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ABOUT THE PRESENTOR

ARMANDO R. DIAZ
Master of Science in Business Administration (MBA)
ASEAN CHARTER PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER
Professional Electrical Engineer ( PEE )
Registered Master Plumber
Certified Plant Mechanical( CPM )
Accredited Pollution Control Officer
Licensed Professional Engineer with more than 40 years experience in the field of
building and facility design, consultancy, construction, operations and maintenance
involving various mechanical electrical plumbing and fire protection system
2018 PSUMP NATIONAL PRESIDENT

2018 ENGINEER INC NATIONAL PRESIDENT


2011 IIEE NATIONAL PRESIDENT

2010 MITEEA Most Outstanding Alumni


1998 as Most Outstanding Practitioner in Industry of the Philippines
Member : Society of Philippine Accredited Consultant
Philippine Society of Mechanical Engineers
Recipient of Various Civic Awards : Rotary,REACT,YMCA,LOBSET and MARS
MEMBERSHIP
SECTION 1 – GRADES. Membership in the Organization shall consist of the following grades: FELLOW,
REGULAR MEMBER, ASSOCIATE MEMBER and AFFILIATE MEMBER.
SECTION 2 – ADMISSION. Application for membership in the organization shall be made in writing in a form
approved by the Board of Directors. Admission to membership shall be made in accordance with the procedure
and requirements prescribed under these By-Laws.
SECTION 3 – FELLOW. A FELLOW shall have the privilege of using the title “FELLOW, MEPF
ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINES” or in connection with his professional practice.
FELLOWS shall constitute the College of Fellows and elect annually the Chancellor and Scribe from among
themselves. The College of Fellows shall be the highest advisory body to the Board of Directors.
SECTION 4 - REGULAR MEMBER. A REGULAR MEMBER at the time of his admission shall be at least
holder of two (2) professional licenses issued by Professional Regulation Commission or PRC regularly and
extensively engaged in the practice of MEPF engineering for at least five (5) years, two (2) of which shall be
continuous, full time and immediately prior to his application for admission to the organization and who
possesses the knowledge and had shown competence as a MEPF Engineer.
4.1Or, at the time of his admission shall be at least holder of one(1) professional license either
mechanical or electrical issued by Professional Regulation Commission or PRC regularly and extensively
engaged in the practice of MEPF engineering for at seven (7) years, two (2) of which shall be continuous, full time
and immediately prior to his application for admission to the organization , who possesses the knowledge and
had shown competence as a MEPF Engineer and examination conducted by Board of Directors.
4.2Or, at the time of his admission shall be at least holder of one(1) professional license either
mechanical or electrical issued by Professional Regulation Commission or PRC regularly and extensively
engaged in the practice of MEPF engineering for at ten (10) years, two (2) of which shall be continuous, full time
and immediately prior to his application for admission to the Association , who possesses the knowledge and had
shown competence as a MEPF Engineer and technical paper submitted to the Board of Directors.
4.3A REGULAR MEMBER shall have the privilege of using the title : “REGULAR
MEMBER,MEPF ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINES” or “MEPF ENGINEER” in connection with his
professional practice.
SECTION 5 - ASSOCIATE MEMBER. An ASSOCIATE MEMBER at the time of his admission to the
organization shall be at least holder of two(2) valid technical certificate or license issued by
Professional Regulation Commission or PRC,TESDA or any recognize organization regularly and
extensively engaged in the practice of MEPF works for at least five (5) years, two (2) of which shall be
continuous, full time and immediately prior to his application for admission to the organization and who
possesses the knowledge and had shown competence as a MEPF Practitioner.

5.1 Or, at the time of his admission shall be at least holder of one(1) technical license either mechanical
or electrical issued by Professional Regulation Commission or PRC regularly and extensively engaged in
the practice of MEPF works for at seven (7) years, two (2) of which shall be continuous, full time and
immediately prior to his application for admission to the organization , who possesses the knowledge and
had shown competence as a MEPF Practitioner and examination conducted by Board of Directors.

5.2 Or, at the time of his admission shall be at least holder of one(1) technical license either mechanical
or electrical issued by Professional Regulation Commission or PRC regularly and extensively engaged in
the practice of MEPF works for at least ten (10) years, two (2) of which shall be continuous, full time and
immediately prior to his application for admission to the organization , who possesses the knowledge and
had shown competence as a MEPF Practitioner and technical paper submitted to the Board of Directors.

5.3An ASSOCIATE MEMBER shall have the privilege of using the title “ASSOCIATE MEMBER,
MEPF ORGANIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINES” or “MEPF PRACTITIONER” in connection with
his professional practice.
Work Experiences :

2001-2007 : Universal Robina Corp. ( BOPP Division ) –


Engineering Manager

1994-2001 : Uni-Lonseal-Mitsui (Phil-Japan Co.) -


AVP-Engineering

1992-1994 : Ramada Hotel - Chief Engineer

1979-1989 : International Rice Research Institute –


Chief Engineer

1974-1979 : Honeywell Instrumentation -


Start-up and Commissioning Engineer
Projects Handled 2007-present :

MEPF DESIGN and PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Consultation for MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL FIRE PROTECTION and


PLUMBING (MEPF) of various industrial, commercial and residential
establishment

MEPF Design and Project Management : PEPSI Cola , Sto. Tomas Plant
MEPF Design and Quality Control : ARUZE Mfg. Plant, LISP 3
Design and Consultancy : DASHEN Beer Brewery ( Ethiopia)
Design and Consultancy : SPT Clark
Design and Consultancy : Laguna Water District
MEPF Design and Project Management : PRICON Microelectronics
MEPF Design and Consultancy : AREZA Commercial Complex
Design and Consultancy : PTRI-DOST Bldg. Rehabilition
Design and Consultancy : ERDB-DENR Bldg. Rehabilitation
Design and Consultancy : HENKEL Expansion Plant
Design and Project Management : Rong Bo Yu Injection Plant

11/21/2018
Consultancy Works :

SOUTHEAST ASIA FOOD INC. ( Datu Puti )


C.T. Chun Inc.
Coral Bay Nickel Project ( Palawan )
Ligo Sardines ( Zamboanga )
Multiflex RNC Phil. (URATEX )
St. Luke Hospital ( Global City ) : Consulting Services
Electrical Project Evaluation on the integrity of Grounding System
Global Power ( Toledo City ) : Consulting Services
Evaluation of present capacity to determine the size of their
expansion project

Present Companies :
MEPF ENGINEERS CO. : Principal Engineer and Partner
KANG HARO ENGINEERING : CEO and Partner
KANG HARO CONST.& MGT. CORP : President
DON MEPF ENGINEERING : General Manager

TRANS ASIA CONSTRUCTION AND DEVT. CORP. : Retainer /Consultant


On-going Project : OKADA RESORT HOTEL

11/21/2018
ON – GOING PROJECTS
Plaza + Partners
Suite 702, 7/F Ma. Natividad Building, 470 T.M.Kalaw
cor. Cortada st., Ermita, Manila, Philippines, 1000
1. Primark Deparo
2. Primark Zapote Camarin
3. Primark Mexico
4. Primark Double L
5. Gerora
6. Primark Atherton
7. Primark San Jose Del Monte
8. Primark Aringay
9. Primark Guimba
10. Primark Tagaytay
11. Primark Aurora
12. Primark Bolinao
13. Primark Caticlan
14. Primark Cordon

11/21/2018
PLEASE VISIT GOOGLE : armando r diaz iiee
•Approved:
•FIDEL V. RAMOS
•President of the Philippines
Steam Boiler – is a closed vessel intended for use in
heating water, or for the application
of heat to generate steam or other
vapor to be used externally to itself.

Steam Generator – Closed vessel capable of


producing superheated steam
Boiler Basic Information

1 BO. HP = is the equivalent to the generation of


34.5 lbs. steam per hour from water at
212deg.F to saturated steam

or 34.5 pounds (15.6kg) of water evaporated per


hour @212 deg F ( 100 deg C )

=33,475 BTU per Hour


= 9,809.5 watts
=8,436 KCAL per Hour
Horsepower (HP) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is
done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower.
The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt
to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses.
It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston
engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery
Saturated Steam is steam that is in
equilibrium with liquid water.

The temperature of the steam is equal to the


temperature of the liquid water; it
corresponds to the boiling point at the given
pressure.
Superheated Steam is a steam at a
temperature higher than its vaporization
(boiling) point at the absolute pressure
where the temperature is measured.
SAFETY VALVES - it is a device that let out the excess when the steam
pressure in the boiler exceed the working pressure

Four Types of Safety Valves

a. Spring Loaded Safety Valve


b. Lever Safety Valve
c. Dead Weight Safety Valve
d. High Steam and Low Water Safety Valve
FEED PUMP – a pump that feeds water to boiler

PRESSURE GAUGE – it is a device fitted to indicate the


pressure of the fluid

WATER LEVEL INDICATOR – to indicate the level of the water


in the boiler

FEED CHECK VALVE – to control the flow of boiler feed water


from the feed pump to the boiler and to
prevent the back flow of water from the
boiler
STEAM STOP VALVE – to stop or to allow the flow of steam from the boiler
to steam pipe

STEAM HEADERS – to pick up the branch line from each boiler and take
off are provided where necessary

BLOWDOWN – is defined as the removal from a boiler unit or evaporator a


fraction of a boiler water either continuously or intermittently, in order
to prevent an excessive concentration of undesirable dissolve
substances in boiler water

Two Types of Blowdown


a. Continuous Type – to maintain a definite concentration of dissolve
non-volatile substances in the boiler water
b. Intermittent Type – it is undertaken to remove sludge from a boiler unit
BOILER CLASSIFICATIONS
1. As to axis of shell (vertical or horizontal)
2. According to use in which they are put
a. Heating/ process
b. Power generation
3. According to location of furnace
a. Internally fired
b. Externally fired
4. According to relative position of water and hot gases
a. Water tube
b. Fire tube
5. According to fuel
a. Solid fired – coal, wood wastes, coco shell, etc.
b. Liquid fired - bunker, diesel, coco diesel, etc.
c. Gas fired – LPG, methane. Etc.
Horizontal Boiler
Vertical Boiler
Types of Boiler
Fire-Tube Boiler
• uses tubes to direct the hot gases from the
combustion process through the boiler to a
safe point of discharge.
• tubes are submerged in the boiler water and
transfer the heat from the hot gases into the
water
Fire-Tube Boiler
Fire-Tube Boiler
Water-Tube Boiler

• uses tubes to direct the boiler water


through the hot gases from the combustion
process, allowing the hot gases to transfer
its heat through the tube wall into the
water.
• water flows by convection from the lower
drum to the upper drum
Water-Tube Boiler
Water-Tube Boiler
Water-Tube Boiler
Water-Tube Boiler
Types of Boiler According to the Number of
Passes and Furnace Return Chamber Design

• 2-pass dry back


• 3-pass dry back
• 4-pass dry back
• 3-pass wet back
Dryback Firetube Boilers

•The dryback boiler reversal chamber has a rear wall that is lined, or
jacketed with refractory, which passes combustion gasses from the
furnace to multiple tube sheets and reflects burner heat, resulting in
exterior radiation losses. The dry back boiler design uses a common rear
tube sheet and features convenient fire-side and water-side access.
• Dryback boilers have a larger functional footprint due their heavy,
vessel-sized rear door which requires sufficient space to open and a
cool-down period prior to opening. Dryback boilers also require regular
refractory and tube sheet inspection, which can be costly maintenance
items.
Wetback Firetube Boilers

•The wetback boiler design features a reversal chamber that is jacketed, or


completely surrounded by water, which is used to direct flue gasses from the
furnace to the tube banks. The surrounding water absorbs burner heat,
helping improve operating efficiency as heat from combustion goes directly
into evenly heating water instead of refractory. The wet back boiler design
uses separate tube sheets between tube passes which can be more forgiving
with load changes.

•Wetback firetube boilers offer a more optimal functional footprint, with lift
off or split-hinged doors that require no cool-down period and can be opened
immediately. While there is no expensive refractory to maintain, internal
pressure vessel maintenance (i.e. cleaning and tube removal) can be more
involved and challenging .
•Wetback Firetube Boilers
•The wetback boiler design features a reversal chamber that is jacketed, or
completely surrounded by water, which is used to direct flue gasses from the
furnace to the tube banks. The surrounding water absorbs burner heat,
helping improve operating efficiency as heat from combustion goes directly
into evenly heating water instead of refractory. The wet back boiler design
uses separate tube sheets between tube passes which can be more forgiving
with load changes.

•Wetback firetube boilers offer a more optimal functional footprint, with lift
off or split-hinged doors that require no cool-down period and can be opened
immediately. While there is no expensive refractory to maintain, internal
pressure vessel maintenance (i.e. cleaning and tube removal) can be more
involved and challenging .
2-PASS DRY-BACK BOILER
3-PASS DRY-BACK BOILER
4-PASS DRY-BACK BOILER
3-PASS WET-BACK BOILER
Main Components
• Boiler Drum
• Feed pump
• Burner/furnace
• Smoke Stack/Chimney
• Controls
• Blow down
• Fuel Tank and fuel pump
• Water softener
Know your Boiler
1. Do not operate boiler unless you have been
trained and qualified. Operate boiler in
accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendation.
2. Comply with environmental regulations:
a. Air pollution from heavy smoke
b. Disposal of used oil in drainage
c. Blow down containing chemicals in
drainage.
3. Should have installation and operating
permits from the DOLE/DENR.
Rules to Remember when Operating a
Boiler
• Do not operate new boiler until it has first been boiled out
with caustic solution to remove oil or grease.
• When starting up for the first time, fire at low rate to dry
refractory lining.
• Avoid sudden heating or cooling.
• Check water level daily or upon taking up a shift.
• Blow water level controls frequently
• Keep boiler clean on inside
• Inspect regularly both fire- and water-sides surfaces for
corrosion or pitting
• Give boiler immediate attention when taken out of service to
prevent deterioration.
• Consult boiler water specialist for correct treatment to
prevent scale and corrosion.
Code Requirements for Boiler Trim
Boiler Trim – minimum accessories that are required to
monitor the boiler properly and to operate it safely.
Piping or tubing close to or attached to a boiler for
connecting controls, gages, or other instrumentation.
1. Steam Pressure Gage
- registers the actual steam pressure
- should be calibrated at least once a year
- dial shall be graduated approximately double the
pressure at which the safety valve is set, but in no case
less than 1-1/2 times the safety valve setting
- a valve or cock shall be placed in the gage line adjacent
to the gauge
- shall contain a siphon which will develop and maintain a
water seal that will prevent the steam from entering the
gauge.
Code Requirements for Boiler Trim

2. Water Column – for observing water level in the


boiler.
- The standard water column consists of an enlarged
water chamber with tapping on top and bottom for
vertical installation, provisions for a water level
gauge glass, and three tappings on the side for test
cocks.
- These three (3) cocks are of the manual style, and
are the only approved guarantee of water level
indication. The glass gauge is not considered 100%
reliable, since is it subject to plugging and dirt and
may be unreliable, and the gauge valves may jamb
closed.
Code Requirements for Boiler Trim

3. Safety Valves – most important valve on the


boiler. It can mean between life and death. Each
boiler shall have at least one safety valve, and if the
boiler has more than 46.5 sq. m. water heating
surface or the generating capacity exceeds 910 kg/hr,
it shall have two (2) or more safety valves.
Boiler Controls for Safety
1. Low Water Cutoff – interlocked to cause a non-
recycling safety shutdown when a low water level
exists.
2. Excess Pressure Cut-off Switch – safety shutdown
in case of abnormally high steam pressures.
3. Excess Temperature Cut-off Switch – safety
shutdown in case of abnormally high temperatures.
4. Suitable Limit Switches – to insure that the fuel-air
proportioning dampers and burner controls are on
the low-fire start position before burner can be
fired.
5. Combustion Flame Safeguard – for the igniter and
main burner flames
6. Automatic Restart, Alarm, Safety Shut-off Valve,
Flame Detectors, Flame Rods, Infrared Detectors.
7. Steam Pressure Control
8. Boiler Alarm System

Water Level Control

1. On-and-Off Feed Water Pump Controls – to meet


the water level requirements of the boiler.

2. Fusible Plug – melt out and allow any remaining water


in the boiler to spray down the flame.
Boiler Plant Safety
Boiler Testing and Inspection
1. All boilers are inspected once a year by the Bureau of Labor Standards
and insurance agencies.
2. All boilers must be given a hydrostatic test if any repairs are made on
the pressure portions of the boiler, and also whenever the inspector
determines that a test should be made for any reason.
3. Hydrostatic will be made at one and one half times the maximum
allowable working pressure of the boiler.
4. To prepare boiler for inspection –
a. The water must be drawn off and boiler thoroughly washed.
b. All hand hole covers and wash-out plugs in the boiler, feed lines, and
water column connections that are necessary for adequate inspection
must be removed.
c. The furnace and combustion chambers shall be thoroughly cooled
and cleaned.
d. Enough of the brickwork, refractory, or insulating material shall be
removed to permit the inspector to determine the condition of the
boiler, furnace and other part of the boiler.
c. When opening up the boiler in preparation for testing, we suggest
that a water treatment specialist be present to obtain sample of the
sludge, scale or soot deposit from the boiler for analysis.
Remember! The boiler inspector is looking after your safety, as
well as the safety of other, so it makes good sense to
cooperate with him. They are an excellent source of help and
information on how to get the best from your boiler.

• Compliance with Codes


The PSME Boiler Construction Code Committee was set up in
1992 to formulate standard rules of safety governing the
design, fabrication, and the inspection during the construction
of the boilers and unfired pressure vessels.

• Certificate of Boiler Inspection and Permit to Operate


Boiler Efficiency
Factors that Affect Boiler Efficiency:
1. Combustion Efficiency – relate to burner performance
and stack losses only, quality of fuel oil, proper air to fuel
ratio, pre-treating of the fuel that affect combustion and
influences efficiency.
2. Scale and soot deposits.
3. Blowdown – high blowdown rates contribute to huge heat
losses and low blowdown promote scale formation
4. Mode of operation – Low-medium-high-fire

• Boiler Efficiency Tester – (flue gas analyzer) to determine if a


burner needs adjustments or the boiler needs to be
cleaned.
DUTIES IN TAKING OVER A SHIFT

1. Check water level by blowing down the water


gauge glass and water column.
2. Examine log book for anything out of the ordinary
routine on previous shift and for instruction left for
incoming shift.
3. Complete inspection on all facilities under your
jurisdiction.
4. Record gauge and meter readings as required.
Note any deviation from normal.
DUTIES IN TAKING OVER A SHIFT

5. Noticing dangerous defect shut boiler down


and notify your higher ups. Take record as
required.
6. Record all problems encountered and
remedial measures undertaken. Instruction
for incoming shift.
7. Affix your name and signature on log
sheet/log book.
NORMAL OPERATION REMINDERS
1. Exit flue gas (boiler pressure of 150 psig)– not over
550 °F/ 285 °C
2. Heavy fuel oil temperature - 90°C - 110°C
3. Feed water hardness – 0-10 ppm
4. Excess air – 21% avg. (10%-30%)
5. Feed water pH – 7.5-11.5
6. Safety valve setting – 6 % above operating pressure
(factory set)
7. Blow off frequency – once per shift do not blow off
at high pressure or during maximum steam
demand.
1. Check water level

An unstable water level can indicate several


problems such as excessive solids or water
treatment, contamination from oil, overload
or control malfunction. Ensure there is water
in the gauge glass every time you enter the
boiler room.
2. Blow down boiler

Blow down the boiler in accordance with the


recommendation of your feedwater
consultant.
A water quality and chemical treatment
program will dictate frequency of boiler
blowdown.
3. Blow down the water level controls
to purge the float bowl of possible
sediment accumulation.
Operating conditions will dictate frequency of
this check.
4. Check combustion visually

Look at the flame to see if something has


changed. Changes may be an indication
that a problem is developing.
5. Treat water according to the
established program.

Add chemicals and take tests as


outlined by your chemical
feedwater consultant.
6. Record boiler operating pressure
or temperature.

An excessive steam or water


temperature drop will alert you to
excessive loading on the boiler.
7. Record feedwater pressure and
temperature.

A change in pressure or temperature


may indicate a problem is developing
with your feed pump (s), deaerator or
packaged feed system.
8. Record stack temperature.

Changes in stack temperatures could


indicate the boiler is sooting, scaling or
there is a problem with baffles or
refractory.
9. Record oil pressure and temperature.

Changes in pressure and/or temperature


could have an effect on combustion in the
boiler and could indicate a problem in the oil
regulators or oil heater.
10. Record oil atomizing pressure.

Changes in pressure could have an


effect on combustion in the boiler.
11. Record gas pressure.

Changes in pressure could have an


effect on combustion in the boiler
and indicate a problem in the gas
delivery system.
12. Check general boiler/burner
operation.

Maintaining top efficiency is the simple


and basic reason for having operating
personnel. Is anything different than it
was the day before? If so, why?
13. Record boiler water supply and
return temperatures.

On hot water boilers, record these


temperatures to assist in detecting
system changes.
14. Record makeup water usage.

Excessive makeup water could be an


indication of system problems in both
steam and hot water systems.
15. Check auxiliary equipment.

There is a vast difference between “is it


running” and “is it running properly.”
Take nothing for granted, as auxiliary
equipment can shut down your
operation.
1. Check for tight closing of fuel valves. Check to ensure fuel does not flow
through the fuel valve (s) when the burner is shut of

2. Check fuel and air linkages. Check to ensure that all set screws on linkages are
tight and are securely holding the linkage in place.

3. Check indicating lights and alarms. Check for burned out or loose light bulbs.
Also check to ensure the alarm bell or horn sound on the appropriate shut down
condition.

4. Check operating and limit controls. Check to ensure these controls shut the
burner down at their predetermined set point. Settings should be verified by
checking actual pressures and temperatures on the boiler gauges.
5. Check safety and interlock controls. Check to ensure these controls shut
the burner down at their predetermined set point. Settings should be
verified by checking actual pressures and temperatures on the boiler
gauges.

6. Check operation of water level controls. Stop the boiler feed pump and
allow the control to stop the boiler under normal low fire conditions. See
your operating manual for a more detailed procedure. See information later
in this chapter.

7. Check for leaks, noise, vibration, unusual conditions, etc. Checking for
these items is a cost effective way to detect system operational changes.
Small problems can be corrected before they become large problems.

8. Check operation of all motors. By developing a routine, any change in


operation or bearing temperature will usually be caught in time to avoid a
failure.
9. Check lubricating levels. Check levels of any oil bath filters, oil
level in air/oil tank, oilers on pumps, etc. Add oil in accordance with
the manufacturer’s recommendations.

10. Check the flame scanner assembly. Using the appropriate meter,
check the flame signal strength at the program relay flame amplifier.
Ensure the scanner assembly is clean and dry.

11. Check packing glands on all pumps and metering devices. Proper
tension on packing glands will extend life of the equipment.

12. Check gauge glass. Ensure there are no cracks or etching in the
glass or leakage around the packing.
1. Inspect burner operation.
Do a visual inspection of the pilot flame, main burner
flame throughout the firing range, free movement of
linkages and general burner operation.

2. Analyze combustion.

Take the flue gas analysis over the entire firing


range,comparing the combustion analysis and stack
temperature readings with previous month.

3. Check cams.

Inspect the cam springs for scoring, tightness of set


screws, free movement, alignment of cam followers
and other related parts.
4. Check for flue gas leaks.
Ensure something hasn’t changed in the breeching, stack
or overall system that allows flue gas to be drawn into the
boiler room.

5. Inspect for hot spots.


Inspect the boiler to ensure no hot spots are developing on
the outside of the boiler. Hot spots can indicate a refractory
failure or baffle failure, which could cause improper gas
flow through the boiler or the cooling lines could be
plugged or disconnected.

6. Review boiler blowdown to determine that a waste of


treated water is not occurring.
Check water treatment and testing procedures with your
feedwater consultant. See additional information later in
this chapter.

7. Check all combustion air supply inlets to the boiler room


and burner to ensure sufficient air is being supplied.
8. Check all filter elements.
Clean or replace as needed. On “self-cleaning” filters, make
certain that impurities are flushed or discharged from filter
body.

9. Check the fuel system to make certain that strainers,


vacuum gauges, pressure gauges and pumps are properly
cared for.

10. Check all belt drives for possible failure.


Tighten V-belt sheaves and make certain that belts operate
with proper tension.
11. Check lubrication requirements of all bearing supported
equipment.

Do not over-lubricate electric motors .


1. Clean low water cutoff (s).
Remove the head assembly or probes and inspect and clean out any
sediment or contamination in the column or piping. Determine why
sediment or contamination condition exists. See additional information later
in this chapter.

2. Check oil preheaters by removing the heating element and inspect for
sludge or scale.

3. Repair refractory. Immediately upon opening the fireside areas, give the
refractories an inspection and start repairs as soon as possible.
Read and follow refractory repair instructions.

4. Clean oil pump strainer and filter.


Ensure they are not plugged, thus reducing the flow of the required oil to
the burner
5. Clean air cleaner and air/oil tank.
Inspect and clean out any sediment or contamination. Add oil in
accordance with the manufacturer ’s recommendations.

6. Check pump coupling alignment.


Check alignment of all couplings to ensure the tolerances are within
the manufacturers recommendations.

7. Reset Combustion.
The entire combustion process should be carefully checked, O
readings taken and necessary burner adjustments made. Make
certain the readings are recorded and used as a basis of comparison
for future tests. Combustion adjustments should only be made by
those thoroughly familiar with all aspects of burner adjustment and
combustion.

8. Inspect mercury switches.


Inspect mercury switches for contamination, loss of mercury, and
cracked or broken wires. Replace if any of these conditions are found.
*Annual maintenance should be coordinated with the
annual pressure vessel inspection performed by insurance
or government agency.
* Establish a firm procedure with all outside inspection
groups so that your equipment will be in a proper state of
readiness. As a matter of routine, establish a procedure
using good safety practices whenever a boiler is taken off
the line.
*Disconnect all power supplies and lock switches in the
off position.
*Whenever there is more than one boiler connected to a
common header establish a routine procedure of locking
the header valve on any unit that is down for cleaning or
inspection, close any flue gas outlet dampers, and all
pieces of equipment required to isolate the boiler.
1. Clean fireside surfaces by brush or use a powerful vacuum cleaner to remove soot. After
the cleaning process and if boiler is to be left open, it is advisable to spray all fireside
surfaces with some type of corrosion preventative.

2. Clean breeching. Inspect breeching and stack and remove any soot build up.

3. Clean waterside surfaces. Remove all handhole and manway plates, inspection plugs
from water column tees and crosses and float assemblies from water columns. Thoroughly
wash all waterside surfaces.
4. Check oil storage tanks. Oil storage tanks should be inspected for sludge and water
accumulation. Keep the tank filled with oil to prevent condensation during summertime.

5. Check fluid levels on all hydraulic valves. If any leakage is apparent, take positive
corrective action immediately.

6. Check gauge glass for possible replacement. If internal erosion at water level is noted,
replace with new glass and gaskets. On all unattended boilers, the gauge glass
mounting should be of the safety style with stop-checks in case of glass breakage
7. Remove and recondition safety valves. Have them reconditioned by an authorized safety
valve facility. The safety valve is an important device yet possibly receives less attention
than any other device. See additional information later in this chapter.

8. If oil fuels are used, check on the condition of the fuel pump. Fuel pumps wear out and the
annual inspection time is the opportune time to rebuild or replace them.

9. Boiler feed pumps. Strainers should be reconditioned. Feed pump elements wear and
must be replaced. Sometimes a review of the condensate return system and chemical feed
arrangement will reveal causes of short pump life.
10. Condensate receivers should be emptied and washed out. Make an internal inspection, if
possible. If the receiver has a make-up valve mounted, it should be overhauled and checked
for proper operation.

11. Chemical feed systems should be completely emptied, flushed and reconditioned.
Metering valves or pumps should be reconditioned at this time.

12. Tighten all electrical terminals. All terminals should be checked for tightness, particularly
on starters and movable relays.
13. Check deaerator or boiler feed systems. Inspect them to ensure they are not contaminated,
corrosion is not taking place and that the lining has not deteriorated and fallen off. Check all
other mechanical aspects of the equipment. See information later in this chapter.

14. Check linkages. Check to ensure the linkage ball connectors have not worn out. Worn
connectors can cause inconstancy in the linkage movement and result in unrepeatable excess
air levels in the combustion process.
SUMMARY
Things to Do During Shutdown
Maintenance
• Remove soot from fireside.
• Remove scale from waterside.
• Drain water from boiler.
• Remove handhole and manhole covers.
• Remove oil from waterside.
• Check boiler accessories.
• Remove grates and check setting.
Primary Causes of Boiler Damage
1. Overheating due to low water level and of scale formation.
2. Corrosion due to inadequate feed water treatment.
3. Gross operator error.

Boiler availability program should include at least these


objectives:
• Have competent technicians frequently maintain and test
water level monitoring devices and low water alarm.
• Use state-of-the-art waste chemistry to reduce scale
formation and eliminate corrosion, foaming, priming
(carryovers).
• Provide on on-going training program for both new and
veteran boiler operators and maintenance.

Complacency among your experienced employees is almost as


destructive as the lack of knowledge among new hires
Boiler feed water treatment
Zeolite softener – mixed bed resins consisting of anions
and cations. The most common method of boiler
feed water treatment.

Demineralization process – consist of from three to as


many as six separate steps in the process, before
water is reduced to almost chemically pure water.

Dealkalizer – reduces alkalinity and sometimes will


reduce silica in the water
Energy Savings in the Boiler Room
1. Improving combustion efficiency.
2. Reducing energy cost in boiler blowdown
3. Improving efficiency through good water quality.
4. Use of economizers.
5. Boiler maintenance and operating considerations
(flue gas temperature and analysis, etc.)
6. Prevent leakages (water, fuel, air, heat, etc.)
7. Recycle condensate
8. Steam traps
1. Equipment Scheduling and Operating Practices

conservation measures that will improve the day-to-day


operation of your central heating plant.

Improving your operating procedures can save big


money at little or no cost.
2. Boiler Plant Efficiency Measurement

Combustion efficiency is the first step in


minimizing fuel consumption and maintenance
problems.

The essential test methods include:

•flue gas temperature,


•oxygen,
•carbon dioxide,
•carbon monoxide, and
•smoke opacity.

Select the best types of portable and permanent


equipment
ENERGY SAVINGS
OPPORTUNITIES

BOILER
3. Air-Fuel Ratio

The fuel-air ratio determines


combustion efficiency, soot
formation, and flame stability.

Select oxygen trim systems


properly.

Understand the maintenance


needed by burners and
combustion controls.
4. Draft Control

Draft is the flow of air into a boiler and the flow of


exhaust out of the boiler.

Control of draft may have a major effect on


efficiency. Badly controlled draft can cause serious
safety hazard.
5.Condensate, Feedwater, and Water
Treatment

• The water in a boiler system is like your


blood.
Failure to control the content will result in
big trouble.

•Boiler water treatment is essential for


efficiency and long boiler life.
Boiler blowdown is the deliberate discarding
of a certain fraction of boiler water to get
rid of impurities.

Too little allows the interior of the boiler to


foul.

Too much wastes energy.


Condensate is what remains when steam is used
up.

The condensate still contains valuable energy


that should be recovered.

In high-pressure boiler systems, flashing of


condensate into steam wastes energy.
6.FUEL OIL SYSTEM

If your boilers use heavy fuel oil, it is important to


adjust its viscosity before delivering it to the burner.

Viscosity is usually controlled by heating the fuel.


Fuel oil has a variety of problems in
delivery and storage, such as sludge
formation, stratification(layer formation),
high water content, and other ills.

A variety of additives are offered to correct


these problems.
7.Steam and Water Leakage

Steam plants and central hot water plants may


lose a major fraction of their energy input through
leaks, including piping leaks, steam vents, and
steam traps.
A major source of steam and water loss in steam
plants is leaking steam traps.

All steam traps will fail after a limited period of


time. Unfortunately, they fail in a manner that is
virtually invisible unless you know the special
methods of testing steam traps.

Test methods include test valves, sonic and


ultrasonic leak detectors, external temperature,
and other methods.
Several types of steam traps are common for
different types of commercial, industrial, and
residential applications.

Common types :
• float
• thermostatic
• inverted bucket
•Disc
•orifice

Each type is limited to certain applications.


GENERAL TYPES OF STEAM TRAP

MECHANICAL: operates by using difference in density between steam


and condensate. A float within the traps detects the variance in weight
between gas and liquid

THERMODYNAMICS: detects the variation in temperature between


steam and condensate at the same pressure

THERMOSTATIC: uses volumetric and pressure differences that occur


when water changes state into gas
8.Conduction and Radiation Losses

Approximately two(2)% percent of the total


heat output of an interior boiler plant is lost
because of imperfect insulation.

Heat loss through buried steam and hot water


pipes can be much greater.
You can greatly reduce heat loss from pipe in
tunnels by carefully controlling the ventilation of the
tunnels.
The heat that is lost to the boiler room air can be
partially recovered by using the warmest air for
combustion. This is tricky to accomplish properly.
THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF PEOPLE

• Those who make things happen

• Those who watch things happen

• Those who wonder what happen

Who we are will determine the efficiency & economy


of our equipment. Therefore, let us make things
happen.

YOUR CHOICE . . . . .
THANK YOU
E-mail Address :
ard4len@yahoo.com
Tel.No.(049) 5 760 760
Smart: 0918 909 4164
Sun : 0932 821 1050
Globe: 0917 575 7630
MEPF ENGINEERS CO.
Rizal St., Los Baños, Laguna

LL Bldg. Panay ave.corner EDSA


Beside MRT Quezon Ave. Station
SERVICES
• BUILDING REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE
• CIVIL & STRUCTURAL DESIGN & BUILD
• ELECTRICAL INSPECTION AND SAFETY AUDIT
• POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS ( PQA )
• THERMAL SCANNING
• TRANSFORMER SERVICING
• MEPF TESTING & COMMISSIONING
• ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL AS-BUILT DRAWING