
The dust seal also prevents oil leakage. As shown
in the Figure 5.78, some dust seals have a lip with a
sharp edge and a lip with a dull edge. Always install
this type of dust seal with the dull edge outboard.
The dull side is designed to keep all but the finest
particles out. The sharp edge is a lip seal that backs
up the U-packing in the cylinder head to prevent oil
leakage from the cylinder.

Occasionally you may find a dust seal with a sharp


edge. These will only be found in applications
where the machine is to be operated in muddy
ground where the hydraulic cylinders are subjected
to high concentrations of muddy water. Figure 5. 78 – Dust seal.

Let us now take a close look at the cylinder head.


One or more bushings fitted into the head hold the
rod in place. These bushings are made of teflon-
impregnated bronze, and are wear resistant. Some
amount of oil leaks out through the sliding
clearance, and is contained by a U-packing on the
outboard side. Next comes a dust seal, which
scrapes dirt off the rod on its inward stroke. The
head is either screwed or bolted to the cylinder.

Single-acting cylinder - The single-acting cylinder Figure 5. 79 – Cylinder head.


has a opening in one end, (head or rod side)
through which oil from the pump enters to operate
the piston in one direction only.

The piston in a single-acting cylinder is returned to


its original position using its own weight, another
load or a spring.

There are two types of single-acting cylinders, the


plunger and the piston types. The plunger type
(shown on the left in Figure 5.80) is commonly used
in press machinery and small hydraulic jacks. The
piston type shown on the right is often used as the
lift mechanism in forklifts.

Figure 5. 80 – Two types of single-acting cylinders.

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Page 5-28 April 2005
Double-acting cylinder - Most cylinders used in construction machinery are differential,
double-acting types.
Double-acting cylinders have openings on both
ends of the piston so that oil is alternately drawn in
and expelled as the piston reciprocates.

This type cylinder can be powered in either direction


and the available area that can be exposed to
system pressure is different on each side of the
piston. This is because the rod takes up a • certain
portion of piston area and the cylinder volume on the Figure 5. 81 – Double-acting cylinder.
rod side of the cylinder. Figure 5.82 compares
cylinder extension and retraction with equal system pressure and flow rate. We see that it will
extend slower with more force and retract faster with less force.

Some Komatsu double-acting cylinders are also


called, cushion cylinders. These special cylinders
have cushion plungers at the head side, bottom side
or on both sides of the piston. Shown below is an
arm cylinder with cushion plungers on both sides of
the piston.
In Figure 5.83, item 9 is the head (rod) side cushion
plunger and item 17 is the bottom side cushion
plunger.

There are three purposes for having a cushion


cylinder. First, the speed at which the piston strikes Figure 5. 82 – Comparing cylinder extension and
the end of the cylinder is reduced as the piston retraction.
reaches the end of its travel stroke. This alleviates
shock loads to the chassis, contributing to improved
productivity and performance reliability. Secondly,
the piston striking sound is reduced. And third, the
durability of the cylinders and their piping is
improved, resulting in high operational safety and
reliability.

Figure 5. 83 – Cushion cylinder.

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April 2005 Page 5-29
If piston (2) in Figure 5.84 approaches the end of its
stroke, the rod end cushion plunger (1) will enter the
oil exit chamber. The remaining oil that exits the
cylinder is throttled and cushion pressure PC
increases.

Figure 5. 84 – Beginning of cushioning in rod


(head) side of cushion cylinder.

As the plunger enters the cushion ring some oil is


confined in chamber PC. Then, the oil in chamber PC
flows from the cylinder head section through 3 slits
around the plunger (look at the plunger inset) and
restrictor b. This slows down the remaining exiting oil,
causing a cushioning effect.

When a cushion cylinder is used on a hydrostatic


machine with a pressure sensitive variable
displacement pump, this cushioning effect is even
greater because as the pressure rises in chamber PC Figure 5. 85 – Oil is throttled through plunger
it will also rise in chamber Pa. As pressure rises in slits.
chamber Pa, a signal is sent to the hydraulic system
controller that causes the main pump to decrease its
flow proportionally.
Cushioning in the bottom of a cushion cylinder is similar
to that in the cylinder head. Oil in chamber Pa is
confined and the shock absorbing effect is available
through 3 slits (3) around the plunger. Steel balls (4)
aid the plunger in its self-alignment.

Figure 5. 86 – Cushioning at the bottom of a


cylinder.

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Page 5-30 April 2005
Telescopic cylinder - A telescopic cylinder is a
hydraulic cylinder fitted with a multi-stage tube rod
to provide a long operating stroke. Telescopic
cylinders are used in dump trucks.

Motors - There are four types of hydraulic motors,


which may be in use on Komatsu machines. They
are the gear type, vane type, the bent axis piston
type and the swash plate piston type. These motor
types can be further classified as either fixed
displacement .or variable displacement motors.
Fixed displacement motors turn with equal force and Figure 5. 87 – Telescopic cylinder.
speed in either direction for the same pressure and
flow rate, because the pumping chambers are all the same size. Variable displacement motors
can vary their displacement and, in so doing, change their speed and torque.

Gear type motor - The structure of a gear motor is


practically the same as a gear pump. They are
simple and cheap to build and can develop high
torque by applying high pressure. They are not often
used in construction equipment applications
because at low speeds they have relatively high
levels of internal leakage, which make them less
efficient than other types. This is especially true
when the need for high torque efficiency at start up
is required.

When viewing the gear motor for the first time you Figure 5. 88 – Fixed and variable displacement
might think that the pressurized oil coming from the motors.
pump at the inlet hole would drive the motor gears in the opposite direction from what is
shown.
However, as shown above, the gears turn in the direction indicated by the arrows. We can
understand how this happens by taking a closer

Figure 5. 89 – Gear type hydraulic motor.

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April 2005 Page 5-31
First, we will consider the upper gear only. When
viewing Figure 5.90 we can see that incoming
pressure pushes on tooth surfaces (a) and (a'), and
(b) and (b') equally. Therefore, the forces applied to
these surfaces offset each other and no force for
turning the gear is generated. But notice that surface
c remains and is not offset. It is the hydraulic force
applied to this surface that generates rotary force.

Figure 5. 90 – Hydraulic pressure applied on the


upper gear.

Now let's study the lower gear when hydraulic


pressure is applied. You can see in Figure 5.91 that
when high oil pressure enters the gear motor it
applies equal force to surfaces (d) and (d'). These
forces offset each other and cannot generate any
rotary force. However, area e is not offset and can
generate rotary force.

Figure 5. 91 – Hydraulic pressure applied to the


lower gear.

So even though oil under pressure flows into the


motor inlet and pushes against all the gear tooth
surfaces equally, it is the pressure pushing against
surfaces which are not offset that actually generate
the rotary force.

Figure 5. 92 – Hydraulic pressure applied on the


gear motor.

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Page 5-32 April 2005
Vane motors - Vane motors are identical to vane
pumps except that the pump creates liquid flow,
and the force of the flow against its vanes drives the
motor.
See the vane motor illustration in Figure 5.93.

Figure 5. 93 – Vane type motor.

The principle of operation of a vane motor is very


simple. Oil is pumped into its inlet port and pushes
against vanes, which are mounted in a rotor. There
are springs that hold the vanes out against the cam
ring in the absence of centrifugal force. The rotor
has the output shaft splined onto it and both turn
together.

Figure 5. 94 – Oil flow through vane motor.

Bent axis piston type motors - Bent axis piston


type motor construction is similar to that of bent axis
pumps. But pressurized oil from the pump pushes
against the pistons.
At the other end of the pistons are ball shaped
ends. These balls fit into half circle recesses in a
disc, which is made part of the output shaft. They
are held in place on the shaft (8) by retainer plate
(11).

Figure 5. 95 – Fixed displacement bent axis piston


motor.

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April 2005 Page 5-33
The disc and output shaft are carried bearings so that
the disc is free to rotate.

In Figure 5.97, the pistons (9) rotate clockwise together


with the cylinder block (2) at the same speed as the
output shaft (6), while sliding within the cylinder block
(2).
When the piston reaches the uppermost point, it is then
connected with the outlet side of valve plate (12).

When the pistons reach the outlet ports, the pressure Figure 5. 96 – Valve plate.
on the back side of the pistons is relieved, eliminating
the force on the output shaft.
If the oil inlet and outlet ports were reversed, the
movements described would be opposite and the
output shaft would rotate in a counterclockwise
direction.
The fixed displacement bent axis motor has been used
as the travel motors and swing motors in hydraulic
excavators.

It is also possible to have a bent axis variable


displacement motor. Figure 5. 97 – Pistons driving the output shaft.

The variable displacement bent axis piston motor


shown is used as a two speed travel motor. The large
spring in the servo cylinder at the left is expanded to
hold the cylinder block (2) in its maximum angle
position. This is the low speed, high torque position.

Figure 5. 98 – Variable displacement bent axis


piston motor.

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Page 5-34 April 2005
If oil is directed to the bottom of the servo cylinder,
hydraulic force will begin to work on the spring.
When hydraulic pressure is sufficient to overcome
the spring force, the cylinder block (2) will move up
and the angle of the pistons in relation to the
cylinder block will decrease. If the flow rate and
pressure were unchanged, the motor would rotate
faster but with less torque.

Swash plate piston motor - In a swash plate


piston motor, the pistons and piston barrel do not
change angle. Instead, the plate that the pistons
push against can be moved when a change of flow Figure 5. 99 – Bent axis motor with brake.
rate is desired.

By looking at the Figure 5.100 you can see that the


tip of piston (6) is spherical. Shoe (7) is swaged
around the ball at the piston tip to form one unit with
the piston. Piston (6) and shoe (7) form a spherical
bearing.

Swash plate (8) has a machine surface A. Shoe (7)


is always pushing against this surface and slides in
a circle on it. Swash plate (8) also slides on the
concave face of cradle (9), which is fixed to the
Figure 5. 100 – Structure of swash plate motor.
case.
Pistons (6) move in the axial direction inside each
cylinder (4).
The cylinder barrel (4) pushes bearing plate (10),
which pushes against valve plate (11). This seals
the oil while rotating.
Oil enters and leaves the cylinder chambers in the
barrel through the inlet and outlet ports on the valve
plate (11).
The output shaft (1) is splined onto the barrel at the
serration and turns with it.
With this type of motor, the oil sent from the pump
enters cylinder barrel (4) and pushes the back of
piston (6). See Figure 5.100. When the swash plate
(8) is at an angle, the hydraulic force pushing the
piston rotates the cylinder barrel (4) according to
the amount of angle. While cylinder barrel (4) is
Figure 5. 101 – Piston operation of swash plate
motor.
KT800693-R1 Basic Hydraulics - 4006
April 2005 Page 5-35
rotating and volume E is approaching volume F, oil from the pump enters the cylinder and
pressure P is generated according to the load. After the oil has pushed the swash plate as
much as the angle will allow, the piston becomes aligned with the outlet port and the oil is
pumped out of the motor and returns to the pump.
Rotation in the opposite direction is achieved by
directing the fluid flow to the other oil port.
When the oil flows in through port PA, the output
shaft rotates clockwise as seen from the end of the
shaft.

On the other hand, if oil flows in through port PB, as


shown in Figure 5.103, the output shaft rotates
counterclockwise. Figure 5. 102 – Clockwise rotation.

Accumulators - An accumulator is a container in


which fluid is stored under pressure as a source of
fluid power. They are sometimes used instead of a
recoil spring in an undercarriage system as a type of
hydraulic shock absorber. Figure 5.104 shows that
an accumulator is a container that is separated into
two compartments by a rubber bladder. One
compartment is charged with gas (usually nitrogen)
and the other with system oil.
Figure 5. 103 – Counter clockwise rotation.
The most common use of an accumulator in
Komatsu products is in the hydraulic control system
of hydraulic excavators. In these machines, if the
engine suddenly becomes inoperable, the work
equipment can be safely lowered to the ground
because the accumulator contains enough stored
pressure to move one or two spool valves. After one
or two movements of the control valve, the pressure
has dissipated and no additional control movement
is possible.

Figure 5. 104 – Accumulator.

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Page 5-36 April 2005
HEAT EXCHANGERS
There are two types of heat exchangers, coolers and
heaters.
Coolers - There are two types of oil coolers, oil to air or
oil to water.
Shown in Figure 5.105 is an oil cooler, which uses
engine coolant to cool the hydraulic oil.
One of the fluids goes through the cores and the other
around them. Other hydraulic coolers are designed
exactly like a automobile radiator except that hydraulic

oil is cooled by air that is blown or drawn through it by a Figure 5. 105 – Oil cooler, oil to water type.
fan instead of engine coolant.
Heaters - Where a machine is operated in extremely
cold climates, it may become necessity to install a
hydraulic oil heater.

Typically, an electric or fluid heating coil is fitted to the


hydraulic reservoir. When needed, a service vehicle
with either an electric motor or auxiliary engine is
connected to the heater until the hydraulic oil
temperature rises sufficiently to begin operation of the Figure 5. 106 – Oil heater.
machine.

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April 2005 Page 5-37
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Page 5-38 April 2005
Chapter 5 - Assessment
Hydraulic System Components
Instructions: There is only one correct answer to each question. If there appears to be more
than one answer, select the most correct answer.
If an in-house instructor is administering this test, turn your answers in to the
instructor when you are finished. Your instructor will input your scores into the
Komatsu Learning Management System.
If you are taking the Basic Hydraulics course as self-study, mark your answers
in the appropriate space on the answer sheet provided in the back of the
booklet. When you have completed all of the assessments for the entire book,
either:
a. Turn the assessments into your instructor along with your Answer Sheet.
The instructor is provided with an answer key and will grade your
assessment and also input your scores into the Komatsu Learning
Management System. Or,
b. Log-in to the Komatsu Learning Management System (LMS), using your
extranet username and password. Go to the LMS site, enroll in this Basic
Subject course, after your enrollment has been approved, you can launch
the course, then click on the Assessment link and answer each question.
Your grade will be scored and tracked automatically. Note: The online
assessment questions are in random order.

1. Which of the following possible answers best describes the function of the hydraulic
system reservoir?
a. It provides storage for the reserve oil needed by the system.
b. It prevents turbulence of the oil when the machine is moving.
a. It helps to dissipate heat.
d. All of the above.

2. Eventually hydraulic hoses will have to be replaced. What precautions should an


installer make to insure the long life of replacement hoses?
a. When calculating the length of the replacement hose, allow sufficient deflection to allow
for hose length changes during operation.
b. Be certain that the hose is not twisted.
c. Insure that the hose has no extreme bends.
d. All of the above.

KT800693-R1 Basic Hydraulics - 4006


April 2005 Page 5-39
3. Which of the following types of pumps is a non-positive displacement pump?
a. External gear pump.
b. Impeller pump.
c. Gerotor pump.
d. Piston pump.

4. How is the flow rate changed in a variable displacement piston pump or motor?
a. By changing the angle of the swash plate.
b. By changing the angle of the cylinder block in relation to the input or output shaft.
c. Both a and b above are possible depending upon the pump or motor design.
d. By increasing the width of the gear teeth.

5. Some blade circuits contain a “quick drop valve”. What is the primary purpose of
this valve?
a. When the blade is lowered by it's own weight, it allows the blade to lower quicker than
when the valve is not installed.
b. It prevents the possibility of a vacuum being created in the cylinder bottom.
c. It prevents a hydrostatic lock from occurring when the control valve is returned to the
neutral position.
d. It allows the operator to lower the blade quickly (without moving the control valve)
should an emergency arise.

6. Study the drawing shown and decide which type of relief


valve is represented?
a. A poppet type.
b. A spool type.
c. A pilot type.
d. A proportional pressure type.

7. What is the purpose of the notches on the shoulders of a spool?


a. To improve the fine control of the valve spool by reducing the initial flow when the spool
is first moved.
b. To improve the fine control of the valve spool by allowing greater flow when the spool is
first moved.
c. Most spools do not have notches, but when they do, they are used with a detent to hold
the spool in one position such as the "HOLD" position.
d. They allow some of the oil entering the valve to center the spool.

8. Which of the following hydraulic system components is an actuator?


a. A motor.
b. A pump.
c. A filter.
d. A control valve.

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Page 5-40 April 2005
9. Which of the following components is used to store hydraulic fluids under pressure
as a source of fluid power?
a. A reservoir.
b. An accumulator.
c. A heat exchanger.
d. None of the above.

10. What is the difference between a “cushion cylinder” and a “non-cushion cylinder”?
a. A cushion cylinder has a rubber stopper at the head end of its cylinder to absorb shock
loads. The non-cushion cylinder does not have this part.

b. A cushion cylinder has a rubber stopper at the bottom end of its cylinder to absorb
shock loads. The non-cushion cylinder does not have this part.

c. A cushion cylinder has a device such as a plunger, which reduces the flow of escaping
oil as the cylinder rod reaches the end of its stroke.

d. A cushion cylinder is a cylinder fitted with a nitrogen gasbag. As its rod reaches the end
of its stroke, the gases inside the bag are compressed acting like a shock absorber.

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April 2005 Page 5-41
Basic Hydraulics - 4006 KT800693-R1
Page 5-42 April 2005
For Instructor Use Only Score:

BASIC SUBJECT TITLE:

STUDENTS NAME: CUSTOMER NAME

IMPORTANT: This is a multi purpose answer sheet designed especially for th eBasic Service Training Materials series. This answer sheet is used to validate
your study of each chapeter or lesson.

INSTRUCTIONS:
NOTE: If you are taking this Basic Subject course online - you will not need to use this form.
A. All answers are based upon the contents of the Baic Service Training Manual.
B. Read each question and all answers carefully.
C. When there are fewer than 12 questions, mark your answer for the number of questions asked per chapter and leave remaining boxes blank.
D. There is only one correct answer for each question. If there appears to be more than one correct answer - select the most correct answer.
E. Please circle the appropriate letter for each answer.
F. Make corrections by drawing a BOLD "X" through any incorrect answer and place a circle around new selection.

Chapter 1 Chapter 5 Chapter 9


1 A B C D 1 A B C D 1 A B C D
2 A B C D 2 A B C D 2 A B C D
3 A B C D 3 A B C D 3 A B C D
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Chapter 2 Chapter 6 Chapter 10
1 A B C D 1 A B C D 1 A B C D
2 A B C D 2 A B C D 2 A B C D
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12 A B C D 12 A B C D 12 A B C D
Chapter 3 Chapter 7 Chapter 11
1 A B C D 1 A B C D 1 A B C D
2 A B C D 2 A B C D 2 A B C D
3 A B C D 3 A B C D 3 A B C D
4 A B C D 4 A B C D 4 A B C D
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11 A B C D 11 A B C D 11 A B C D
12 A B C D 12 A B C D 12 A B C D
Chapter 4 Chapter 8 Chapter 12
1 A B C D 1 A B C D 1 A B C D
2 A B C D 2 A B C D 2 A B C D
3 A B C D 3 A B C D 3 A B C D
4 A B C D 4 A B C D 4 A B C D
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