Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Investment

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Investment (disambiguation).

Investment is the commitment of money or capital to purchase financial instruments or other


assets to gain profitable returns in the form of interest, income {dividend}, or appreciation of the
value of the instrument.[1] It is related to saving or deferring consumption. Investment is involved
in many areas of the economy, such as business management and finance no matter for
households, firms, or governments. An investment involves the choice by an individual or an
organization such as a pension fund, after some analysis or thought, to place or lend money in a
vehicle, instrument or asset, such as property, commodity, stock, bond, financial derivatives (e.g.
futures or options), or the foreign asset denominated in foreign currency, that has certain level of
risk and provides the possibility of generating returns over a period of time.[2]

Investment comes with the risk of the loss of the principal sum. The investment that has not been
thoroughly analyzed can be highly risky with respect to the investment owner because the
possibility of losing money is not within the owner's control. The difference between speculation
and investment can be subtle. It depends on the investment owner's mind whether the purpose is
for lending the resource to someone else for economic purpose or not.[3]

In the case of investment, rather than store the good produced or its money equivalent, the
investor chooses to use that good either to create a durable consumer or producer good, or to lend
the original saved good to another in exchange for either interest or a share of the profits. In the
first case, the individual creates durable consumer goods, hoping the services from the good will
make his life better. In the second, the individual becomes an entrepreneur using the resource to
produce goods and services for others in the hope of a profitable sale. The third case describes a
lender, and the fourth describes an investor in a share of the business. In each case, the consumer
obtains a durable asset or investment, and accounts for that asset by recording an equivalent
liability. As time passes, and both prices and interest rates change, the value of the asset and
liability also change.

An asset is usually purchased, or equivalently a deposit is made in a bank, in hopes of getting a


future return or interest from it. The word originates in the Latin "vestis", meaning garment, and
refers to the act of putting things (money or other claims to resources) into others' pockets.[4] The
basic meaning of the term being an asset held to have some recurring or capital gains. It is an
asset that is expected to give returns without any work on the asset per se. The term "investment"
is used differently in economics and in finance. Economists refer to a real investment (such as a
machine or a house), while financial economists refer to a financial asset, such as money that is
put into a bank or the market, which may then be used to buy a real asset.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 In economics or macroeconomics
• 2 Investment related to business of a firm - business management
• 3 In finance
• 4 Real estate as the instrument of investment
o 4.1 Residential real estate
o 4.2 Commercial real estate
• 5 See also
• 6 Notes

• 7 External links

[edit] In economics or macroeconomics


In economic theory or in macroeconomics, investment is the amount purchased per unit time of
goods which are not consumed but are to be used for future production. Examples include
railroad or factory construction. Investment in human capital includes costs of additional
schooling or on-the-job training. Inventory investment refers to the accumulation of goods
inventories; it can be positive or negative, and it can be intended or unintended. In measures of
national income and output, gross investment (represented by the variable I) is also a component
of Gross domestic product (GDP), given in the formula GDP = C + I + G + NX, where C is
consumption, G is government spending, and NX is net exports. Thus investment is everything
that remains of total expenditure after consumption, government spending, and net exports are
subtracted (i.e. I = GDP - C - G - NX).

Non-residential fixed investment (such as new factories) and residential investment (new houses)
combine with inventory investment to make up I. Net investment deducts depreciation from
gross investment. Net fixed investment is the value of the net increase in the capital stock per
year.

Fixed investment, as expenditure over a period of time ("per year"), is not capital. The time
dimension of investment makes it a flow. By contrast, capital is a stock— that is, accumulated net
investment to a point in time (such as December 31).

Investment is often modeled as a function of Income and Interest rates, given by the relation I =
f(Y, r). An increase in income encourages higher investment, whereas a higher interest rate may
discourage investment as it becomes more costly to borrow money. Even if a firm chooses to use
its own funds in an investment, the interest rate represents an opportunity cost of investing those
funds rather than lending out that amount of money for interest.[5]

[edit] Investment related to business of a firm - business


management
The investment decision (also known as capital budgeting) is one of the fundamental decisions of
business management: Managers determine the investment value of the assets that a business
enterprise has within its control or possession. These assets may be physical (such as buildings or
machinery), intangible (such as patents, software, goodwill), or financial (see below). Assets are
used to produce streams of revenue that often are associated with particular costs or outflows. All
together, the manager must determine whether the net present value of the investment to the
enterprise is positive using the marginal cost of capital that is associated with the particular area
of business.

In terms of financial assets, these are often marketable securities such as a company stock (an
equity investment) or bonds (a debt investment). At times the goal of the investment is for
producing future cash flows, while at others it may be for purposes of gaining access to more
assets by establishing control or influence over the operation of a second company (the investee).

[edit] In finance
In finance, investment is the commitment of funds by buying securities or other monetary or
paper (financial) assets in the money markets or capital markets, or in fairly liquid real assets,
such as gold or collectibles. Valuation is the method for assessing whether a potential investment
is worth its price. Returns on investments will follow the risk-return spectrum.

Types of financial investments include shares, other equity investment, and bonds (including
bonds denominated in foreign currencies). These financial assets are then expected to provide
income or positive future cash flows, and may increase or decrease in value giving the investor
capital gains or losses.

Trades in contingent claims or derivative securities do not necessarily have future positive
expected cash flows, and so are not considered assets, or strictly speaking, securities or
investments. Nevertheless, since their cash flows are closely related to (or derived from) those of
specific securities, they are often studied as or treated as investments.

Investments are often made indirectly through intermediaries, such as banks, mutual funds,
pension funds, insurance companies, collective investment schemes, and investment clubs.
Though their legal and procedural details differ, an intermediary generally makes an investment
using money from many individuals, each of whom receives a claim on the intermediary.

Within personal finance, money used to purchase shares, put in a collective investment scheme or
used to buy any asset where there is an element of capital risk is deemed an investment. Saving
within personal finance refers to money put aside, normally on a regular basis. This distinction is
important, as investment risk can cause a capital loss when an investment is sold, unlike saving(s)
where the more limited risk is cash devaluing due to inflation.

In many instances the terms saving and investment are used interchangeably, which confuses this
distinction. For example many deposit accounts are labeled as investment accounts by banks for
marketing purposes. Whether an asset is a saving(s) or an investment depends on where the
money is invested: if it is cash then it is savings, if its value can fluctuate then it is investment.

[edit] Real estate as the instrument of investment


In real estate, investment money is used to purchase property for the purpose of holding or
leasing for income and there is an element of capital risk.
[edit] Residential real estate

The most common form of real estate investment as it includes property purchased as a primary
residence. In many cases the buyer does not have the full purchase price for a property and must
engage a lender such as a bank, finance company or private lender. Different countries have their
individual normal lending levels, but usually they will fall into the range of 70-90% of the
purchase price. Against other types of real estate, residential real estate is the least risky.[citation
needed]

[edit] Commercial real estate

Commercial real estate consists of multifamily apartments, office buildings, retail space, hotels
and motels, warehouses, and other commercial properties. Due to the higher risk of commercial
real estate, loan-to-value ratios allowed by banks and other lenders are lower and often fall in the
range of 50-70%.[citation needed]

[edit] See also


• Alternative investments
• Appreciation
• Capital (economics)
• Capital accumulation
• Capital strike
• Diversifying investment
• Divestment
• Dollar roll
• Financial economics
• Foreign direct investment
• Gambling
• Gold as an investment
• Investment-specific technological progress
• Investor profile
• Investor relations
• Reforestation Green Investments
• List of accounting topics
• List of countries by gross fixed investment as percentage of GDP
• List of economics topics
• List of economists
• List of finance topics
• List of financial services companies (by country)
• List of management topics
• List of marketing topics
• Market trends
• Megaproject
• Optimism bias
• Over-investing
• Philatelic investment
• Psychology of previous investment
• Rate of return (ROR, a.k.a. ROI)
• Reference class forecasting
• Regulation Fair Disclosure
• Right-financing
• Risk
• Saving
• Silver as an investment
• Socially responsible investing
• Speculation
• Stock trader
• Strategic misrepresentation
• Tangible investments
• Value investing

[edit] Notes
1. ^ Sullivan, arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 271. ISBN 0-13-063085-3.
http://www.pearsonschool.com/index.cfm?
locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryId=&PM
DbProgramId=12881&level=4.
2. ^ Graham, Benjamin, and David Dodd (1951). Security Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book
Company. ISBN 0071448209
3. ^ Graham and Dodd (1951). Security Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN
0071448209
4. ^ Invest on etymonline.com
5. ^ Kevin A. Hassett (2008, 2nd ed.). "Investment," The Concise Encyclopedia of
Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty.

[edit] External links


• Investing at the Open Directory Project