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Designation: F 1789 – 06a

Standard Terminology for


F16 Mechanical Fasteners1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation F 1789; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope age hardened—precipitation of constituents within certain


1.1 This terminology standard provides a compilation of alloy metals to increase mechanical properties.
definitions for terminology used for mechanical fasteners. alloy groups—alloy group includes alloys considered to be
1.2 Terms in this terminology are organized alphabetically. chemically equivalent for general purpose use in specifying
In Appendix X1 they are listed under fastener characteristic. stainless steel bolts, hex cap screws, studs and nuts.
1.3 Additional definitions are shown in ANSI/ASME alloy steel—steel is considered to be alloy when the maximum
B18.12; IFI Glossary of Terms, IFI-139 and IFI-140; and range given for manganese exceeds 1.65 % or a definite
SAE J412. minimum quantity for any of the following elements is
specified or required within the limits of the recognized field
2. Referenced Documents of constructional alloy steels: chromium, molybdenum,
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 nickel, or any other alloying element added to obtain a
A 563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts desired alloying effect.
E 456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics alter—to change fastener properties such as hardness, tensile
2.2 ANSI/ASME Standard:3 strength, surface finish, length, or other characteristics of the
B18.12 Glossary of Terms for Mechanical Fasteners fastener through such processes as heat treatment, plating,
2.3 IFI Standards:4 and machining.
Glossary of Terms Relating to Aerospace Fasteners alteration distributor—distributor of fasteners who alters a
IFI-139 Quality Assurance Requirements for Fastener Test- fastener prior to sale and assumes the full responsibilities of
ing Laboratories the alteration and its affected mechanical and performance
IFI-140 Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire, Rods, and Bars for characteristics.
Mechanical Fasteners anchor bolt—steel rod or bar, one end of which is intended to
2.4 SAE Standard:5 be cast in concrete while the opposite end is threaded and
SAE J412 General Characteristics and Heat Treatments of projects from the concrete for anchoring other material to the
Steels concrete. The end cast in concrete may be either straight or
provided with an anchor, such as a bent hook, forged head,
3. Mechanical Fastener Definitions or a tapped or welded attachment to resist forces imposed on
the anchor bolt as required.
acceptance number—numerical value representing the maxi-
mum number of permissible non-conformances within a annealing—general term applied to a variety of thermal
sample submitted for testing and acceptance of the popula- treatments applied to fasteners for the purpose of softening
or homogenizing material properties. The specific types of
tion.
annealing are:
full annealing—heating steel above the upper critical transfor-
mation temperature, holding it there long enough to fully
1
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F16 on transform the steel to austenite, and then cooling it at a
Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F16.94 on Terminology.
Current edition approved May 1, 2006. Published June 2006. Originally
controlled rate, in a furnace, to below a specified tempera-
approved in 1997. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as F 1789 – 06. ture. A full anneal refines grain structure and provides a
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or relatively soft, ductile material that is free of internal
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM stresses.
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
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the ASTM website. intercritical annealing/isothermal annealing—heating a steel


3
Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., above the lower critical transformation temperature, but
4th Floor, New York, NY 10036.
4
below the upper-critical transformation temperature, to dis-
Available from Industrial Fasteners Institute, 1717 E. 9th Street, Suite 1105,
Cleveland, OH 44114.
solve all the iron carbides, but not transform all the ferrite to
5
Available from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth austenite. Cooling slowly from this temperature, through the
Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. lower critical temperature, produces a structure of ferrite and

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F 1789 – 06a
pearlite that is free of internal stresses. In intercritical mum of 15 % chromium and from a residual to 20 % nickel.
annealing, the steel continues to cool slowly in the furnace, Some alloys may contain as much as 18 % manganese. The
similarly to full annealing. In isothermal annealing, cooling metal is predominantly face centered cubic in structure and
is stopped just below the lower critical, assuring complete hardenable only by cold working. Essentially nonmagnetic
transformation to ferrite and coarse pearlite, and eliminating in its wire form, it may become slightly magnetic from cold
the potential for bainite formation. The coarse pearlite working. Austenitic stainless steels can be grouped into three
structure greatly improves machinability of medium carbon categories: 300 series alloy, Cr-Ni-Mn alloys, and Cr-Ni-
steels. Mo-Ti.
normalizing—variation of full annealing in which steel is average coating thickness—determined as either the value
heated above the upper critical temperature and is then air obtained by analytical methods or the mean value of a
cooled in air, rather than in a furnace. Normalizing relieves specified number of local thickness measurements that are
the internal stresses caused by previous working, and while evenly distributed over the significant surface.
it produces sufficient softness and ductility for many pur- baking duration—time measured from when the plated prod-
poses, it leaves the steel harder and with a higher tensile uct reaches a specified temperature in the baking furnace or
strength than full annealing. To remove cooling stresses, oven until it is removed.
normalizing if often followed by tempering. bar—solid rolled or forged section that is long in relationship
process annealing—sometimes called subcritical annealing or to its cross-sectional dimensions with a relatively constant
stress relieving, performed at temperatures just below the cross-section throughout its length. Carbon and alloy steel
lower critical temperature. Process annealing neither refines bars are produced from hot rolled or cast billets, or from
grains nor redissolves cementite, but does improve the blooms rolled single strand into coils.
ductility and decreases residual stress in work-hardened barrel-plating process—fastener-coating process which em-
steel. ploys a containment vessel called a barrel that is designed to
solution annealing—heating an austenitic stainless steel to a move a given batch of fasteners together through each of the
temperature that puts the carbides into solution. The steel is process steps, allowing ready ingress and egress of process-
held at this temperature long enough to achieve grain ing solutions and rinses. As the barrel moves through the
growth. It is then quenched in a medium for fast cooling, process steps, it is rotated or oscillated, causing the fasteners
which prevents most of the carbides from reprecipitating. to cascade over one another, and in the electrocleaning and
The process achieves optimum creep strength. electroplating steps, and electric current is applied.
spheroidize annealing—type of subcritical annealing used to batch average thickness—calculated average thickness of a
soften steel and improve machinability. Heat treating fine coating if it were uniformly distributed on the surfaces of the
pearlite for a long time just below the lower critical items.
temperature of the steel, followed by a very slow cooling, bend test—various tests in which a fastener is bent through its
produces a spheroidal or globular form of the pearlite. axis or on a round mandrel to determine the toughness and
stabilization annealing—heating an austenitic stainless steel ductility of the fastener.
used in severe aqueous corrosion environments by first bendable bolts—bolts furnished with an altered section at
solution annealing and then reheating to about 1600°F, and some location at which the bolt will bend.
holding at that temperature. The treatment causes grain bilateral specifications—specifications that have both an up-
boundary precipitation of carbides, but also the hold time per and a lower value.
permits the chromium remaining in the austenite solution to bolt—headed and externally threaded fastener designed to be
redistribute within the grains, restoring corrosion resistance, assembled with a nut.
even adjacent to the grain boundaries. bolt load - elongation behavior—when tensile loaded, a bolt
applicable standards—those having the capability of being will elongate elastically until stressed beyond its propor-
applied in some fashion to the host standard. tional limit where it will behave plastically.
arbitration hardness location—prescribed location on the bolt-nut-washer assembly—a combination of bolt, nut, and
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fastener, such as at mid-radius, using 90° intervals taken washer components from singular lots that have been as-
through the cross section, one diameter from the threaded sembled, lubricated as necessary, tested as required, and
end for bolts and screws. prepared for shipment to a customer creating a unique set
assembly lot—assembly lot may consist of a combination of and certifiable lot.
different products. As long as the products that make up the break loose torque—torque applied in a removal direction
assembly are in accordance with lot, the quantity of assem- necessary to start the fastener in motion from its fully
blies determine the sample size. Example: ten assemblies preloaded installed position.
consisting of a bolt, nut, and a washer would have a lot size breakaway torque—torque necessary to start a fastener in
of ten if the bolts, nuts, and washers meet the criteria of lot. motion after the axial load of the mating components has
However, if any of the components in the assembly are not been reduced to zero.
in accordance with lot then the ten assemblies will have to be burst—open break in the metal during forging located on the
separated into lots that meet all the requirements of lot. flats or corners of bolt and screw heads, or at the periphery
austenitic stainless alloys—steel alloys that contain a mini- of a flanged or circular headed bolt or screw, or on the flats

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F 1789 – 06a
or corners of the nut. of the same grade and size in the same container.
carbide precipitation “sensitization”—condition which af- common cause—common cause variation affects all the indi-
fects some austenitic stainless steels which have been vidual values of the process output being studied. In control
subjected to temperatures in the critical range, typically 800° chart analysis, it appears as part of the random process
to 1400°F. Complex chromium carbides precipitate and variation.
reside primarily at the grain boundaries, causing deteriora- compressible-washer-type direct tension indicator—direct
tion of its corrosion resistance by depleting its adjacent areas tension indicator having the capability of indicating the
of chromium. achievement of a required minimum bolt tension by the
carbon boron steel—carbon steel in which boron has been degree of its plastic deformation.
intentionally added at a minimum of 0.0005 % and a compression load—load which tends to compress or shorten
maximum of 0.003 % in order to obtain an expected hard- the member. The value for compressive strength may depend
enability. upon the degree of distortion.
carbon steel—steel for which no minimum content is specified cone proof load—inch series—a calculated value derived
or required for chromium, molybdenum, nickel, or any other from the formula
element added to obtain a desired alloying effect; or steel for CPL 5 ~1 – 0.30D! 3 f 3 As (1)
which maximum content specified for manganese does not
exceed 1.65 %. When specified, boron may be added to where:
killed carbon steel with a maximum allowable of 0.003 %. CPL = cone proof load (lbs),
certificate of compliance—document or electronic record, D = nominal diameter of nut (in.),
signed by an authorized party, affirming that the supplier of f = specified proof stress of nut (psi), and
the fastener or related service, or both, has met the require- As = tensile stress area of nut (in.2).
ments of the relevant specifications, contract, or regulation.
certificate of conformance—document or electronic record To meet the requirements of the cone proof load test, the nut
affirming that the fastener has met the requirements of the shall support its specified cone proof load without stripping or
relevant specifications, contract, or regulation. rupture.
certification—procedure and action by a duly authorized body cone proof load—metric series—a calculated value derived
of determining, verifying, and attesting in writing to the from the formula
qualifications of personnel, processes, procedures, or items CPL 5 ~1 – 0.012D!f 3 As 3 0.001 (2)
in accordance with applicable requirements.
certified quality assurance system—system so designated where:
officially by a recognized accrediting body as having met all CPL = cone proof load (kN),
of the criteria within a national or an international third party D = nominal diameter of nut (mm),
f = specified proof stress of nut (MPa), and
quality system standard.
As = tensile stress area of nut (mm2).
chemical anchors—chemical materials that provide anchor-
age between a bolt or bar and a drilled hole.
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To meet the requirements of the cone proof load test, the nut
check analysis—see product analysis.
shall support its specified cone proof load without stripping or
clamp load—sometimes called preload or initial load. It is a
rupture.
tension on a bolt or screw, which results in equal and
opposite forces which exist at the interface between two cone proof load test—test performed using a conical washer
members generated through the cumulative effect of tight- and threaded mandrel to determine the influence of surface
ening one or more fasteners. discontinuities (that is, forging cracks or seams) on the
cold forming—process of forming material below the recrys- load-carrying capability of hardened steel nuts. The test
tallization temperature by forcing or pressing metal into includes a simultaneous dilation and stripping action of the
various dies. nut.
cold heading quality material—material that has dimen- conical washer—washer that has a crown height that flattens
sional, chemical, and residual limits such that it will suc- under load and is partially recovered following load re-
cessfully form a given fastener geometry when machine- moval.
applied pressure produces a metal flow that results in the consensus standard—widely available standard developed by
desired geometry. Additionally, subsequent treatment as ASTM, ASME, SAE, ISO, or any other standards-setting
necessary to achieve given mechanical properties results in a organization which has under its structure those parties
fastener with freedom from internal or external imperfec- which include users, producers, and other interested persons.
tions that would impair its intended use. control limit—limits on a control chart which are used as
cold heading wire—wire produced by specially controlled criteria for signaling the need for action, or for judging
manufacturing practices to provide satisfactory quality for whether a set of data does or does not indicate a state of
heading, forging, and roll threading. statistical control. E 456
commingling—mixing of fasteners from different lots that are control plan—written description of a system for controlling

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F 1789 – 06a
fasteners and the processes used in their manufacture. Three ductility of externally threaded fasteners—ability of a fas-
distinct phases are used in a control plan, including proto- tener to deform before it fractures. Machined test specimens
type, pre-launch, and production. made from a fastener allow the measurement of elongation
corrosion resistance—ability of a fastener to resist corrosion and reduction of area which are criteria used to evaluate the
under specified conditions. specimen. However, since yielding and fracture normally
crack—crystalline fracture passing through or along the grain occur in the screw threads, these are impractical for the
boundaries which is normally caused by overstressing the actual fastener. Hardness and the wedge tensile test are
metal during manufacturing, such as forging, forming, or ductility indicators for the actual fastener. The lower the
heat treating. ratio of its specified minimum yield strength to its specified
cut thread—produced by removing material from the surface minimum tensile strength, the greater the fastener ductility.
with a form cutting tool. dud—incomplete, mutilated, or foreign part.
decarburization—loss of carbon from the surface layer of the effective case depth—perpendicular distance from the surface
fastener, normally associated with heat treatment. of a hardened case to the furthest point where a specified
level of hardness is maintained.
gross decarburization—a complete decarburization character-
elongation—increase in length of the gage length expressed as
ized by a sufficient carbon loss to show only clearly defined
a percentage of the original gage length.
ferrite grains.
endurance limit—maximum stress below which a bolt or
partial decarburization—a loss of carbon sufficient to cause a
screw can presumably endure an infinite number of stress
lighter shade of tempered martensite than of the immediately
cycles.
adjacent base metal, but as being of insufficient carbon loss
end user—party that installs the mechanical fastener during
to show clearly defined ferrite grains.
assembly of a component or product.
defect—departure of a quality characteristic from its intended
environmental hydrogen embrittlement—can be “corrosion-
level or state (or the sum of departures of different quality
assisted hydrogen embrittlement” caused by the liberation of
characteristics) that occurs with a severity sufficient to cause
hydrogen during the corrosion process, which is absorbed as
a fastener not to satisfy intended normal, or reasonably
atomic hydrogen, resulting in embrittlement under certain
foreseeable, usage requirements. The term defect is appro-
conditions of material strength and applied external stress.
priate for use when a quality characteristic is evaluated in
The end result is brittle failure. The hydrogen may also be
terms of its usage.
absorbed from other external chemical sources.
deoxidation—process of reducing the oxygen content from extensometer—device for sensing the elongation of fastener
steel during the process of steel making, either by adding material while it is subjected to tensile stress, for the purpose
strong oxide forming elements, such as silicon or aluminum, of measuring linear deformation under controlled test con-
or by the process of vacuum degassing to such a level that no ditions.
oxidation of carbon or other elements takes place during
eye bolt—bolt having a head which is a closed or open ring
solidification of steel.
which as a threaded shank and has a defined breaking
destructive test—test to determine the properties of a material strength, proof load, and tensile strength.
or the behavior of an item which results in the destruction of fastener—see mechanical fastener.
the sample or item.
fastener electroplating—electro-deposition by electrolysis of
detection process—past-oriented strategy of quality control an adherent metallic coating upon a fastener serving as an
that attempts to identify the nonconforming product after it electrode. This coating may function as protective, decora-
has been produced, and then to separate it from the conform- tive, or in a defined engineering function such as wearability
ing product. or abrasive resistance.
detection system—system which relies on final inspection as fastener manufacturer—organization or firm that procures a
the primary means of controlling the quality of finished raw material, fabricates it into a mechanical fastener, and
fasteners. processes it to have certain mechanical properties.
distributor—person or organization who purchases fasteners fastener quality—conformance of a fastener to its specifica-
for the purpose of reselling them. A distributor may or may tion for dimensions, mechanical properties, performance
not alter the fasteners prior to resale. (Significant alterations requirements, and other requirements of a specification.
and insignificant alterations are defined separately.) fastener specification—precise statement of a set of require-
drill-drive test—test in which a self-drilling screw is driven ments to be satisfied by a fastener, its material, or its
into and through a test plate, under specified test conditions, processing. It also indicates the procedure used to determine
to determine drilling and thread forming performance char- whether the requirements given are satisfied.
acteristics of the screw. fastener standard—document which details the attributes of a
drive test—test in which a tapping screw is driven into a test finished fastener and includes such characteristics as geom-
plate hole to determine thread forming or thread cutting etry, material or chemistry, heat treatment, finish, lot size,
performance characteristics. and packaging.
drive torque—the maximum torque to install a screw prior to fastener tensile stress area—assumed cross sectional area of
contact of the head of the fastener with the surface of the test a threaded fastener through the thread, which is used when
plate. computing the load a fastener can support in tension.
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fastener testing—determination or verification that the fas- absorption of hydrogen during processing. Normally, this is
tener meets its specification requirements. described as a baking operation.
fatigue limit—see endurance limit. impact strength—often referred to as impact energy; it is the
fatigue strength—maximum stress on an externally threaded amount of energy required to fracture a fastener, usually
fastener which can be tolerated for a specified number of measured by either an Izod or Charpy test.
repeated cycles prior to failure. inch threaded Class 2A coating thickness—a coating thick-
fold—doubling over of metal which occurs during forging at or ness which does not exceed 1⁄6 of the allowance for Class 2A
near the intersection of diameter changes which are found on threads to avoid interference.
the shoulders, heads, or shanks of bolts and screws, or on indentation hardness—resistance of a material to indentation.
nuts at the intersection of diameter changes on the top face This is the usual type of hardness test in which a pointed or
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or on the bottom face. rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substan-
forging cracks—occur during fastener manufacturing at the tially static load.
cutoff or forging operations and are located on the top of the in-process control—system that provides a method to detect
head or on the raised periphery of indented head bolts and the variation of product characteristic(s) during manufactur-
screws. ing and processing and initiates corrective action to maintain
forming—primary operation in the fastener industry which the product characteristic(s) within its specified limits.
includes heading, upsetting, extruding and forging. in-process sampling inspection—random sample of product
full size specimen—tension test specimen consisting of a drawn from prescribed points of the processing stream
completed fastener for testing in the ready to use condition (usually characteristic sensitive) and performing specific
without altering the configuration. inspections and tests to determine conformance of the
grade identification symbols—inch series standardized sym- product at that point of the processing stream.
bols denoting the combination of the fastener’s base mate- inspection—process of measuring, examining, testing, gaging,
rial, its strength properties, its performance capabilities, and or using other procedures to ascertain the quality or state of,
the engineering standard against which it was produced. detect errors or defects in, or otherwise appraise materials,
hardness—measure of a material’s ability to resist abrasion or products, services, systems, or environments to a preestab-
indentation, or both. lished standard.
head-to-shank integrity—assurance that a headed fastener inspection plan—set of instructions defining product charac-
under load is able to meet its mechanical and performance teristics, specifications, or frequency of inspection, or a
requirements without failure at the junction of the head to combination thereof, for product at a specified operation.
shank. inspection test—fastener or its selected characteristics tested
heat analysis—chemical analysis of a given heat by the in process or after manufacture to determine conformance of
producer which determines the percentages of its elements. the fastener or its selected characteristics to the manufactur-
heat resistance—extent to which a material retains useful ing specifications.
properties as measured during exposure of the material to a inspection torque—torque necessary to maintain tightening
specified temperature and environment for a specified time. motion in a fastener at its fully preloaded installed tension.
high strength bolts—term which is used commercially to internal hydrogen embrittlement—embrittlement caused by
denote ASTM A 325 or A 490 bolts which are primarily used residual hydrogen from fastener processing, such as clean-
in construction applications. ing, pickling, phosphating, or electroplating.
high temperature bolts—bolts that are specifically manufac- ladle analysis—see heat analysis.
tured of high temperature alloys to sustain tensile loads at liquid medium—liquid used to quench a steel fastener to
temperatures between 500°F and 1800°F, depending upon achieve desired mechanical properties. The selection of the
the alloy and processing during manufacture. medium must be compatible with the basic material and
high temperature fastener alloys—those alloys that will geometry to avoid quench cracks.
maintain their anticipated strength and characteristics within local thickness—mean of the thickness measurements of
the high temperature range. which a specified number is made within a reference area.
high temperature for mechanical fasteners —this term is locking ability—characteristic intentionally manufactured or
generally understood to refer to a temperature range of added to a fastener to resist loosening.
approximately 500°F (260°C) to 1800°F (982°C). lot—quantity of product of one part number that has been
hot dip galvanizing—immersion of fasteners in a bath of processed essentially under the same conditions from the
molten zinc for a controlled time period to obtain specified same heat treatment lot and produced from one mill heat of
coating weight or thickness. material and submitted for inspection at one time.
hot forming—heat is applied to wire or rod to enhance metal lot sampling inspection—random sample drawn from a lot
flow into dies using machine applied pressures as opposed to and performing specified inspections and tests to determine
metal removal by cutting for forming purposes. the acceptability of the lot.
hydrogen embrittlement, internal—see internal hydrogen low carbon martensite—as-quenched phase of low carbon
embrittlement. steels, particularly to which Boron has been intentionally
hydrogen embrittlement relief—process applied to fasteners added to increase the hardenability of the material, and some
which reduces or eliminates embrittlement caused by the stainless steels.

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machine process capability study—study conducted to pro- minimum hardness—hardness value of a fastener below
vide a level of confidence in the ability of a machine/process which it is not in conformance with the specification.
to meet engineering specification requirements. minimum local thickness—lowest local thickness value on
machined specimen—test specimen machined from a full-size the significant surface of a single article.
fastener to specific dimensions to standardize test results; modulus of elasticity—for a given material, the ratio of unit
often specified when a full-size fastener cannot be reason- stress to unit strain within its elastic range which may be
ably or practically tested. used as a measure of stiffness. Sometimes called Young’s
macro-etch test—immersion of a prepared fastener specimen Modulus.
into a hot acid or aggressive media followed by examination nick—indentation on the surface of a bolt, nut, screw, or stud.
of the etched surface. The examination is done with the Also referred to as a gouge.
unaided eye or at magnification not exceeding 103. non-alteration distributor—distributor of mechanical fasten-
macrograph—photographic reproduction of any object that ers who buys, resells, and may repackage the fasteners, but
has not been magnified more than ten times. does not change the individual fasteners in any way.
macroscopic—visible either with the naked eye or under low nonconformance—fastener or fastener component which does
magnification (as great as about ten diameters). not conform to a specification or other inspection standard.
macrostructure—structure of metal as revealed by macro- nonferrous alloys—alloys that do not contain iron as their
scopic examination. main constituent although iron may be present as an impu-
magnetic permeability—degree which a material becomes rity. The most common nonferrous groups are copper, nickel,
magnetically attractive. aluminum, and titanium alloys.
manufacturer—see fastener manufacturer. nut—internally threaded product intended for use on external
martensitic alloys—iron-chromium alloys with 12% to 17% or male screw threads such as a bolt or a stud for the purpose
chromium and sufficient carbon to permit strengthening by of tightening or assembling two or more components.
conventional heat treatment.
part identifying number (PIN)—alphanumeric sequence
material lap—longitudinal surface discontinuity extending used to code B18 fasteners. The system was developed by
into rod, bar, or wire, caused by doubling over of metal ASME Standards Committee B18.
during hot rolling.
passivation—process of forming an oxide film on the surface
material review—evaluation by a team of fastener experts to
of stainless steel fasteners by chemical treatment, usually
determine the fasteners’s fitness for general use, fitness for
nitric acid solution, to improve corrosion resistance of
intended use, or fitness for specified use.
stainless steel fasteners.
material specification—proprietary or consensus standards
performance properties—design feature(s) manufactured
document which defines the material, acceptable chemical
into the fastener to achieve a specific characteristic relative
limits, and other requirements used in fastener manufactur-
to the fastener application, such as torque-tension.
ing.
material test report—written document or electronic record, physical properties—those properties inherent in the raw
signed by an authorized party, attesting that the raw material material which remain unchanged or exhibit only slight
is in accordance with specified requirements, including the alteration in the fastener following manufacture.
actual results of all required chemical analyses, tests, and plain washer—fastener accessory that accepts a bolt or screw
through its center hole and provides a surface to distribute

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examinations.
maximum hardness—hardness specified in fastener standards bearing stress. It also serves to provide a surface for head or
above which the fastener is considered nonconforming to the nut rotation during tightening.
standard. plastic deformation—permanent distortion of a material un-
mechanical deposition—coating process in which particles of der the action of applied stresses.
the plating metal are impacted against the fastener surface plasticity—ability of the metal to undergo permanent defor-
such that cold welding of the plating metal to the fastener mation without rupture.
surface is accomplished. plating—deposition of an adherent metal onto the surface of
mechanical fastener—mechanical device that holds or joins the base metal of the fastener. A specific process should be
two or more components in definite positions with respect to specified; that is, electroplating, hot dip galvanizing, me-
each other and is often described as a bolt, nut, rivet, screw, chanical deposition, etc.
washer, or special formed part. PPM—an acronym for parts per million used as a description
mechanical properties—fastener characteristics which relate of perceived quality. For mechanical fasteners, it is an
to its reaction to applied loads; these properties may be those expression of the maximum theoretical number of noncon-
of the basic raw material or result from the manufacturing formances in a theoretical million-piece lot.
process. precipitation hardening alloys—group of alloys that can be
metallography—study of the structure of fastener metals hardened by participation of second phases or intermetallic
using optical or electronic microscopes that produce a compounds by cooling during a thermal or thermal-
magnified image of the material structure of the fastener. mechanical aging treatment.
microstructure—structure of a given metal revealed by mi- pre-launch production plan—written description of the di-
croscopic observation of an etched surface. mensional, mechanical, chemical, and performance testing

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that will be carried out during initial production, prior to full quality assurance program—specific requirements within a
production. quality system which serves to focus the activities of a
prevailing torque—torque necessary to rotate a fastener fastener organization in pursuit of stated requirements of the
relative to its mating component with the torque being quality plan.
measured with the fastener in motion and zero axial load in quality assurance system—manufacturing system for assur-
the assembly. ing quality that incorporates either a written control plan or
prevention process—future-oriented strategy that, through employs other acceptable methods for controlling quality.
analysis and action toward correcting the process itself, This may include provisions for prototype development,
enriches quality through continuous improvement activities. initial production, and full production including advanced
prevention system—system which outlines advance quality quality planning, continuous improvement, defect preven-
planning, in–process inspection, process controls, and statis- tion, and in-process controls of dimensional, mechanical,
tical methods to control the processes and seek continuous and performance characteristics of the fastener.
improvement. quench cracks—surface discontinuities which usually trans-
private label distributor—distributor who, by prearrange- verse an irregular or erratic course on the surface of the
ment with a manufacturer, markets fasteners identified with fastener which may occur because of excessive high thermal
the distributor’s unique identification marking and who or transformation stresses, or both, during fastener heat
assumes responsibility for the fasteners. treatment.
process flow—current or anticipated sequential process steps rack-plating process—fastener coating process in which in-
required to produce a fastener. dividual fasteners are placed on a support called a rack
process parameters—combination of conditions originating which moves the fasteners together through the process steps
from people, measurement, materials, method, and environ- while providing ready ingress and egress of processing
ment that contribute to a given output. solutions and rinses. In process steps which utilize an
product analysis—chemical analysis performed on the fin- electric current, the rack serves to maintain electrical conti-
ished fastener to verify that the chemical composition is nuity.
within specified limits. random sampling—method of sample selection for fasteners
production plan—complete written plan of fastener and in a lot where each fastener has an equal and independent
process characteristics, process controls, tests, and accep-
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chance of being selected for the sample.


tance procedures that will occur during full production. raw material manufacturer—organization which manufac-
proof load, externally threaded fastener—tension applied tures rod, wire, or bar, used to produce mechanical fasteners,
load that the fastener must support without evidence of from raw material it manufactures and controls in terms of
permanent deformation (for most carbon or alloy steel chemistry and mechanical properties.
fastener strength grades or property classes, proof loads are
reduced diameter body—fastener having a body diameter not
established at approximately 90 % to 93 % of the expected
less than the minimum pitch diameter of its thread nor more
minimum yield strength).
than its minimum full body diameter.
proof load, internally threaded fastener—axially-applied
reduction of area—difference, expressed as a percentage, of
load using a bolt or mandrel that must be supported by a nut
the original cross sectional area of a tensile test specimen at
without evidence of thread stripping or rupture.
its minimum cross section after fracture.
property class—system of strength classifications used for
bolts, nuts, and screws manufactured to metric standards. referee test method—a method specified in a standard to be
property class symbols—metric series standardized symbols used to settle any disputes concerning measurement of
denoting the combination of the fastener’s base material, its conformance for a given characteristic.
strength properties, its performance capabilities, and the referenced standards—those which contain guidelines or
engineering standard against which it was produced. nondated requirements germane to one or more elements of
proportional limit—greatest stress that the material is capable the host standard.
of sustaining without a deviation from the law of propor- registered quality assurance system—system that a registra-
tionality of stress to strain (Hooke’s Law). In many cases, tion body has found to be in compliance with a designated
the elastic limit is so close to the proportional limit that no quality system standard.
distinction is made. registration—evaluation of a fastener manufacturing facility’s
prototype plan—written description of the dimensional, me- quality assurance system by an accredited registration body
chanical, chemical, and performance tests that will be used resulting in a certification of full compliance with a desig-
to facilitate the building of a prototype. nated quality system standard; the registration body shall be
qualification (personal)—characteristics or abilities gained accredited by a third party registration accreditation body,
through training or experience, or both, that enable an for example, ANSI/RAB.
individual to perform a required function. reinspection—inspection of a fastener lot that has been sorted,
quality assurance—all of the planned and systematic activi- reworked, or reprocessed, or a combination thereof, for the
ties carried out for the purpose of establishing that a fastener characteristic(s) originally found nonconforming and also
lot is within specified tolerances, limits, and other require- those characteristics that would be affected by reworking or
ments. reprocessing operations.

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related standards—those standards which possess certain either continuously or intermittently.
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relevance to the host standard in terms of understanding its screw—mechanical fastener having basic design characteris-
concepts, but do not of necessity specify any mandated tics which facilitate its assembly into a tapped hole or to
requirements. form its own threads during installation.
repeatability—variation in the values of measurement ob- screw thread—helical ridge generally of uniform cross section
tained when one operator uses the same gage for measuring formed on a cylindrical surface used to facilitate assembly of
identical characteristics of the same parts. mechanical components.
reprocess—repeating of a process that has already been seam—straight or smooth curved line surface discontinuity
conducted on a fastener as part of the standard requirement. running longitudinally on the fastener thread, shank, and
reproducibility—variation in average measurements obtained head.
when two or more people measure the same parts or items secondary manufacturer—any entity, including the original
using the same measuring technique. manufacturer, that alters the fastener.
residuals—measurable elements present in a metal or alloy secondary processing—process that is performed to a fastener
which were not intentionally added to meet a specification in order to add further value, such as drilling, assembly with
requirement. other fastener components, lubricating, coating, and machin-
resilience—tendency of a material to return to its original ing. This product may already be tested (or certified when
shape after the removal of a stress. applicable, or both) in compliance with a given standard.
responsibility for the fastener—party responsible for the shall—used to denote a mandatory requirement.
fastener shall be the organization that supplies the fastener to shear burst—open break in the fastener metal at approxi-
the purchaser and certifies that the fastener was manufac- mately 45° to the product axis, usually at the periphery of
tured, sampled, tested, and inspected in accordance with the fasteners having flanged or circular heads or on the side of
specification and meets all of its requirements. A 563 hex heads.
responsible party—responsible party for the fastener shall be shear strength—maximum load applied normally to a fasten-
the organization that supplies the fastener to the purchaser er’s axis that can be supported prior to fracture. Single shear
and certifies that the fasteners were manufactured, sampled, is load occurring in one transverse plane, thus cutting the
tested, and inspected in accordance with applicable specifi- fastener into two pieces; double shear is load applied in two
cations and meets all of the requirements. planes so that, at fracture, the fastener would be cut into
review—deliberately critical examination, including observa- three pieces.
tion of plant operation, evaluation of audit results, proce- shear stress area: bolt or screw—area perpendicular to the
dures, certain contemplated actions, and after-the-fact inves- fastener axis which is based on the root diameter (minor
tigations of abnormal conditions. diameter) of an externally threaded bolt or screw.
rivet—a headed fastener whose shank is passed through joint should—used to denote a recommendation. Not suitable for
plies and the unheaded end is then upset to form a second specification use to denote mandatory requirements.
head while pulling the joint plies together. Rivets may be significant surface—surface area where the minimum thick-
solid, tubular, or split. ness to be met shall be designated on the applicable drawing
rod—produced from hot rolled or cast billets, usually rolled in or by the provision of a suitably marked sample. However, if
a multiple strand mill to a round cross section then coiled not designated, significant surfaces shall be defined as those
into one continuous length. normally visible, directly or by reflection, which are essen-
roll thread—thread produced by action of a form tool which, tial to the appearance or serviceability of the fastener when
when pressed into the surface of a blank, displaces material assembled in normal position, or which can be the source of
radially. corrosion products that deface visible surfaces on the as-
roof and rock bolts—headed hot-rolled bars with cold-rolled sembled fastener.
or machine-cut threads at the end to be used with anchorage significantly alter—any action which would change the me-
devices to hold up mine roofs, hold back walls, or hold down chanical or performance capabilities of the fastener follow-
equipment or foundations. ing its original manufacture.
rotational capacity test—test in which a zinc-coated bolt is solution treat—see annealing, solution annealing.
inserted in a steel joint or tension measuring device, as- special cause variation—special cause variation is intermit-
sembled with a lubricated zinc coated nut, and initially tent, unpredictable and unstable. In control chart analysis, it
tightened to not less than 10% of the bolt proof load. After is signaled by a point beyond the control limits, a run, or
initial tightening, the nut is rotated through specified degrees some other nonrandom pattern of points within the control
of rotation. limits.
routine hardness locations—hardness readings made on pre- spherical washers or seats—washers comprised of two mat-
scribed fastener surfaces, such as wrench flats, unthreaded ing washer components: one component is a washer having
shank, bearing face, etc., after removal of oxide, platings, or one flat side and a convex spherical surface on the other side.
other coating materials. Used for testing the hardness of a The other component is a washer having one flat side and a
finished fastener. concave spherical depression machined into the other side.
salt spray test—corrosion test in which the metallic fastener The two convex and concave spherical portions are mated
specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution, and fit together to make up one spherical washer unit.

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spheroidize—see annealing, spheroidize annealing. thread lap—doubling over of metal on the thread which is
stainless steel—steel which has been alloyed with chromium created during roll threading operations.
ranging from 10% to less than 30%. Other alloying elements threaded deformed bar—steel bar that has a continuous
may also be added. hot-rolled pattern of thread-like deformations along its entire
statistical control—exists when all special causes of variation length that allows a nut and coupler to thread onto the bar.
have been eliminated from a process and only common threaded slotted bars—bars threaded at one end and having a
causes remain. forged, burned, or sawed slot on the other end into which a
statistical process control—use of statistical techniques, such tapered wedge may be inserted.
as control charts, to analyze a process or its outputs so as to tool marks—longitudinal or circumferential grooves of shal-
take appropriate actions to achieve and maintain a state of low depth produced by the movement of manufacturing
statistical control and to improve the process capability. tools over the bolt, nut, or screw surface.
strain—deformation produced on a fastener by an outside torsional strength—load, usually expressed in terms of ap-
force. plied torque, at which the fastener fails by being twisted off
strain hardening—increase in hardness and strength resulting about its axis.
from plastic deformation by cold working. total case depth—distance measured perpendicularly from the
strength grade—system of strength classifications used for surface of a hardened case to a point where differences in
bolts, nuts, and screws made to inch standards. chemical or physical properties of the case and core no
stress—force expressed in units per unit of area, which longer can be distinguished.
represents resistance that a fastener offers to deformation. toughness—ability of a fastener to absorb energy and to
stress corrosion cracking—cracking phenomena that occurs deform plastically before fracture.
when an installed fastener under stress is exposed to a traceability—ability to verify the manufacturing history, raw
corrosive service environment. material, heat number, location, or application of an item by
stress relief annealing—heating process applied to fasteners means of recorded identification.
having a geometry with a high degree of upset (round head ultimate tensile load—maximum tensile-applied load or force
square neck, for example) to relieve mechanical stresses a fastener can support prior to or coincidental with its
generated during forming. fracture, and normally expressed in terms of pounds or
structural bolt—heavy hex head bolt having a controlled Newtons.
thread length intended for use in structural connections and
unilateral specifications—specifications that have only maxi-
assembly of such structures as buildings and bridges.
mum or minimum values.
subgroup—one or more events or measurements used to
user—see end user.
analyze the performance of a process.
surface discontinuities—irregularities that occur prior to or verification—act of confirming, substantiating, and assuring
during the manufacturing or processing of the fastener. that an activity or condition has been implemented in
These may include cracks, head bursts, shear bursts, seams, conformance with the specified requirements.
folds, thread laps, voids, tool marks, and nicks or gouges. Vickers hardness test—standard method for measuring the
systematically selected samples—commonly used technique hardness of metals, particularly those with extremely hard
whereby specimens are chosen for inspection or testing surfaces; the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a
based on stated criteria of a sampling plan, such as occurs standard length of time by means of a pyramid-shaped
during process-control charting, during tooling changes, or diamond. The diagonal of the resulting indention is mea-
at specific timed intervals. sured under a microscope and the Vickers hardness value is
tempering-temperature-audit test—means of checking then read from a conversion table.
whether a fastener was tempered at its specified temperature. void—shallow pocket or hollow on the surface of a fastener
tensile strength, fastener—see ultimate strength. because of nonfilling of metal during forging.
tension control structural bolt-nut-washer assembly— warm heading or working—forming method in which mate-
assembly that consists of a bolt, nut, and washer capable of rial is heated to a given temperature to improve formability
developing a minimum predetermined tension that is visu- before heading. The temperature used is below the recrys-
ally apparent by the separation of the spline end of the bolt tallization point or transformation temperature of the metal
from the bolt body during tightening. being formed.
test report—written document or electronic record, signed by washer-retainer crack—opening in the lip or hub of metal
an authorized party, which contains sufficient data and used to retain a washer on a nut.
information to verify that the tested fastener properties weathering steels—steels having added alloying elements to
conform to the particular specification requirements. enhance the resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
thread galling—displacement of material between mating wedge tensile strength—ultimate strength determined by
threads during tightening which causes interface contact testing with the use of a wedge with a prescribed angle.
points to shear, producing high friction, increased resistance wedge tensile test—tensile test performed on various headed
to tightening, and even seizing of the threads. Thread galling fasteners and studs using a wedge of prescribed dimensions
is most prevalent with fasteners made of materials that and hardness, and in a prescribed manner for the purpose of
self-generate an oxide surface film. verifying good head quality or ductility, or both.
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wire—used extensively in fastener manufacturing. It is pro- together comprise the stressed length, a “proof load” concept
duced from hot rolled or annealed rods or bars by cold was introduced.
drawing. Steel sizes range from 0.062 to 1.375 in. Young’s modulus—see modulus of elasticity.
workmanship—expected absence of imperfections affecting zero defects—term which indicates that no deviation from the
serviceability of a fastener. Often used to describe a finish requirements of a specification are present within a statisti-
free from injurious burrs, seams, laps, or irregular surfaces. cally valid sample drawn from a given fastener lot.
yield strength—tension-applied load at which the fastener zinc phosphate—coating that serves as a vehicle to retain
experiences a specific amount of permanent deformation, various lubricants on the surface of wire or rod and protects
that is, the bolt has been stressed beyond its elastic limit and the surfaces of the tool and workpiece against damage during
is in the plastic zone. It is very difficult to test full size bolts various steps in the cold forming and extrusion process. It is
for yield strength. Because of different strain rates in the also a coating used for corrosion protection of finished
threaded section, thread runout and unthreaded shank which fasteners.

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. FASTENER TERMS BY CHARACTERISTIC

X1.1 Mechanical fastener terminology may also be orga- Statistical Control


nized by fastener characteristics relating to coatings and Statistical Process Control
Subgroup
finishes, inspection and related documentation, materials and Unilateral Specifications
manufacturing/processing, mechanical properties, performance Void
properties, physical properties, product definition, quality as-
Materials and Manufacturing/Processing
surance, and testing. Age Hardened
Coatings and Finishes Alloy Groups
Average Coating Thickness Alloy Steel
Baking Duration Alter
Barrel-Plating Process Annealing
Batch Average Thickness Austenitic Stainless Alloys
Fastener Electroplating Carbide Precipitation “Sensitization”
Hot Dip Galvanizing Carbon Steel
Inch Threaded Class 2A Coating Thickness Carbon Boron Steel
Local Thickness Check Analysis
Mechanical Deposition Cold Forming
Minimum Local Thickness Cold Heading Quality Material
Passivation Cold Heading Wire
Plating Crack
Rack-Plating Process Cut Thread
Zinc Phosphate Decarburization
Deoxidation
Inspection and Related Documentation Effective Case Depth
Applicable Standards Elongation
Assembly Lot Forging Cracks
Certificate of Compliance Forming
Certificate of Conformance Heat Analysis
Certification High Temperature Fastener Alloys
Control Plan Hot Forming
Detection Process Hydrogen Embrittlement, Internal
Fastener Specification Hydrogen Embrittlement Relief
Fastener Standard In-Process Control
Inspection Internal Hydrogen Embrittlement
Inspection Plan Ladle Analysis
Inspection Test Liquid Medium
Lot Low Carbon Martensite
Lot Sampling Inspection Martensitic Alloys
PPM Material Specification
Prevention Process Microstructure
Process Flow Nonferrous Alloys
Referenced Standards Precipitation Hardening Alloys
Reinspection Process Parameters
Related Standards Property Class
Reproducibility Quench Cracks
Shall Raw Material Manufacturer
Shear Burst Reprocess
Should Residuals
Special Cause Variation Rod
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Roll Thread Chemical Anchors
Seam Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicator
Secondary Manufacturer Conical Washer
Secondary Processing Consensus Standard
Significantly Alter Dud
Solution Treat Eye Bolt
Spheroidize Fastener
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Stainless Steel High Strength Bolts


Strain Hardening High Temperature Bolts
Strength Grade Mechanical Fastener
Stress Relief Annealing Nut
Total Case Depth Part Identifying Number (PIN)
Warm Heading or Working Plain Washer
Weathering Steels Reduced Diameter Body
Wire Rivet
Roof and Rock Bolts
Mechanical Properties Screw
Bilateral Specification Screw Thread
Clamp Load Shear Stress Area: Bolt or Screw
Cone Proof Load-Inch Series Significant Surface
Cone Proof Load-Metric Series Spherical Washers or Seats
Fastener Tensile Stress Area Structural Bolt
Fatigue Strength Tension Control Structural Bolt-Nut-Washer Assembly
Grade Identification Symbols Threaded Deformed Bar
Hardness Threaded Slotted Bars
Impact Strength
Maximum Hardness Quality Assurance
Mechanical Properties Acceptance Number
Minimum Hardness Burst
Modulus of Elasticity Certified Quality Assurance System
Proof Load, Externally Threaded Fastener Commingling
Proof Load, Internally Threaded Fastener Common Cause
Property Class Symbols Control Limit
Proportional Limit Defect
Reduction of Area Detection System
Shear Strength Fastener Quality
Strain Fold
Stress In-Process Sampling Inspection
Tensile Strength, Fastener Machine Process Capability Study
Toughness Material Lap
Ultimate Tensile Load Material Review
Wedge Tensile Strength Nick
Yield Strength Nonconformance
Young’s Modulus Pre–Launch Production Plan
Prevention System
Performance Properties Production Plan
Bolt Load - Elongation Behavior Prototype Plan
Break Loose Torque Qualification (Personal)
Breakaway Torque Quality Assurance
Compression Load Quality Assurance Program
Drive Torque Quality Assurance System
Corrosion Resistance Random Sampling
Ductility of Externally Threaded Fasteners Registered Quality Assurance System
Endurance Limit Registration
Environmental Hydrogen Embrittlement Repeatability
Fatigue Limit Responsibility for the Fastener
Heat Resistance Responsible Party
High Temperature for Mechanical Fasteners Review
Inspection Torque Surface Discontinuities
Locking Ability Systematically Selected Samples
Performance Properties Thread Lap
Plasticity Tool Marks
Prevailing Torque Traceability
Stress Corrosion Cracking Verification
Thread Galling Washer-Retainer Crack
Torsional Strength Workmanship
Zero Defects
Physical Properties
Magnetic Permeability Supplier/User
Physical Properties Alteration Distributor
Resilience Distributor
End User
Product Definition Fastener Manufacturer
Anchor Bolt Manufacturer
Bar Non-Alteration Distributor
Bendable Bolts Private Label Distributor
Bolt
Bolt-Nut-Washer Assembly Testing

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Arbitration Hardness Location Macrostructure
Bend Test Material Test Report
Cone Proof Load Test Metallography
Destructive Test Plastic Deformation
Drill-Drive Test Product Analysis
Drive Test Referee Test Method
Extensometer Rotational Capacity Test
Fastener Testing Routine Hardness Locations
Full Size Specimen Salt Spray Test
Head-to-Shank Integrity Tempering-Temperature-Audit Test
Indentation Hardness Test Report
Machined Specimen Vickers Hardness Test
Macro-etch Test Wedge Tensile Test
Macrograph
Macroscopic

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